Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (IJEHV)

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International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (12 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Development of powertrain mounting system for high frequency characteristics optimization in electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandip Hazra, Janardhan Reddy 
    Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a powertrain mount at high frequency is an important criterion for vibration isolation performance of an electric vehicle (EV), whereas in an internal combustion engine (ICE), low-frequency dynamic stiffness is generally considered, although the dynamic stiffness from 1000 to 3000 Hz impacts overall in-cab noise and articulation index in both ICE and EV. Motor excitation frequency can lead to high frequency resonance issue in an EV. In this paper, the powertrain mount design technique is described in detail to address high frequency issues. The high frequency problem is first analytically described. The effect of non-identical stiffness of rubber legs within a mount is simulated for dynamic frequency response. A case study shows the impact of non-identical mount stiffness by changing the rubber leg design, on vehicle level high frequency resonance.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; powertrain mount; dynamic stiffness; high frequency.

  • Classification and review of electric circuit models for electric vehicle batteries   Order a copy of this article
    by Arvind S. Pande, Bhanu Pratap Soni, Kishor V. Bhadane 
    Abstract: Battery-operated electric vehicles are attracting many users. Utilisations of EV are day by day increasing and hence there is need to enhance the entire performance of EV by designing the best internal parameters of the batteries used in the subsystems of EV. The performance of batteries depends on various factors, such as specific energy, life cycle, safety, internal resistances, charge and discharge time, temperature, cost, and toxicity. The main objective of this paper is to study and analyse the electric circuit model (ECM) of EV batteries to find the internal parameters by using an algorithm. The various models of ECM, such as simple model, enhanced simple model, dynamic model, Thevenin-based model, modified generic model, and Tremblay model, are critically reviewed. The Thevenin model is best suitable for simulation of battery for soc, sop etc., from predefined values of resistances and capacitor.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; battery; modelling; BMS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2022.10052020
  • Powertrain mount Layout and stiffness selection in electric vehicle application: a multi-objective approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandip Hazra, Janardhan Reddy 
    Abstract: The powertrain mount optimisation for ICE has been established and researched for many applications. Hence, it is reasonable to carry over the same ICE concepts to EV mounting system design. The layout is selected depending on powertrain weight, input torque, crash, package space, and NVH requirements. The main difference between the ICE and EV for the powertrain mounting system is NVH perception due to the shift of source noise from low frequency to high frequency and durability loads due to regenerative loading. The masking effect in ICE gives a different powertrain noise profile compared with EV. The sudden change of torque develops powertrain roll more than ICE for a pendulum mounting system, leading to a bigger dynamic envelope in EV. This paper focuses on the shift of focus needed to minimise the risk associated with NVH during powertrain mount layout and stiffness selection with the help of a case study.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; layout; stiffness; NVH; powertrain mounting system.

  • PI gain optimisation and artificial intelligence based direct torque control of induction motor equipped electric vehicle drives   Order a copy of this article
    by Nitesh Tiwari, Shekhar Yadav, Sabha Raj Arya 
    Abstract: This paper designs DTC-based IM drives for EV applications by using PI and artificial intelligence controllers. Two artificial intelligence controllers, namely ANN and ANFIS, are compared in this paper. The design process of the ANFIS controller is independent of the drives, IM, or EV parameters. ANFIS controller only takes input-output data set to restructure the membership function artificially. IM-based EV drives system is a purely non-linear system whose performance depends on the sudden change of speed and torque. Hence, controlled parameters of the motor drives system are needed to calculate very precisely. Some metaheuristics optimisation techniques, such as DE, TLBO, GA, PSO, ABC, GWO, and JFO, are implemented to obtain the optimised value of the controlled parameter of the PI controller. The main advantage of using these optimisation techniques is that system identification is not required for implementation.
    Keywords: differential evolution; grey wolf optimisation; jellyfish optimisation; artificial neuro-fuzzy inference system; induction motor drive; driving cycle.

