Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Electronic Finance

International Journal of Electronic Finance (IJEF)

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International Journal of Electronic Finance (79 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • E-bidding adoption among SMEs: Evidence from an African emerging market   Order a copy of this article
    by Youssef Chetioui, Tahar Harkat, Fatimazahra Rais, Hind Lebdaoui, Imane Lebdaoui, Souad Nassir 
    Abstract: While digitalisation reforms aiming to enhance the quality of public services were made in place, most stakeholders in developing countries still use paper-based-tendering processes, which are associated with increased costs. To overcome these problems, calls to adopt e-bidding have recently emerged. This study aims to explore the readiness of Moroccan SMEs to adopt e-bidding. To achieve this goal, we proposed an integrated framework combining the TAM and UTAUT models to examine the predictors of SMEs intention to adopt e-bidding. We empirically tested the conceptual model using a partial least squares (PLS) estimation based on data from 210 SMEs. Our results suggest that effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, and social influence as the key factors influencing SMEs intention to adopt e-bidding. We also suggest firm size as a significant moderator. This will help in improving SMEs’ user experience and will also allow a better implementation of e-bidding in Morocco and similar contexts.
    Keywords: electronic bidding; UTAUT; TAM; emerging markets; Morocco; digitalisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10056312
  • Enhancing Clean Technology's Dynamic Cross Technique Using Value Chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Luigi Pio Leonardo Cavaliere, Sanjay Rizal, Krishnasamy Srinivasan, Ashutosh Singh, Iskandar Muda, Surendra Kumar Shukla 
    Abstract: Numerous Indian economic sectors have been impacted by the COVID-19 epidemic, with many being forced to the verge of extinction. As a result, this essay analyses the importance of supply chains for grapes and the manufactured goods made from them, including beverages and currants, in a specific state that happens to be India’s top grape-producing region. In order to identify the sites of rupture brought on by the pandemic and to recommend policy changes to create a resilient system, a value chain analysis is performed. Value chain management has emerged as one of the key strategies businesses use today to boost productivity and costs when they are up against greater rivalry in the marketplace, however, with several new challenges, such as concerns over security, environmental protection, compensation, and business accountability. According to the value chain study, the level of value addition for intermediary agents, such as pre-harvest contractors, has increased after COVID-19 at the expense of farmers. Various policy approaches are explained to enhance the grape value chain using the knowledge gained from Porter’s value chain results and supply and demand shocks.
    Keywords: fruit and vegetable cycle; system efficiency evaluation; fresh produce warehouse; innovative design; COVID-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10056594
  • Crypto Currency and Economic Growth in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Chi Aloysius Ngong  
    Abstract: This study investigates the link between crypto-currencies and economic growth from 2012Q1 to 2019Q4. GDP per capita measures economic growth. Bitcoin transactions volume, private sector credit and foreign direct investment measured currency circulation using Engle-Granger residual co-integration, fully modified OLS, dynamic OLS and conical co-integration regression. Results unveil long-term relationship between crypto-currencies and economic growth. The findings indicate a negative long-run association between LNBVT and GDP. The Central Bank of Nigeria and government should improve the legal system to regulate crypto currencies transactions. This research suggests implementation of effective laws on crypto-currencies transactions to limit crypto-currencies’ negativities in the global economy. This is possible if the crypto-currencies’ developers create geographically delimited or encrypted protocols. This study recommends that all economic actors should be open-minded towards technological innovations. The suggested policies would improve crypto-currency acceptance in the economies globally. The authorities should regulate crypto-currencies’ usage and security from illegal activities.
