International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing (24 papers in press)
DIGITAL MARKETING: A quantitative approach on the scientific production
by Danilo Marchiori, Arminda Do Paco, Helena Alves, Paulo Duarte, Ricardo Rodrigues
Abstract: The available technological infrastructure and the use of digital platforms by individuals and companies are in rapid growth worldwide. Companies, following this movement, invest more in marketing activities in environments mediated by information technology. Therefore, digital marketing, also known as internet marketing, e-marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, gains more space in scientific literature, attracting researchers from all over the world. In this context, due to the lack of similar studies that compile, organize and summarize the existing knowledge on this area of research, this article examines previous literature on digital marketing published between 1998 and April 2017 using bibliometric analysis techniques, especially the analyses of co-occurrence, cocitation, and coupling bibliographic. A total of 377 scientific articles were extracted from the Web of Science database, allowing the identification of the origins and evolution of the research on the subject, its foundations, and intellectual structures. Follow up of the results addresses their implication for the evolution of research on the new and promising field of digital marketing.
Keywords: Digital marketing; Bibliometrics; Co-occurrence; Cocitations; Bibliographic coupling.
How to satisfy him and her, and get loyalty in mobile commerce shopping application
by Panitharn Juntongjin
Abstract: Due to the substantial growth rate of mobile users, it is undeniable that m-commerce has become a huge opportunity as a distribution channel for many firms. In the context of m-commerce shopping application, too little attention has been paid on gender as a moderating variable, on which this research focuses. To explain how gender affects satisfaction and loyalty of the m-commerce shoppers, the author proposed a new model that could better explain satisfaction and loyalty in the m-commerce shopping platform. To test the research hypotheses and to compare the impact of the factors determining the differences in satisfaction and loyalty between male and female, the author uses Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with multi-group techniques. The results show that factors influencing satisfaction and loyalty of shoppers are different across genders. Firms using m-commerce application as their distribution channel can use the proposed model and the results of this study to obtain long- term benefits from their customers improved satisfaction and loyalty.
Keywords: mobile commerce; m-commerce; mobile shopping application; gender; emotion; satisfaction; loyalty; modelling.
Which are online shopping determinants? Analyzing ease and convenience to use, prior shopping experience, online benefits, social influence in India.
by Navneet Gera, Davide Di Fatta, Rinki Garg, Shivani Malik
Abstract: Online shopping is growing day by day with the help of technology and customer support. Provided that India is the second largest country in terms of internet users, the purpose of the study is to examine online shopping determinants. This topic is original and up to date not only from the academic point of view, but also from the practical one. Indeed, to attract internet users to the online shopping, retailers need to understand the drivers of such phenomenon. In order to reach the goal, primary data was collected through a questionnaire survey wherein Judgemental sampling method has been used. Then an exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results highlight that ease of use and convenience is the most relevant factor for online shopping since it represents 32% of total variance. This study not only will help online shopping business man to formulate their strategies, but also will add value to theoretical research field.
Keywords: online shopping; online consumer behaviour; ease of use; convenience; exploratory factor analysis; EFA; India.
Perceived Diagnostics of Virtual Try-on Technologies and Attitudes toward Mens Suits
by Changhyun Nam, Young Do Kim
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual try-on technologies and their perceived diagnostics on consumers purchase intentions for mens suits using a conceptual model based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory. A within-subjects research design was developed to empirically test the conceptual model and a total of 264 usable participant responses were collected. Participants were directed to a website to virtually try mens suits in different sizes, colors, fits, and designs on their personalized avatars. Perceived diagnostics from virtual try-on technologies were found to reduce consumers perceived risks regarding product attributes and to increase purchase intentions for Hugo Boss mens suits. Therefore, we suggest that e-fashion retailers and technology developers continue to enhance and implement virtual try-on technologies and vivid 3D images in the sale of apparel. Also, mens wear companies should provide sufficient information about product attributes to strengthen perceived diagnostics through 3D technologies, thus increasing e-consumers purchasing intentions for the apparel.
Keywords: virtual try-on; virtual fitting room; 3D technology; perceived diagnostics; perceived risk; men’s suit; online shopping; stimulus; organism; response; S-O-R theory; male e-consumer; e-fashion retailer.
