International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (27 papers in press)
Analysis of performance improvement in energy storage system for electric vehicles: a review
by V.M. Dileepan, J. Jayakumar
Abstract: The selection of the energy storage system is crucial for electric vehicles. It should have good energy density and considerable power density, and also it must be light weight. So a battery with considerably high energy density must be used in electric vehicles. Lithium ion batteries are very much preferred as electric vehicle batteries. They have high energy density, high life cycle and smooth operation. But the problem related to lithium batteries are they have high temperature sensitivity, and their operation will be affected by over-current charging and over-current discharging beyond their maximum rated values and also be influenced by driving conditions and performance of motors used. So a battery management, control and optimisation system is essential in electric vehicle battery packs. This paper is a review of the design of a novel battery management and control system for lithium ion batteries for performance improvement in electric vehicles.
Keywords: battery; battery management system; control of energy storage system; driving pattern; energy storage system optimisation; electric vehicles; lithium ion battery; motor selection for electric vehicles; performance improvement; vehicle range.
Electric vehicles in India: current trends and future forecasts
by Vishal Shukla
Abstract: As globalisation is increasing, so is the demand for oil-based energy which is ultimately resulting in the rapid fluctuation of the market prices of the crude oil due to the basic principle of economics Law of Demand. This volatility and uncertainty in crude oil's demand and prices create pressure on governments and policymakers to look at new alternatives, one of them being the adaptation of green technologies. Green alternatives seem to be the trend of the future business and markets. Many business giants are compelled to spend heavily on their R & D and come up with innovative technologies focusing mainly on green technologies. In line with the developed countries, India, as a developing economy, is all set to plunge into this new innovative market of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and aims to become a major producer of the EVs for the Indian market as well as the globally. So, this research article aims to explore the expected demand for EVs, the market share, and the contribution of the EVs and associated technologies to foreign trade.
Keywords: disruption; Electric Vehicle; Green Technology; Indian Economy; Innovation; Market Demand.
Automatic discovery and selection of most qualified electric vehicle charging station
by Raziq Yaqub, Kaveh Heidary
Abstract: Media reports that Electric Vehicles (EVs) still outnumber public charging stations by more than six to one is consistent with the early stage of electric car deployment. Thus finding charging stations may be a daunting task for EV drivers. Though the issue can be dealt with by providing online directories, web-based charging station locators and GPS-assisted gears, these methods are not adequate, because they do not help EV drivers automatically discover and select the most qualified EV charging station. Thus it will be frustrating for a driver to reach a certain location, or multiple locations, and not find a service because of grid inadequacy, long waiting queue, neighborhood safety, or the value he was looking for. This paper introduces a method and apparatus based on which the smart client installed in an EV would automatically discover, shortlist, and select, or recommend to the EV driver, the most qualified EV charging station.
Keywords: electric vehicle charging stations; most qualified EV charging station
Charging station Discovery; Selection; and Status Server (CDSSS); CDSS Client (CDSSC).
Technical analysis for implementing BS-VI automotive emissions norms with respect to electric vehicle production by 2020 in India
by Devendra Vashist, Farhan Mukhtar
Abstract: Automotive pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM, mostly soot) and oxides of sulphur (SOx). Government of India has decided to implement BS-VI norms by April 2020. Another direction in which the auto sector is likely to move is electric mobility. In this research, a comparative study in terms of financial and social-economic costs is made between challenges to be faced by the auto sector shifting toward electric mobility and making BS VI compliance vehicles. For the analysis, M&M e20 and Maruti Suzuki Alto 800 brand which are similar size and volume, but powered by two different sources, were chosen for the study. From the analysis, it is observed that shorter mileage, frequent battery recharging, frequent maintenance and less charging infrastructure are areas that have to be addressed by the auto industry for commercial viability. Lithium ion batteries are least suitable but research on sodium ion batteries is in initial stages in India. For BS VI compliance, the Lean Electronic Fuel Injection System (LEFIS) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) have to be implemented. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that the industry should adopt a hybrid model before completely switching to electric mobility.
