International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (25 papers in press)
Research on energy management of hybrid power system in fuel cell vehicles
by Meilan Zhou, Weijie Liu, Yu Zhang, Jiaming Wang
Abstract: To solve the problems of short service life of batteries and soft output characteristics of fuel cells, we study the hybrid power system composed of fuel cell(FC), battery and unidirectional DC/DC converter. In order to achieve a reasonable energy distribution and reduce the hydrogen consumption of the fuel cell, we propose an optimised control strategy based on the Pontryagins Minimum Principle (PMP). The optimised control strategy uses the output power of the fuel cell (Pfc) as the control variable, the state of charge (SOC) of the battery as the state variable, and the hydrogen consumption of the fuel cell as the performance index. We also propose a fuzzy optimal control strategy based on fuzzy control. This is optimised by changing the parameters in the membership function with the Teaching-Learning-Based -Optimisation (TLBO). Based on the simulation software, we build simulation model to realise the real-time simulation of the two control strategies. The simulation results show that compared with fuel cell power alone, the hydrogen consumption is reduced by 10.1% when using the fuzzy optimisation control strategy, and the hydrogen consumption is reduced by 12.7% when using the optimal control strategy based on PMP.
Keywords: hybrid power system; fuzzy optimisation control; Pontryagin’s minimum principle; hydrogen consumption.
An overview on hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicles
by Rahul Charles C M, J.S. Savier
Abstract: Since battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are coming onto the market in great numbers, the search for better energy storage technologies with enhanced energy density, power density, durability, safety, and affordability is gaining importance. The ineffectiveness of the standalone battery system during peak demand situations and variations in transient load conditions leads to its reduced recognition. Since more power requirement is demanded by such situations, batteries in turn tend to be oversized to meet desired results, which in turn leads to increased volume, weight and rate. Depending on battery alone can lead to lower efficiency since the increased stress leads to low performance of battery and decreased lifetime. A lot of research works are going on to choose suitable storage technologies that provide diverging degrees of promise in performance and capability to cope with the market requirements for electric vehicles. This paper sheds light on the major hurdles that cause a decreased popularity of standalone battery system. Different HESS designs based on qualitative comparisons are discussed.
Keywords: electric vehicle; battery; supercapacitor.
Design of battery management system based on improved ampere-hour integration method
by Mingyue Zhang, Xiaobin Fan
Abstract: With the emergence of the energy crisis and environmental pollution problems, electric vehicles are paid more attention. As an important core component of electric vehicles, the battery management system (BMS) has also become a hot issue in current research. The research of BMS is mainly focused on the state of charge (SOC) estimation and equalisation methods. This paper designs a complete BMS, including the design of its software and hardware. The BMS uses the AT89C52 as the master chip and the DS2438 as the sampling chip. At the same time, the improved ampere-hour (Ah) integration estimation method, based on the open-circuit voltage (OCV) estimation method, is used to estimate the SOC. In addition, the BMS uses relays to control switched capacitors to realise the equalisation. Finally, comparing the results of the experimental group with the simulation group, we found that the sampling precision of the BMSs voltage, current and temperature is 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.5% respectively. Also, the equalisation time of the BMS is less than 250 seconds.
Keywords: DS2438; STC89C52; CAN; battery management system; switched capacitors equalisation; improved ampere-hour integration estimation; open-circuit voltage estimation method.
Learning from two meta-technologies the grown (plastics) and the growing (EV batteries): evolution, potential challenges and considerations to manage
by Maruti Khaire
Abstract: One of the most significant inventions that has touched the day-to-day life of common people of our time is plastic material. The material is light in weight, corrosion resistant, weatherproof, easy to manufacture, highly adaptable to its end use with the help of suitable additives and, most importantly, most affordable. However, in spite of having so many advantages, it's major disadvantage is that it is difficult to dispose of and takes a very long time to decompose. The chemicals added to plastic material to improve its properties are toxic in nature, making it an environmentally non-friendly material. The disposal of plastic material is one of the major challenges the world is facing. Landfills, waterway clogging, adverse effect on bio-diversity and severe impact on ocean life are just a few of the challenges, besides the impact on greenhouse gases. In recent times, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have become a growth technology, and almost all the major automotive manufacturers are producing electric vehicles. BEVs have advantages such as very low operating cost, no emission during the vehicle operation and enhanced vehicle maintainability owing to the lower number of rotating parts compared with ICE vehicles. However, BEVs have inherent shortcomings, i.e. their batteries have a comparatively short life and their performance degrades over time. This makes EV batteries prone to present disposal challenges in future similar to those of plastics. If recycling of battery material is prolonged further, it will present the same challenge as plastic material. This paper is focused the similarities and differences between plastics and BEV batteries, which seem to have the potential to generate similar challenges in future. However, considering the nature of EV battery technology and focusing on battery material recycling, this paper also suggests a direction of technologies in order to take advantage of EV technologies. Avoid, minimise, reuse, circular economy, and disposal in landfill are some of the technology directions or considerations to be given in future battery technology development. The focus of this paper is to learn from the plastic evolution and to use this learning to plan for EV battery technology development and adoption.
