International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (33 papers in press)
Electric vehicles in India: current trends and future forecasts
by Vishal Shukla
Abstract: As globalisation is increasing, so is the demand for oil-based energy which is ultimately resulting in the rapid fluctuation of the market prices of the crude oil due to the basic principle of economics Law of Demand. This volatility and uncertainty in crude oil's demand and prices create pressure on governments and policymakers to look at new alternatives, one of them being the adaptation of green technologies. Green alternatives seem to be the trend of the future business and markets. Many business giants are compelled to spend heavily on their R & D and come up with innovative technologies focusing mainly on green technologies. In line with the developed countries, India, as a developing economy, is all set to plunge into this new innovative market of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and aims to become a major producer of the EVs for the Indian market as well as the globally. So, this research article aims to explore the expected demand for EVs, the market share, and the contribution of the EVs and associated technologies to foreign trade.
Keywords: disruption; electric vehicle; green technology; Indian economy; innovation; market demand.
Low impact vehicle battery supply chains: assessing the impacts of alternative procurement strategies
by Carlo Rafele, Claudio Gallo, Giulio Mangano, Anna Corinna Cagliano, Antonio Carlin
Abstract: This work aims at supporting decision-making related to make or buy strategies for procuring batteries assembled on electric and hybrid vehicles for a car manufacturer that is introducing new models in its portfolio. In particular, several supply chain scenarios have been defined according to the battery architecture. The results show that the purchase of complete batteries implies the highest costs and CO2 emissions. On the contrary, buying single components helps to improve these aspects, but it requires a certain level of vertical integration by the car manufacturer together with specific knowhow. Finally, purchasing modules result in the lowest costs owing to a reduced number of trips due to the product structure. Thus, this paper proposes a framework to guide automotive companies in effectively designing make or buy strategies in their battery supply chain by comparing alternative vertical integration levels.
Keywords: supply chain; low impact vehicle; automotive companies; vehicle battery; procurement; make or buy; electric vehicle; hybrid vehicle; scenario analysis; logistics.
Hybrid cars: past, present and future
by Saurav Kumar Singh, Bhavesh Kumar, Namrata Nanda
Abstract: With constant load, the internal burning engine (and any added heat engine) works finest. If the engine can continuously work close to its optimum operating point, there will be a dramatic increase in efficiency and longevity, a reduction in complexity and costs, and a much relaxed and cheaper control of emissions. But, electrical drive is great for variable loads. Competence remains high, extreme rotation is available even at low power output, and under braking electrical energy can be recovered resourcefully from mechanical energy. In order to fully capitalise on these fundamental characteristics, hybrid driven trains aim to combine the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in a synergistic manner. Although there has been hybrid drive for more than twenty years, there is much scope for further enhancement. Continuous price decrease in electrical components bringing power to the axle and technology used for battery with further enhancement of internal combustion engines planned specifically for hybrid driving can lower costs and increase efficiency, by offering enhanced driving experience. Although we have a lot of cheap oil, it is the need of the hour to move to more sustainable sources eventually. Over the coming decades, CO2 emissions from oil combustion have become an important economic as well as moral consideration.
Keywords: batteries; lithium-ion; lead acid; nickel cadmium; gasoline; electric vehicles.
Research on energy management of hybrid power system in fuel cell vehicles
by Meilan Zhou, Weijie Liu, Yu Zhang, Jiaming Wang
Abstract: To solve the problems of short service life of batteries and soft output characteristics of fuel cells, we study the hybrid power system composed of fuel cell(FC), battery and unidirectional DC/DC converter. In order to achieve a reasonable energy distribution and reduce the hydrogen consumption of the fuel cell, we propose an optimised control strategy based on the Pontryagins Minimum Principle (PMP). The optimised control strategy uses the output power of the fuel cell (Pfc) as the control variable, the state of charge (SOC) of the battery as the state variable, and the hydrogen consumption of the fuel cell as the performance index. We also propose a fuzzy optimal control strategy based on fuzzy control. This is optimised by changing the parameters in the membership function with the Teaching-Learning-Based -Optimisation (TLBO). Based on the simulation software, we build simulation model to realise the real-time simulation of the two control strategies. The simulation results show that compared with fuel cell power alone, the hydrogen consumption is reduced by 10.1% when using the fuzzy optimisation control strategy, and the hydrogen consumption is reduced by 12.7% when using the optimal control strategy based on PMP.
Keywords: hybrid power system; fuzzy optimisation control; Pontryagin’s minimum principle; hydrogen consumption.