Keywords: electric vehicles; BS VI norms; emissions; lean electronic fuel injection system; exhaust gas recirculation.
Analysing vibration environment of a power battery in a running electric vehicle
by Ruixue Liu, Zhichao Hou, Shuyu Wang, Deke Sheng
Abstract: Power batteries in electric vehicles are subjected to vibration during the vehicles driving. The vibration environment may affect battery performance by connection failure and capacity degradation. Thus, clarifying battery vibration characteristics when a vehicle is driven on real roads is the basis for understanding battery performance in their service conditions and for structure improvement. The acceleration responses at multiple points on the bottom of a power battery are measured when a commercial electric vehicle is driven on various road types (including typical city road and some reinforced road conditions) in this study to better understand the vibration levels at different positions of the battery during vehicle driving. Indicators, namely the standard deviation of the acceleration root-mean-square (SD-ARMS) and fatigue damage spectrum (FDS), are introduced to analyse vibration differences among various measured positions and with vibration test standards. The FDS is calculated by combining various road types in a certain proportion according to Chinese road conditions, representing 600,000 km of driving, the compulsory scrappage driving distance in China. Time-forced vibration test profiles are derived based on the calculated maximum and minimum FDS curves. The measured results indicate inconsistency in vibration levels among the sampling points, especially in the Z direction. The standard deviation of the multipoint ARMS is approximately 40% of its mean value. Additionally, the vibration levels in the three directions are obviously discrepant. The fatigue damage values computed from the measured vibration signals and from standard vibration profiles significantly deviate. The research in this paper is the first to reveal practical vibration inconsistency of battery cells at different positions in a battery pack, and provides a method to evaluate vibration level, and to generate vibration profiles for durability assessment of batteries in a laboratorial vibration environment.
Keywords: power battery; vibration analysis; fatigue damage spectrum; road test.
Control and optimisation of a dual-motor coupling drive system of pure electric vehicle based on multi-island genetic algorithm
by Qingyong Zhang, Yongjun Luo, Weiping Lin, Yaru Wang, Xingjian Wu
Abstract: In order to improve the endurance of pure electric vehicle, improving the energy use is an effective way to increase the mileage. Energy use can be effectively improved by using the new structure of dual motor coupling drive system as the power source. The new structure improves energy use through eight mode switching. In this paper, CRUISE is used to build the vehicle model of a pure electric vehicle, and its control strategy is established by Simulink. The reliability of the model and control strategy is verified by using CRUISE and Simulink joint simulation method, and the parameters in the control strategy are optimised by the multi-island genetic algorithm. So as to provide a scheme for the research of improving the energy use rate of the pure electric vehicle.
Keywords: dual motor coupling; mode switch; multi-island genetic algorithm; joint simulation.
Electric vehicle transmission types and setups: a general review
by Dimitrios Rimpas, Pavlos Halkiadakis
Abstract: Over the last decade, electric vehicles (EV) have changed the global automobile industry driven by the progress of electronics and powertrain systems. New controllers are manufactured and research has been made not only on motors but on transmissions as well. This paper focuses on describing the types of gearboxes available - continuous variable, automatic, manual - with their pros and cons and the experiments done with different gearsets (plan and gear numbers) single or multigear transmissions on urban or highway cycles to maximise energy efficiency. Gearshift strategies are also a big area of interest alongside simulations testing various gear ratios handled by complex controllers and control algorithms to ensure smooth driving and performance with minimal to low jerk and torque interruption. The aim of this paper is to completely report the work done on transmission software and hardware improvements and also on the top of the shelf technology that the current EVs implement.
Keywords: transmission; controllers; electric vehicle; gearshift; gear ratio; gearbox.
Design and testing of a supercapacitor storage system for the flash recharge of electric buses
by Luca Pugi, Adriano Alessandrini, Riccardo Barbieri, Lorenzo Berzi, Marco Pierini, Fabio Cignini, Antonino Genovese, Fernando Ortenzi
Abstract: This work proposes a hybrid storage for urban transport systems in order to reduce recharge time and increase its life and reliability. The proposed system is applied to a pre-existing electrical vehicle introducing through proposed revamping procedure also a methodology for a fast integration of the proposed system on different vehicles. Finally, the system is calibrated and tested showing how the proposed control layout really simplifies vehicle commissioning.
