International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing (40 papers in press)
Reference Group Influence on User Connections with Social Networking Sites (SNS):
A Study of Facebook
by Yujie (Jack) Wei, Feisal Murshed
Abstract: The increasing prevalence of social networking sites (SNS) and their interactive capability have been the subject to sustained interests for researchers and marketers alike. Yet few insights exist regarding whether online consumer engagement is prone to social influences from other users. Drawing from literature on reference group influence (e.g., Bearden and Etzel, 1982) and social identity (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), this research investigates self-SNS connection customers overall experience with the SNS and provides insights into a users susceptibility to reference group influence. Specifically, the focus is on three motivational influences: informational, value expressive and utilitarian. Employing data collected through a survey, authors find that informational influence and value expressive influence are positively associated with self-SNS connection, but contrary to conventional wisdom, utilitarian influence is not. Furthermore, males are more susceptible to value expressive influences than females, indicating that reference group influences exhibit some gender effect. The results offer insights into designing more effective dissemination of marketing communications through tapping into consumers informal communication network.
Keywords: Social networking site (SNS); Facebook; Reference group influence; Self-SNS connections; self-concept; gender effect.
Message Strategy of Promotional E-mails in India: A Content Analysis
by Utkarsh Utkarsh, Nimit Gupta
Abstract: This study analysed the message strategies used in promotional e-mails and explored differences between the e-mail messages of different goods and service marketers. A content analysis of 698 promotional e-mails offers insights on enhancing the effectiveness of e-mail marketing. The findings revealed a higher incidence of informational subject lines, text-only e-mail bodies, and emotional appeals in e-mail messages for services than for goods. This study is the first attempt to analyse the advertising content of promotional e-mails in India and subsequently offer marketing insights. The results can aid practitioners to design and customise an e-mail message strategy.
Keywords: email marketing; message strategy; services; appeal; subject line; service advertising.
Factors influencing the adoption of Online shopping in Lebanon: An empirical integration of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success
by Ali Tarhini, Ali Alalwan, Raed Algharabat
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the silent factors that may influence or hinder the adoption of online shopping in Lebanon. A conceptual framework was proposed based on the integration of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success. Data were collected from 342 Lebanese online shopping users using a cross-sectional survey. The measurement and structural model were estimated and tested using structural equation modelling (AMOS 22.0). The results revealed that performance expectancy (PE), product guarantee (PG), service quality (SerQ), price value (PV), trust (TR), system quality (SymQ) and information quality (IQ); were found to be significant predictors in influencing users behavioural intention (BI) to adopt online shopping, and explained 72.7 % of its variance, with PE was found the strongest antecedent of BI. However, the relationship between effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), hedonic motivation (HM) and BI was insignificant. This is one of the few studies that integrate the unified theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 (UTAUT2) and DeLone-McLean model of IS success to study the adoption of online shopping, and the first to be tested in Lebanon. In light of these findings, implications for both theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: UTAUT; online shopping; Lebanon; structural equation modelling; technology adoption; DeLone-McLean model.
Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty and Switching Intent in Retail Service Settings
by Aakash Kamble, Shubhangi Walvekar
Abstract: Customers switching from competitive brand to another companys brand is usually due to the efforts of the company. Similarly inducing the customers to repurchase the companys brands time and again is very important in their marketing activities. With regards to these, studies of customer variety-seeking orientation and their level of involvement in decision making play a vital role in explaining customers product selection activities? The purpose of the study to examine and analyse the interlinking relationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty and switching intent in online retailing and purchases made using multi-channels. The research also verifies the moderating effect of customer variety-seeking orientation across channels and purchase decision involvement. A total 427 patrons participated in the study that had made purchases in the preceding three months from electronic as well as brick and mortar retailers in electronic and accessories category. The results showed a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty and also between customer loyalty and switching intent. The effect of moderating variables, variety seeking orientation and purchase decision was not significant.
Keywords: switching intent; customer satisfaction; customer loyalty; variety seeking; purchase decision; e-commerce; retailing.
Buying Intention, Acceptability and Frequency of Purchase: Analyzing their Determinants using SEM
by Davide Di Fatta, Navneet Gera, Nishith Kumar Mishra
Abstract: Considering the growing relevance of Indian retail sector, this
research aims to study the consumer buying behaviour towards national brands
(NB). More in detail, this research shall explore the determinants of buying
intention, acceptability and frequency of purchase developing a model for
consumer buying behaviour toward NB. A structured questionnaire was
provided to the respondents across Delhi (National Capital Region). At the first
stage, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has been used to test dimensionality of
the data with the aim to produce a set of items reflecting the meaning of
the relative construct. Then, structural equation modelling (SEM) has been
implemented using AMOS in order to test the validity of the overall model and
the relationships among the selected variables. Results revealed that consumer
buying intention, acceptability and frequency of purchase brands are influenced
by promotion, brand awareness and image. It is also interesting to note that
loyalty is directly influenced by value for money. This relation provides useful
implications: customer loyalty could be developed by managing reasonable
price and quality for NB.
Keywords: buying intention; frequency of purchase; brand awareness; loyalty;
consumer behaviour; structural equation modelling; SEM; acceptability.
