International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (17 papers in press)
PMSM control for electric vehicles based on fuzzy PI
by Qiping Chen, Sheng Kang, Liping Zeng, Qiang Xiao, Conghui Zhou, Minming Wu
Abstract: A fuzzy PI speed controller based on fuzzy control theory is proposed, which makes the drive control system of electric vehicles insensitive to disturbance and parameter change. The mathematical model of PMSM in d-q reference frame is established, the fuzzy PI speed controller is designed based on fuzzy control theory, and a simulation model of PMSM based on fuzzy PI control theory and sliding mode control theory is built. Two simulation models are simulated and analysed by Simulink, and simulation results show that fuzzy PI control has faster dynamic response speed, better dynamic performance and better anti-jamming ability than sliding mode control. Therefore, fuzzy PI control is an ideal control method, which has a certain reference value in vector control of PMSM for electric vehicles.
Keywords: electric vehicle; PMSM; fuzzy PI; vector control; simulation analysis.
Barriers to the implementation of electric vehicles in metropolitan areas of India
by Umakant Panwar, Anil Kumar, Deepankar Chakrabarti
Abstract: The electric vehicle is not a new concept, it has been in existence from 1828 but owing to improvements in internal combustion engine technology it got relegated to the sidelines. This concept has resurfaced in the past decade or two as a tool for a sustainable and green future, but faces a lot of barriers to implementation. Indias dependency on fossil fuels, the lack of lithium reserves, the grid-integration problems, along with a lack of charging station infrastructure in metropolitan areas, have become major barriers to the acceptance of electric vehicles. This paper deals with the barriers to the introduction of electric vehicles in metropolitan areas. India needs to improve and enforce the regulatory framework, and work on consumer and public awareness to overcome these barriers.
Keywords: electric vehicle; barriers; regulatory framework; charging station; public awareness; India.
Implementing electric vehicles in public services: a case study research
by João Reis
Abstract: In the last years, most European countries have developed strategies to implement the use of electric vehicles. This paper uses a qualitative case study research in the automotive industry to evaluate the efficiencies concerning the implementation of the first electric light truck produced for public services. The results indicate that electric light trucks in public services are more efficient, economically reliable and contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, the strategy of using these vehicles is suitable for nocturnal collection of urban waste, to the extent that it reduces the daily traffic and, at the same time, drastically reduces the noise caused by diesel engines during night hours, thus improving the quality of life in residential areas. By investing on such strategy, European governments are giving a step further to accomplish the European Commission requirements, which is stimulated by the reduction of the carbon dioxide footprint.
Keywords: electric vehicles; electric light trucks; case study; renewable energies; carbon dioxide; efficiency; public services.
Research review on vehicle performance testing system
by Jing Gan, Xiaobin Fan, Zeng Song
Abstract: A vehicle performance test system is usually an indispensable part of the automobile industry. The performance test results are an important indicator to measure the performance of vehicles. By analysing and comparing the characteristics of performance test systems of traditional automobiles and electric vehicles, the development direction of the vehicle performance test system is given. This paper introduces the development status of a vehicle performance testing system in foreign countries from the aspects of universalisation, standardisation and high performance, and puts forward some opinions on how to strengthen international technical cooperation and exchanges and constantly narrow the gap between China and international testing levels.
Keywords: car test system; LabVIEW; Can bus; integrated virtual instrument.
Analysis of performance improvement in energy storage system for electric vehicles: a review
by V.M. Dileepan, J. Jayakumar
Abstract: The selection of the energy storage system is crucial for electric vehicles. It should have good energy density and considerable power density, and also it must be light weight. So a battery with considerably high energy density must be used in electric vehicles. Lithium ion batteries are very much preferred as electric vehicle batteries. They have high energy density, high life cycle and smooth operation. But the problem related to lithium batteries are they have high temperature sensitivity, and their operation will be affected by over-current charging and over-current discharging beyond their maximum rated values and also be influenced by driving conditions and performance of motors used. So a battery management, control and optimisation system is essential in electric vehicle battery packs. This paper is a review of the design of a novel battery management and control system for lithium ion batteries for performance improvement in electric vehicles.