    Keywords: crypto currency; economic growth; fully modified OLS; FMOLS; dynamic OLS; DOLS; conical co-integration regression; CCR; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10056974
  • Analysis of the Specified Paint Company’s Financial Performance together with the Impact on Stock Liquidity   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadhishkumar V, P.Uma Swarupa 
    Abstract: The study examined the paint manufacturers stock price-liquidity correlation. Choosing the best model and forecasting paint company stock values are financial decisions. Yahoo Finance and Money Control were examined. Demand and supply set prices in open markets. Equilibrium explains stock markets. The top three NSE India-listed paint companies by market cap were examined. Shorting equities reduces market activity, influencing shareholder sentiment and liquidity. This cubic regression model study measures investor sentiment. According to studies, optimistic investors boost market liquidity. Margin trading dampens investor mood and market liquidity. Cognitive data limits market liquidity. Explosive data enhances liquidity in bull markets, decreases it in bear markets, and has no influence when startled. March 2017 to February 2022 data was collected monthly. Liquidity does not affect paint makers stock prices. The cubic regression equation accurately forecasted paint company stock values. The regression equation predicted that AKZOINDIA would trade for 1,912.40, 1,960.45, 1,918.48, 1,872.30, and 1,821.78 Indian rupees in March, April, May, June and July. ASIAN PAINTS may trade for 3,203.00, 3,614.16, 3,714.51, 3,817.38, and 3,922.81 rupees. BERGER PAINT may trade for 736.80, 788.94, 788.67, 787.18, and 784.41 Indian rupees.
    Keywords: liquidity; stock performance; stock market liquidity; investment and expense; microeconomic; global reactions; liquidity traders; financial ratios.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057057
  • Digitalization Boost Operation Efficiency with Special Emphasize to Banking Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Sai Sudha J., V. S. PRASAD KANDI 
    Abstract: The banking sector has experienced a substantial technological shift that has opened up new and better opportunities for its customers. Based on their technological expenditures, the study assessed the two biggest public Indian banks and the two biggest private Indian banks. The most crucial statistical techniques used to demonstrate the aims are realistic are bivariate correlations and ordinary least squares. This work aims to establish a connection between research and a technology index that serves as a proxy for operational efficiency. The results show that for both public and private banks, the technology index positively influences operational efficiency metrics like IT costs, marketing costs, and compensation costs. This suggests that when the technology index increases, so do IT, marketing, and compensation costs, even though it has been shown that the technology index favourably improves operational efficiency measures like depreciation and printing. This means that the cost to banks is high despite greater investment in technology for these activities.
    Keywords: digitalisation; boost operation; banking sector; public sector banks; Indian economy; financial performance; entrants; incumbents.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057174
  • Insights from Bibliometric Analysis: Exploring Digital Payments Future Research Agendas   Order a copy of this article
    by Lata Saini, Satish Khasa 
    Abstract: Along with amazing advancements in the field of digital payments, this article seeks to provide a summary of research undertaken over the last four decades and to suggest areas in need of additional study. This study employs a two-pronged technique for analysing its data. The first is concerned with performance analysis, and the second with science mapping. The study uses the apps VOS viewer and R-studio to do bibliometric data analysis. From 1982 until May 2022, the most trustworthy database, Scopus, is used to compile a database of 923 publications The findings of this study identify the scope of current research interest, which is explored with critical contributions from a variety of authors, journals, countries, affiliations, keyword analysis, citation analysis, co-citation analysis, and bibliometric coupling, as well as a potential research direction for further investigation in this emerging field.
    Keywords: digital payments; electronic payments; bibliometric analysis; mobile payment; VOSviewer; R-studio.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057459
  • Understanding the trend and GAP of studies related to the banks' financial performance: A review of the literature using Bibliometric as well as thematic analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaspreet Kaur, Nitin Pathak, Sanjay Taneja, Ercan Özen 
    Abstract: The financial performance of banks is a very eye-chancing topic for the researchers since 19th century. As this research focuses on the years 2012 to 2021, which is the period when the Situation of pandemic happens and the banking system of the globe get entirely changed after this. Their performance still gets jolted. Accordingly, results are extracted. Out of 5,974, Scopus covers 4,840 journals in the top-level subject field of finance, business management, accounting, social sciences, and econometrics. So based on this, it extracted 1,917 papers. To know the countries which primarily did a study on that and even the best journals that publish these researches, even identify the basic keywords used by the various authors. It also identified top researchers related to this area. Research had been conducted on the 1,917 papers which are indexed in the Scopus database. Thematic analysis was done to know about the future of the particular topic. Through that analysis found that profitability, credit risk, and commercial bank are the themes that are niche covered and these fields required much consternation by the researchers for future research. Now new topics are to know the profitability of commercial banks through data envelop analysis instead of bench-marking.