Keywords: plastics; economics of recycling; challenges of BEVs; battery technologies; landfill; battery types; battery materials; nickel; lithium; cobalt; Li-ion.
Supply chain barriers for electric vehicles and their mitigation strategies: a systematic literature review
by Atul Pandey, Tanuj Nandan
Abstract: Climate change is a global concern. The contribution of the transportation sector to the emission of greenhouse gases is significant. This can be reduced to a large extent by the adoption of electric vehicles. Many barriers affect the adoption and manufacturing of electric vehicles. This study identifies these challenges from a systematic literature review. Demand-side challenges include high price, lack of charging infrastructure, range anxiety, consumer awareness, etc. Supply-side challenges include the high cost of components, technology development issues, massive capital investments, etc. Investments in charging infrastructure, research and development, consumer awareness, and government incentives are identified as mitigation strategies to overcome these challenges.
Keywords: electric vehicles; adoption barriers; supply chain barriers; mitigation strategies; manufacturing barriers; air pollution; charging infrastructure; range anxiety.
Factors influencing the adoption of electric vehicles in India: an empirical analysis
by Rajeev Goswami
Abstract: The adoption of electric vehicles (EV) has potential to address greenhouse gas emissions, energy dependency and resource scarcity. The Indian government has implemented policies and incentives to foster EV adoption. Considering the Indian scenario, an EV purchasing model is proposed that comprises various demographic and behavioral factors. A survey was conducted in six cities of India (Delhi, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Nagpur, Kolkata, and Dehradun). By using logistic regression (LR) methods and three-way contingency chi-square, a novel EV purchasing model is proposed. The LR method reveals that several behavioral factors such as age, environmental consciousness, price, brand, performance, etc., impact the willingness of consumers to adopt EV. With chi-square statistics, the demographic factors such as education level and marital status influence the EV buying behaviour. These factors may facilitate the government to frame more efficacious policies and assist the industry actors in designing diverse marketing and sales strategies to increase the adoption rate of EV.
Keywords: electric vehicles; public policy; willingness to purchase; logistic regression.
Transient power smoothing control strategy for the battery of a pure electric bus
by Meilan Zhou, Weijie Liu, Yu Zhang, Jun Fu
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of unreasonable power distribution of composite energy storage system and battery transient power smoothing in a pure electric bus, this paper designs a fuzzy control strategy and a wavelet transform control strategy. We select the condition of Chinese city buses and Harbin urban road condition as the simulation condition, and carry out the joint simulation through the DLL file and the vehicle simulation software. We obtain the power curves of the battery and ultracapacitor and the system energy flow graph under the two control strategies when running different cycle conditions. The simulation results show that the two control strategies are effective in smoothing the battery transient power. Compared with the fuzzy control strategy, the wavelet transform control strategy makes the battery output power frequency lower, thereby extending the service life of the battery. In order to further verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, we establish an experimental platform for a pure electric bus drive system. The experiment results show that the proposed two control strategies have a significant effect in smoothing the transient power of the battery and improving the energy use rate.
Keywords: battery transient power; composite energy storage; fuzzy control; wavelet transform.