Keywords: mechatronics; flash charge; supercapacitors; hybrid storage.
Advancements in power conditioning units for electric vehicle applications: a review
by Ravindranath Tagore Yadlapalli, Anuradha Kotapati, Rajani Kandipati
Abstract: Fuel cells are renowned for their direct energy conversion, quiet operation, fuel flexibility and zero CO2 emissions. However, each fuel cell produces a very low output voltage of around 0.5 V to 0.7 V. Therefore, it is essential to design high voltage gain DC-DC converters for boosting such low voltages either from a single fuel cell or fuel cell stack, besides minimising the current ripples. Furthermore, DC-AC converters are required to produce an AC output voltage for either the single-phase or the three-phase utility loads. This paper presents a review on various prominent DC-DC and DC-AC converter topologies. The performance of various DC-DC converter topologies is analysed in terms of number of components, converter switching frequency, galvanic isolation, power rating and efficiency. This paper emphasises the use of ultra- and super-capacitors for meeting the load dynamics as well as elimination of second harmonic currents. The salient features of potential DC-AC converters with low total harmonic distortion and high efficiency are presented. This paper is very useful for researchers and design engineers for choosing the right topology.
Keywords: fuel cell; distributed generation; regenerative fuel cells; energy storage.
Low impact vehicle battery supply chains: assessing the impacts of alternative procurement strategies
by Carlo Rafele, Claudio Gallo, Giulio Mangano, Anna Corinna Cagliano, Antonio Carlin
Abstract: This work aims at supporting decision-making related to make or buy strategies for procuring batteries assembled on electric and hybrid vehicles for a car manufacturer that is introducing new models in its portfolio. In particular, several supply chain scenarios have been defined according to the battery architecture. The results show that the purchase of complete batteries implies the highest costs and CO2 emissions. On the contrary, buying single components helps to improve these aspects, but it requires a certain level of vertical integration by the car manufacturer together with specific knowhow. Finally, purchasing modules result in the lowest costs owing to a reduced number of trips due to the product structure. Thus, this paper proposes a framework to guide automotive companies in effectively designing make or buy strategies in their battery supply chain by comparing alternative vertical integration levels.
Keywords: supply chain; low impact vehicle; automotive companies; vehicle battery; procurement; make or buy; electric vehicle; hybrid vehicle; scenario analysis; logistics.
Hybrid cars: past, present and future
by Saurav Kumar Singh, Bhavesh Kumar, Namrata Nanda
Abstract: With constant load, the internal burning engine (and any added heat engine) works finest. If the engine can continuously work close to its optimum operating point, there will be a dramatic increase in efficiency and longevity, a reduction in complexity and costs, and a much relaxed and cheaper control of emissions. But, electrical drive is great for variable loads. Competence remains high, extreme rotation is available even at low power output, and under braking electrical energy can be recovered resourcefully from mechanical energy. In order to fully capitalise on these fundamental characteristics, hybrid driven trains aim to combine the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in a synergistic manner. Although there has been hybrid drive for more than twenty years, there is much scope for further enhancement. Continuous price decrease in electrical components bringing power to the axle and technology used for battery with further enhancement of internal combustion engines planned specifically for hybrid driving can lower costs and increase efficiency, by offering enhanced driving experience. Although we have a lot of cheap oil, it is the need of the hour to move to more sustainable sources eventually. Over the coming decades, CO2 emissions from oil combustion have become an important economic as well as moral consideration.
Keywords: batteries; lithium-ion; lead acid; nickel cadmium; gasoline; electric vehicles.