    Keywords: biometric analysis; business management; finance; service sector; performance assessment.

  • Research on the operational efficiency of Chinese fintech companies based on the DEA model   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao Ling Song, Pei Peng, Xuan Qin 
    Abstract: Fintech is important for China's 'new infrastructure' and for driving strategic innovation at the national level. Measurement systems are constructed considering cost income and company development. The DEA model is used to analyse the operating efficiency and slack variables of 55 listed fintech companies from 2014 to 2019. This paper distinguishes between the establishment years, enterprise attributes, and scale of companies. It concludes that companies with high establishment years are more efficient than those with low establishment years. The average comprehensive technical efficiency changes of non-state-owned enterprises are slightly higher than those with low establishment years. Non-SBM effective enterprises' investment redundancy indicators are total assets, payable employee compensation, and the number of employees, while insufficient output is reflected in net profit's indicator. Based on the research results, suggestions are made to promote the sustainable development of fintech in China, which is significant for the promotion of financial innovation in China.
    Keywords: Fintech; corporate operational efficiency; standard DEA model; dynamic DEA model; SBM-DEA model; slack variables; decision-making unit; DMU; establishment years; enterprise attributes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057607
  • Oil price and profitability: evidence from Southeast Asian countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Aslan Tleugaliyev, Alimshan Faizulayev, Muhammad Arslan 
    Abstract: The paper explores the influence of macroeconomic variables on the profitability of the aviation sector in the Southeast Asia region. The panel corrected standard errors (PCSE) regression model was employed for the period 2011 to 2019 on a sample of six countries (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). The results revealed the positive effect of an increase in inflation whereas increases in government expenditure, lending, interest rate, profit tax, and the 2014 year associated with the decline in global oil prices, exert a statistically negative influence on the financial performance of the aviation sector in Southeast Asia region. The effect of changes in oil prices and population growth, 2015 to 2016 years as the continuation of global oil prices decreases, is statistically insignificant. The paper contributes to the understanding of important economic factors affecting the financial performance of the aviation industry in Southeast Asian countries in light of the COVID-19 outbreak and for further development of the economic sector.
    Keywords: oil prices; airlines; profitability; return on assets; ROA; panel corrected standard error; PCSE; panel data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057784
  • Business Intelligence in Human Management Strategies During COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Melanie Lourens, Arup Roy Chowdhury, Sammaiah B, Brijesh Goswami, Shivinder Phoolka, Shruti Sharma 
    Abstract: The spread of COVID-19 results in disruption, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity in all businesses. Employees help companies achieve their aims. To manage human resources sustainably, analyse organisational strategy. This thorough research study attempts to find previously unidentified challenges, cutting-edge techniques, and surprising decisions in human resource management outside of healthcare organisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. The narrative review examined corporate human resource management measures to mitigate COVID-19. Fifteen publications were selected for the study after removing duplicates and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. This article examines HR’s COVID-19 response. Human resource management’s response to economic and financial crises has been extensively studied, but the COVID-19 pandemic has not. This paper reviewed the literature to reach its goal. The results followed the AMO framework for human resource policies and procedures and the HR management system. This document suggests COVID-19 pandemic-related changes to human resource management system architecture, policies, and practises. The study created a COVID-19 pandemic human resource management framework based on the literature. The COVID-19 pandemic had several negative effects, including social and behavioural changes, economic shock, and organisational disruption.