Retail Service Quality, Satisfaction, and Trust: The Key to Shopper Loyalty in the Context of Indonesian Traditional Market
by Moh Farid Najib, Adila Sosianika
Abstract: This purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the influence of retail service quality toward on satisfaction and trust in the context of Indonesian traditional market. The proposed model also aims to examine the relationship among retail service quality, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty. A survey has been conducted toward 400 shoppers in 16 traditional markets around Bandung, Indonesia. Structural equation modeling procedure was used to test the proposed research model. The result of this research that retail service quality positively influences satisfaction and trust, however, it negatively affects loyalty. Furthermore, satisfaction and trust both positively influence loyalty. Similarly, satisfaction also positively influence trust. Satisfaction and trust mediate the relationship between retail service quality and loyalty.
Keywords: Retail Service Quality; Satisfaction; trust; and Loyalty.
Investigating the impact of atmospherics and online flow cues on visiting intentions: The Case of Jordan Virtual Tourist Centre.
by Tamather Shatnawi, Laila Ashour, Dana Kakeesh
Abstract: Abstract: Using the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework, this study aims to investigate the impact of atmospherics and online flow cues of the Jordan Virtual Tourist Centre on visitors' affective and cognitive states, which are assumed to affect their visiting intentions. This is based on the fact that more tourists are getting information directly via the Internet to direct their choices of tourism destinations. In order to test our proposed model, an online survey was launched via different social networking means directed towards a convenience sample of non-Jordanians using a snowball technique. Non- Jordanians respondents who agreed to participate in the survey were asked to browse the Jordan Virtual Tourist Centre and to live a virtual experience before answering related questions measuring targeted constructs. Analysis of the results supports the research model and shows that both atmospherics and online flow cues experienced by visitors impact positively their affective and cognitive states, which in turn impact their visit intentions. Affective and cognitive states were impacted upon by atmospherics more than online flow; however, affective state tends to explain more variations in visiting intentions vis-
Keywords: atmospherics; online flow; S.O.R. model; cognitive state; affective state; visiting intentions.
An Exploration of Online Shopping Convenience Dimensions and Their Associations with Customer Satisfaction
by Sergio Palacios, Minjoon Jun
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to extend our understanding of shopping convenience and customer satisfaction in the context of online shopping. Employing the Critical Incident Technique, the authors content-analyze 1,134 customer-generated reviews regarding 31 US online retailers service performance. This study uncovers 51 original categories and further refines them into nine dimensions of online shopping convenience: access, search, evaluation/selection, configuration/customization, transaction, delivery, possession/in-use, service recovery, and postpurchase communication convenience. Our findings indicate that, of the nine service convenience dimensions, four dimensions, such as delivery, service recovery, transaction, and possession/in-use convenience, tend to be the main sources of customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction.
Keywords: online shopping convenience; customer satisfaction; qualitative research.
Attribution Modelling in an Omni-Channel Environment New Requirements and Specifications from a Practical Perspective
by Ole Nass, Klaus-Peter Schoeneberg, Jose Albors Garrigos, Hermenegildo Gil Gomez
Abstract: How much am I, the customer, currently worth to a company? The answer to this question is very important for the marketing team but difficult to obtain. In an omni-channel environment the degree of complexity for answering this question has reached a new level. Based on a structured literature research process, existing dynamic budget allocation approaches are identified and evaluated regarding their applicability in an omni-channel environment. For the evaluation process of these identified models, assessment criteria are needed. Structured interviews are conducted with experts in the field of attribution to formulate evaluation criteria, which are being used to evaluate the applicability of the defined models. This article describes why existing dynamic attribution models are not suitable for an omni-channel environment and what features need to be part of a new future-ensured omni-channel attribution model. The authors conclude by presenting questions for future research in the field of dynamic attribution.
Keywords: omni-channel attribution; practical requirements for omni-channel attribution; online advertising; dynamic attribution; dynamic attribution model; omni-channel attribution modelling; multi-touch attribution (MTA); budget allocation; data-driven attribution modelling; real-world attribution.
Differences between mobile and non-mobile buyers: Comparing attitudinal, motive-related, and media behaviour
by Michael Groß
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the disparities between different types of consumers with respect to their mobile shopping (m-shopping) attitude, shopping motives, and media usage behaviour when practising online shopping. Thus, this study is the first to combine three different consumer viewpoints to provide an enhanced consumer picture. The findings are as follows. First, non-m-buyers attitude towards m-shopping is crucially formed by function-orientated aspects, and they prefer to engage more in exploring stores than in certain m-buying activities when they use smartphones. In contrast, m-buyers strive for more flexibility in meeting their recreational needs, since they have a hedonically compelled attitude towards m-shopping. Second, both groups regard m-shopping convenience as a basic requirement that must be fulfilled; otherwise, m-shopping is not useful to them at all. Moreover, contrary to non-m-buyers, the empirical outcomes suggest that m-buyers are multi-device shoppers because they engage heavily in online shopping and use portable media to a large degree, meaning that they are not restricted to a local environment.
Keywords: Mobile buying; mobile shopping; m-shopping; mobile buyer; non-mobile buyer; consumer discrepancy; digital natives; Generation Z; consumer attitude; shopping motive; media usage behaviour; mobile commerce.