  • Design of energy management strategy in fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid vehicles based on a combined forward-backward algorithm and fuzzy control   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Reza Movahhed Ghodsinya, Ehsan AzimiRad 
    Abstract: One of the presented solutions for the development of the Clean Transportation program is electric vehicles, which are capable of making positive changes in the global fields of energy and environment. The most significant influence is on enhancing the energy efficiency and distance traversed by the electric vehicle through electrical energy storage systems. However various types of energy storage sources for electric vehicles have been presented so far, but batteries are always considered the main source of energy in electric vehicles, along with which auxiliary sources such as ultracapacitors can be used. In this research, to save more fuel consumption and increase the distance traversed constantly, a fuzzy optimized controller has been simulated to design an energy management strategy in a hybrid vehicle equipped with a fuel cell, battery, and ultracapacitor in ADVISOR software which uses a combined forward-backward algorithm. The results show that the proposed control strategy can provide all the required vehicle power for standard driving four cycles and reach the power distribution desirable among a variety of power sources.
    Keywords: battery; ultracapacitor; fuel cell; hybrid sources; electric vehicle; energy management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2023.10054500
    by V. Girija, G. George Victo Sudha 
    Abstract: The internet of vehicles (IoV) has become an important area of research due to its potential applications in smart transportation systems. With the use of blockchain ledger technology, IoV networks can be made secure, private, and trustworthy. This survey paper examines recent research on the application of blockchain in IoV, focusing on properties such as authentication, sharing, trust management, security, privacy preservation, and integrated and miscellaneous applications. The challenges faced in implementing blockchain in IoV are also discussed along with recommendations for future research directions. This paper aims to provide insights into the benefits and challenges of using blockchain technology in IoV for the betterment of smart transportation systems.
    Keywords: intelligent transportation system; ITS; blockchain; vehicular networks; road side unit; incentive.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2023.10055237
  • Thermal study of MOSFET heat sinks for motor controller in neighbourhood electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Kshitij Tripathi, Aryan Aryan, Aakash Ghosh, Mini Sreejeth, S. Indu 
    Abstract: This paper aims to present a comparative study on the thermal performance of two different variants of heat sinks used for MOSFETs, one which is newly designed in order to achieve improved heat transfer. Both MOSFET heatsink designs are developed using computer-aided design suites and are analysed using ANSYS. The MOSFETs differ in their heat sink design but are subjected to identical boundary conditions. The temperature contour plots are examined and further discussed in the study. Multiple iterations of the model are tested and analysed under multiple time intervals. It is seen that under the steady state thermal analysis that, the newly designed variant of the heatsink has a lower maximum temperature and lower maximum heat flux indicating a much more efficiently distributed heat transfer throughout the system. The novel heatsink also shows improved thermal results under this transient thermal analysis with lower maximum temperature and better heat distribution.
    Keywords: MOSFET; heat analysis; electric vehicles; finite element analysis.

  • Cognitive dissonance and consonance in customers adopting e-vehicles in India: effect of FAME scheme on customer perception   Order a copy of this article
    by K.V. Roopa, Abraham Varughese, Raghunandan G 
    Abstract: India had committed to reduce the intensity emission of greenhouse gas emissions to 20-25% by 2020-25. One of the main sources of these emissions is released is automobiles. The introduction of the FAME scheme ((Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) and Electric Vehicles) is to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to promote electric vehicles to reduce emissions. It offered many benefits to both manufacturers and buyers to promote electric vehicles. This article analyses the consonant and dissonant cognitions in adopting electric vehicles and analyses the response of customers to the scheme benefits of FAME. Primary data was collected from individuals who plan to buy electric vehicles of three types, two, three and four-wheelers, from three cities in South India using a questionnaire based on an 11-point scale. Mean is used to understand the response pattern while the multiple linear regression model to understand the effect of consonant and dissonant cognitions. The results show that the Direct Incentive Scheme (DIS) and tax benefits are not fully beneficial to customers and the lack of an adequate charging station network is a constraint in using an electric vehicle. Customers are aware of and interested to be a part of emission reduction. The government of India must take initiative to increase charging stations and to increase the DIS than giving tax benefits. Non-taxpayers will not get the benefit of tax exemption.
    Keywords: FAME -II; electric vehicle; cognitive dissonance; dissonant ratio; multiple linear regression.