    Keywords: negative outcomes; business intelligence; human resource management; pandemic; contagious illness; SARS-CoV-2; unexpected global problems; COVID-19; novel coronavirus.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057949
  • Artificial Intelligence in Behavioural Finance Using A Sophisticated Decision-Tree Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Shirley Leo Pereira, Jainambu Gani Abbas, V. Mahalakshmi 
    Abstract: Financial market statistics have been an essential part of the national economy due to their capacity to represent the state of the economy. Due to economic impact, the market failed. This paper introduces an automatic classification approach that detects cyber-bullying without requiring a high-dimensional space. We designed a text classification engine that pre-processes tweets, filters out environmental noise and extraneous information, recovers the chosen features, and classifications without overfitting the data. Due to this limitation, we proposed a sophisticated decision-tree algorithm (SDTA) for analysing the behaviour of financial marketing strategies by employing the artificial intelligence (AI) technique. The Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) World Index-based data is initially gathered. Furthermore, the data is pre-processed using the normalisation technique. Then SDTA is proposed for predicting the behaviour of financial marketing. Moreover, optimisation is employed by utilising the particle swarm optimisation technique (PSO). The proposed method was compared to assess system efficiency. For this goal, feature extraction with the networking model may be suggested.
    Keywords: financial market; national economy; sophisticated decision-tree algorithm; SDTA; artificial intelligence; AI; particle swarm optimisation technique; PSO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10057976
    by Martina Franciska, S. Sahayaselvi 
    Abstract: The proliferation of technology and communication has resulted in increased digitalisation that includes digital payments. This study is aimed at unravelling the relationship between awareness of individuals about the digital payment system and customer satisfaction with digital payments. Two models were developed in this study. First model considers awareness → usage pattern → customer satisfaction. Second model considers usage pattern → customer satisfaction →perception of digital payments. These two alternative models were tested by collecting data from 507 respondents in southern India was analysed using the structural equation modelling. The results indicate that usage pattern acted as a mediator between awareness and satisfaction, and satisfaction acted as a mediator between usage pattern and consumers’ perception of digital payments. The implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    Keywords: electronic commerce; barter; structural equation model; digital age; usage pattern; awareness; perception and satisfaction about digital payments.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10058202
  • Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-Payment System in Haryana
    by Arti Gaur, Sanju Verma 
    Abstract: The aim of the research is to discover how different factors and the adoption of e-payments relate to one another. A sample of 200 users was engaged using a developed questionnaire. The analysis of moment structure software was used to do confirmatory factor analysis and structural modelling studies. The data was determined to be internally consistent enough to measure each factor by exploratory factor analysis. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analysis of the data found no problems with convergent or discriminant validity. The research discovered that perceived trust, perceived risk, and attitude had a favourable and significant impact on the adoption of e-payment. However, hedonic motivation was positively but insignificantly correlated with the adoption of e-payment. Surprisingly, there was a negative and insignificant link between social influence and the adoption of e-payments. This study suggests that companies should use more diversified communication channels to promote e-payments among people of all ages. These findings offer significant assistance to service providers, investment firms, and governmental organisations as they develop plans to promote the use of e-payments.
    Keywords: online payment; electronic payment; adoption; digital payment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10058388
  • Unearthing The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Purchase Intention in Online Meal Delivery Services
    by Narinder Kaur, Shamily Jaggi, Harvinder Singh 
    Abstract: This research aims to increase awareness regarding the elements that affect service quality and how they affect the overall quality of service, customer satisfaction, and purchase intentions. The goal is to pinpoint the essential elements in determining how customers perceive and interact with a certain service. This investigation is based on prior work on the quality of service in online meal delivery services. The six service quality attributes framework that is most useful for predicting consumer behaviour is the subject of this study. With various e-service quality features, the outcome is anticipated to increase awareness about varied national cultures. The multiple regression technique was utilised to evaluate the research framework using data gathered from a survey of 313 online meal delivery services in Delhi-NCR. The investigation shows that security, dependability, assurance, application design, and food quality and hygiene greatly impact e-service quality. Traceability does not greatly affect e-service quality. Customer satisfaction, e-service quality, and purchase intention are significantly correlated. To guarantee measurement works across all service industries, future studies should include these criteria. Another online company may need a different scale. Future studies may use focus groups and interviews.
