Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (IJEHV)

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International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (9 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Topology design and control strategy of bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Kai Zhou, Yue Sun, Chengyu Jia 
    Abstract: A two-stage bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. The converter has the features of bidirectional power flow and a wide input voltage range, which can realise output voltage stability. The front stage adopts a bidirectional CLLLC resonant converter with good characteristics of soft switching in both forward and reverse directions and adopts open-loop fixed frequency control to realise efficient power transmission. The rear stage adopts an interleaved parallel bidirectional buck/boost converter to reduce the current ripple and increase the transmission power and adopts the duty cycle secondary distribution method to achieve current equalisation and regulate the output voltage based on the voltage and current double closed-loop control. Bidirectional DC/DC converter's principle analysis and parameter calculation are completed, and the correctness and feasibility of the theoretical analysis are verified by simulation results.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; bidirectional DC/DC converter; bidirectional CLLLC resonant converter; interleaved parallel buck/boost converter.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2023.10061736
     
  • Research on two-stage on-board DC-DC converter and control technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Kai Zhou, Yang Liu, Chengyu Jia 
    Abstract: A two-stage on-board DC-DC converter with a wide input voltage range and output low voltage large current are proposed in this paper. The on-board DC-DC converter consists of a front-stage Buck converter and a rear-stage three-phase interleaved LLC resonant converter. The equivalent model is established by the fundamental wave analysis method, and the voltage gain characteristics and current sharing characteristics are analyzed. The front-stage converter uses three closed-loop control to convert a wide range of input voltage to a stable voltage value to the rear-stage. The rear-stage converter adopts phase shift current sharing control to ensure the current balance of each phase and reduce the output current ripple. The system model is established by using the simulation software. The simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis and the feasibility of the control strategy.
    Keywords: on-board DC-DC converter; wide input voltage; LLC resonant converter; phase shift current sharing control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2024.10061737
     
  • Research on two-stage on-board charging system based on IPOP LLC resonant converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Kai Zhou, Yanze Wu 
    Abstract: In this paper, a two-stage on-board charging system based on IPOP LLC resonant converter is proposed. The front stage uses a three-phase VSR, which can realize the PFC function and provide a stable DC voltage to the rear stage. The rear stage adopts IPOP LLC resonant converter, low output current ripple, output a wide range of DC voltage, the soft switch over the full load range, and the system efficiency is high. Voltage current double closed-loop control is used for the front stage converter and outputs stable DC voltage. The rear stage converter adopts variable frequency voltage regulation control and phase shift current sharing control, which reduces the volume of the filter capacitor and improves the overall performance and power density of the on-board charging system. A 3.3 kW system simulation model is built to prove the correctness of the theoretical analysis and parameter design method.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; on-board charging system; three-phase VSR; IPOP LLC resonant converter; soft switch.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2024.10061888
     
  • Thermal behaviour of large scale lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle application: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdullah Jubair, Izhari Izmi Mazali, Zul Hilmi Che Daud, Mohd Kameil, Zainab Asus, Mat Hussin Ab. Talib 
    Abstract: With the increasing demands for battery technology in the electric vehicle (EV) industry, a precise battery thermal management system can significantly improve the battery’s performance while minimising loss and maximising efficiency. This article describes the thermal behaviour of large scale lithium-ion battery applicable for EVs and hybrid electric vehicles. The necessity of a precise battery thermal management system (BTMS) is to maximise the efficiency of energy storage capacity, driving range, cell longevity and system safety which requires a better understanding on battery thermal distribution and behaviour. According to the requirements, this paper gathers the findings from available studies and highlights the influences of charge and discharge rate, state of charge, battery internal resistance, cooling system and thermal runaway on battery thermal distribution, behaviour and performance.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; hybrid electric vehicle; battery thermal management system; lithium-ion battery.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2024.10061889
     
  • Voltage lift technique-based quasi Z-Source inverter for electric vehicles functioning   Order a copy of this article
    by Jay Prakash Kumar Yadav, R.L. Josephine, Gollapinni Vaishnavi, Sai Harsha Naidu 
    Abstract: This paper deals with an inverter topology called voltage lift quasi Z-source inverter, which has high implicit boost ability and is very much suitable for electric vehicles with fuel cells as an input energy source and 800 V motor as a driving motor. As it is a non-isolated single-stage topology, it eliminates the isolation transformer and the need for a separate DC-DC converter to adjust input voltage. The switching scheme implemented is a maximum constant boost pulse width modulation. The advantage of using this scheme is that the required voltage boost can be obtained at very low duty cycle values, and hence, the modulation index will be higher, which leads to lower THD in the voltage at the output end of the DC-AC converter. The topology analysis and switching scheme are described, and the topology operation is shown through simulation results obtained from MATLAB.
    Keywords: implicit boost ability; voltage lift cell; maximum constant boost pulse width modulation; shoot through state.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2024.10061890
     