An overview on hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicles
by Rahul Charles C M, J.S. Savier
Abstract: Since battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are coming onto the market in great numbers, the search for better energy storage technologies with enhanced energy density, power density, durability, safety, and affordability is gaining importance. The ineffectiveness of the standalone battery system during peak demand situations and variations in transient load conditions leads to its reduced recognition. Since more power requirement is demanded by such situations, batteries in turn tend to be oversized to meet desired results, which in turn leads to increased volume, weight and rate. Depending on battery alone can lead to lower efficiency since the increased stress leads to low performance of battery and decreased lifetime. A lot of research works are going on to choose suitable storage technologies that provide diverging degrees of promise in performance and capability to cope with the market requirements for electric vehicles. This paper sheds light on the major hurdles that cause a decreased popularity of standalone battery system. Different HESS designs based on qualitative comparisons are discussed.
Keywords: electric vehicle; battery; supercapacitor.
Modelling of electric vehicle drive toward its range prediction and remaining battery SOC after trip completion
by Sutapa Mondal, Arup Nandi, Mousumi Khanra
Abstract: Modelling of electric vehicle (EV) drive is important to predict its range and remaining battery SOC after trip completion in any route. That information is extremely necessary for a driver beforehand to deploy an EV for performing a trip. Conventional models or manufacturers suggest EV range in a straightforward method without considering many aspects, such as route information, traffic norms, driving behaviour and external disturbances, but those aspects influence the actual range achieved. This paper presents an EV drive model for a micro-trip which includes all possible aspects along with the regenerative braking for a (pure) electric vehicle. The drivers primary inputs to the model are the vehicle initial speed, initial battery SOC, driving strategy to be followed and remaining distance of the route to be covered. Data related to the corresponding route are collected and fed to the model as secondary inputs. The model is validated by comparing the simulated data with that of experimental values of a commercial EV and analysing the variations of critical parameters of EV components. The importance of the EV drive model is established by analysing the effects of route parameters and driving behavior on EV range.
Keywords: electric vehicle; EV drive modelling; range prediction; remaining battery SOC; micro-trip; trip time.
Design of battery management system based on improved ampere-hour integration method
by Mingyue Zhang, Xiaobin Fan
Abstract: With the emergence of the energy crisis and environmental pollution problems, electric vehicles are paid more attention. As an important core component of electric vehicles, the battery management system (BMS) has also become a hot issue in current research. The research of BMS is mainly focused on the state of charge (SOC) estimation and equalisation methods. This paper designs a complete BMS, including the design of its software and hardware. The BMS uses the AT89C52 as the master chip and the DS2438 as the sampling chip. At the same time, the improved ampere-hour (Ah) integration estimation method, based on the open-circuit voltage (OCV) estimation method, is used to estimate the SOC. In addition, the BMS uses relays to control switched capacitors to realise the equalisation. Finally, comparing the results of the experimental group with the simulation group, we found that the sampling precision of the BMSs voltage, current and temperature is 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.5% respectively. Also, the equalisation time of the BMS is less than 250 seconds.
Keywords: DS2438; STC89C52; CAN; battery management system; switched capacitors equalisation; improved ampere-hour integration estimation; open-circuit voltage estimation method.
Exploring the key buying factors for electric scooters
by David Vallejo-Morales, Elena Higueras-Castillo, Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas
Abstract: Governments actions to protect the environment, along with firms commitment to green corporate social responsibility, facilitate the emergence of new technologies, products and business models. Sales of electric vehicles and e-scooters are growing, including an increased use of e-scooter sharing services. This study analyses the intention to use electric scooters through an online survey. Based on the technological acceptance model and theory of reasoned action, a set of variables has been incorporated in order to explore the full context of this innovative technology. The research hypotheses are contrasted through PLS-SEM. The results of the analysis reveal perceived value, security and technophilia as the main determinants of intention to use e-scooters. A series of managerial implications are also discussed.
Keywords: electric scooter; intention to use; technological acceptance model; theory of reasoned action; electromobility.