    Keywords: online meal; delivery services; purchase intention; customer satisfaction; e-service quality; consumer behaviour; restaurant business; service industries.

  • A Study on Customer Experience of using Chatbots in Banking sector with moderating role of Age and Gender   Order a copy of this article
    by Shubhangi Agarwal, Bhawna Agarwal, Ruchika Gupta 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to propose an analytical framework by combining the ISS model, TAM model and customer experience to examine the impact of using chatbots on customer experience and customer satisfaction. The study also investigates the moderating role of demographics on customer experience. The present study considers chatbot as a form of information system, therefore the study proposes a framework based on information system (IS) success model, technology acceptance model (TAM). The survey method was conducted to collect the data from 325 users of banking chatbot and the proposed model was validated by using partial least square (PLS) techniques. The study concluded that information quality, system quality, service quality and perceived ease of use are significant drivers which influence customer experience and the latter affects customer satisfaction. The study also provided some key theoretical and managerial implications regarding customer experience of using banking chatbots. The study provides insight into a rapidly developing technology in banking industry. The primary value of this paper lies in examining the impact of factors on customer experience and examining moderating role of demographics (age, gender) variables.
    Keywords: chatbots; banking industry; customer experience; customer satisfaction; Smart PLS; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10058571
  • Employing Legal Interventions and Policies for the Comprehensive Abolition of Manual Scavenging Practices
    by Satheesh Pushparaj, P.R.L. Rajavenkatesan 
    Abstract: Even after 74 years of independence and the enactment of the constitution of India, which is the highest law of the land and guarantees social justice and fundamental rights to every citizen of India, this is still a distant dream for some subsets of the people who make up society in India. Scavenging is caste-restricted. The Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment reported that 97% of manual scavengers are scheduled caste members, with rare exceptions (Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, 2021). Manual scavenging breaches human dignity and ethical employment. Hand-scavenging is one of the most inhumane jobs today and one of the oldest types of caste discrimination. Manual scavenging causes untouchability. This study focused on manual scavengers, who often laboured for life for little pay. Most must work for minimal pay or risk losing their jobs. The running competition says job loss is the worst fear. The Indian Constitution guarantees the right to employment, including decent labour. Everybody can work. No one can stop Indians from working in any legal field. Despite decades of legal and political efforts to stop it, lower-class individuals are exploited and degraded for profit.
    Keywords: discrimination; freedom to work; government; judicial; manual scavengers; untouchability; ethical employment; railway administrations; fundamental sanitary.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10058655
  • An Empirical Study on the Perception and Satisfaction of the Policyholders towards Health Insurance
    by Kaliyammal Velu, P. Mohanasundaram 
    Abstract: Health insurance generally delivers straight reimbursement to the sanitarium (cashless installation), repays the charges related to ails and grievances, or spends static assistance on the circumstance of an illness. The insurance content was substantially narrowed to life and automobiles. Service quality is judged by comparing consumer expectations with facility recital. The health plan specifies which medical bills will be covered in advance. Life insurance protects your family financially if the insured dies. Health insurance protects tone and family against financial disasters like death. A health guard policy’s principal goal is to provide policyholders with a low-cost cash return in medical emergencies. It reduces emergency hospitalisation costs. Health insurance covers unexpected medical expenses. The demographics of Dharmapuri district health insurance policyholders reveal service quality and perception to investigate the insured’s biggest health insurance business and agent difficulties. Secondary sources augmented primary data. The study used quarterly reports, websites, IRDA publications, periodicals, and journals for secondary data. Propionate stratified slice had 282 of 1,074 individuals. ANOVA, correlation, and descriptive statistics kept the analysis going.
    Keywords: health insurance; sanitarium; quality of services; policyholders; hospitalisation; financial return; perception and satisfaction.