Research on energy management of hybrid power system in fuel cell vehicles
by Meilan Zhou, Weijie Liu, Yu Zhang, Jiaming Wang
Abstract: To solve the problems of short service life of batteries and soft output characteristics of fuel cells, we study the hybrid power system composed of fuel cell(FC), battery and unidirectional DC/DC converter. In order to achieve a reasonable energy distribution and reduce the hydrogen consumption of the fuel cell, we propose an optimised control strategy based on the Pontryagins Minimum Principle (PMP). The optimised control strategy uses the output power of the fuel cell (Pfc) as the control variable, the state of charge (SOC) of the battery as the state variable, and the hydrogen consumption of the fuel cell as the performance index. We also propose a fuzzy optimal control strategy based on fuzzy control. This is optimised by changing the parameters in the membership function with the Teaching-Learning-Based -Optimisation (TLBO). Based on the simulation software, we build simulation model to realise the real-time simulation of the two control strategies. The simulation results show that compared with fuel cell power alone, the hydrogen consumption is reduced by 10.1% when using the fuzzy optimisation control strategy, and the hydrogen consumption is reduced by 12.7% when using the optimal control strategy based on PMP.
Keywords: hybrid power system; fuzzy optimisation control; Pontryagin’s minimum principle; hydrogen consumption.
An overview on hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicles
by Rahul Charles C M, J.S. Savier
Abstract: Since battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are coming onto the market in great numbers, the search for better energy storage technologies with enhanced energy density, power density, durability, safety, and affordability is gaining importance. The ineffectiveness of the standalone battery system during peak demand situations and variations in transient load conditions leads to its reduced recognition. Since more power requirement is demanded by such situations, batteries in turn tend to be oversized to meet desired results, which in turn leads to increased volume, weight and rate. Depending on battery alone can lead to lower efficiency since the increased stress leads to low performance of battery and decreased lifetime. A lot of research works are going on to choose suitable storage technologies that provide diverging degrees of promise in performance and capability to cope with the market requirements for electric vehicles. This paper sheds light on the major hurdles that cause a decreased popularity of standalone battery system. Different HESS designs based on qualitative comparisons are discussed.
Keywords: electric vehicle; battery; supercapacitor.
Modelling of electric vehicle drive toward its range prediction and remaining battery SOC after trip completion
by Sutapa Mondal, Arup Nandi, Mousumi Khanra
Abstract: Modelling of electric vehicle (EV) drive is important to predict its range and remaining battery SOC after trip completion in any route. That information is extremely necessary for a driver beforehand to deploy an EV for performing a trip. Conventional models or manufacturers suggest EV range in a straightforward method without considering many aspects, such as route information, traffic norms, driving behaviour and external disturbances, but those aspects influence the actual range achieved. This paper presents an EV drive model for a micro-trip which includes all possible aspects along with the regenerative braking for a (pure) electric vehicle. The drivers primary inputs to the model are the vehicle initial speed, initial battery SOC, driving strategy to be followed and remaining distance of the route to be covered. Data related to the corresponding route are collected and fed to the model as secondary inputs. The model is validated by comparing the simulated data with that of experimental values of a commercial EV and analysing the variations of critical parameters of EV components. The importance of the EV drive model is established by analysing the effects of route parameters and driving behavior on EV range.
Keywords: electric vehicle; EV drive modelling; range prediction; remaining battery SOC; micro-trip; trip time.
Design of battery management system based on improved ampere-hour integration method
by Mingyue Zhang, Xiaobin Fan
Abstract: With the emergence of the energy crisis and environmental pollution problems, electric vehicles are paid more attention. As an important core component of electric vehicles, the battery management system (BMS) has also become a hot issue in current research. The research of BMS is mainly focused on the state of charge (SOC) estimation and equalisation methods. This paper designs a complete BMS, including the design of its software and hardware. The BMS uses the AT89C52 as the master chip and the DS2438 as the sampling chip. At the same time, the improved ampere-hour (Ah) integration estimation method, based on the open-circuit voltage (OCV) estimation method, is used to estimate the SOC. In addition, the BMS uses relays to control switched capacitors to realise the equalisation. Finally, comparing the results of the experimental group with the simulation group, we found that the sampling precision of the BMSs voltage, current and temperature is 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.5% respectively. Also, the equalisation time of the BMS is less than 250 seconds.
