International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (14 papers in press)
Using the health benefits of electric vehicles to justify charging infrastructure incentives.
by Mitchell House, David Wright
Abstract: Health benefits from switching from internal combustion vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) include reduction of healthcare costs from treating cardiopulmonary illness, less sick leave taken from work, and quality and length of life improvements. This paper compares the financial value of those benefits with the cost of building an EV charging infrastructure. When the number of charging stations increases with the number of EVs the net benefit is positive, unless the cost of all charging stations is at the high end of the empirical range or when the number of charging stations per EV is higher than in Norway. In scenarios with a rapid build-out of charging stations over 2-4 years, there is a net cost during the build-out period and net benefits from 2021 onwards. These results justify the use of government incentives for charging station deployment and this paper quantifies the impact of different levels of incentive.
Keywords: electric vehicles; charging infrastructure; health benefits; government policy; risk analysis.
Interaction magnetic field formulation of permanent magnets based on Bakers rotational magnetic propulsion device
by Jihad Rishmany, Guitta Sabiini
Abstract: This paper presents a semi-analytical approach for calculating the magnetic interaction field between two permanent magnets based on Bakers rotational magnetic propulsion device. A theoretical formulation of the configuration is derived and solved numerically in order to obtain the interaction magnetic field between cuboidal permanent magnets based on the charge model method. A simple case is considered where the magnets are made of the same material and magnetized uniformly along their axes of symmetry. Numerical solution of the analytical system of equations permits proposing a configuration for a permanent magnet motor having the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration. This configuration is capable of ensuring three aspects: a self-starting nature, continuity of the magnetic field, and overcome of the lock-point. Finally, part of the permanent magnet motor is constructed and tested. Experimental results are in accordance with numerical results confirming the self-starting nature and overcome of the lock-point.
Keywords: charge model method; discretization technique; interaction magnetic force; magnetization charges; permanent magnet.
Artificial neural network based adaptive control for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
by Kavya Prabha Divakarla, Sanjaka Wirasingha, Ali Emadi, Saiedeh Razavi
Abstract: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have become vital for oil consumption reduction. They have not achieved their maximum potential owing to control strategy limitations. Existing controllers are often tuned to achieve the best fuel economy for specific conditions. It is impractical to optimise a controller for every scenario. A control strategy for PHEVs using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is presented. The advantages of implementing a controller using ANN include independence from drive cycle or user, precision and robustness, and updatable training set. Existing PHEV control strategies are used to model a base for city and highway driving. Simulation data was extracted to form an ANN training set, which was used to develop a new strategy that was better than existing ones. The controller was validated using different drive cycles. Furthermore, the sensitivity of ANN controllers is presented. The controller is also used to validate the charge depleting mode of PHEVs.
Keywords: adaptive control; artificial neural network; charge depleting; classification; control strategy; drive trains; dynamic programming; efficiency; fuel economy; hybrid electric vehicles; intelligent control; plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; power electronics; markov dynamic programming; optimization and propulsion systems.
PMSM control for electric vehicles based on fuzzy PI
by Qiping Chen, Sheng Kang, Liping Zeng, Qiang Xiao, Conghui Zhou, Minming Wu
Abstract: A fuzzy PI speed controller based on fuzzy control theory is proposed, which makes the drive control system of electric vehicles insensitive to disturbance and parameter change. The mathematical model of PMSM in d-q reference frame is established, the fuzzy PI speed controller is designed based on fuzzy control theory, and a simulation model of PMSM based on fuzzy PI control theory and sliding mode control theory is built. Two simulation models are simulated and analysed by Simulink, and simulation results show that fuzzy PI control has faster dynamic response speed, better dynamic performance and better anti-jamming ability than sliding mode control. Therefore, fuzzy PI control is an ideal control method, which has a certain reference value in vector control of PMSM for electric vehicles.
Keywords: electric vehicle; PMSM; fuzzy PI; vector control; simulation analysis.
Barriers to the implementation of electric vehicles in metropolitan areas of India
by Umakant Panwar, Anil Kumar, Deepankar Chakrabarti
Abstract: The electric vehicle is not a new concept, it has been in existence from 1828 but owing to improvements in internal combustion engine technology it got relegated to the sidelines. This concept has resurfaced in the past decade or two as a tool for a sustainable and green future, but faces a lot of barriers to implementation. Indias dependency on fossil fuels, the lack of lithium reserves, the grid-integration problems, along with a lack of charging station infrastructure in metropolitan areas, have become major barriers to the acceptance of electric vehicles. This paper deals with the barriers to the introduction of electric vehicles in metropolitan areas. India needs to improve and enforce the regulatory framework, and work on consumer and public awareness to overcome these barriers.