  • Article 282 And Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS)-A Spring of Federal Strain
    by Jai Ganesh M, Rabbiraj C 
    Abstract: The financial transfers made by the federal government to the states serve as a major source of funding for Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSSs). These programs, which were created and received some funding from the federal government, are implemented by the state governments. Budget estimates for 2021-2022 indicate that around 25% of the fiscal transfers to states will go to CSSs. However, it has been questioned whether Article 282’s provisions regarding discretionary grants accord to the structure of the original constitution. The purpose of Article 282 was not to alter the Union’s relationship with the states significantly. If that had been the plan, the complex ties between the shares, grants, and assignments would not have been necessary. It does not seem necessary for the centre to be able to assist the states through two separate articles (Articles 275 and 282), one through the Finance Commission and the other through executive authority. Even parliamentary legislation is not necessary for executive discretion. This empirical analysis reveals how CSSs and Article 282 undermine fiscal federalism in India.
    Keywords: federalism; intergovernmental fiscal transfers; IGFTs; Planning Commission; discretionary grants; Article 282; Centrally Sponsored Schemes; CSSs; state government; fiscal federalism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059116
  • Factors Influencing Internet Banking Adoption during COVID-19: A Comparative Study among the Selected Public and Private Banks in Bangladesh
    by Imtiaz Masroor, Farzana Akther, Md. Noor Un Nabi 
    Abstract: Though it is found that the users are gradually shifting towards adopting internet banking, several factors create a strong barrier against it. This study is conducted to find out the factors that influence Bangladeshi bank users to adopt internet banking. There are seven factors taken and were tested using non-parametric measures as the data collected using structured questionnaire from 150 respondents from six banks are found to be non-normal. This study found a statistically significant difference in all the seven factors among the six banks and between public and private banks taken in this study. This study provides a unique perspective on the factors affecting adoption of internet banking during COVID-19 pandemic. As the worldwide impact of this pandemic resulted in nationwide lockdown, people are induced to satisfy their banking needs online. This study provides unique insight regarding the condition of online services provided by the banks in Bangladesh.
    Keywords: internet banking adoption; emerging economies; Kruskal-Wallis H test; Mann-Whitney U test; Bangladeshi banks in COVID-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059152
  • Scroll To Success: Unveiling the Impact of Social Media Marketing on Women's Cosmetic Product Purchasing Behavior
    by Shahina Begum, Densingh Joshua Israel 
    Abstract: As women’s social involvement and employment have become more institutionalised, cosmetics have grown significantly as a form of self-expression and self-image projection. With the development of social media, businesses in the beauty industry now have a powerful tool for reaching their target market and promoting their goods. This study examines how social media marketing affects women’s cosmetics purchasing decisions. The study focuses on Tamil Nadu s female internet shoppers who purchase cosmetics through social media or online retail websites. The findings of this study reveal several key insights regarding the impact of the social media platform, attribute (AT), satisfaction (SA), customer intention, and trust (TR) on the buying behaviour of women in the context of cosmetic product purchasing. Customer purchase intention (CPI) strongly predicts actual buying behaviour (BB), suggesting that effective marketing campaigns can stimulate favourable intentions and drive conversions. Customer intention, influenced by social media, was a weak predictor for actual purchasing behaviour. Customer satisfaction and customer intention were found to be significant predictors of actual shopping behaviour, whereas trust was found to play significant roles in shaping female consumers’ purchasing decisions. This study provides valuable insights into how social media influences consumers’ buying behaviour for cosmetic items.
    Keywords: Social media; Consumer Behaviour; Cosmetic Product; Purchasing Behavior; Buying Behaviour; Customer Intention; and Trust; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059221
  • Effect of COVID-19 on Migrant Workers' Income in India's Manufacturing Sector
    by Dhirendra Bahadur Singh, RAVI KUMAR GUPTA 
    Abstract: India experienced a COVID-19 pandemic in January 2020, causing a 1.3 billion lockdown, severely impacting the migrant workers of the manufacturing sector, 122 million job losses, and a declining standard of living. This paper examines the economic vulnerability and the impact of COVID-19 on the income of internal migrant workers in manufacturing units in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data from 385 informal workers were collected, with 145 being in internal migration. The economic vulnerability of migrant workers lies in the manufacturing sector. More than 80% of migrant workers are at a high level of economic susceptibility. At the same time, the percentage of inter-state migrants is higher on the high level of the vulnerability index. Unemployment for more than six months was higher in intra-state migrants, and over half of the migrant workers were infected by the virus, resulting in daily wage losses. The study highlights the need for specific interventions to address these issues. Social protection systems, more job possibilities, equitable wages, and improved health and safety should all be priorities for policymakers.