A Conjoint Analysis of Customers Preferences for E-Banking Channels
by Noopur Saxena, Navneet Gera, Davide Di Fatta, Kritika Nagdev
Abstract: Internet has transformed the manner in which banks interact with the customers. The purpose of the paper is to measure customers preferences towards different channel attributes namely: internet banking, mobile banking and payment portals at a composite level that reflect the relative importance of usage attributes, i.e., payment type, transaction size, motivation to use and rate of urgency. Conjoint analysis was applied to estimate utilities for these attributes and to determine the existence of consumer groups with similar preference profiles. Furthermore, our study shows that the most preferred combination of utilities are customers preference to use payment portal, for paying bills of less than Rs. 5,000 amount when it is very urgent and they get discount coupons. The results provide insightful information of consumers motivation, attitudes and preferences for defining strategies to increase the usage of these services.
Keywords: conjoint analysis; e-banking channels; e-commerce; payment.
Facebook usage intensity and compulsive buying tendency: the mediating role of envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion and the moderating role of depression
by A.F.M. Jalal Ahamed, Yam B. Limbu, Al Mamun
Abstract: While Facebook usage intensity (FBUI) and compulsive buying tendency (CBT) have individually received increased research attention, very little is known about the mechanisms through which FBUI affects CBT. This study proposes and tests a multiple mediation model in which the effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by personality characteristics (envy, self-esteem and self-promotion). The study also explores the moderating effect of depression on these mediated relationships. The results of a self-administered survey of 393 Bangladeshi adults support the proposed moderated mediation model. The effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by envy and self-esteem independently. The FBUI indirectly affects CBT through serial mediators: i) envy and self-esteem and ii) envy and self-promotion. These serial mediating effects are moderated by depression. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Facebook usage intensity; compulsive buying tendency; envy; self-esteem; self-promotion; depression.
Promocode: An examination of the outcome expectations in shopping apps
by Ree C. Ho, Ali Shafiq
Abstract: This study examined consumers expectation on the usefulness of promocode within the shopping apps. Consumers learned about the availability of promocode from searching, media exposure and their collaboration with other consumers. Hence, there is a need to investigate the influence of the social cognitive elements in achieving sales via promocode. This study developed an integrative framework, which combined both Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory to examine the underlying factors in the use of promocode.
A sample of 266 consumers was surveyed through questionnaire. Their responses were analyzed through Structural Equation Modelling. The hypothesized relationships between attitude towards behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the linkages of self-efficacy and outcome expectations to the adoption of the promocode. These results showed that social cognitive outcome expectations and self-efficacy explain consumers competent use of promocode available in the shopping apps. This study provided an integrative framework in predicting the use of promocode in shopping apps. It also explained the use of promocode from consumer cognitive perspective.
Keywords: promocode; shopping app; self efficacy; hedonic outcome expectation; utilitarian outcome expectation; promotional discount.
Examining the Risk Factors Affecting the Image of Online Stores in Malaysia
by Noorshella Binti Che Nawi, Abdullah Al Mamun, Noorul Azwin Md Nasir, Nurul Hasliana Binti Hamsani
Abstract: This study examined the influence of various dimensions of perceived risk (i.e., delivery risk, financial risk, product-performance risk, social risk, and convenience risk) on the image of online stores. This study adopted a cross-sectional design and the quantitative data were collected from 330 conveniently selected respondents from Peninsular Malaysia. The findings revealed that financial risk, social risk, and convenience risk had a significantly negative effect on the image of online stores in Malaysia. Apart from extending the existing electronic commerce literature, this study provided in-depth insights into the role of perceived risk in the consumers decision process during online shopping. It is recommended that the governments and online organisations should adopt policies and programmes that could enhance the safety of financial information and secure the transactions of online shoppers while maintaining a user-friendly online platform. It is also worthwhile to implement strategies that could raise social awareness regarding the benefits of online shopping and electronic consumerism.
Keywords: Delivery Risk; Financial Risk; Product-Performance Risk; Social Risk; Convenience Risk; Image of Online Store; Theory of Perceived Risk.
Effects of Consumers Personal Characteristics and Psychological Factors on Nostalgia Marketing
by Ahreum Hong
Abstract: Nostalgia stimuli attract consumers with emotional appeals based on a fondness for the past. When consumers may choose from various brands of the same product, they show more positive feelings toward the products that evoke nostalgia. This study sought to establish the effects of nostalgia and marketing as outcome variables using consumer personal and psychological factors as explanatory variables.