The Effect of Customer Lifestyle Patterns on the Use of Mobile Banking Applications in Jordan
by Rand Al-Dmour, Emilia Al Haj Dawood, Hani Al-Dmour, Ra’ed Masa’deh
Abstract: In the last few years, a crucial business trend has been derived from the Information Systems (IS) discipline called mobile banking applications. This trend has focused upon conducting financial banking services with the help of smart mobile devices, and now has attained great importance. However, based on a review of the literature, it has been given little attention for such an important topic in Jordan. This study aimed to highlight the importance of mobile banking applications within the banking sector in Jordan. This study attempted to investigate the effect of customer lifestyle patterns on the use of mobile banking applications as well as the rate of their usage in Jordan. Data were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire from 300 participants from the largest and oldest banks in Jordan: Arab bank, Housing Bank for Trade and Finance, and Jordan Ahli Bank. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the lifestyle patterns of mobile banking applications of users and non-users. However, the lifestyle patterns of users had some common themes; fashion consciousness, leadership traits, family concern, health consciousness, carefree, community conscious and practicality had significance impact on mobile applications users, but cost consciousness had no significance impact on the rate of usage of mobile banking applications by users. Based on the research findings, a number of recommendations are suggested. Most importantly, it is recommended that Jordanians banks create the awareness needed for their clients, to the benefits of using the mobile banking applications, such as time and money savings, as well as convenience. In order to build a long-term relationship with their users, further analysis is needed about client lifestyles, demographic characteristics and attitudes towards banking services, in order to categories the clients.
Keywords: Information systems; mobile banking applications; customer lifestyles; online banking; Jordan.
Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Smart Homes in Jordan
by Ibrahim Mashal, Ahmed Shuhaiber, Mohammad Daoud
Abstract: Smart home services are one of the recent internet of things applications that aims to improve residents quality of life. This study aims to investigate the factors that influence residents acceptance and usage of smart home services in Jordan. Theoretically, this study extends the technology acceptance model. By following a quantitative method, responses were collected and statistically analyzed from 258 household using the SEM-PLS approach. Results show that user awareness, trust, perceived enjoyment, personalisation, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use significantly influence attitude towards smart home services which, with social influence, impact the intention to use.
Keywords: internet of things; user acceptance; smart home services; technology acceptance model; Jordan.
Consumer Purchase Intention towards Private Label Brands of Virtual Retailers (PLBV): Evidence from a Developing Nation
by Sumit Kumar, Bibhas Chandra
Abstract: Despite an evolutionary growth in PLBV in the recent past, the study on PLBV is scarce. The present study is a novel attempt to gauge underlying purchase intention of consumers towards PLBV in developing nation like India. A PLBV purchase intention framework incorporating the online store image and consumers technology acceptance along with other pertinent factors has been designed and empirically validated. An online questionnaire was framed and administered to the identified survey pool followed by analysis of data using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to validate the proposed framework. The findings unveil store image, technology acceptance, consumer innovativeness and shoppers value consciousness as the building blocks of attitude towards PLBV. Additionally, the result unfolds that price consciousness does not influence shoppers attitude towards PLBV individually. However, when other factors act in unison, the purchase intention towards PLBV increases which is remarkable in contrast to the PLB purchase intention in offline mode.
Keywords: Online private label brands of virtual retailers (PLBV); Purchase intention; Online shopping; Internet shopping; Developing nation; Online retail.
The importance of electronic word-of-mouth on consumer perception of Content Marketing
by Benedikt Hirschfelder, Joel Chigada
Abstract: Content Marketing is a new trend that is highly recognisable in online marketing strategies. The nexus of commercial communication of content is to enable the brand to give something valuable and gain something valuable in return. Indeed, research on firm-generated content (FGC) and user-generated content (UGC) exists, but possible connections are left in the dark. This study explored the commercial value added chain of Content Marketing by focusing on possible coherences of commercially driven content generating constructs and their online communication channels, using Content Marketing as an umbrella term for any commercially generated content. This study provides insights into commercial B2C online content generation. After a data cleaning, elimination of incomplete questionnaires, the data was analysed with structural equation modelling. The results illustrate Content Marketings ability to impact UGC commercially and thus provide a solid base for future research.
Keywords: Content Marketing; Social Media; Electronic Word-of-Mouth.
Analysis of the Effects of Ease of Use, Enjoyment, Perceived Risk on Perceived Value and Subsequent Satisfaction Created in the context of C2C online exchanges
by Mohammad Hamdi Al Khasawneh, Natalie Haddad
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors which have a significant impact on consumers perceived value in the context of consumer-to-consumer (C2C) online exchanges. The authors also examine the impact of consumers perceived value on consumer satisfaction.The proposed research model is empirically examined using a survey method, consisting of 131 C2C site users. The statistical analysis of the data was presented through the use of SEMPLS regression analysis.The results determined that ease of use and enjoyment have a significant positive impact on perceived value, with the exception of perceived risks which had no impact on perceived value. Also, perceived value has a significant positive impact on satisfaction.The present study is one of the few studies that examine the seven types of perceived risks, four types of perceived value, and the important relationship between perceived value and satisfaction
Keywords: Consumer-to-consumer (C2C); Perceived value; Satisfaction; Perceived risks; Ease of use; Enjoyment.
The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Awareness towards Buying Copy Brand
by Ahmad Al Adwan
Purpose: This study was based in Jordan to investigate the benefits that the social media offers and to explore how consumers access, process, and use the information of the social media, especially Facebook and YouTube.