Keywords: electric vehicle; barriers; regulatory framework; charging station; public awareness; India.
Parameter matching and braking performance advantage study for all-electric independent driving and braking electric vehicle with four wheels
by Kun Yang, Jie Wang, Di Tan, Xueyi Zhang, Jishun Liu
Abstract: All-electric integrated brake system is the feature for all-electric independent driving and braking electric vehicle with four wheels (AEIDBEV). Based on its advantages, an integrated simulation platform for parameter matching and performance verification is built. The vehicle control strategy is given. The results of simulation show that the all-electric integrated brake system can meet the drivers braking demand and has three advantages. The first is that its braking effectiveness is slightly better than the purely mechanical brake system. The second is the work time and the torque capacity for electromechanical brake (EMB) can be reduced remarkably. This provides a basis for optimising EMB. The third is that it can improve vehicle economy obviously. AEIDBEV has obvious energy-saving effect compared with no braking energy recovery scheme and coupled braking energy recovery scheme at three drive cycles of NEDC, Beijing and Changchun.
Keywords: electric vehicle; all-electric integrated brake; in-wheel motor; electromechanical brake; parameter matching; braking performance.
Implementing electric vehicles in public services: a case study research
by João Reis
Abstract: In the last years, most European countries have developed strategies to implement the use of electric vehicles. This paper uses a qualitative case study research in the automotive industry to evaluate the efficiencies concerning the implementation of the first electric light truck produced for public services. The results indicate that electric light trucks in public services are more efficient, economically reliable and contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, the strategy of using these vehicles is suitable for nocturnal collection of urban waste, to the extent that it reduces the daily traffic and, at the same time, drastically reduces the noise caused by diesel engines during night hours, thus improving the quality of life in residential areas. By investing on such strategy, European governments are giving a step further to accomplish the European Commission requirements, which is stimulated by the reduction of the carbon dioxide footprint.
Keywords: electric vehicles; electric light trucks; case study; renewable energies; carbon dioxide; efficiency; public services.
Research on vehicle controller and control strategy for pure electric vehicle with composite power
by Meilan Zhou, Jiaming Wang, Qilong Chen
Abstract: The vehicle control unit is the centre of the whole vehicle control system. Its control performance directly affects the overall control effect of the vehicle. It is the key component of the pure electric vehicle. In this paper, the vehicle controller of the pure electric vehicle with composite power is taken as the research object. The composition of the vehicle control system and principle of operation are analysed, the structure of the composite power supply system is determined, the low and high speed CAN communication network architecture of the vehicle is designed, the energy management control strategy of composite power based on fuzzy control is formulated, the CRUISE software is used to build the vehicle model of pure electric vehicle with compound power supply, and the simulation results show that the fuzzy control strategy is effective under the condition of urban roads in China. The experimental platform of the vehicle control system is built. Experimental results show that the designed controller is reasonable in hardware and software, and the energy management strategy of compound power supply is effective and feasible.
Keywords: pure electric vehicle; vehicle controller; compound power supply; fuzzy control.
Research review on vehicle performance testing system
by Jing Gan, Xiaobin Fan, Zeng Song
Abstract: A vehicle performance test system is usually an indispensable part of the automobile industry. The performance test results are an important indicator to measure the performance of vehicles. By analysing and comparing the characteristics of performance test systems of traditional automobiles and electric vehicles, the development direction of the vehicle performance test system is given. This paper introduces the development status of a vehicle performance testing system in foreign countries from the aspects of universalisation, standardisation and high performance, and puts forward some opinions on how to strengthen international technical cooperation and exchanges and constantly narrow the gap between China and international testing levels.
Keywords: car test system; LabVIEW; Can bus; integrated virtual instrument.
Analysis of performance improvement in energy storage system for electric vehicles: a review
by V.M. Dileepan, J. Jayakumar
Abstract: The selection of the energy storage system is crucial for electric vehicles. It should have good energy density and considerable power density, and also it must be light weight. So a battery with considerably high energy density must be used in electric vehicles. Lithium ion batteries are very much preferred as electric vehicle batteries. They have high energy density, high life cycle and smooth operation. But the problem related to lithium batteries are they have high temperature sensitivity, and their operation will be affected by over-current charging and over-current discharging beyond their maximum rated values and also be influenced by driving conditions and performance of motors used. So a battery management, control and optimisation system is essential in electric vehicle battery packs. This paper is a review of the design of a novel battery management and control system for lithium ion batteries for performance improvement in electric vehicles.