  • Elucidations on different modes of charging techniques for enhancement of the performance of electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Praveen Kumar Pandey, Abhinav Gautam, Tameshwer Nath 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on various charging techniques and shares current trends that help to illustrate the effects of each charging method. The influence of charging modes is examined in a later part, along with its benefits and drawbacks. The charging processes and numerous modes, which are in charge of making sure the electric car runs well, are thoroughly discussed. The preferred method and its intended use in light of the advancements noticed in recent scenarios have also been examined further in this study. Applications of various charging modes and for smooth transition to e-mobility related advanced technologies are also thoroughly covered in the upcoming section.
    Keywords: e-mobility; charging methods; modes of charging; swapping; infrastructures.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2024.10061947
     
  • A detailed computational modelling and analysis of the effect of geometric dimensions for coil assembly to transfer power wirelessly in electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankur Yadav, Shukla Karmakar, Tushar Kanti Bera 
    Abstract: The PC-based wireless power transfer (WPT) coil design procedure is promising for complex designs and calculating the design parameters for efficient power transfer in EV systems. This work investigates the effect of the three-dimensional geometry of electromagnetic coil assemblies for transmitting and receiving coils with circular bases and compares different geometry parameters. The WPT coil was developed with the conical helix geometry, cylindrical helix, and planar coil with ferrite and aluminium shielding to provide enhanced coupling (k) along the aluminum shielding to reduce the magnetic leakage in the surroundings, assuring minimum loss and better k, self and mutual-inductance (L, M), flux density (B), and field intensity (H) with maximum efficiency. The proposed geometry also provides minimum current density and maximum flux linkage, confirming better WPT. All modelling and simulation work was conducted in the Ansys Maxwell. The circular base conical helix with shielding is promising for WPT-based EV-charging systems.
    Keywords: electric vehicles; wireless power transfer; Ansys Maxwell; coil design; coupling co-efficient; aluminium shielding.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2024.10062220
     
  • Ant colony assisted extended Kalman filter for estimation of state of charge of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Kannan Madhavan Namboothiri, K. Sundareswaran, P.Srinivasa Rao Nayak, Sishaj Pulikottil Simon, Mithun T. 
    Abstract: State of charge (SoC) is an important index of batteries and its knowledge is mandatory for an effective battery management system (BMS). There are several methods adopted for SoC estimation ranging from model-based methods to model-free methods. Among these, the model-based method with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) has gained more attention by its high accuracy. The objective of this work is to optimally tune the error covariances of EKF and then estimate the SoC. A simplified version of ant colony optimisation (ACO) is employed for optimally tuning the error covariances of EKF. The proposed ACO-based approach is lucidly explained and SoC estimation for three different types of dynamic drive cycles of a lithium-ion battery is estimated. The experimental results revealed a reduction in root mean square error (RMSE) from 3.06% with the conventional approach to 1.59% with the proposed method. Further experiments with varying quantities of drive cycle data revealed that the entire drive cycle dataset does not need to be used in its entirety and that in most cases, one-third of the data is sufficient to optimally tune the EKF parameters.
    Keywords: lithium-ion battery; state of charge; battery management system; extended Kalman filter; error covariance; ant colony optimisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2023.10062257
     
  • Optimising direct torque control with battery power management for open-end winding induction motor drive in electric vehicles using the light spectrum optimiser algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Omar Deab, K. Karthikumar, S. Ramesh 
    Abstract: This paper proposes an efficient light spectrum optimiser (LSO) for enhance the direct torque control (DTC) strategy for open-end winding induction motor drives used in electric vehicles (EVs). The purpose is to reduce torque and current ripples while balancing the system's power flow and increasing efficiency. The LSO algorithm is utilised to control the optimal switching states of the inverter. By integrating battery power management and LSO, the goal is to achieve more efficient energy utilisation and improved motor performance. By that point, the proposed model has been used as a working model in MATLAB/Simulink, and the execution has been computed based on the available techniques. The proposed method shows the efficiency is high, the torque and current ripples and the systems power flow is balanced compared to existing methods, like wild horse optimiser, particle swarm optimisation and heap-based optimiser.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; torque; battery power management; voltage source inverter; induction motor; stator flux; pulse width modulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2024.10062470