Design/methodology/approach: the paper used a quantitative method and an SEM-PLS technique for validating the findings and testing the theorys constructs. Notably, the research was based on a behavioral model known as the Theory of Reasoned Action.
Findings: The main outcomes show that attitude and subjective norm have positive significant relationships with the consumers intention to use the social media search for information about a given brand.
Originality/value: The search creates brand awareness, which also significantly correlates to the intention to buy. In sum, the social media has enhanced socialization and social e-commerce.
Keywords: Keywords: Social media; Consumer awareness; Copy brand.
Building Customer Engagement and Brand Loyalty through Online Social Media: An Exploratory Study
by Vikas Gautam, SOMBALA NINGTHOUJAM, Reshmi Manna, Sandeep Chauhan
Abstract: Building and sustaining brand loyalty are one of the fundamental subjects of research for strategists and marketers for ages. Online social media has come in forefront to support it in recent times. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationships among online social media, customer engagement and brand loyalty. The study model was estimated by using higher order structural equation modelling with IBS AMOS 21.0. The results of our study demonstrated that online social media is an important predictor of customer engagement and has significant direct impact on customer engagement. Further results confirmed direct impact of customer engagement on Brand loyalty. We also found significant difference across the level of customer engagement with reference to gender. This study concluded that the use of Facebook as online social media to connect and engage with customers leads to building brand loyalty. The primary data comprised of 167 respondents.
Keywords: customer engagement; Facebook; online social media; brand loyalty.
Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Marketing strategies in Mobile Applications: A Systematic Literature Review
by Ana Reyes-Menendez, Jose Ramon Saura, Pedro Palos-Sanchez
Abstract: In practice marketing can and should play an important role in mobile applications when formulating marketing strategies. The aim of this article is to identify the main KPIs to measure the effect of marketing strategies in Mobile Applications. To achieve this goal, we carried out a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on the topic of Mobile Applications and marketing strategies. The search terms consulted in the databases were KPIs, Marketing and Mobile Applications obtaining a total of n=1088 studies. The databases consulted to extract data where Scopus, PubMed, PsyINFO, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. The results obtained in this research were the identification, development and analysis of the main quantitative and qualitive KPIs to measure the effect of marketing strategies in mobile applications. Furthermore, we name the main scientific journals developing further studies on this subject, as well as on the most relevant topics within the industry. The results of the research can be used to enhance Mobile APP marketing strategy analysis and thus, enhance their development, both in the scientific and the professional sectors.
Keywords: Mobile Applications; Marketing Strategies; KPIs; Apps; Marketing Metrics.
DIGITAL MARKETING: A quantitative approach on the scientific production
by Danilo Marchiori, Arminda Do Paco, Helena Alves, Paulo Duarte, Ricardo Rodrigues
Abstract: The available technological infrastructure and the use of digital platforms by individuals and companies are in rapid growth worldwide. Companies, following this movement, invest more in marketing activities in environments mediated by information technology. Therefore, digital marketing, also known as internet marketing, e-marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, gains more space in scientific literature, attracting researchers from all over the world. In this context, due to the lack of similar studies that compile, organize and summarize the existing knowledge on this area of research, this article examines previous literature on digital marketing published between 1998 and April 2017 using bibliometric analysis techniques, especially the analyses of co-occurrence, cocitation, and coupling bibliographic. A total of 377 scientific articles were extracted from the Web of Science database, allowing the identification of the origins and evolution of the research on the subject, its foundations, and intellectual structures. Follow up of the results addresses their implication for the evolution of research on the new and promising field of digital marketing.
Keywords: Digital marketing; Bibliometrics; Co-occurrence; Cocitations; Bibliographic coupling.
Wooing the Consumer in a Six-Second Commercial! Measuring the Efficacy of Bumper Advertisements on YouTube
by Jay Trivedi, Siddharth Deshmukh, Amit Kishore
Abstract: Consumption of video content is rising as internet data becomes more affordable. Online video sharing companies like YouTube are trying to leverage the power of short storytelling by offering non-skippable six-second advertisements (bumper ads) on its platform. This paper identifies the type of bumper ads, which lead to higher message involvement among the consumers, leading to attitude towards the brand and further purchase intentions. The study was conducted using the survey method. Data were collected from 287 respondents. The results established informative bumper ads to be the most involving. Further, the mediating role of involvement and attitude was empirically validated.
Keywords: bumper ads; YouTube; message process involvement; MPI; attitude towards the brand; AB; purchase intentions; PI.
Building Customer Loyalty in Online Shopping: The Role of Online Trust, online Satisfaction and Electronic Word of Mouth
by Ahmad Samed Al-Adwan, Husam Kokash, Ahmad Al Adwan, Alaa Alhorani
Abstract: Customer satisfaction, loyalty and trust in e-commerce services are vital for the evolution of many businesses. Despite the rapid advancement in the application of Business to Customer (B2C) e-commerce, previous studies confirm that online vendors are struggling to maintain customer loyalty. Various scholars have empirically investigated customer beliefs regarding their satisfaction, loyalty and trust in the context of B2C e-commerce in several countries. However, the number of investigations into such important aspects of e-commerce in developing Arab countries, such as Jordan, is limited. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to explore the main factors that affect the degree to which consumers in Jordan are satisfied with, loyal to and trust B2C e-commerce. This research relies on previous and related literature to formulate a conceptual research model that proposes relationships between online trust, satisfaction and loyalty, and their determinants. To examine the proposed model, a self-administered paper-based survey questionnaire was issued to B2C e-commerce customers in a Jordanian private university. The findings suggest that customer loyalty to B2C e-commerce in Jordan is significantly influenced by online customer satisfaction, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and online trust. The theoretical and practical research implications and limitations, along with suggestions for future research are highlighted.