    Keywords: COVID-19; migrant workers; informal workers; income loss; economic vulnerability index; EVI; manufacturing sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059425
  • An Investigation into The Impact of Human Resource Analytics on Strategic Decision Making in The Financial Services Industry
    by Ahmad Bani Ahmad, Srinivas Kolachina, Prasuna Sankar Kuragayala, E. Hymavathi, Dilmurod Nasimov, Meeta Joshi 
    Abstract: This research study intends to investigate how strategic decision-making in the Indian financial services sector in Guntur is affected by HR analytics. The study employs a quantitative research design and includes 88 HR professionals working in Guntur’s banking and financial services industry as its sample size. Since the dawn of the twenty-first century, information technology, defined by electronation, technological advancement, and networking, has advanced swiftly worldwide. Technological innovation has already touched the economy and society, which has also altered the planet’s political, social, cultural, and economic landscape. Data is collected via a questionnaire on HR analytics, strategic decision-making, and their effects. The study reveals that HR analytics improves financial services strategic decision-making. HR analytics enable data-driven hiring, training, and performance management decisions. HR analytics may also assist companies identify areas for improvement and implement adjustments to improve performance. This study strengthens the case for HR analytics in financial services. The report recommends HR analytics to improve strategic decision-making.
    Keywords: human resources; HR; HR analytics; strategy; decision making; financial services; data management; talent evaluation; analytics in HR; channel management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059426
  • Meta-analysis of Cryptocurrency Adoption Literature: An Investigation of Individual and Contextual Moderators
    by Mohit Verma 
    Abstract: This paper synthesises the fragmented and conflicting findings of 29 quantitative studies on cryptocurrency adoption behaviour using a meta-analysis approach to generalise the hypothesised associations. Accordingly, the most significant antecedents of cryptocurrency adoption behaviour are perceived usefulness, ease of use, social influence, perceived behavioural control, attitude, trust and personal innovativeness. The moderator analysis confirms that the countries’ cultural dimensions, economic development, and innovativeness level, impact conceptual relationships. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic increased the magnitude of association between perceived usefulness, perceived risk, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention. This study is one of the initial meta-analyses on cryptocurrency literature, aimed to advance the literature by adding a comprehensive understanding of antecedents that influence behavioural intention to adopt cryptocurrencies. The results of these studies have implications for both the academicians and as well as for the practitioners interested in promoting cryptocurrency and theoretical underpinning for future researchers.
    Keywords: cryptocurrencies; technology acceptance model; meta-analysis; COVID-19; investors’ behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059638
  • Assessing the Employment Security of Sri Lankan Tamil Camp Living Refugees in Tamil Nadu, India
    by Maneesh P, SHAMEEM C. C, Muniyandi C 
    Abstract: Sri Lankan Tamil refugees are moping in refugee camps without protection for their fundamental rights, including the opportunity to work and increase financial autonomy, which is crucial to rebuilding their dignity and self-esteem after a terrible experience with their nation. Since India has not ratified any refugee convention or other international instrument, the best way to attribute to it a commitment to refugee rights is to widen universal human rights and worldwide humanitarian law to include refugee law and refugee protection. This study examines livelihood security for Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in India. 1,000 camp-living refugees from Madurai, Tiruvallur, Erode, Tiruvannamalai, and Vellore were surveyed. The study indicated that refugees’ economic conditions had not changed after three decades in the host country. Their refugee status limits their economic progress. Lack of livelihoods and constraints has slowed their development. 76.1% had trouble getting a work, while 23.9% did not. The camp’s remote location affected 28.1% of respondents. The camps’ remoteness and poor educational and skill levels reduce work stability. Refugees’ labour boosts the host nation’s economy. Refugees need improved policies and an unrestricted camp to live better.