Learning from two meta-technologies the grown (plastics) and the growing (EV batteries): evolution, potential challenges and considerations to manage
by Maruti Khaire
Abstract: One of the most significant inventions that has touched the day-to-day life of common people of our time is plastic material. The material is light in weight, corrosion resistant, weatherproof, easy to manufacture, highly adaptable to its end use with the help of suitable additives and, most importantly, most affordable. However, in spite of having so many advantages, it's major disadvantage is that it is difficult to dispose of and takes a very long time to decompose. The chemicals added to plastic material to improve its properties are toxic in nature, making it an environmentally non-friendly material. The disposal of plastic material is one of the major challenges the world is facing. Landfills, waterway clogging, adverse effect on bio-diversity and severe impact on ocean life are just a few of the challenges, besides the impact on greenhouse gases. In recent times, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have become a growth technology, and almost all the major automotive manufacturers are producing electric vehicles. BEVs have advantages such as very low operating cost, no emission during the vehicle operation and enhanced vehicle maintainability owing to the lower number of rotating parts compared with ICE vehicles. However, BEVs have inherent shortcomings, i.e. their batteries have a comparatively short life and their performance degrades over time. This makes EV batteries prone to present disposal challenges in future similar to those of plastics. If recycling of battery material is prolonged further, it will present the same challenge as plastic material. This paper is focused the similarities and differences between plastics and BEV batteries, which seem to have the potential to generate similar challenges in future. However, considering the nature of EV battery technology and focusing on battery material recycling, this paper also suggests a direction of technologies in order to take advantage of EV technologies. Avoid, minimise, reuse, circular economy, and disposal in landfill are some of the technology directions or considerations to be given in future battery technology development. The focus of this paper is to learn from the plastic evolution and to use this learning to plan for EV battery technology development and adoption.
Keywords: plastics; economics of recycling; challenges of BEVs; battery technologies; landfill; battery types; battery materials; nickel; lithium; cobalt; Li-ion.
Multi-objective optimal driving strategies for hybrid electric motorcycles with parallel configuration
by Jhon Vargas, Gilberto Osorio-Gómez, Tatiana Manrique
Abstract: This paper discusses the problem of determining optimal driving strategies for a 125cc street-type motorcycle with a parallel hybrid configuration. A brief literature review of different types of hybrid motorcycle and energy management strategy indicates that there is a research gap for control and driving strategies for street-type motorcycles. Then, typical characteristics of hybrid parallel architecture are analysed in order to formulate different optimal performance indices, and to propose a dynamic model of a parallel hybrid electric motorcycle. The optimal performance indices are formulated as three different driving strategies, or operation modes, stated as long range, sport and normal. Each strategy is detailed with its corresponding performance functions and costs, based in the state space vector defined for the dynamic model.
Keywords: parallel hybrid motorcycle; dynamic model; optimisation objectives; driving strategies; driving modes; energy management.
Supply chain barriers for electric vehicles and their mitigation strategies: a systematic literature review
by Atul Pandey, Tanuj Nandan
Abstract: Climate change is a global concern. The contribution of the transportation sector to the emission of greenhouse gases is significant. This can be reduced to a large extent by the adoption of electric vehicles. Many barriers affect the adoption and manufacturing of electric vehicles. This study identifies these challenges from a systematic literature review. Demand-side challenges include high price, lack of charging infrastructure, range anxiety, consumer awareness, etc. Supply-side challenges include the high cost of components, technology development issues, massive capital investments, etc. Investments in charging infrastructure, research and development, consumer awareness, and government incentives are identified as mitigation strategies to overcome these challenges.
Keywords: electric vehicles; adoption barriers; supply chain barriers; mitigation strategies; manufacturing barriers; air pollution; charging infrastructure; range anxiety.
Factors influencing the adoption of electric vehicles in India: an empirical analysis
by Rajeev Goswami
Abstract: The adoption of electric vehicles (EV) has potential to address greenhouse gas emissions, energy dependency and resource scarcity. The Indian government has implemented policies and incentives to foster EV adoption. Considering the Indian scenario, an EV purchasing model is proposed that comprises various demographic and behavioral factors. A survey was conducted in six cities of India (Delhi, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Nagpur, Kolkata, and Dehradun). By using logistic regression (LR) methods and three-way contingency chi-square, a novel EV purchasing model is proposed. The LR method reveals that several behavioral factors such as age, environmental consciousness, price, brand, performance, etc., impact the willingness of consumers to adopt EV. With chi-square statistics, the demographic factors such as education level and marital status influence the EV buying behaviour. These factors may facilitate the government to frame more efficacious policies and assist the industry actors in designing diverse marketing and sales strategies to increase the adoption rate of EV.
Keywords: electric vehicles; public policy; willingness to purchase; logistic regression.