Keywords: DS2438; STC89C52; CAN; battery management system; switched capacitors equalisation; improved ampere-hour integration estimation; open-circuit voltage estimation method.
Exploring the key buying factors for electric scooters
by David Vallejo-Morales, Elena Higueras-Castillo, Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas
Abstract: Governments actions to protect the environment, along with firms commitment to green corporate social responsibility, facilitate the emergence of new technologies, products and business models. Sales of electric vehicles and e-scooters are growing, including an increased use of e-scooter sharing services. This study analyses the intention to use electric scooters through an online survey. Based on the technological acceptance model and theory of reasoned action, a set of variables has been incorporated in order to explore the full context of this innovative technology. The research hypotheses are contrasted through PLS-SEM. The results of the analysis reveal perceived value, security and technophilia as the main determinants of intention to use e-scooters. A series of managerial implications are also discussed.
Keywords: electric scooter; intention to use; technological acceptance model; theory of reasoned action; electromobility.
Analysis of effective discontinuous decoupled PWMs for a four-level open-end winding induction motor drive through stator flux ripple
by Kalyan Kumar Koppolu, K. Anuradha, M. Surya Kalvathi
Abstract: Dual inverter fed open-end 3
Keywords: dual inverter; open-end winding induction motor drive; current ripple; flux ripple; PWM.
Learning from two meta-technologies the grown (plastics) and the growing (EV batteries): evolution, potential challenges and considerations to manage
by Maruti Khaire
Abstract: One of the most significant inventions that has touched the day-to-day life of common people of our time is plastic material. The material is light in weight, corrosion resistant, weatherproof, easy to manufacture, highly adaptable to its end use with the help of suitable additives and, most importantly, most affordable. However, in spite of having so many advantages, it's major disadvantage is that it is difficult to dispose of and takes a very long time to decompose. The chemicals added to plastic material to improve its properties are toxic in nature, making it an environmentally non-friendly material. The disposal of plastic material is one of the major challenges the world is facing. Landfills, waterway clogging, adverse effect on bio-diversity and severe impact on ocean life are just a few of the challenges, besides the impact on greenhouse gases. In recent times, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have become a growth technology, and almost all the major automotive manufacturers are producing electric vehicles. BEVs have advantages such as very low operating cost, no emission during the vehicle operation and enhanced vehicle maintainability owing to the lower number of rotating parts compared with ICE vehicles. However, BEVs have inherent shortcomings, i.e. their batteries have a comparatively short life and their performance degrades over time. This makes EV batteries prone to present disposal challenges in future similar to those of plastics. If recycling of battery material is prolonged further, it will present the same challenge as plastic material. This paper is focused the similarities and differences between plastics and BEV batteries, which seem to have the potential to generate similar challenges in future. However, considering the nature of EV battery technology and focusing on battery material recycling, this paper also suggests a direction of technologies in order to take advantage of EV technologies. Avoid, minimise, reuse, circular economy, and disposal in landfill are some of the technology directions or considerations to be given in future battery technology development. The focus of this paper is to learn from the plastic evolution and to use this learning to plan for EV battery technology development and adoption.
Keywords: plastics; economics of recycling; challenges of BEVs; battery technologies; landfill; battery types; battery materials; nickel; lithium; cobalt; Li-ion.
Multi-objective optimal driving strategies for hybrid electric motorcycles with parallel configuration
by Jhon Vargas, Gilberto Osorio-Gómez, Tatiana Manrique
Abstract: This paper discusses the problem of determining optimal driving strategies for a 125cc street-type motorcycle with a parallel hybrid configuration. A brief literature review of different types of hybrid motorcycle and energy management strategy indicates that there is a research gap for control and driving strategies for street-type motorcycles. Then, typical characteristics of hybrid parallel architecture are analysed in order to formulate different optimal performance indices, and to propose a dynamic model of a parallel hybrid electric motorcycle. The optimal performance indices are formulated as three different driving strategies, or operation modes, stated as long range, sport and normal. Each strategy is detailed with its corresponding performance functions and costs, based in the state space vector defined for the dynamic model.