Keywords: battery; battery management system; control of energy storage system; driving pattern; energy storage system optimisation; electric vehicles; lithium ion battery; motor selection for electric vehicles; performance improvement; vehicle range.
Development of driving condition classification-based adaptive optimal control strategy for PHEV
by Chao Ma, Kun Yang, Lidong Miao, Meiqi Chen, Song Gao
Abstract: In this study, driving condition classification and recognition-based adaptive optimal control strategy is developed for a new type of four wheel drive PHEV. First, the power characteristics of the proposed PHEV are analysed. The basic rule-based and adaptive optimal control strategies are developed. According to the SVM-based classification theory, the RBF neural network kernel function is introduced and the multi-classification SVM with the one-against-one method is selected. The feature parameters are then determined and extracted using real road experiment data. It is seen from the classification results that RBF kernel function-based SVM has relatively high accuracy of 93.2%. Based on the developed energy management strategy library and driving cost theory, adaptive optimal control strategy is developed using MATLAB/Simulink. It is found from the simulation results that the adaptive optimal control achieves the efficiency increase of 13.4%, which implies validity of the proposed adaptive optimal control strategy.
Keywords: driving condition classification; support vector machine; RBF; driving cost; adaptive optimal control strategy.
A quadratic programming based optimisation to manage electric bus fleet charging
by Adnane Houbbadi, Rochdi Trigui, Serge Pelissier, Eduardo Redondo Iglesias, Tanguy Bouton
Abstract: The use of electric buses (EBs) is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Uncontrolled charging of EBs can affect not only the power grid (grid instability, harmonic pollution) but also the operating cost. This paper introduces an optimal charging strategy based on charging schedule planning and modulation of charging power for a fleet of electrically powered buses. The optimal charging strategy allows minimising the charging cost as well as the load power variations using quadratic programming. The proposed quadratic programming can significantly reduce the computation time and simultaneously handle a large bus fleet. First results indicate a significant reduction in customer energy bills while avoiding potential penalties due to peak loads.
Keywords: electric bus fleet; optimisation; quadratic programming; charging infrastructure; electric vehicle supply equipment.
Optimised ultrafast lightweight design and finite element modelling of a CFRP monocoque electric car chassis
by Evangelos Ch. Tsirogiannis, Georgios E. Stavroulakis, Sofoklis S. Makridis
Abstract: A breakthrough in the process method has been developed by combined considerations in the demands of the Shell Eco Marathon using Finite Element Modelling (FEM). Ultrafast calculations have revealed a novel chassis development. The most critical factors in designing the new chassis are the reduction of the weight, the improvement of strength and stiffness, the reduction of material and the manufacturing cost. The Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method was used for an electric car so that the type of loading conditions that are applied to the chassis structure can be predicted. Afterwards, a new design approach for a lightweight carbon-fibre reinforced polymer monocoque chassis is proposed, which conforms to structural, ergonomic, safety and aesthetic requirements. The SSS method, in conjunction with the creation of the chassis load calculator model and both the specialised and integrated methodology of the processing procedure through FEM, has attained the overcoming of the time-consuming conceptual design process.
Keywords: parametric design; lightweight; composites; carbon-fibre reinforced plastic; monocoque; CAD; vehicle dynamics; electric car; Shell Eco Marathon; chassis design; stress scenario; rule of mixture.
Design and analysis of outer-rotor in-wheel motor driving system of electric vehicle
by Qiping Chen, Qiang Xiao, Changping Qiu, Sheng Kang, Juanlin Huang, Conghui Zhou
Abstract: In order to improve the working reliability and service life of the outer-rotor in-wheel motor of the electric vehicle, and based on the electric vehicle parameters and motion equations, the rated torque, rated efficiency and other performance parameters are determined. The internal dimensions of the in-wheel motor are designed according to the parameters of electric vehicle, including stator winding, air gap and permanent magnet, which is used to calculate the electromagnetic circuit and the electromagnetic parameters. The model of the in-wheel motor is established by Ansoft Maxwell software and the designed motor is analysed by the finite element analysis method. The magnetic field inside the in-wheel motor at different timings is analysed, which is used to obtain the magnetic flux density, magnetic line, magnetic induction density and the curve of start-up performance. The conformity of the simulation results and the design calculation results indicates that this method can be used to provide a theoretical basis to make further optimal design of the outer-rotor in-wheel motor driving system.