Design and implementation of software and hardware of battery management system based on a novel state of charge estimation method
by Mingyue Zhang, Xiaobin Fan
Abstract: As the main energy source of new energy vehicles, power batteries have always been the focus of attention. Also, the battery management system (BMS) is paid more attention, whose research focuses on the collection of the status and state of charge (SOC) estimation of the battery. A BMS is developed in this paper, which is mainly composed of the battery pack, the lower computer, and the upper computer. The lower computer is responsible for the real-time detection of the battery pack status (voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge) and the communication with the upper computer. The upper computer is responsible for real-time display of the battery pack status and control of the charge and discharge mode. In terms of SOC estimation, the lower computer uses an improved ampere-hour (Ah) integral algorithm, which takes into account factors such as charge and discharge efficiency, temperature, and ageing factor; the upper computer uses a new Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm based on the improved Ah integral algorithm. The model of the new EKF algorithm is the Dual Polarization (DP) model of the battery pack average model, and its parameters are obtained by offline identification according to the data from the hybrid pulse power characterization test. From the results of the 1C constant current discharge experiment, the SOC estimation results of the upper computer and the lower computer have very good accuracy, especially the improved EKF in the upper computer can better estimate the SOC value and track the change of the terminal voltage.
Keywords: SOC estimation; extended Kalman filter; improved ampere-hour integral algorithm; paraments identification; dual polarisation model; battery management system.
Decision making in community patrols concerning the use of electric and hybrid plug-in vehicles
by João Santos, Vitor Moutinho
Abstract: Sustainability and less carbon emission are now two of the most common goals for and from countries, enterprises, and also regular citizens. In this study, we used the information from an already applied questionnaire to assess the perception from the leading structure of the Portuguese Military Police (GNR) concerning the shift to electric and hybrid-electric vehicles. For empirical analysis to evaluate the community patrol point of view, we employ the ordered logistic regression. When the findings of the estimations in both models are applied, it is possible to state that the move to electric cars is considered a command improvement, that is quite possible to use electric vehicles as police cars, especially, but not only, for community patrol.
Keywords: electric mobility; hybrid vehicles; green polices; features technologies; ordinal logistic models.
Electric vehicle charging methods and impact of charging and discharging on distribution system: a review
by Lokendra Kumar, Ravi Lathwal
Abstract: Nowadays, electric vehicles have got more attention from customers owing to a lot of benefits, both atmospheric and economic. Electric vehicles are an emerging tool for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, and providing clean transport systems. Electric vehicles have limited energy for drive as they require recharging of battery. This paper provides a review on recently used charging methods and charging strategy. Owing to the increasing load of electric vehicle charging on the distribution system, we also provide a detailed review of the impact of charging on the distribution system in terms of negative and positive impacts. This paper also investigates the impact of the vehicle to grid scheme. Finally, some research challenges and objectives are indicated.
Keywords: charging method; electric vehicle; vehicle to grid; distribution system (grid); charging infrastructure.
Research on two-stage isolated on-board charger and control technology
by Kai Zhou, Hanfeng Wang, Dongyang Sun
Abstract: A two-stage isolated on-board charger (OBC) is proposed for electric vehicles. The OBC adopts two-stage topology including three-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter and full-bridge LLC resonant converter. The OBC can charge the high voltage battery and achieve power factor correction function. Compared with the conventional control circuit, the pre-stage PFC circuit adopts current inner loop composite controller, the composite controller is composed of a repetitive controller and a proportional and integral (PI) controller connected in parallel, which can reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input AC current. The rear-stage adopts full-bridge LLC resonant converter operates with zero-voltage switching in the full output voltage range. The main parameters of the pre-stage PFC circuit and the rear-stage circuit were designed, the OBC has an input AC voltage range between 187 and 253 V, and the output DC voltage range between 280 and 420 V. Simulation and experimental results confirm the correctness of the theoretical analysis.
Keywords: on-board charger; three-phase PFC circuit; composite controller; LLC resonant converter.
Early electric vehicle charging. A survey
by Vadim Yakovlev
Abstract: This survey considers charging of electric vehicles at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. Inspection of the characteristics of some typical models of electric cars and trucks revealed that they were equipped with lead-acid or nickel-iron batteries. These batteries had nominal voltage between 40 V and 88 V, ampere-hour capacity between 96 Ah and 450 Ah. Construction and charging methods of vehicle batteries did not change principally during the last 130 years. Instruction manuals for storage batteries helped to determine the recommended parameters of ordinary and fast charge in 1900s. Motor-generator sets and mercury arc rectifiers were used as home chargers. They supported unattended charge at night hours. Infrastructure including road network, service and charging stations expanded gradually in developed countries in 1900s. Some of these stations might charge a sufficient number of electric vehicles at once; they were equipped with rotary converters, motor-generator sets, and mercury arc rectifiers.