Transient power smoothing control strategy for the battery of a pure electric bus
by Meilan Zhou, Weijie Liu, Yu Zhang, Jun Fu
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of unreasonable power distribution of composite energy storage system and battery transient power smoothing in a pure electric bus, this paper designs a fuzzy control strategy and a wavelet transform control strategy. We select the condition of Chinese city buses and Harbin urban road condition as the simulation condition, and carry out the joint simulation through the DLL file and the vehicle simulation software. We obtain the power curves of the battery and ultracapacitor and the system energy flow graph under the two control strategies when running different cycle conditions. The simulation results show that the two control strategies are effective in smoothing the battery transient power. Compared with the fuzzy control strategy, the wavelet transform control strategy makes the battery output power frequency lower, thereby extending the service life of the battery. In order to further verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, we establish an experimental platform for a pure electric bus drive system. The experiment results show that the proposed two control strategies have a significant effect in smoothing the transient power of the battery and improving the energy use rate.
Keywords: battery transient power; composite energy storage; fuzzy control; wavelet transform.
Design and implementation of software and hardware of battery management system based on a novel state of charge estimation method
by Mingyue Zhang, Xiaobin Fan
Abstract: As the main energy source of new energy vehicles, power batteries have always been the focus of attention. Also, the battery management system (BMS) is paid more attention, whose research focuses on the collection of the status and state of charge (SOC) estimation of the battery. A BMS is developed in this paper, which is mainly composed of the battery pack, the lower computer, and the upper computer. The lower computer is responsible for the real-time detection of the battery pack status (voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge) and the communication with the upper computer. The upper computer is responsible for real-time display of the battery pack status and control of the charge and discharge mode. In terms of SOC estimation, the lower computer uses an improved ampere-hour (Ah) integral algorithm, which takes into account factors such as charge and discharge efficiency, temperature, and ageing factor; the upper computer uses a new Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm based on the improved Ah integral algorithm. The model of the new EKF algorithm is the Dual Polarization (DP) model of the battery pack average model, and its parameters are obtained by offline identification according to the data from the hybrid pulse power characterization test. From the results of the 1C constant current discharge experiment, the SOC estimation results of the upper computer and the lower computer have very good accuracy, especially the improved EKF in the upper computer can better estimate the SOC value and track the change of the terminal voltage.
Keywords: SOC estimation; extended Kalman filter; improved ampere-hour integral algorithm; paraments identification; dual polarisation model; battery management system.
Decision making in community patrols concerning the use of electric and hybrid plug-in vehicles
by João Santos, Vitor Moutinho
Abstract: Sustainability and less carbon emission are now two of the most common goals for and from countries, enterprises, and also regular citizens. In this study, we used the information from an already applied questionnaire to assess the perception from the leading structure of the Portuguese Military Police (GNR) concerning the shift to electric and hybrid-electric vehicles. For empirical analysis to evaluate the community patrol point of view, we employ the ordered logistic regression. When the findings of the estimations in both models are applied, it is possible to state that the move to electric cars is considered a command improvement, that is quite possible to use electric vehicles as police cars, especially, but not only, for community patrol.
Keywords: electric mobility; hybrid vehicles; green polices; features technologies; ordinal logistic models.
Electric vehicle charging methods and impact of charging and discharging on distribution system: a review
by Lokendra Kumar, Ravi Lathwal
Abstract: Nowadays, electric vehicles have got more attention from customers owing to a lot of benefits, both atmospheric and economic. Electric vehicles are an emerging tool for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, and providing clean transport systems. Electric vehicles have limited energy for drive as they require recharging of battery. This paper provides a review on recently used charging methods and charging strategy. Owing to the increasing load of electric vehicle charging on the distribution system, we also provide a detailed review of the impact of charging on the distribution system in terms of negative and positive impacts. This paper also investigates the impact of the vehicle to grid scheme. Finally, some research challenges and objectives are indicated.
Keywords: charging method; electric vehicle; vehicle to grid; distribution system (grid); charging infrastructure.
