International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (10 papers in press)
Analysis of performance improvement in energy storage system for electric vehicles: a review
by V.M. Dileepan, J. Jayakumar
Abstract: The selection of the energy storage system is crucial for electric vehicles. It should have good energy density and considerable power density, and also it must be light weight. So a battery with considerably high energy density must be used in electric vehicles. Lithium ion batteries are very much preferred as electric vehicle batteries. They have high energy density, high life cycle and smooth operation. But the problem related to lithium batteries are they have high temperature sensitivity, and their operation will be affected by over-current charging and over-current discharging beyond their maximum rated values and also be influenced by driving conditions and performance of motors used. So a battery management, control and optimisation system is essential in electric vehicle battery packs. This paper is a review of the design of a novel battery management and control system for lithium ion batteries for performance improvement in electric vehicles.
Keywords: battery; battery management system; control of energy storage system; driving pattern; energy storage system optimisation; electric vehicles; lithium ion battery; motor selection for electric vehicles; performance improvement; vehicle range.
Brake blending and torque vectoring of road electric vehicles: a flexible approach based on smart torque allocation
by Luca Pugi, Tommaso Favilli, Lorenzo Berzi, Edoardo Locorotondo, Marco Pierini
Abstract: Application of regenerative braking on electric vehicles has a large impact on several aspects of design, implemented functionalities and overall performance of road vehicles. In particular, multi-quadrant capabilities and improved control performances of modern electric drives can be fully exploited to improve vehicle efficiency, stability and overall environmental impact. Conventional mechanical friction brakes are currently devoted not only to stop the vehicle but also to the actuation of safety related mechatronics systems such as EBD (Electronic Braking Distribution), ABS (AntiBlockierSystem) and ESC/ESP (Electronic Stability Control/Program). The result is an over-actuated system of electrical (electric motors) and mechanical actuators (friction brakes), whose mixed, blended application has to be carefully optimised. This work proposes a simplified approach in which a concept transferred from previous studies on high speed trains and autonomous vehicles is re-proposed and adapted in an innovative way to electric road vehicles
Keywords: vehicle dynamics; regenerative braking; mechatronics; optimal thrust; torque allocation.
Developed operation of inverter-fed induction motor to drive electric vehicles
by Basem Elhady, Hamed A. Ibrahim, Shereen A. Elsayed, Fathy Abd-Elkader
Abstract: This paper focuses on increasing the operating efficiency of the inverter drive induction motor for electric vehicles. The vehicle speed control is achieved by changing the frequency from 5 Hz to 100 Hz. In this work, the characteristics of inverter control for induction motor drive for electric vehicles are established. The mathematical analysis is computed by computer programs. The computed characteristic curves are obtained. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining an actual electric vehicle in the lap, a fan load equivalent to the electric vehicle is used. The load characteristics are measured at different motor applied voltages for energy saving.
Keywords: three phase induction motor; control indication motor; traction application.
Graphene: the future of high power density electrical machines for electric vehicle applications
by Ramesh Pandiyarajan, Lenin Natesan Chokkalingam
Abstract: The key challenges faced by many of the industries in the present scenario is to develop a high power density electrical machine. The advances in material technology help the industries to enhance the power density as well as the efficiency of an electrical machine to a greater extent. Conductors play a major role in improving the machines performance. In this paper, the role of conducting materials in high power density electrical machines is discussed. Graphene is an advanced nanomaterial that exhibits excellent conductivity with low mass density. Using graphene-coated windings, the weight and volume of the machine can be reduced significantly. In order to understand the prominent features of the nanomaterial-based conductors, a case study has been carried in different electric vehicles, such as Toyota Prius (2017), Nissan Leaf and BMW i3. Moreover, a major constraint in high power density machine is the temperature rise, which is discussed at the end.
Keywords: electrical machine; graphene; high power density.
A parameter matching study for power system of electric sweeping vehicle based on AVL CRUISE
by Jianwei Ma
Abstract: The electric sweeper is a hot spot of research and development at present, and parameter matching design of power transmission system is one of the key technologies. In this paper, the practical significance of developing the electric sweeper is introduced, the parameters of power system are designed based on the energy transfer of the whole vehicle, the parameters of the motor and power battery are designed and selected to meet the performance design target, and the final drive and the second gear ratio are determined. The whole vehicle model is established and dynamic analysis is carried out using AVL CRUISE software. The simulation results show that the parameters designed for the power system meet the design requirements. This provides a reference for the design and research of the power system of the electric sweeper.
Keywords: power system; parameter matching; AVL CRUISE; electric sweeper.