Keywords: electric vehicles; road transport history; storage battery; battery charging.
Optimal control for shift mechanism of a planetary two-speed transmission for electric vehicles
by Xinxin Zhao, Jinggang Zhang, Jing Tang
Abstract: For increasing mileage of electric vehicles (EVs), its necessary to improve the energy density of the battery and the transmission efficiency of the powertrain system. We designed a planetary two-speed transmission for using the high efficiency of the motor effectively, which helps to achieve powerful and economic performance. It provides an electronic mechanism replacing the hydraulic system for shifting, which consists of worm gear systems driven by a brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. To improve shifting quality, the speed control of BLDC motor was developed using a variation principle fitted by high order polynomials. The dynamic model of electronic actuator for shifting was built for evaluating the shifting control of the BLDC motor. The simulation results revealed that the speed of BLDC motor fitted by 5th order polynomial could make a smooth shift and low friction work of brakes comparing with 3rd order and 7th order polynomials.
Keywords: shifting mechanism; planetary two-speed transmission; optimal gear shifting; calculus of variations.
Mutual inductance estimation between rectangular structure magnetic coils with various misalignments for wireless EV charger
by Srinivasa Rao Nayak, Peddanna Gundugallu
Abstract: Mutual inductance measurement and analysis are growing into an important branch of research and development for wireless power transfer devices, such as stationary, dynamic EV chargers and mobile chargers, biomedical sensors, etc. In this paper, mutual inductance (MI) between rectangular structure coupled coils has been investigated using Neumanns formula in the Cartesian coordinate system under perfect, planar, angular, and planar with angular misalignments. Further, MI values are estimated using FEM (Finite Element Modelling) simulation and verified experimentally without ferrite core. The comparative analysis of the analytically computed MI results is accurate and relative error is negligible. Furthermore, the calculated MI value with that of FEM simulation and experimentation shows that as the distance between coupled coils increases MI decreases for all misalignment cases. However, the MI increased by using ferrite core for all misalign conditions and it is computed using FEM and experimentation.
Keywords: electric vehicles; finite element modelling; magnetic flux density; misalignment; mutual inductance; rectangular structure; wireless power transfer.
Position sensorless control system of SPMSM based on high frequency signal injection method with passive controller
by Yu Zhang, Jiahong Liu, Meilan Zhou, Hanying Gao
Abstract: In this study, a high-frequency pulsed voltage signal is injected into the d axis of the synchronous rotating frame of a surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM) with insignificant salient pole effects. Through detection and analysis of the high-frequency current response signal at the stator side, the rotor position and speed information can be extracted to achieve sensorless control of the motor. A passive controller with a port-controlled Hamiltonian dissipative (PCHD) structure is designed by using the principle of energy forming and the method of interconnection-damping configuration. A 2.2-kW SPMSM experimental platform is built for experimental verification. The simulation results show that when the motor is running at a low speed, the proposed pulse-induced high-frequency voltage signal injection method exhibits a higher accuracy of rotor position and speed estimation. The passive controller can suppress the fluctuation of the motor starting speed and demonstrates a better ability to resist load disturbance.
Keywords: SPMSM; passivity-based; high-frequency injection;position sensorless control.
Research of electric vehicle on-board controller based on inverter time division multiplexing
by Kai Zhou, Yang Liu, Ningzhi Jin, Dongyang Sun
Abstract: Based on traditional electric vehicle motor controller topology, the proposed on-board controller adopts the form of a time-sharing multiplexing IGBT power module to expand the functions of the motor controller to simultaneously realise motor drive and battery charging. The integrated drive/charge controller structure is proposed, and its working principle is explained in this work. The mathematical model of the converter in driving and charging modes is analysed, and the control strategy in the two modes is determined. A double closed-loop structure is then designed, and PI adjustment parameters are calculated. Hardware requirements in different modes are then comprehensively considered, and parameters of the reused energy storage element are designed. Based on the calculated parameters of the PI regulator and multiplexed energy storage components, a simulation system is built in Simulink, and the simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the integrated controller.
Keywords: electric vehicle; on-board controller; integrated driving/charging; double closed-loop control.