Technological developments in batteries: a survey of modelling, estimation, and management strategies for electric vehicle applications
by Gaddipati Geetha Ravali, Kuthuri Narasimha Raju
Abstract: Battery technology is extensively used as an energy storage system in electric vehicles (EVs). Although large-scale battery energy storage systems are commercially available in the market, such as Pb-acid, NiCd, and Li-ion batteries, the major hurdles are longevity, reliability, cost savings, and safety. Nonetheless, owing to technological advancement, more research and development are progressing towards the future battery chemistries, such as metal-air and flow batteries. This study aims to explore and compare the features of various battery technologies. Besides, the prerequisite condition for efficient battery operation is its accurate cell model. The popularly used battery models for electric vehicles are summarised. Emphasis is given on battery models concerning hysteresis effect, capacity degradation, and thermal behaviour to characterise the real-world performance by incorporating several factors into mathematical equations. Moreover, the successful operation of EVs depends on accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation, which is a challenging task to be performed by an effective battery management system. This paper presents the performance of various SOC estimation techniques by considering the major nonlinearities, such as capacity degradation, ambient temperature, and many unknown errors. Thus, the analysis emphasises many key issues, challenges, and recommendations for developments in SOC estimation and enhancement of battery management systems for future EVs.
Keywords: battery energy storage system; battery modelling; capacity degradation; state of charge; states estimation methods; thermal model.
Current status of electric vehicles in India: an overview
by Vikas Khare, Cheshta Khare, Savita Nema, Prashant Baredar
Abstract: In the present scenario, the best use of new technology makes it necessary to increase its use in the transportation sector. Electric vehicles and hybrid plugin electric vehicles are a very good option to replace conventional gasoline and diesel operated vehicles. Developed and developing countries such as China and Germany are working prominently in this area and have created a lot of infrastructure for the enhancement of the market for these vehicles. In India, there is extensive growth in the two-, three- and four-wheeler electric vehicles. This paper presents the current infrastructure of electric vehicles in the country and addresses the state-wise numbers of electric vehicles registered in the last 5 to 10 years. Further, Indian government policy towards green vehicles and an ecosystem of electric vehicles in terms of market, technical and infrastructure is also presented. The paper analyses the pros and cons of electric vehicles from an environmental point of view, where some hurdles are also occurring due to the electric vehicle infrastructure. Assessment of charging framework in the India and the grid parity of an electric vehicle are the key points addressed in this paper. Finally, a solar-powered charging infrastructure is suggested to mitigate the environmental issues and the Master Operation Scheduling (MOS) of electric vehicle transportation in India is discussed.
Keywords: electric vehicle; government policy; environmental issue; charging station; ecosystem; grid parity; forecasting; master operation scheduling.
Recent advancements and key challenges with energy storage technologies for electric vehicles
by M.Venkatesh Naik
Abstract: The electrical energy storage technologies play major roles in electric vehicles (EVs).They are key source of power to the electric motors. The available electrical energy may be stored in various domains, electrochemical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical. The electrochemical storage devices are primary and secondary batteries. The electrical storage devices are ultracapacitors and chemical are fuel cells. These three methods are popularly employed in modern EVs. There are various challenges existing with each type of energy storage technology. Out of all, the electrochemical, electrical and chemical storage technologies are mainly focused on. In this paper, the key challenges with all these three technologies are emphasised. The lithium ion (Li-on) type of batteries have gained much popularity in modern EV market owing to their light weight, high specific energy, high efficiency and high energy density. Currently, there are no other battery technologies that can compete with Li-on batteries. Their cost has dropped to $150/kWh as of 2020. In this paper, the challenges related to Li-on batteries, ultracapacitors and fuel cells are presented.
Keywords: energy storage technologies for EV; electric vehicle batteries; battery degradation; Li-ion batteries; ultracapacitors; challenges with energy storage technologies.
Optimisation analysis of cogging torque of in-wheel motor based on Ansoft parametric modelling for electric vehicles
by Qiping Chen, Hao Shao, JIe Bai, Yuan Xiao, Zhihui Xu
Abstract: In order to weaken the cogging torque of in-wheel motors of electric vehicles, this paper proposes a method based on Ansoft parametric modelling to optimise the cogging torque of in-wheel motors. Firstly, the cause of cogging torque is theoretically analysed. Secondly, a parametric model of the in-wheel motor is established in RMxprt. The five parameters including slot width, slot depth, magnetic pole thickness, pole arc coefficient and number of conductors per slot are parameterised, and the modelling and simulation are carried out. The cogging torque trend graphs and cogging torque maximum data scatter plots for different slot widths are obtained, and the simulation data are analysed. Finally, a 2D model of the in-wheel motor was established in Maxwell software. The validity of the model was verified by the simulation, and the distribution of magnetic lines of force, magnetic flux density and waveform curve of induction electromotive force at different times was obtained. The research results show that the maximum value of the cogging torque is 938.091 mN m, the minimum value is 83.59 mN m. and the reduction is about 91%. Therefore, the method based on Ansoft parametric modeling proposed in this paper has a significant effect on the optimisation of the cogging torque, and also provides a certain reference value for the optimisation design of the cogging torque of in-wheel motors for electric vehicles.
