International Journal of Earthquake and Impact Engineering
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International Journal of Earthquake and Impact Engineering (3 papers in press)
Characterization of Design Spectra for Vertical Ground Motion by Dhiman Basu Abstract: Vertical ground motion may contribute significantly to the damage of certain structures and hence, should be accounted for in seismic design for better resilience. Characterization of design vertical spectra (V) given design horizontal spectra (H) offers dual challenges: spectral shape and intensity measure, say vertical Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). Seismic code recommendations and research reported in prior art may be thought of recommending the V/H spectra to be multiplied with design horizontal spectra. While most seismic codes ignore the effect of both magnitude and epicentral distance, research reported in prior art offers recommendation explicitly accounting for the epicentral distance. This papers investigates the problem in more generalized framework studying the contributions of magnitude, epicentral distance and soil sites. About 6000 strong motion events are analyzed to infer the feasibility of such a generalized framework. The inference is verified with respect to one recorded event that was not included during development. Keywords: Ground motion characterization; Vertical design spectra; V/H spectra;.
Analysis of the Collapsed and Replaced Tex-Wash Bridges Exposed to Severe Floods by Abolhassan Astaneh-Asl Abstract: On July 19, 2015, the eastbound span of the Tex-Wash bridge, located on Highway 10, collapsed due to severe flooding. The behavior of the bridge under the flood conditions is first simulated using ANSYS finite element (F.E.) software to determine the mechanism underlying its collapse. Next, a parametric study is performed to study the influence of velocity and depth of floodwaters on the performance of the bridge. Finally, the replacement bridge is modeled, and its performance under the same flood event is evaluated. The results of the F.E. analysis show that the combination of five factors caused the bridge to collapse. Results also indicate only a slight increase in the velocity of water raises the pressure considerably when applied to the structure. Also, the depth of water has a considerable effect on the response of the bridge. Other factors that could influence the failure of the bridge (i.e., the effect of the size of particles, buoyancy, and angle of attack of the flow) have not been included in this study. The study of the new replacement bridge indicates that it is capable of resisting the same flood scenario, assuming that the floodwaters do not overflow the bridge deck. In that case, the buoyancy forces will uplift the hollow concrete deck girders and push them downstream. The uplift can be prevented by drilling holes in the hollow boxes to reduce the buoyancy forces, as well as having shear keys and uplift anchors at the girder supports. Keywords: Flood protection; soil erosion; bridge collapse; structural engineering; fluid modeling; retaining walls; soil-structure interaction; scouring; concrete bridge.
Displacement Response Spectra for Active Seismic Regions in India by Sreejaya Kp, Raghukanth Stg, Srinagesh D, Murty CVR Abstract: Damage of a structure is better correlated to relative displacements in structures rather than forces during earthquakes. Displacement response spectrum is critical for structures whose natural periods are beyond acceleration and velocity sensitive regions. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) has been carried out using a smoothed seismicity approach by characterizing the seismicity using an updated seismic catalog. Design displacement response spectrum and displacement ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for spectral displacements are proposed for the first time for Indian region. A regional GMPE for spectral displacements is developed for active regions of India. The probable displacement seismic hazard in India and its adjoining regions (24 Keywords: Probabilistic seismic hazard; displacement response spectra; long-period structures; bilinear approximation; Corner period.