The results of this study are as follows. First, loneliness had a significant positive effect on consumer self-esteem and social connectedness (which are functions of nostalgia) but did not directly affect the outcomes of nostalgia marketing. Therefore, it is an effective marketing strategy to integrate the psychological effect of loneliness via nostalgia stimulation to improve consumer inner affirmation through empathy and communication in social relations. Second, the nostalgia function was affected significantly by personal innovativeness and loneliness but not by high price sensitivity. Therefore, highly price-sensitive consumers should be targeted with a nostalgia marketing strategy applying a high-quality personal value standard. Third, self-affirmation, which is a nostalgia function, had a significant effect on nostalgia marketing but did not support social connectedness. Therefore, nostalgia stimulation was effective in social connectedness, but consumers were not significantly influenced by nostalgia marketing.
This study shed light on the importance of the concept of nostalgia in marketing. This is done by incorporating themes or products from the past to create a unique emotional feeling in customers.
Keywords: Nostalgia Marketing; Social connectedness; Self-positivity; Personal Innovation; Price sensitivity; Loneliness.
Social Media and The Decision-Making Process: Empirical Evidence from Yemen
by Wail Alhakimi, Ramzi Alwadhan
Abstract: Social media has created a revolutionary upgrade in the marketing strategy as well as the marketing sector. It has had a huge impact on consumers day to day life in many different aspects. It is applications and sites have become an influence on how products and services are presented to end users. This study aims to understand the impact of social media marketing on the consumers decision-making process among Yemeni consumers. The study used a descriptive analytical method to answer the questions of the study. A questionnaire was used as a tool for the data collection from 180 Yemeni consumers. In conclusion the study reveals that social media has a major influence on pre-purchase stage, purchase stage and post purchase stage. Social media users are encouraged to recognize a need for a product/service in the pre-purchase stage. It is a reliable source for information and information can be searched, accessed, and retrieved easily in the purchase stage. Feedback from customers about services/products can give a clear picture on how good or bad the product/service is, in which it affects future purchases. Organizations should pay more attention to social media sites and use it as a low-cost advertisement tool. They can also have better customer service through customers feedback about products/ services, and therefore, organizations should use this communication tool to reach out to new customers and open new markets.
Keywords: social media; marketing; pre-purchase stage; purchase stage; post-purchase stage; Yemen.
Investigating Value, Loyalty, and Trust as Determinants of Purchase Intention on the Pinterest Social Media Network
by Beheruz N. Sethna, Sunil Hazari, Cheryl Brown
Abstract: This paper makes a contribution in the investigation of constructs of value, loyalty, and trust as determinants of purchase intention on the Pinterest social media network, and shows gender variations in engagement and use of Pinterest, relative to other social media. Using the Pinterest social media network, the specific purpose of this study is to investigate constructs of value, loyalty, trust, and the impact of these constructs on purchase intention. Data were gathered from a sample of 357 respondents in the Southeast USA. Constructs of value, loyalty, and trust were tested with good Cronbach alpha results, and found to be determinants of purchase intention. Females had significantly higher scores on these constructs. Engagement varied significantly among social media. Among those with significant gender differences, females had higher engagement, with Pinterest showing the largest relative female-male difference.
Keywords: Pinterest; gender differences; value; loyalty; trust; determinants of purchase intention.
Facilities Planning in Retailing and Value Generation among Urban Consumers
Abstract: The present study aims to examine the effect of recreational retailing on consumers emotions in a shopping mall, considering two principal dimensions- pleasure and arousal. The conceptual model is developed by considering a few obscure determinants such as perceived crowding, promotional events, and mall ambiance. The effects on consumer behavior has been studied in the context of patronage and positive word-of-mouth leading to consumer experience of arousal and pleasure. This study also examines the impact of growing congestion of shopping malls in urban areas on shopping conveniences and shopping behavior. Based on survey of urban shoppers, the study analyzes cognitive attributes of the shoppers towards attractiveness of shopping malls and intensity of shopping. Results of the study reveal that ambiance of shopping malls, assortment of stores, sales promotions, and comparative economic gains in the mall attract higher traffic to the malls.
Keywords: Shopping Malls; Ambiance; Recreation; Retailing; Consumer Behavior,.