Keywords: online loyalty; online shopping; e-commerce; online satisfaction; online trust; information quality; social commerce; electronic word of mouth.
How to satisfy him and her, and get loyalty in mobile commerce shopping application
by Panitharn Juntongjin
Abstract: Due to the substantial growth rate of mobile users, it is undeniable that m-commerce has become a huge opportunity as a distribution channel for many firms. In the context of m-commerce shopping application, too little attention has been paid on gender as a moderating variable, on which this research focuses. To explain how gender affects satisfaction and loyalty of the m-commerce shoppers, the author proposed a new model that could better explain satisfaction and loyalty in the m-commerce shopping platform. To test the research hypotheses and to compare the impact of the factors determining the differences in satisfaction and loyalty between male and female, the author uses Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with multi-group techniques. The results show that factors influencing satisfaction and loyalty of shoppers are different across genders. Firms using m-commerce application as their distribution channel can use the proposed model and the results of this study to obtain long- term benefits from their customers improved satisfaction and loyalty.
Keywords: mobile commerce; m-commerce; mobile shopping application; gender; emotion; satisfaction; loyalty; modelling.
Which are online shopping determinants? Analyzing ease and convenience to use, prior shopping experience, online benefits, social influence in India.
by Navneet Gera, Davide Di Fatta, Rinki Garg, Shivani Malik
Abstract: Online shopping is growing day by day with the help of technology and customer support. Provided that India is the second largest country in terms of internet users, the purpose of the study is to examine online shopping determinants. This topic is original and up to date not only from the academic point of view, but also from the practical one. Indeed, to attract internet users to the online shopping, retailers need to understand the drivers of such phenomenon. In order to reach the goal, primary data was collected through a questionnaire survey wherein Judgemental sampling method has been used. Then an exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results highlight that ease of use and convenience is the most relevant factor for online shopping since it represents 32% of total variance. This study not only will help online shopping business man to formulate their strategies, but also will add value to theoretical research field.
Keywords: online shopping; online consumer behaviour; ease of use; convenience; exploratory factor analysis; EFA; India.
Perceived Diagnostics of Virtual Try-on Technologies and Attitudes toward Mens Suits
by Changhyun Nam, Young Do Kim
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual try-on technologies and their perceived diagnostics on consumers purchase intentions for mens suits using a conceptual model based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory. A within-subjects research design was developed to empirically test the conceptual model and a total of 264 usable participant responses were collected. Participants were directed to a website to virtually try mens suits in different sizes, colors, fits, and designs on their personalized avatars. Perceived diagnostics from virtual try-on technologies were found to reduce consumers perceived risks regarding product attributes and to increase purchase intentions for Hugo Boss mens suits. Therefore, we suggest that e-fashion retailers and technology developers continue to enhance and implement virtual try-on technologies and vivid 3D images in the sale of apparel. Also, mens wear companies should provide sufficient information about product attributes to strengthen perceived diagnostics through 3D technologies, thus increasing e-consumers purchasing intentions for the apparel.
Keywords: virtual try-on; virtual fitting room; 3D technology; perceived diagnostics; perceived risk; men’s suit; online shopping; stimulus; organism; response; S-O-R theory; male e-consumer; e-fashion retailer.
A Conjoint Analysis of Customers Preferences for E-Banking Channels
by Noopur Saxena, Navneet Gera, Davide Di Fatta, Kritika Nagdev
Abstract: Internet has transformed the manner in which banks interact with the customers. The purpose of the paper is to measure customers preferences towards different channel attributes namely: internet banking, mobile banking and payment portals at a composite level that reflect the relative importance of usage attributes, i.e., payment type, transaction size, motivation to use and rate of urgency. Conjoint analysis was applied to estimate utilities for these attributes and to determine the existence of consumer groups with similar preference profiles. Furthermore, our study shows that the most preferred combination of utilities are customers preference to use payment portal, for paying bills of less than Rs. 5,000 amount when it is very urgent and they get discount coupons. The results provide insightful information of consumers motivation, attitudes and preferences for defining strategies to increase the usage of these services.
Keywords: conjoint analysis; e-banking channels; e-commerce; payment.
Facebook usage intensity and compulsive buying tendency: the mediating role of envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion and the moderating role of depression
by A.F.M. Jalal Ahamed, Yam B. Limbu, Al Mamun
Abstract: While Facebook usage intensity (FBUI) and compulsive buying tendency (CBT) have individually received increased research attention, very little is known about the mechanisms through which FBUI affects CBT. This study proposes and tests a multiple mediation model in which the effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by personality characteristics (envy, self-esteem and self-promotion). The study also explores the moderating effect of depression on these mediated relationships. The results of a self-administered survey of 393 Bangladeshi adults support the proposed moderated mediation model. The effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by envy and self-esteem independently. The FBUI indirectly affects CBT through serial mediators: i) envy and self-esteem and ii) envy and self-promotion. These serial mediating effects are moderated by depression. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Facebook usage intensity; compulsive buying tendency; envy; self-esteem; self-promotion; depression.