  • A multi-closed loop pressure control in electro-hydraulic brake system for electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiping Chen, Haiyang Tong, Haoyu Sun, Zongyu Lv, Chagen Luo, Chengping Zhong 
    Abstract: To validate and further improve the performance of pressure-building of an electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) system for electric vehicles, a simplified EHB framework based on permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed in this paper. Except for the control logic, the hydraulic brake actuator in the proposed EHB system is analysed and modelled in AMESim. Then, the output characteristics of the hydraulic brake actuator model are studied and analysed, which prove the validity of the actuator model established in AMESim. Then, the hydraulic brake actuator based on the PMSM is analysed and modelled in Simulink. Then, according to the models of the hydraulic actuator, a multi-closed loop pressure control strategy is proposed and is applied in the co-simulation based on AMESim and Simulink. The research and simulation results show that the average pressure of the front and rear brake wheel cylinders can reach the target within 0.2 s, and the PMSM output rotate speed tracks the target well. The multi-closed loop pressure control strategy proposed in this paper shows a faster response in pressure-building, which can be regarded as a significant advantage of electro-hydraulic brake system.
    Keywords: multi-closed loop; pressure control; electro-hydraulic brake system; electric vehicle.

  • Barriers towards the adoption of battery electric trucks: an exploratory study in Uruguay   Order a copy of this article
    by Martín Tanco, María Sol Cavallieri, Sebastián Rossi, Martín Levy, Daniel Jurburg 
    Abstract: Efforts to decarbonise freight transport are being made by companies and countries, driven by costs and pollution reductions. Battery electric and fuel cell electric technologies are the most promising technologies to achieve this. This study presents a list of barriers to the adoption of battery electric trucks in Uruguay based on a Delphi Panel of experts and a stakeholder survey. The main findings of the factorial analysis performed on the surveys results reveal that there are five groups of barriers: operation and technology adaptations, market and infrastructure ecosystem, battery and range limitations, demand, and life cycle costs. The most concerning barriers are the purchasing price, low national incentives, available charging infrastructure, and vehicle driving range. This study seeks to fill the existing knowledge gap in the literature in Latin America and concludes that assessing the barriers identified and aligning interested parties actions would help to create a more efficient transition.
    Keywords: battery electric trucks; heavy-duty trucks; barriers; Uruguay; Delphi method; road freight electrification; decarbonisation; freight transport; electric trucks; BEV.

    by Rakesh Shriwastava, Sunil Kadlag, Ramesh Pawase, Rahul Mapari, Deepak Kadam 
    Abstract: This paper presents design, simulation and implementation of a field oriented control (FOC) space vector modulation (SVM) diode clamped multilevel inverter (DCMLI) driven PMSM drive using AVR microcontroller. For better speed control of PMSM, FOC is widely used. The main drawbacks of the 3-phase conventional bridge inverter are lower dv/dt stresses, lower electromagnetic compatibility and smaller rating as compare to multilevel inverters. The PMSM merits are high power-to-weight ratio, high efficiency, and rugged construction and a better candidate in automotive applications. In SVM principle, all three drive signals for the inverter will be created simultaneously and implementation for generation of pulses in inverter. Simulation is done by MATLAB and experimental implementation of DCMLI with resistive load using AVR microcontroller. The comparative torque, current and harmonic analysis of inverter driven PMSM drive with SVM were analysed. The proposed PMSM drive gives better control performance of speed and torque, less distorted output and less harmonic distortion.
    Keywords: AVR microcontroller; diode clamped multilevel inverter; field oriented control; space vector modulation; permanent magnet synchronous motor; total harmonic distortion.

  • Research on compound control strategy of sensorless permanent magnet synchronous motor   Order a copy of this article
    by Kai Zhou 
    Abstract: The parameters of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) change from time to time at low speeds, leading to unstable operations. Aiming at this shortcoming, this paper proposes a control method of sensorless PMSM feedforward voltage estimation combined with multi-parameter estimation, and the parameters required for the feedforward voltage control (FFVC) are given through the multi-parameter estimation model. The FFVC is used to dynamically control the current of the stator voltage in the inner loop, and the sliding mode controller is added to improve the sensitivity and stability of the parameter change at the low speeds of the PMSM. This method improves the dynamic stability of the motor control system and eliminates the transient oscillation in the speed estimation. Through software simulation and experimental verification on the hardware platform of a 2-kW PMSM, it is shown that the proposed control strategy can make the PMSM run stably at low speeds.
    Keywords: feedforward voltage estimation; multi-parameter estimation; permanent magnet synchronous motor; PMSM; sliding mode controller.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2023.10056034