Keywords: parallel hybrid motorcycle; dynamic model; optimisation objectives; driving strategies; driving modes; energy management.
Supply chain barriers for electric vehicles and their mitigation strategies: a systematic literature review
by Atul Pandey, Tanuj Nandan
Abstract: Climate change is a global concern. The contribution of the transportation sector to the emission of greenhouse gases is significant. This can be reduced to a large extent by the adoption of electric vehicles. Many barriers affect the adoption and manufacturing of electric vehicles. This study identifies these challenges from a systematic literature review. Demand-side challenges include high price, lack of charging infrastructure, range anxiety, consumer awareness, etc. Supply-side challenges include the high cost of components, technology development issues, massive capital investments, etc. Investments in charging infrastructure, research and development, consumer awareness, and government incentives are identified as mitigation strategies to overcome these challenges.
Keywords: electric vehicles; adoption barriers; supply chain barriers; mitigation strategies; manufacturing barriers; air pollution; charging infrastructure; range anxiety.
Factors influencing the adoption of electric vehicles in India: an empirical analysis
by Rajeev Goswami
Abstract: The adoption of electric vehicles (EV) has potential to address greenhouse gas emissions, energy dependency and resource scarcity. The Indian government has implemented policies and incentives to foster EV adoption. Considering the Indian scenario, an EV purchasing model is proposed that comprises various demographic and behavioral factors. A survey was conducted in six cities of India (Delhi, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Nagpur, Kolkata, and Dehradun). By using logistic regression (LR) methods and three-way contingency chi-square, a novel EV purchasing model is proposed. The LR method reveals that several behavioral factors such as age, environmental consciousness, price, brand, performance, etc., impact the willingness of consumers to adopt EV. With chi-square statistics, the demographic factors such as education level and marital status influence the EV buying behaviour. These factors may facilitate the government to frame more efficacious policies and assist the industry actors in designing diverse marketing and sales strategies to increase the adoption rate of EV.
Keywords: electric vehicles; public policy; willingness to purchase; logistic regression.
Transient power smoothing control strategy for the battery of a pure electric bus
by Meilan Zhou, Weijie Liu, Yu Zhang, Jun Fu
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of unreasonable power distribution of composite energy storage system and battery transient power smoothing in a pure electric bus, this paper designs a fuzzy control strategy and a wavelet transform control strategy. We select the condition of Chinese city buses and Harbin urban road condition as the simulation condition, and carry out the joint simulation through the DLL file and the vehicle simulation software. We obtain the power curves of the battery and ultracapacitor and the system energy flow graph under the two control strategies when running different cycle conditions. The simulation results show that the two control strategies are effective in smoothing the battery transient power. Compared with the fuzzy control strategy, the wavelet transform control strategy makes the battery output power frequency lower, thereby extending the service life of the battery. In order to further verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, we establish an experimental platform for a pure electric bus drive system. The experiment results show that the proposed two control strategies have a significant effect in smoothing the transient power of the battery and improving the energy use rate.
Keywords: battery transient power; composite energy storage; fuzzy control; wavelet transform.
Research on equivalent fuel consumption minimisation strategy design and optimisation for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
by Huan Guo, Weishun Deng, Fan Yu
Abstract: In this paper, equivalent fuel consumption minimisation strategy (ECMS) based on the optimal fuel economy is proposed and optimised for the Charge Sustaining (CS) period of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). To overcome the disadvantages of low convergence rate and insufficient population evolution, the crossover probability and mutation probability of the traditional genetic algorithm (TGA) are improved to be varied along with the iteration and fitness value. Meanwhile, elite retention strategy is adopted to avoid the population degradation. Fuel equivalent factor is then optimised by improved genetic algorithm (IGA) to obtain the optimal fuel economy. Corresponding hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the strategy optimised by IGA. The results indicate that within allowable deviation of the state of charge (SOC), the PHEV can obtain better fuel economy combining the proposed method.
Keywords: PHEV; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; charge sustaining; energy management strategy; IGA; improved genetic algorithm; fuel economy; elite retention strategy; TGA; traditional genetic algorithm; hardware-in-the-loop; state of charge.