Promocode: An examination of the outcome expectations in shopping apps
by Ree C. Ho, Ali Shafiq
Abstract: This study examined consumers expectation on the usefulness of promocode within the shopping apps. Consumers learned about the availability of promocode from searching, media exposure and their collaboration with other consumers. Hence, there is a need to investigate the influence of the social cognitive elements in achieving sales via promocode. This study developed an integrative framework, which combined both Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory to examine the underlying factors in the use of promocode.
A sample of 266 consumers was surveyed through questionnaire. Their responses were analyzed through Structural Equation Modelling. The hypothesized relationships between attitude towards behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the linkages of self-efficacy and outcome expectations to the adoption of the promocode. These results showed that social cognitive outcome expectations and self-efficacy explain consumers competent use of promocode available in the shopping apps. This study provided an integrative framework in predicting the use of promocode in shopping apps. It also explained the use of promocode from consumer cognitive perspective.
Keywords: promocode; shopping app; self efficacy; hedonic outcome expectation; utilitarian outcome expectation; promotional discount.
Examining the Risk Factors Affecting the Image of Online Stores in Malaysia
by Noorshella Binti Che Nawi, Abdullah Al Mamun, Noorul Azwin Md Nasir, Nurul Hasliana Binti Hamsani
Abstract: This study examined the influence of various dimensions of perceived risk (i.e., delivery risk, financial risk, product-performance risk, social risk, and convenience risk) on the image of online stores. This study adopted a cross-sectional design and the quantitative data were collected from 330 conveniently selected respondents from Peninsular Malaysia. The findings revealed that financial risk, social risk, and convenience risk had a significantly negative effect on the image of online stores in Malaysia. Apart from extending the existing electronic commerce literature, this study provided in-depth insights into the role of perceived risk in the consumers decision process during online shopping. It is recommended that the governments and online organisations should adopt policies and programmes that could enhance the safety of financial information and secure the transactions of online shoppers while maintaining a user-friendly online platform. It is also worthwhile to implement strategies that could raise social awareness regarding the benefits of online shopping and electronic consumerism.
Keywords: Delivery Risk; Financial Risk; Product-Performance Risk; Social Risk; Convenience Risk; Image of Online Store; Theory of Perceived Risk.
Effects of Consumers Personal Characteristics and Psychological Factors on Nostalgia Marketing
by Ahreum Hong
Abstract: Nostalgia stimuli attract consumers with emotional appeals based on a fondness for the past. When consumers may choose from various brands of the same product, they show more positive feelings toward the products that evoke nostalgia. This study sought to establish the effects of nostalgia and marketing as outcome variables using consumer personal and psychological factors as explanatory variables.
The results of this study are as follows. First, loneliness had a significant positive effect on consumer self-esteem and social connectedness (which are functions of nostalgia) but did not directly affect the outcomes of nostalgia marketing. Therefore, it is an effective marketing strategy to integrate the psychological effect of loneliness via nostalgia stimulation to improve consumer inner affirmation through empathy and communication in social relations. Second, the nostalgia function was affected significantly by personal innovativeness and loneliness but not by high price sensitivity. Therefore, highly price-sensitive consumers should be targeted with a nostalgia marketing strategy applying a high-quality personal value standard. Third, self-affirmation, which is a nostalgia function, had a significant effect on nostalgia marketing but did not support social connectedness. Therefore, nostalgia stimulation was effective in social connectedness, but consumers were not significantly influenced by nostalgia marketing.
This study shed light on the importance of the concept of nostalgia in marketing. This is done by incorporating themes or products from the past to create a unique emotional feeling in customers.
Keywords: Nostalgia Marketing; Social connectedness; Self-positivity; Personal Innovation; Price sensitivity; Loneliness.
Social Media and The Decision-Making Process: Empirical Evidence from Yemen
by Wail Alhakimi, Ramzi Alwadhan
Abstract: Social media has created a revolutionary upgrade in the marketing strategy as well as the marketing sector. It has had a huge impact on consumers day to day life in many different aspects. It is applications and sites have become an influence on how products and services are presented to end users. This study aims to understand the impact of social media marketing on the consumers decision-making process among Yemeni consumers. The study used a descriptive analytical method to answer the questions of the study. A questionnaire was used as a tool for the data collection from 180 Yemeni consumers. In conclusion the study reveals that social media has a major influence on pre-purchase stage, purchase stage and post purchase stage. Social media users are encouraged to recognize a need for a product/service in the pre-purchase stage. It is a reliable source for information and information can be searched, accessed, and retrieved easily in the purchase stage. Feedback from customers about services/products can give a clear picture on how good or bad the product/service is, in which it affects future purchases. Organizations should pay more attention to social media sites and use it as a low-cost advertisement tool. They can also have better customer service through customers feedback about products/ services, and therefore, organizations should use this communication tool to reach out to new customers and open new markets.
Keywords: social media; marketing; pre-purchase stage; purchase stage; post-purchase stage; Yemen.