Consumer Acceptance of Virtual Reality When Browsing for Apparel
by Jennifer Johnson Jorgensen
Abstract: With the growth of virtual reality, many opportunities exist for retailers, but consumers may not be ready to use virtual reality when browsing for apparel. To determine the acceptance of virtual reality among consumers, an adapted Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was tested including the variables of perceived enjoyment and perceived innovativeness. To collect data, 407 participants in the United States were exposed to an online virtual reality experience on their personal computers. Afterward, participants completed an online survey. The results of this study found that perceived enjoyment had a positive relationship with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, while perceived usefulness was found to relate to perceived innovativeness and perceived ease of use. Surprisingly, perceived ease of use was not found to have a positive relationship with attitude in this study. The adapted TAM was also determined to be an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the acceptance of virtual reality when browsing for apparel.
Keywords: Virtual reality; TAM; Perceived enjoyment; Perceived innovativeness.
The association between gender and occupation in a gamified purchasing environment: perspective from Kosovo and Albania
by Fortesa Haziri, Ina Pagria, Miloslava Chovancová
Abstract: Gamification is considered as a magic bullet to induce dull experiences with fun and enjoyment. However, understanding the gamification attributes for s-commerce users falls short due to limited empirical research. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between males and females and employed and unemployed buyers who purchase products and services via s-commerce when game elements are considered. A questionnaire containing 61 questions and was distributed via social platforms. To analyse the gathered data, EFA and Mann-Whitney U test have been employed. The study concludes that for Kosovar s-commerce users employment status is significantly different regarding game mechanics. Regarding gender, out of all game elements, significant differences were found only in aesthetics. On the other hand, no gender and occupation differences have been identified for Albanian s-commerce users. The results of this study are useful for companies which provide products/services focused on gender and employment status.
Keywords: aesthetics; game dynamics; game mechanics; gamification; online buying behaviour; social media; developing countries; Kosovo; Albania.
Factors underlying brand trust for affecting brand love leading to customers' purchase intention in Indian hypermarkets
by Deependra Singh, Naval Bajpai, Kushagra Kulshreshtha
Abstract: Different factors affecting brand trust have been discussed in previous studies. Many of the instruments measuring brand trust were developed earlier in different contexts. However, with the growth of hypermarket stores in India, customers want to purchase in the particular hypermarket brands store based on their passion and emotions attached with the brand. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a scale, which may focus on the customers intent to purchase from their loving hypermarket brand store. The present research study is directed towards customers who frequently visit a specific hypermarket brands store as to what factors influence their brand trust. Further, the impact of these extracted brand trust factors is investigated with brand love as a mediator. For this purpose, CFA-SEM approach is applied to the sample size of 787 customers. This study proposes a conceptual framework for testing the relationship among the constructs related to brand trust, brand love, and purchase intention. The empirically validated model recommends the factors leading to brand trust and their impact on purchase intention with the mediation of brand love in hypermarket brand stores. This study shows the pivotal relationships between brand trust factors, brand love, and purchase intention. It helps marketers to understand the influencing components for brand trust and the role of brand love to develop customers purchase intention for their hypermarket brands in a better way.
Keywords: Brand trust; Brand love; Purchase intention; Hypermarket; Customer-brand relationship; Customer-purchase behaviour.
The Effect of Hedonic Value, Utilitarian Value and Perceived Risk on Consumer Intention of Choosing P2P Collaborative Consumption Options
by Ngoc Trang Thi Nguyen, Yoonjae Lee
Abstract: Purchase decisions require consumers to consider both values and risks of products and services. To have a better understanding of peer-to-peer (P2P) collaborative consumption consumer, this research examines the motivation of consumer intention on the recurring use of P2P collaborative services on the basis of their perceived hedonic and utilitarian values as well as perceived risks. Data was collected via online surveys from mTurk of people participating in Internet-mediated collaborative consumption in the US market. This research examines the consumer intention concerning P2P collaborative services by combining the effects of value and risks in a theoretical model, using structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings of this study explain the relationships between hedonic value, utilitarian value and perceived risk with and collaborative consumption options choosing intention. Consumer using intention is positively influenced by both hedonic and utilitarian values as well as negatively by perceived risk, in which utilitarian value makes a stronger effect on intention than hedonic value this study analysis also provides evidence that monetary savings does not impact perceived value of consumer for collaborative consumption.
Keywords: Collaborative Consumption; Sharing Economy; Hedonic Value; Utilitarian Value; Perceived Risk; Peer-to-Peer.