Keywords: electric vehicle; in-wheel motor; Ansoft; parametric modelling; cogging torque.
Research on two-stage isolated on-board charger and control technology
by Kai Zhou, Hanfeng Wang, Dongyang Sun
Abstract: A two-stage isolated on-board charger (OBC) is proposed for electric vehicles. The OBC adopts two-stage topology including three-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter and full-bridge LLC resonant converter. The OBC can charge the high voltage battery and achieve power factor correction function. Compared with the conventional control circuit, the pre-stage PFC circuit adopts current inner loop composite controller, the composite controller is composed of a repetitive controller and a proportional and integral (PI) controller connected in parallel, which can reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input AC current. The rear-stage adopts full-bridge LLC resonant converter operates with zero-voltage switching in the full output voltage range. The main parameters of the pre-stage PFC circuit and the rear-stage circuit were designed, the OBC has an input AC voltage range between 187 and 253 V, and the output DC voltage range between 280 and 420 V. Simulation and experimental results confirm the correctness of the theoretical analysis.
Keywords: on-board charger; three-phase PFC circuit; composite controller; LLC resonant converter.
Examining the factors influencing consumers choice for electric vehicles in India
by Prasanna S, Varadarajan Rangarajan, Mohsin Khan, K.A.Asraar Ahmed
Abstract: The environmental concerns arising from carbon dioxide emission created by the transportation sector have been attracting policy measures in every country. One such measure is developing and promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles. This study aims to understand the influence of social, economic, and psychological factors on consumers adoption of electric vehicles. A structured questionnaire consisting of 15 factors was administrated to 650 respondents from the southern part of India. The logistic regression model was used to analyse the influence of chosen factors on consumers adoption of an electric vehicle. The study revealed that factors like age, annual income, attitude, educational qualification, concern towards environment, gender, and the number of vehicles in the family, place of residence, and vehicle price have a significant influence on consumers willingness to adopt electric vehicles, while factors such as awareness, opinion of family members, tax incentive and availability of recharge stations did not show any influence. These findings provide insights on factors affecting consumers choice of electric vehicle purchase which can aid businesses and government in developing strategies to promote the use of electric vehicles in India. The policy makers must come up with suitable promotional strategies and also they must demonstrate that environmental concerns are vital and its protection is a common cause of all stake holders. EV users must get proper recognition and appreciation to attract others to adopt EVs.
Keywords: electric vehicle; alternative fuel vehicle; consumers’ adoption; environmental concern.
Early electric vehicle charging. A survey
by Vadim Yakovlev
Abstract: This survey considers charging of electric vehicles at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. Inspection of the characteristics of some typical models of electric cars and trucks revealed that they were equipped with lead-acid or nickel-iron batteries. These batteries had nominal voltage between 40 V and 88 V, ampere-hour capacity between 96 Ah and 450 Ah. Construction and charging methods of vehicle batteries did not change principally during the last 130 years. Instruction manuals for storage batteries helped to determine the recommended parameters of ordinary and fast charge in 1900s. Motor-generator sets and mercury arc rectifiers were used as home chargers. They supported unattended charge at night hours. Infrastructure including road network, service and charging stations expanded gradually in developed countries in 1900s. Some of these stations might charge a sufficient number of electric vehicles at once; they were equipped with rotary converters, motor-generator sets, and mercury arc rectifiers.
Keywords: electric vehicles; road transport history; storage battery; battery charging.
Optimal control for shift mechanism of a planetary two-speed transmission for electric vehicles
by Xinxin Zhao, Jinggang Zhang, Jing Tang
Abstract: For increasing mileage of electric vehicles (EVs), its necessary to improve the energy density of the battery and the transmission efficiency of the powertrain system. We designed a planetary two-speed transmission for using the high efficiency of the motor effectively, which helps to achieve powerful and economic performance. It provides an electronic mechanism replacing the hydraulic system for shifting, which consists of worm gear systems driven by a brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. To improve shifting quality, the speed control of BLDC motor was developed using a variation principle fitted by high order polynomials. The dynamic model of electronic actuator for shifting was built for evaluating the shifting control of the BLDC motor. The simulation results revealed that the speed of BLDC motor fitted by 5th order polynomial could make a smooth shift and low friction work of brakes comparing with 3rd order and 7th order polynomials.