Investigating Value, Loyalty, and Trust as Determinants of Purchase Intention on the Pinterest Social Media Network
by Beheruz N. Sethna, Sunil Hazari, Cheryl Brown
Abstract: This paper makes a contribution in the investigation of constructs of value, loyalty, and trust as determinants of purchase intention on the Pinterest social media network, and shows gender variations in engagement and use of Pinterest, relative to other social media. Using the Pinterest social media network, the specific purpose of this study is to investigate constructs of value, loyalty, trust, and the impact of these constructs on purchase intention. Data were gathered from a sample of 357 respondents in the Southeast USA. Constructs of value, loyalty, and trust were tested with good Cronbach alpha results, and found to be determinants of purchase intention. Females had significantly higher scores on these constructs. Engagement varied significantly among social media. Among those with significant gender differences, females had higher engagement, with Pinterest showing the largest relative female-male difference.
Keywords: Pinterest; gender differences; value; loyalty; trust; determinants of purchase intention.
Facilities Planning in Retailing and Value Generation among Urban Consumers
by X. Rajagopal
Abstract: The present study aims to examine the effect of recreational retailing on consumers emotions in a shopping mall, considering two principal dimensions- pleasure and arousal. The conceptual model is developed by considering a few obscure determinants such as perceived crowding, promotional events, and mall ambiance. The effects on consumer behavior has been studied in the context of patronage and positive word-of-mouth leading to consumer experience of arousal and pleasure. This study also examines the impact of growing congestion of shopping malls in urban areas on shopping conveniences and shopping behavior. Based on survey of urban shoppers, the study analyzes cognitive attributes of the shoppers towards attractiveness of shopping malls and intensity of shopping. Results of the study reveal that ambiance of shopping malls, assortment of stores, sales promotions, and comparative economic gains in the mall attract higher traffic to the malls.
Keywords: Shopping Malls; Ambiance; Recreation; Retailing; Consumer Behavior,.
Consumer Acceptance of Virtual Reality When Browsing for Apparel
by Jennifer Johnson Jorgensen
Abstract: With the growth of virtual reality, many opportunities exist for retailers, but consumers may not be ready to use virtual reality when browsing for apparel. To determine the acceptance of virtual reality among consumers, an adapted Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was tested including the variables of perceived enjoyment and perceived innovativeness. To collect data, 407 participants in the United States were exposed to an online virtual reality experience on their personal computers. Afterward, participants completed an online survey. The results of this study found that perceived enjoyment had a positive relationship with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, while perceived usefulness was found to relate to perceived innovativeness and perceived ease of use. Surprisingly, perceived ease of use was not found to have a positive relationship with attitude in this study. The adapted TAM was also determined to be an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the acceptance of virtual reality when browsing for apparel.
Keywords: Virtual reality; TAM; Perceived enjoyment; Perceived innovativeness.
The association between gender and occupation in a gamified purchasing environment: perspective from Kosovo and Albania
by Fortesa Haziri, Ina Pagria, Miloslava Chovancová
Abstract: Gamification is considered as a magic bullet to induce dull experiences with fun and enjoyment. However, understanding the gamification attributes for Scommerce users falls short due to limited empirical research. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between males and females and employed and unemployed buyers who purchase products and services via S-commerce when game elements are considered. A questionnaire containing sixty-one questions and was distributed via social platforms. To analyse the gathered data EFA and Mann-Whitney U-Test have been employed. The study concludes that for Kosovar S-commerce users employment status is significantly different regarding game mechanics. Regarding gender, out of all game elements, significant differences were found only in aesthetics. On the other hand, no gender and occupation differences have been identified for Albanian S-commerce users. The results of this study are useful for companies which provide products/services focused on gender and employment status.
Keywords: aesthetics; game dynamics; game mechanics; gamification; online buying behaviour; social media; developing countries.
Factors underlying brand trust for affecting brand love leading to customers' purchase intention in Indian hypermarkets
by Deependra Singh, Naval Bajpai, Kushagra Kulshreshtha
Abstract: Different factors affecting brand trust have been discussed in previous studies. Many of the instruments measuring brand trust were developed earlier in different contexts. However, with the growth of hypermarket stores in India, customers want to purchase in the particular hypermarket brands store based on their passion and emotions attached with the brand. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a scale, which may focus on the customers intent to purchase from their loving hypermarket brand store. The present research study is directed towards customers who frequently visit a specific hypermarket brands store as to what factors influence their brand trust. Further, the impact of these extracted brand trust factors is investigated with brand love as a mediator. For this purpose, CFA-SEM approach is applied to the sample size of 787 customers. This study proposes a conceptual framework for testing the relationship among the constructs related to brand trust, brand love, and purchase intention. The empirically validated model recommends the factors leading to brand trust and their impact on purchase intention with the mediation of brand love in hypermarket brand stores. This study shows the pivotal relationships between brand trust factors, brand love, and purchase intention. It helps marketers to understand the influencing components for brand trust and the role of brand love to develop customers purchase intention for their hypermarket brands in a better way.
Keywords: Brand trust; Brand love; Purchase intention; Hypermarket; Customer-brand relationship; Customer-purchase behaviour.