The Impact of Digital Sales Channels on Web Sales: Evidence from the USAs Largest Online Retailers
by Ravi Narayanaswamy, Richard A. Heiens
Abstract: The present study uses aggregate data from the U.S.A.s one hundred largest online retailers to examine the effectiveness of the various e-commerce digital sales channels. These digital sales channels include direct website visits, display ads, email, organic search, paid search, referrals, and social media. The focus is on examining the direct effects of each traffic channel specifically on Web Sales performance. Hypothesis testing is done using a log-log model with a Box-Cox transformation, and the Average Ticket value is used as a control variable. The findings indicate that all digital sales channels have a direct effect on Web Sales. However, the slope of each equation suggests some degree of differentiation between digital sales channels, with implications for determining the most efficient portfolio of digital sales channels when faced with limited resources.
Keywords: digital sales channels; web sales; e-commerce.
Affective Adoption of New Grocery Shopping Modes through Cultural Change Acceptance, Consumer Learning, and other means of Persuasion
by Kimberly Thomas-Francois, Simon Somogyi
Abstract: Research has shown very slow consumer adoption to new grocery shopping options, particularly virtual shopping in North America. While consumers have been willing to purchase objects virtually, there is an inherent skepticism in purchasing food using these modes. Research has also shown while this may be the case in some Western countries, Eastern countries such as China have seen different acceptance. Urban eastern consumers have embraced virtual shopping and have already moved to hybrid shopping modes including Smart Grocery Shopping. This paper reviews theoretical assumptions which may explain a shift in Western consumers behavioral changes and posits a hypothetical conceptual framework for future empirical investigations. The framework advances the idea that cultural change acceptance may be an antecedent to other social factors such as consumer learning, affective factors, cognitive factors, normative appeals among others, trust, perceived privacy and security, and these provide links to the adoption to these new retail modalities.
Keywords: New Retail; Smart Grocery Shopping; Virtual Grocery Shopping; Cultural Change Acceptance; Consumer Learning; Consumer Behaviour.
The moderating role of relationship quality in the customer engagement and satisfaction relationship in brand communities: The role of gender
by Matti Haverila, Kai Haverila, Caitlin McLaughlin
Abstract: Relying on social penetration, customer relationship and customer engagement theories, the purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between customer engagement, customer satisfaction and relationship quality in the context of brand communities. Specifically, the moderating role of the relationship quality construct was examined first for the whole data set, and then separately for the male and female respondents. The respondents were members of brand communities who originated from Canada and United States. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilized to analyze the relationships among the various groups. The results indicate that the relationship between customer engagement and satisfaction is significant for both male and female respondents. However, the relationship between the relationship quality and customer satisfaction was significant in the whole data set as well as for the male respondents, but not for the female respondents. Thus, the relationship quality construct moderated the customer engagement and customer satisfaction relationship only for the male respondents. These results confirm that customer engagement is significantly related to customer satisfaction and also that relationship quality has a different impact for males and females, which brand community managers should consider.
Keywords: Brand community; Customer satisfaction; Customer engagement; Relationship quality; Gender.
The effect of brand love on the electronic word of mouth and repurchase intention
by Süleyman Çelik, Yusuf Volkan Topuz
Abstract: The aim of present study is to determine the effects of brand love on electronic word of mouth communication dimensions and repurchase intention and investigating the effects of electronic word of mouth communication dimensions on repurchase intention in terms of Y generation and mobile phone brands. Another aim of this study is to investigate mediating role of positive electronic word of mouth communication on brand love and repurchase intention. In accordance with this purposes, data is collected through questionnaires from a total of 402 people who are member of Y generation based on mobile phone brands. The collected data were analyzed by SEM using SPSS AMOS program. Results of present study revealed that brand love positively and statistically effects on repurchase intention, positive electronic word of mouth dimension and ewom susceptibilitiy dimension. Furthermore, this study revealed that positive electronic word of mouth positively effects on repurchase intention, negative electronic word of mouth negatively effects on repurchase intention. In additon, it is revealed that positive electronic word of mouth has a partial mediating effect between brand love and repurchase intention.
Keywords: Brand Love; Electronic Word of Mouth Communication; Repurchase Intention; Y Generation.