Keywords: electric vehicle; in-wheel motor; finite element method; Ansoft Maxwell.
A review of the autonomous vehicle technology landscape
by Kavya Prabha Divakarla, Ali Emadi, Saiedeh Razavi, Saeid Habibi, Fengjun Yan
Abstract: The automotive industry is seen to be making a monumental paradigm shift from manual to semi-autonomous to fully autonomous vehicles. As such, this paper attempts to offer an overview of some of the major aspects associated with an autonomous vehicle. The demand for autonomous vehicles has grown tremendously with the increasing number of road accidents caused due to driver distraction. Based on the level of autonomy within vehicles, it is possible to have autonomous systems that either just assist the driver for safe operation of the vehicle or could take over the complete control of the vehicle. Autonomous vehicles seem to have numerous advantages for road safety, traffic optimisation, and military or medical applications where only minimal human intervention is desirable. Overall, this paper attempts to highlight a number of vital and relevant topics emerging in the field of autonomous vehicle technology.
Keywords: advanced driver assistance system; autonomous vehicles; closed-loop control systems; intelligent decision making; sensors.
Analysis and optimisation of electromagnetic interference in motor drive system
by Xiaoshan Wu, Xiaohui Shi, Xu Li
Abstract: The Integrated Power Unit (IPU) is an important source of electromagnetic interference in hybrid electrical vehicles. In this paper, applying pulse width modulation technology (PWM), the IPU converts the high-voltage DC power from power battery into three-phase AC power with adjustable voltage amplitude and frequency through the switching device IGBT to drive the permanent magnet synchronous motor. Owing to the large di/dt and du/dt during the IGBT switching process, the spectra of switching voltage and current waveforms have rich high-frequency components, which generate electromagnetic interference through the circuit connection or space radiation, affecting the normal operation of electrical systems inside and around the car. Therefore, this paper analyses the electromagnetic interference mechanism and coupling propagation paths of motor drive system. The test bench of the IPU was built, and the EMI characteristics of the IPU were analysed based on the measured results. Finally, in order to suppress IPU electromagnetic interference, the corresponding methods are proposed to meet the electromagnetic compatibility requirements of the vehicle.
Keywords: hybrid electrical vehicle; motor drive system; integrated power unit; electromagnetic interference.
Performance analysis of quadratic Buck converter for electric vehicle battery charging applications
by Ravindranath Tagore Yadlapalli, Anuradha Kotapati, Rajani Kandipati
Abstract: This paper presents the analysis and design of the quadratic Buck converter for electric vehicle appications where large voltage conversion ratios are required i.e 48V/12V at 50 kHz. The converter performance is analysed with digital-average current mode and the sliding mode current control strategies. In sliding-mode current control, the sliding parameters are finely tuned to achieve robustness against parameter variations. The simulation results of the above-mentioned control strategies are compared for both line and load regulations. The efficiency analysis of the converter is also presented at different input and load conditions.
Keywords: sliding-mode current controller; average current-mode controller.
Competition of electric vehicles with other means of road transport over the past 150 years. A survey
by Vadim Yakovlev
Abstract: Automobiles as a new means of road transport had to compete with horses at the end of the 19th century. Automobiles won the competition because they were faster, cheaper to operate, and produced less pollution. The potential consumer had a choice between vehicles with electric, internal combustion or steam engines in the 1900s. Electric vehicles were considered as more reliable and cost effective. Mass production made gasoline vehicles affordable and easy-to-use. Electric vehicles lost the competition with them since the 1910s. Air pollution in large cities renewed the interest in electric vehicles towards the end of the 20th century. Expressions for estimation of well-to-wheel energy efficiency of electric and gasoline vehicles in miles per gallon have been obtained. Electric vehicles are more well-to-wheel energy efficient than gasoline cars. The price-performance ratio for electric vehicles today is higher than it was in the 1900s.