Increasing fuel economy of commercial transport by using a hybrid power train
by Anastasiia Markina, Evgeny Meltsyn
Abstract: Undoubtedly, the issue of increasing the fuel economy of passenger commercial vehicles is of the utmost importance, since the annual increase in the cost of fuel leads to an increase in the fixed costs of not only transport companies, but also small and medium-sized businesses. Using a hybrid power train (HPT) can reduce fuel consumption in the urban cycle, which is important for commercial vehicles used to deliver goods and passengers within the city, especially when it comes to megacities where traffic is difficult and average speeds are not high. Unfortunately, the cost of cars with a hybrid power train, such as Toyota Prius, Lexus RX 450H, Ford Fusion Hybrid and others, remains quite high and cannot be fully compensated just at the expense of fuel economy.
Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle; hybrid power train; fuel consumption; fuel economy; mild hybrid.
Experimental study of lithium-ion battery cooling using mixture of phase change materials
by Pradeep Ramu, Venugopal Thangavel
Abstract: Phase change materials are of attractive interest in electricity storage and power management applications because of their excessive heat energy and extraordinary athletics stability. In this paper, phase transition materials (PCM) are used for thermal management of an electric battery pack. An industrial paraffin with a melting temperature of 58 deg.C, commercially accessible phase transition material OM35 with melting temperature of 35 deg.C, two PCMs (paraffin wax and OM35) are used for the study, as mixtures at two different ratios (50:50 and 60:40). Computations and experiments are allotted to estimate the heat transfer, solidifying and melting characteristics of the PCM used in the lithium ion cell battery module. A strip heater is used to emulate the heat generation from the electric battery throughout charging and discharging, with managed close temperatures and strength inputs. Each battery temperature and therefore the housing wall temperature are measured throughout transient heating conditions. Since PCM has low thermal conduction, thermal improvement techniques are investigated by inserting a copper plate into the PCM mixtures to boost the thermal conduction. The PCM combination with 50:50 quantitative relation is more capable of holding battery running temperature compared with PCM combination 60:40. PCM combination 50:50 evidences to be ideal and lowered the operating temperature of the battery pack by up to 47 deg.C.
Keywords: lithium ion cell; battery thermal management; PCM; CFD.
Electric vehicles in India: current trends and future forecasts
by Vishal Shukla
Abstract: As globalisation is increasing, so is the demand for oil-based energy which is ultimately resulting in the rapid fluctuation of the market prices of the crude oil due to the basic principle of economics Law of Demand. This volatility and uncertainty in crude oil's demand and prices create pressure on governments and policymakers to look at new alternatives, one of them being the adaptation of green technologies. Green alternatives seem to be the trend of the future business and markets. Many business giants are compelled to spend heavily on their R & D and come up with innovative technologies focusing mainly on green technologies. In line with the developed countries, India, as a developing economy, is all set to plunge into this new innovative market of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and aims to become a major producer of the EVs for the Indian market as well as the globally. So, this research article aims to explore the expected demand for EVs, the market share, and the contribution of the EVs and associated technologies to foreign trade.
Keywords: disruption; Electric Vehicle; Green Technology; Indian Economy; Innovation; Market Demand.
Research on equivalent fuel consumption minimisation strategy design and optimisation for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
by Huan Guo, Weishun Deng, Fan Yu
Abstract: In this paper, an Equivalent fuel Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) based on the optimal fuel economy is proposed and optimised for the Charge Sustaining (CS) period of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). To overcome the disadvantages of low convergence rate and insufficient of population evolution, the crossover probability and mutation probability of the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA) are improved to be varied along with the iteration and fitness value. Meanwhile, an elite retention strategy is adopted to avoid the population degradation. The fuel equivalent factor is then optimised by Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) to obtain the optimal fuel economy. Corresponding hardware-in-the-loop simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the strategy optimised by IGA. The results indicate that within allowable deviation of the state of charge, the PHEV can obtain better fuel economy by combining the proposed method.
Keywords: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; charge sustaining; energy management strategy; improved genetic algorithm; fuel economy.
Automatic discovery and selection of most qualified electric vehicle charging station
by Raziq Yaqub, Kaveh Heidary
Abstract: Media reports that Electric Vehicles (EVs) still outnumber public charging stations by more than six to one is consistent with the early stage of electric car deployment. Thus finding charging stations may be a daunting task for EV drivers. Though the issue can be dealt with by providing online directories, web-based charging station locators and GPS-assisted gears, these methods are not adequate, because they do not help EV drivers automatically discover and select the most qualified EV charging station. Thus it will be frustrating for a driver to reach a certain location, or multiple locations, and not find a service because of grid inadequacy, long waiting queue, neighborhood safety, or the value he was looking for. This paper introduces a method and apparatus based on which the smart client installed in an EV would automatically discover, shortlist, and select, or recommend to the EV driver, the most qualified EV charging station.
Keywords: electric vehicle charging stations; most qualified EV charging station
Charging station Discovery; Selection; and Status Server (CDSSS); CDSS Client (CDSSC).