The Effect of Hedonic Value, Utilitarian Value and Perceived Risk on Consumer Intention of Choosing P2P Collaborative Consumption Options
by Ngoc Trang Thi Nguyen, Yoonjae Lee
Abstract: Purchase decisions require consumers to consider both values and risks of products and services. To have a better understanding of peer-to-peer (P2P) collaborative consumption consumer, this research examines the motivation of consumer intention on the recurring use of P2P collaborative services on the basis of their perceived hedonic and utilitarian values as well as perceived risks. Data was collected via online surveys from mTurk of people participating in Internet-mediated collaborative consumption in the US market. This research examines the consumer intention concerning P2P collaborative services by combining the effects of value and risks in a theoretical model, using structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings of this study explain the relationships between hedonic value, utilitarian value and perceived risk with and collaborative consumption options choosing intention. Consumer using intention is positively influenced by both hedonic and utilitarian values as well as negatively by perceived risk, in which utilitarian value makes a stronger effect on intention than hedonic value this study analysis also provides evidence that monetary savings does not impact perceived value of consumer for collaborative consumption.
Keywords: Collaborative Consumption; Sharing Economy; Hedonic Value; Utilitarian Value; Perceived Risk; Peer-to-Peer.
Special Issue on: ICES 2K17 Engineering Aspect Based Electronic Marketing and Retailing
Consumer Ethnocentrism: Validation of CETSCALE and Measurement among Saudi Citizens
by M.M. Sulphey, Mohammad Rishad Faridi
Abstract: Consumer ethnocentrism (CE) is the patriotic, nationalistic and sympathetic feelings among consumers. This behaviour of consumer has been subjected to intensive and repeated research around the globe. Attempts to study CE in Saudi Arabia seem to be scarce, despite the vastness and potentiality of the markets in the country. The study has succeeded in validating the popularly used CETSCALE in the Saudi context thorough rigorous statistical techniques. The study has also found out the patterns of CE among the Saudi consumers. Findings with respect to dimensionality of CE are more or less in lines with the results of research work in other parts of the world. Further, it was found that the CE that is prevalent in Saudi Arabia differs conceptually from those of other countries. Another significant finding was that the younger population, especially university students, had higher levels of CE higher than that of other countries.
Keywords: Consumer Ethnocentrism; CETSCALE; Saudi Arabia; Validation.
Does Spiritual Intelligence contribute to sales force effectiveness?
by Kalyani Vellingiri, Saravanan R
Abstract: The present world of digitalization had made the marketing environment more complex and volatile putting the sustainability of the sales organizations at stake. Although the changing scenario demands for more cognitive flexibility and adaptability from various sales organizations, they stumble as their sales force are not that competent to face this ever changing situation. Henceforth the rational attitude of the sales people will no longer be relevant in these turbulent times. So it is the right time for the sales organizations to recognize the importance of higher levels of intelligent quotient among their sales workforce which can drive an individual for success as it is highly associated with higher level of cognitive thinking, flexibility and adaptability. This can be achieved by infusing the Spiritual Intelligence (SI) construct. In recent times SI has achieved more popularity from the management perspective as it facilitates individual and organizational performance. Though SI is visualized as a psychological or a human resource phenomenon, this article applies this concept to the marketing scenario as it glues strongly with the requirements of the sales force. The reason behind this choice of area is that, sales happen to be the bloodline of any business and directly linked with the revenue generation. The sales domain demands for more patience, cognitive thinking, and adaptability along with the required sales skills. It is true that SI helps shape an individual holistically and it is pertinent to imbibe SI in the culture itself as it fetches maximum benefits to the organizations and individuals as well. This article presents how SI acts as a key source of increasing human capital and overcoming the major issues of career development. This perspective is depicted in the form of a conceptual framework and the article brings forth a new application perspective of the SI construct to the sales force utilizing various theoretical inferences.
Keywords: Sales force; cognitive thinking; adaptability; organizational performance.
Self-Congruity and Brand Loyalty An Innovation of Diffusion Approach
by Praveen Babu P, Prabakar S
Abstract: Brand loyalty is a much debated topic in marketing and the present challenge for marketers lies in understanding the self-image and product-image from the consumers perspective. Though awareness remains the first and foremost factor in the adoption process, the interest and desire stages are of prime importance because consumers relate themselves to the offerings during these two stages. This article aims at relating the concept of self-congruity to brand loyalty across various consumer adoption categories (Innovation of Diffusion, Rogers (1962)) and suggests strategies to increase brand loyalty of the various types of adopters. It theoretically brings forth the differences in self-congruity levels amongst various adoption categories of consumers and its related brand loyalty levels. The need for relating self attributes to brand attributes is of prime importance to marketers and therefore this article aims at discussing the various theoretical assumptions built on concrete constructs and theories which provide a new approach towards measuring brand loyalty.
Keywords: Consumer adoption categories; Self-image; Product-image; interest; desire to buy.
Generational Difference as Predictors of Financial Behaviour
by Sulphey M M, Shaha Faisal
Abstract: Behavioural differences among generationsare a fascinating area that has been studied across various topics and disciplines. However, no study is seen to have been undertaken to find out its relationship with financial behaviour. The present study attempts to bridge this gap in literature. Data for the study was collected randomly from 240 samples with the help of a validated tool the ORTOFIN scale. The analysis of data has presented some interesting results. The study has succeeded in presenting the complex relationship that intergenerational differences have on financial behaviour. It is expected that the study will add to the literature on intergenerational difference and financial behaviour, and stimulate further studies in this unchartered area of research.
Keywords: Financial behaviour; Orientation towards finances; Generational differences.