Keywords: battery; battery management system; control of energy storage system; driving pattern; energy storage system optimisation; electric vehicles; lithium ion battery; motor selection for electric vehicles; performance improvement; vehicle range.
Development of driving condition classification-based adaptive optimal control strategy for PHEV
by Chao Ma, Kun Yang, Lidong Miao, Meiqi Chen, Song Gao
Abstract: In this study, driving condition classification and recognition-based adaptive optimal control strategy is developed for a new type of four wheel drive PHEV. First, the power characteristics of the proposed PHEV are analysed. The basic rule-based and adaptive optimal control strategies are developed. According to the SVM-based classification theory, the RBF neural network kernel function is introduced and the multi-classification SVM with the one-against-one method is selected. The feature parameters are then determined and extracted using real road experiment data. It is seen from the classification results that RBF kernel function-based SVM has relatively high accuracy of 93.2%. Based on the developed energy management strategy library and driving cost theory, adaptive optimal control strategy is developed using MATLAB/Simulink. It is found from the simulation results that the adaptive optimal control achieves the efficiency increase of 13.4%, which implies validity of the proposed adaptive optimal control strategy.
Keywords: driving condition classification; support vector machine; RBF; driving cost; adaptive optimal control strategy.
A quadratic programming based optimisation to manage electric bus fleet charging
by Adnane Houbbadi, Rochdi Trigui, Serge Pelissier, Eduardo Redondo Iglesias, Tanguy Bouton
Abstract: The use of electric buses (EBs) is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Uncontrolled charging of EBs can affect not only the power grid (grid instability, harmonic pollution) but also the operating cost. This paper introduces an optimal charging strategy based on charging schedule planning and modulation of charging power for a fleet of electrically powered buses. The optimal charging strategy allows minimising the charging cost as well as the load power variations using quadratic programming. The proposed quadratic programming can significantly reduce the computation time and simultaneously handle a large bus fleet. First results indicate a significant reduction in customer energy bills while avoiding potential penalties due to peak loads.
Keywords: electric bus fleet; optimisation; quadratic programming; charging infrastructure; electric vehicle supply equipment.
Optimised ultrafast lightweight design and finite element modelling of a CFRP monocoque electric car chassis
by Evangelos Ch. Tsirogiannis, Georgios E. Stavroulakis, Sofoklis S. Makridis
Abstract: A breakthrough in the process method has been developed by combined considerations in the demands of the Shell Eco Marathon using Finite Element Modelling (FEM). Ultrafast calculations have revealed a novel chassis development. The most critical factors in designing the new chassis are the reduction of the weight, the improvement of strength and stiffness, the reduction of material and the manufacturing cost. The Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method was used for an electric car so that the type of loading conditions that are applied to the chassis structure can be predicted. Afterwards, a new design approach for a lightweight carbon-fibre reinforced polymer monocoque chassis is proposed, which conforms to structural, ergonomic, safety and aesthetic requirements. The SSS method, in conjunction with the creation of the chassis load calculator model and both the specialised and integrated methodology of the processing procedure through FEM, has attained the overcoming of the time-consuming conceptual design process.
Keywords: parametric design; lightweight; composites; carbon-fibre reinforced plastic; monocoque; CAD; vehicle dynamics; electric car; Shell Eco Marathon; chassis design; stress scenario; rule of mixture.
Design and analysis of outer-rotor in-wheel motor driving system of electric vehicle
by Qiping Chen, Qiang Xiao, Changping Qiu, Sheng Kang, Juanlin Huang, Conghui Zhou
Abstract: In order to improve the working reliability and service life of the outer-rotor in-wheel motor of the electric vehicle, and based on the electric vehicle parameters and motion equations, the rated torque, rated efficiency and other performance parameters are determined. The internal dimensions of the in-wheel motor are designed according to the parameters of electric vehicle, including stator winding, air gap and permanent magnet, which is used to calculate the electromagnetic circuit and the electromagnetic parameters. The model of the in-wheel motor is established by Ansoft Maxwell software and the designed motor is analysed by the finite element analysis method. The magnetic field inside the in-wheel motor at different timings is analysed, which is used to obtain the magnetic flux density, magnetic line, magnetic induction density and the curve of start-up performance. The conformity of the simulation results and the design calculation results indicates that this method can be used to provide a theoretical basis to make further optimal design of the outer-rotor in-wheel motor driving system.
Keywords: electric vehicle; in-wheel motor; finite element method; Ansoft Maxwell.