Special Issue on: ICES 2K17 Engineering Aspect Based Electronic Marketing and Retailing
Consumer Ethnocentrism: Validation of CETSCALE and Measurement among Saudi Citizens
by M.M. Sulphey, Mohammad Rishad Faridi
Abstract: Consumer ethnocentrism (CE) is the patriotic, nationalistic and sympathetic feelings among consumers. This behaviour of consumer has been subjected to intensive and repeated research around the globe. Attempts to study CE in Saudi Arabia seem to be scarce, despite the vastness and potentiality of the markets in the country. The study has succeeded in validating the popularly used CETSCALE in the Saudi context thorough rigorous statistical techniques. The study has also found out the patterns of CE among the Saudi consumers. Findings with respect to dimensionality of CE are more or less in lines with the results of research work in other parts of the world. Further, it was found that the CE that is prevalent in Saudi Arabia differs conceptually from those of other countries. Another significant finding was that the younger population, especially university students, had higher levels of CE higher than that of other countries.
Keywords: Consumer Ethnocentrism; CETSCALE; Saudi Arabia; Validation.
Does Spiritual Intelligence contribute to sales force effectiveness?
by Kalyani Vellingiri, Saravanan R
Abstract: The present world of digitalization had made the marketing environment more complex and volatile putting the sustainability of the sales organizations at stake. Although the changing scenario demands for more cognitive flexibility and adaptability from various sales organizations, they stumble as their sales force are not that competent to face this ever changing situation. Henceforth the rational attitude of the sales people will no longer be relevant in these turbulent times. So it is the right time for the sales organizations to recognize the importance of higher levels of intelligent quotient among their sales workforce which can drive an individual for success as it is highly associated with higher level of cognitive thinking, flexibility and adaptability. This can be achieved by infusing the Spiritual Intelligence (SI) construct. In recent times SI has achieved more popularity from the management perspective as it facilitates individual and organizational performance. Though SI is visualized as a psychological or a human resource phenomenon, this article applies this concept to the marketing scenario as it glues strongly with the requirements of the sales force. The reason behind this choice of area is that, sales happen to be the bloodline of any business and directly linked with the revenue generation. The sales domain demands for more patience, cognitive thinking, and adaptability along with the required sales skills. It is true that SI helps shape an individual holistically and it is pertinent to imbibe SI in the culture itself as it fetches maximum benefits to the organizations and individuals as well. This article presents how SI acts as a key source of increasing human capital and overcoming the major issues of career development. This perspective is depicted in the form of a conceptual framework and the article brings forth a new application perspective of the SI construct to the sales force utilizing various theoretical inferences.
Keywords: Sales force; cognitive thinking; adaptability; organizational performance.
Self-Congruity and Brand Loyalty An Innovation of Diffusion Approach
by Praveen Babu P, Prabakar S
Abstract: Brand loyalty is a much debated topic in marketing and the present challenge for marketers lies in understanding the self-image and product-image from the consumers perspective. Though awareness remains the first and foremost factor in the adoption process, the interest and desire stages are of prime importance because consumers relate themselves to the offerings during these two stages. This article aims at relating the concept of self-congruity to brand loyalty across various consumer adoption categories (Innovation of Diffusion, Rogers (1962)) and suggests strategies to increase brand loyalty of the various types of adopters. It theoretically brings forth the differences in self-congruity levels amongst various adoption categories of consumers and its related brand loyalty levels. The need for relating self attributes to brand attributes is of prime importance to marketers and therefore this article aims at discussing the various theoretical assumptions built on concrete constructs and theories which provide a new approach towards measuring brand loyalty.
Keywords: Consumer adoption categories; Self-image; Product-image; interest; desire to buy.
Generational Difference as Predictors of Financial Behaviour
by Sulphey M M, Shaha Faisal
Abstract: Behavioural differences among generationsare a fascinating area that has been studied across various topics and disciplines. However, no study is seen to have been undertaken to find out its relationship with financial behaviour. The present study attempts to bridge this gap in literature. Data for the study was collected randomly from 240 samples with the help of a validated tool the ORTOFIN scale. The analysis of data has presented some interesting results. The study has succeeded in presenting the complex relationship that intergenerational differences have on financial behaviour. It is expected that the study will add to the literature on intergenerational difference and financial behaviour, and stimulate further studies in this unchartered area of research.
Keywords: Financial behaviour; Orientation towards finances; Generational differences.