Keywords: shifting mechanism; planetary two-speed transmission; optimal gear shifting; calculus of variations.
Mutual inductance estimation between rectangular structure magnetic coils with various misalignments for wireless EV charger
by Srinivasa Rao Nayak, Peddanna Gundugallu
Abstract: Mutual inductance measurement and analysis are growing into an important branch of research and development for wireless power transfer devices, such as stationary, dynamic EV chargers and mobile chargers, biomedical sensors, etc. In this paper, mutual inductance (MI) between rectangular structure coupled coils has been investigated using Neumanns formula in the Cartesian coordinate system under perfect, planar, angular, and planar with angular misalignments. Further, MI values are estimated using FEM (Finite Element Modelling) simulation and verified experimentally without ferrite core. The comparative analysis of the analytically computed MI results is accurate and relative error is negligible. Furthermore, the calculated MI value with that of FEM simulation and experimentation shows that as the distance between coupled coils increases MI decreases for all misalignment cases. However, the MI increased by using ferrite core for all misalign conditions and it is computed using FEM and experimentation.
Keywords: electric vehicles; finite element modelling; magnetic flux density; misalignment; mutual inductance; rectangular structure; wireless power transfer.
Consumer behaviour towards eco-friendly cars: exploring the triad - awareness, attitude and behaviour.
by Suresh Chandra Padhy, A. Ameer Hussain
Abstract: This research is aimed at predicting the consumer behaviour towards eco-friendly cars. The paper analyses the triadic relationship between awareness, attitude and behaviour and proposes the model based on the same using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). As a part of the research, data was collected from 1067 car owners of Pune and Aurangabad. The results were compared and analysed to predict the car owners' behaviour. The result shows that awareness and attitude of the car owners towards the environment positively impact sustainable action and their behaviour. The strength of the relationship between attitude and behaviour is more than the strength of the relationship between awareness and behaviour, indicating that attitude of the car owner plays a significant role in the triadic relationship. The model supports the idea that awareness of environmental issues during manufacturing, use and disposal of the automobiles changes the attitudes of people.
Keywords: environment; eco-friendly car; structural equation model; knowledge; attitude; behaviour.
Position sensorless control system of SPMSM based on high frequency signal injection method with passive controller
by Yu Zhang, Jiahong Liu, Meilan Zhou, Hanying Gao
Abstract: In this study, a high-frequency pulsed voltage signal is injected into the d axis of the synchronous rotating frame of a surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM) with insignificant salient pole effects. Through detection and analysis of the high-frequency current response signal at the stator side, the rotor position and speed information can be extracted to achieve sensorless control of the motor. A passive controller with a port-controlled Hamiltonian dissipative (PCHD) structure is designed by using the principle of energy forming and the method of interconnection-damping configuration. A 2.2-kW SPMSM experimental platform is built for experimental verification. The simulation results show that when the motor is running at a low speed, the proposed pulse-induced high-frequency voltage signal injection method exhibits a higher accuracy of rotor position and speed estimation. The passive controller can suppress the fluctuation of the motor starting speed and demonstrates a better ability to resist load disturbance.
Keywords: SPMSM; passivity-based; high-frequency injection;position sensorless control.
Research of electric vehicle on-board controller based on inverter time division multiplexing
by Kai Zhou, Yang Liu, Ningzhi Jin, Dongyang Sun
Abstract: Based on traditional electric vehicle motor controller topology, the proposed on-board controller adopts the form of a time-sharing multiplexing IGBT power module to expand the functions of the motor controller to simultaneously realise motor drive and battery charging. The integrated drive/charge controller structure is proposed, and its working principle is explained in this work. The mathematical model of the converter in driving and charging modes is analysed, and the control strategy in the two modes is determined. A double closed-loop structure is then designed, and PI adjustment parameters are calculated. Hardware requirements in different modes are then comprehensively considered, and parameters of the reused energy storage element are designed. Based on the calculated parameters of the PI regulator and multiplexed energy storage components, a simulation system is built in Simulink, and the simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the integrated controller.
Keywords: electric vehicle; on-board controller; integrated driving/charging; double closed-loop control.