Energetic macroscopic representation and inversion based control of fuel cell in a series hybrid race vehicle system
by Zainab Asus, El-Hassane Aglzim, Daniela Chrenko, Luis Le Moyne
Abstract: This paper studies the replacement of engine and generator as range extender in a hybrid racing car with a fuel cell system. A model of the original system of the car using range extender consisting of an internal combustion engine and electric generator has been developed respecting the action-reaction principle used by energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) and its inversion based control (IBC) to organise its subsystems interconnection according to the physical causality. Results from drive tests of the real car on racing circuit are used to validate the model. The objective of this paper is to study the parameterisation and the integration of fuel cell stack components based on this model. First diagnosis on applicability of a control strategy as well as the improvements that can be effected by implementing a fuel cell system can be obtained using this model.
Keywords: hybrid vehicle; fuel cell; control strategy; energetic macroscopic representation; modelling; simulation.
Research on high speed avoidance path tracking of pure electric vehicles
by Jian Wang, Jun Yang, Peng Yu
Abstract: High-speed avoidance assisted driving technology can improve the driving safety of automobiles and is one of the key technologies of unmanned automobiles. The sigmoid function with continuously changing curvature is introduced to design a high-speed avoidance path. Based on the two-degree-of freedom vehicle dynamics model, a linear sliding mode auto-disturbance rejection path tracking controller is designed to control the actual yaw rate of the vehicle to track the ideal yaw rate of the planned path. Based on Carsim software, a front-drive pure electric vehicle is established, and the control effect is verified by Carsim and Simulink joint simulation method. The simulation results show that the path tracking controller can ensure the pure electric vehicle to track the ideal planned path and ensure the vehicle to avoid the vehicles in front safely at high speed.
Keywords: high-speed avoidance; pure electric vehicles; path tracking; joint simulation.
Drivetrain modelling and parameter calculation for an electric bus with fixed or 2-speed gearbox
by Martin Novak, Jaroslav Novak, Josef Morkus, Lubomir Musalek, Oleg Sivkov
Abstract: This paper presents drivetrain calculations for an electric bus. Parameters of motor, gears and motor efficiency map are used. The goal is to select the suitable motor and gearbox. Driving cycle SORT2 and real life driving cycles measured on bus lines are used. Based on the bus manufacturer assignment, only permanent magnet synchronous machines are considered. The motor output power is considered in the range of 120-160 kW. The selection of axle gear ratios was limited to 6.19, 6.5 and 7.35, as those are readily available. The gearbox was either a fixed one, with gear ratio of 1.8, or a 2-speed gearbox with a gear ratio of 1 and 1.8. The calculations have shown, that a 2-speed gearbox can decrease the energy consumption. The improvement is in the range of 1-3% dependent on the motor option and driving cycle.
Keywords: electric vehicles; motor drives; permanent magnet motors; torque control; variable speed drives.
Performance enhancement analysis of brushless permanent magnet synchronous machine for electric vehicle
by Bharathi Thangaraj, Ramesh Subramanian
Abstract: This paper considers brushless machine which is already existing in electric vehicle application. The main objective is to reduce the cogging torque and enhance the electromagnetic and thermal performance of brushless permanent magnet synchronous machine (BLPMSM). This can be achieved through optimised stator and rotor design by introducing notches in stator teeth as well as optimising the magnet dimensions in rotor. The electromagnetic analysis of machine is performed using transient 2D with motion solver in MagNet simulation software and the thermal analysis of machine is simulated using ThermNet software. Based on the optimisation results, proposed machine is modelled and simulated for electromagnetic and thermal analysis. Finally the proposed machine is tested with electric vehicle powertrain simulation block sets. The simulation results show that the proposed concept of notching technique along with optimised parameters can be suitable for enhancing the performance of electric vehicles.
Keywords: brushless permanent magnet synchronous machine; cogging torque; drive cycle; electric vehicle simulation; electromagnetic analysis; finite element analysis; notching technique; optimisation; thermal analysis; powertrain simulation.