Keywords: electric vehicles; road transport history; well-to-wheel energy efficiency; energy transition.
Nonlinear sliding-mode control of a bidirectional three-phase converter for plug-in electric vehicles
by Reza Sabzehgar, Yaser M. Roshan
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a sliding-mode control strategy for bidirectional operation of a three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) converter suitable for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The proposed controller operates the three-phase converter at unity power factor with no steady-state errors. The controller takes advantage of inherent characteristics of sliding-mode controllers such as fast dynamics, low harmonics, and being independent of the load and system parameters. The proposed control strategy keeps the input voltage and current in phase in charging mode, when the converter acts as a rectifier and boost converter. Similarly, controller maintains the input voltage and current of the three-phase system out of phase in discharging mode, when the converter is operated as an inverter. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller.
Keywords: sliding-mode control; modelling and control; bidirectional charger; three-phase converter; pulse width modulation; power electronics converter; plug-in electric vehicle; electric vehicle; vehicle-to-grid; grid-to-vehicle.
Design of model predictive controllers for PMSM drive system based on the extended Kalman filter observer
by Hongyu Shu, Cheng Guo, Yitong Song, Xianbao Chen, Shuang Luo
Abstract: Considering some technical and economic reasons, it is not easy to directly measure the time-varying parameters (such as rotor speed, rotor position and load torque disturbance) that have a great impact on speed regulation performance in the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system. This paper proposes a method to estimate rotor speed, rotor position and load torque disturbance by using real-time measurements, based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). In order to guarantee the accuracy and stability of the PMSM drive system while running under load torque disturbance, this paper proposes a cascade closed-loop control strategy as the solution to the problem of the load disturbance. The entire system is designed to track reference speed trajectory based on the estimated rotor speed, rotor position and load torque, using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm based on linear PMSM model. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the states observer, and the cascade MPC structure shows the good performance in speed tracking of PMSM drive system.
Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motors; model predictive control; load torque disturbance; extended Kalman filter.
A novel diagnostic technique to detect the failure mode operating states of an air breathing fuel cell used in fuel cell vehicles
by Rakada Vijay Babu Attuluri, Manoj Kumar Panthalingal, Srinivasa Rao Gorantla
Abstract: The world is at a cusp of major transition to fuel cell technology. Water management is of prime importance in air breathing fuel cells (ABFC). Adequate water management leads to dehydration and flooding, which affects the performance of fuel cell. The paper addresses the issues of water management in ABFC by a novel method. Understanding of flooding and dehydration states is presented through experimental investigations. Experiments are conducted at various operating conditions to identify dehydration, normal or flooding states using easily measurable parameters such as cell temperature, voltage and current. Preliminarily, by considering iR drop as a distinguishing parameter, dehydration and flooding operating states are distinguished.
Keywords: air breathing fuel cell; water management; dehydration; flooding.
Augmentation of charging infrastructure for electric vehicle growth in India
by Rajeev Goswami, Gireesh C. Tripathi
Abstract: India, one of the fastest growing economies, has been a front-runner in fulfilling its commitments towards a cleaner Earth. In this pursuit, it intends to adopt electric vehicles (EVs) to the tune of 30% by 2030. Central and state governments of India have launched several financial incentives to encourage adoption of EVs. While considering various adoption rates of EVs from 5-30%, the requirements of additional electricity and various types of charging stations to feed power to EVs are estimated. At 30% adoption rate, about 140 million EVs (include different categories of vehicles studied in this paper) may become part of transportation system and correspondingly need about 24,600 MWh of electricity daily. In the high density areas of EVs, such as bus depots, residential complexes, malls etc., large amounts of power will be needed at a single point. Thus, it may require sufficient receiving substation capacity and equivalent high-voltage distribution network.
Keywords: charging stations; distribution network; electric vehicles; EV adoption rates.