An exploration on electric vehicle purchase intention
by Nagarajan Shanmugavel, Chidambaram Alagappan
Abstract: The crucial objective of this research is to explore the effect of environmental product knowledge, environmental concern, perceived behavioral control and perceived innovativeness on electric vehicles purchase intention and to explore the direct and indirect effect of these variables on customers purchase intention of electric vehicles. This research employed several variables from two different theories, namely the TBP and UTAUT, to explore the cumulative impact of the variables on purchase intention of electric vehicles. The uniqueness of this study is that it considered perceived innovativeness along with these environmental constructs to explore the purchase intention of electric vehicles from a sample of 322 general public. The final outcome of this research signifies that environmental product knowledge has a substantial effect on EV purchase intention, perceived innovativeness has positive significant effect on EV purchase intention, and environmental product knowledge on electric vehicle purchase intention is positively moderated by age.
Keywords: electric vehicle purchase intention; environmental product knowledge; environmental concern; perceived behavioral control; perceived innovativeness.
Comprehensive review of charging solutions for electric vehicles: an internet of things based approach
by Sarasij Adhikary, Pabitra Kumar Biswas, Chiranjit Sain
Abstract: Electric Vehicles (EV) are bringing in a new era in transportation by reducing emissions, noiseless operation, and the efficient consumption of energy compared with internal combustion Engines. However, EVs have has significant limitations in terms of battery capacity, lack of long-range travel, long charging time, and cost. A smart and optimised charging technique will help the consumer for the energy consumption of EV as per time of use. The sharing of charge in the interest of charging cost reduction and increasing energy demand due to EV charging may affect the load balancing of the power system. The charging infrastructure development may increase the performance criterion. This paper includes a brief discussion about EV components, which will help researchers for a quick overview of EVs, and an improved charging solution for EVs is proposed.
Keywords: electric vehicles; electric vehicle charging; charging strategies.
Modelling and a nalysis of electric two-wheeler with novel planetary gear box transmission
by Aditya Paranjape, Amey Kulkarni, Mihir Kulkarni, Neeraj Kumbhojkar
Abstract: With the world moving towards new sustainable sources of power for automobiles, electric powertrain systems are considered to be suitable. The study focuses on modelling and analysis of electric two-wheeler and designing and analysis of planetary gear box. Based on the analysis and market survey, recommendations for primary components are given. The electric vehicle is analysed using the drive cycle data and modelled using vehicle dynamics equations. The result of this analysis is the current profile requirement to be fulfilled by the battery pack. The battery modelling and analysis is done based on the equivalent circuit modelling. The current profiles and battery testing data is used as input to the battery model. SOC and voltage variations were determined from this modelling. The transmission gear ratio and geometry was determined. The dynamic analysis and life cycle estimation of the gear box was done in Ricardo SABR.
Keywords: electric vehicle; planetary gear box; powertrain; battery; modelling.
Fuzzy super twist sliding mode control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motor
by Kai Zhou, Hanfeng Wang, Dongyang Sun, Ningzhi Jin
Abstract: To improve the dynamic quality of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) speed control system, a sliding mode control strategy based on a fuzzy super twist algorithm (STA-SMC) is proposed to solve the chattering problem of the traditional sliding mode control strategy. The traditional sliding mode control (SMC) in the speed controller is replaced by the STA-SMC, which is a second-order sliding mode control. The chattering of the SMC can be effectively suppressed, and the robustness of the system can be improved. The fuzzy controller is used to adjust the control parameters of the STA-SMC, bringing them into alignment with fuzzy rules to effectuate the self-tuning process of the super twist algorithm sliding mode, so as to accelerate the convergence speed of the system and improve the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the system. Through simulation and experiments, the effectiveness and feasibility of the control strategy are demonstrated in this paper.
Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motor; super twisting algorithm; sliding mode control; fuzzy control.
Development of powertrain mounting system for high frequency characteristics optimization in electric vehicles
by Sandip Hazra, Janardhan Reddy
Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a powertrain mount at high frequency is an important criterion for vibration isolation performance of an electric vehicle (EV), whereas in an internal combustion engine (ICE), low-frequency dynamic stiffness is generally considered, although the dynamic stiffness from 1000 to 3000 Hz impacts overall in-cab noise and articulation index in both ICE and EV. Motor excitation frequency can lead to high frequency resonance issue in an EV. In this paper, the powertrain mount design technique is described in detail to address high frequency issues. The high frequency problem is first analytically described. The effect of non-identical stiffness of rubber legs within a mount is simulated for dynamic frequency response. A case study shows the impact of non-identical mount stiffness by changing the rubber leg design, on vehicle level high frequency resonance.
Keywords: electric vehicle; powertrain mount; dynamic stiffness; high frequency.