An exploration on electric vehicle purchase intention
by Nagarajan Shanmugavel, Chidambaram Alagappan
Abstract: The crucial objective of this research is to explore the effect of environmental product knowledge, environmental concern, perceived behavioral control and perceived innovativeness on electric vehicles purchase intention and to explore the direct and indirect effect of these variables on customers purchase intention of electric vehicles. This research employed several variables from two different theories, namely the TBP and UTAUT, to explore the cumulative impact of the variables on purchase intention of electric vehicles. The uniqueness of this study is that it considered perceived innovativeness along with these environmental constructs to explore the purchase intention of electric vehicles from a sample of 322 general public. The final outcome of this research signifies that environmental product knowledge has a substantial effect on EV purchase intention, perceived innovativeness has positive significant effect on EV purchase intention, and environmental product knowledge on electric vehicle purchase intention is positively moderated by age.
Keywords: electric vehicle purchase intention; environmental product knowledge; environmental concern; perceived behavioral control; perceived innovativeness.
Comprehensive review of charging solutions for electric vehicles: an internet of things based approach
by Sarasij Adhikary, Pabitra Kumar Biswas, Chiranjit Sain
Abstract: Electric Vehicles (EV) are bringing in a new era in transportation by reducing emissions, noiseless operation, and the efficient consumption of energy compared with internal combustion Engines. However, EVs have has significant limitations in terms of battery capacity, lack of long-range travel, long charging time, and cost. A smart and optimised charging technique will help the consumer for the energy consumption of EV as per time of use. The sharing of charge in the interest of charging cost reduction and increasing energy demand due to EV charging may affect the load balancing of the power system. The charging infrastructure development may increase the performance criterion. This paper includes a brief discussion about EV components, which will help researchers for a quick overview of EVs, and an improved charging solution for EVs is proposed.
Keywords: electric vehicles; electric vehicle charging; charging strategies.
Modelling and a nalysis of electric two-wheeler with novel planetary gear box transmission
by Aditya Paranjape, Amey Kulkarni, Mihir Kulkarni, Neeraj Kumbhojkar
Abstract: With the world moving towards new sustainable sources of power for automobiles, electric powertrain systems are considered to be suitable. The study focuses on modelling and analysis of electric two-wheeler and designing and analysis of planetary gear box. Based on the analysis and market survey, recommendations for primary components are given. The electric vehicle is analysed using the drive cycle data and modelled using vehicle dynamics equations. The result of this analysis is the current profile requirement to be fulfilled by the battery pack. The battery modelling and analysis is done based on the equivalent circuit modelling. The current profiles and battery testing data is used as input to the battery model. SOC and voltage variations were determined from this modelling. The transmission gear ratio and geometry was determined. The dynamic analysis and life cycle estimation of the gear box was done in Ricardo SABR.
Keywords: electric vehicle; planetary gear box; powertrain; battery; modelling.
Development of powertrain mounting system for high frequency characteristics optimization in electric vehicles
by Sandip Hazra, Janardhan Reddy
Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a powertrain mount at high frequency is an important criterion for vibration isolation performance of an electric vehicle (EV), whereas in an internal combustion engine (ICE), low-frequency dynamic stiffness is generally considered, although the dynamic stiffness from 1000 to 3000 Hz impacts overall in-cab noise and articulation index in both ICE and EV. Motor excitation frequency can lead to high frequency resonance issue in an EV. In this paper, the powertrain mount design technique is described in detail to address high frequency issues. The high frequency problem is first analytically described. The effect of non-identical stiffness of rubber legs within a mount is simulated for dynamic frequency response. A case study shows the impact of non-identical mount stiffness by changing the rubber leg design, on vehicle level high frequency resonance.
Keywords: electric vehicle; powertrain mount; dynamic stiffness; high frequency.
Research on lithium battery sorting method based on image adaptive recognition of feature points
by Yongqin Zhou, Yubin Wang, Yujia Chang, Ce Huang, Ran Li
Abstract: When sorting batteries in factories, fixed feature points in a discharge voltage platform are usually used as a sorting basis with expert experience, causing poor accuracy in battery sorting. This study proposes a method based on Feature Point Image Adaptive Recognition (FPIAR) combined with a semi-supervised Fuzzy C-means Clustering (SFCM) algorithm to achieve battery sorting. Accordingly, FPIAR obtained the multi-dimensional feature coordinate dataset by adaptively identifying the discharge voltage curve of each battery. The centre point of the accumulation of coordinates in the dataset was found by the mean-shift algorithm and was used as the feature point of battery sorting voltage. In addition, the SFCM clustering algorithm was used to process the feature point of the sorting voltage to sort batteries into groups. The simulation results and tests indicated that the SFCM clustering algorithm based on FPIAR processing can improve the accuracy of battery sorting.
Keywords: lithium battery; battery sorting; feature points; image adaptive recognition; SFCM clustering.
Classification and review of electric circuit models for electric vehicle batteries
by Arvind S. Pande, Bhanu Pratap Soni, Kishor V. Bhadane
Abstract: Battery-operated electric vehicles are attracting many users. Utilisations of EV are day by day increasing and hence there is need to enhance the entire performance of EV by designing the best internal parameters of the batteries used in the subsystems of EV. The performance of batteries depends on various factors, such as specific energy, life cycle, safety, internal resistances, charge and discharge time, temperature, cost, and toxicity. The main objective of this paper is to study and analyse the electric circuit model (ECM) of EV batteries to find the internal parameters by using an algorithm. The various models of ECM, such as simple model, enhanced simple model, dynamic model, Thevenin-based model, modified generic model, and Tremblay model, are critically reviewed. The Thevenin model is best suitable for simulation of battery for soc, sop etc., from predefined values of resistances and capacitor.
Keywords: electric vehicle; battery; modelling; BMS.
Increasing the energy efficiency of an autonomous solar hydrographer boat
by Ashkan Makhsoos, Hossein Mousazadeh, Seyed Saeid Mohtasebi
Abstract: This manuscript discusses the design and construction of an active sun-tracker for an unmanned surface vehicle (USV). "Morvarid" is a robot boat built for automatic hydrography in ports. First, some pre-fabrication simulations were performed before construction to determine desired benefits of the solar tracker. Then, for evaluation of the solar tracker performance, operational tests were performed after manufacturing. The results of the field experiments were significantly close to the simulations and differed by only 0.1%, indicating the optimal performance of the solar tracker. Finally, it was essential to ensure continuous and efficient energy production, which requires accurate and effective sun-tracking even during boat navigation and hydrographic operations. Practical studies show that with the help of this proposed solar tracker, almost the same amount of energy will be generated whether the boat is stationary or moving, allowing high-efficiency electrical energy to lead to persistent storage in the USV battery.
Keywords: autonomous mobility; intelligent decision making; simulation and design; vehicle autonomy; energy efficiency.
Criteria and integration limitations for cells and thermal management in EV battery pack design. A review
by Iban Retolaza, Ander Avila-Limia, Iban Diaz, Maite Elkoro
Abstract: Transportation methods are changing, and electric vehicles (EVs) may replace to some extent combustion ones in the short term. Nevertheless, new EV technology does not transmit so much reliance owing to its safety issues and limited range. Hence, in this paper, an introduction is made to outline EVs' current state and safety problems, and it aims to give an overall view of the different available solutions to design a battery pack (BP) and their limitations. Owing to the extension of the criteria to design a BP, this paper is focused on the cells (types, integration in the BP, and joining methods) and the thermal safety of the system (how to detect a thermal runaway, battery thermal management systems and cooling strategies) from the point of view of the implementation to the BP. Finally, some features that limit BP designs in which more research is needed have been identified.
Keywords: EV; electromobility; battery pack; lithium-ion battery; design criteria; cell joining; cell compression; thermal safety; thermal runaway; BTMS.
Powertrain mount Layout and stiffness selection in electric vehicle application: a multi-objective approach
by Sandip Hazra, Janardhan Reddy
Abstract: The powertrain mount optimisation for ICE has been established and researched for many applications. Hence, it is reasonable to carry over the same ICE concepts to EV mounting system design. The layout is selected depending on powertrain weight, input torque, crash, package space, and NVH requirements. The main difference between the ICE and EV for the powertrain mounting system is NVH perception due to the shift of source noise from low frequency to high frequency and durability loads due to regenerative loading. The masking effect in ICE gives a different powertrain noise profile compared with EV. The sudden change of torque develops powertrain roll more than ICE for a pendulum mounting system, leading to a bigger dynamic envelope in EV. This paper focuses on the shift of focus needed to minimise the risk associated with NVH during powertrain mount layout and stiffness selection with the help of a case study.
Keywords: electric vehicle; layout; stiffness; NVH; powertrain mounting system.