    Keywords: statelessness; landlessness; economic security; livelihood sustenance; local integration; refugee status; relief assistance; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059745
  • Performance Analysis and Forecasting of Selected Large Cap, Mid Cap and Small Cap Mutual Funds
    by Chinta Sam Sundar, Vedala Naga Sailaja 
    Abstract: Mutual funds have risen significantly in the previous two decades. Recently increasing initiatives and finance have boosted Indian mutual fund schemes. Mutual funds have risen rapidly in the last two decades. Mutual funds are relevant in the global economy because of their unique edge over other investments. The Indian mutual fund business has grown due to increased initiatives and money mobilisation. Large-cap funds need more risk tolerance and longer trading horizons. Mid-cap mutual funds are unrestricted equity funds that invest at least 65% in mid-cap firm equities. Mid-cap companies attempt to balance risk and return and have growth potential compared to large caps due to investing in growth-stage firms. Unrestricted bond mutual funds that focus on small-cap equities are called 'small-size mutual fund managers' . Thus, this study employs the ARIMA model to analyse the performance of 15 funds, 5 from each section, using returns (calculated from net asset values) data from December 2017 to December 2022. The funds' returns are expected from January through December 2023. The best big size, mid-cap, and small-cap funds, according to the analysis, have steady and greater returns.
    Keywords: mutual funds; large-cap; mid-cap; small-cap; net asset value; ARIMA; growth-stage firms; Indian mutual fund.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059746
  • Dynamics of Human Capital Investment and Firm Performance: MSMEs Context
    by Navjot Kaur, Balwinder Singh 
    Abstract: Given the importance of MSMEs to the Indian economy, this study explores the dynamic interdependency between human capital investment and firm performance in the context of the government of India’s support for these businesses. A dataset of 42 Indian MSMEs from 2006 to 2020 is used in the analysis, which also uses impulse response analysis and panel vector autoregression (VAR). The empirical results show that investments in human capital (HC) have a negative effect on sales but a favourable effect on firm value. The Granger causality test also shows a bidirectional association between HC investment and company performance. The findings are analysed for theoretical, managerial, and policy implications. Human capital development can affect numerous performance indicators, thus organisations should carefully allocate resources for it. This data helps managers choose HC investment strategy. The Indian government should help MSMEs grow human capital to boost business value. MSMEs may benefit from information exchange, skill development, and training policies. The study’s conclusion suggests further research on industry-specific moderators and how human capital investment influences business performance.
    Keywords: human capital; investment; firm performance; micro; small and medium enterprises; endogeneity; panel vector auto regression; Tobin’s Q; economic growth; capitalist accumulation; unification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059747
    by Rachana Jaiswal, Shashank Gupta 
    Abstract: The intense interest that blockchain technology has ignited among academia and corporate leaders has spurred keen scrutiny of the finance industry’s current knowledge. Nevertheless, the lack of a comprehensive evaluation of blockchain research in finance creates a void in the scholarly literature. This study utilises bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer, RStudio bibliometrix, and CiteSpace to scrutinise a sample of 1,065 Scopus-indexed publications meticulously. This study uncovers central themes and trends in blockchain research by identifying highly productive authors, influential nations, and impactful publications and utilising sophisticated techniques like burst detection and keyword-based cluster analysis. It underscores the immense potential of blockchain technology to revolutionise the financial industry and advance sustainable development goals. However, blockchain technology’s complex policy and societal implications require collaboration among diverse stakeholders to ensure its benefits to society. Therefore, future research must prioritise exploring blockchain’s potential to promote financial inclusion, innovation, transparency, accountability, and sustainable development.
    Keywords: blockchain technology; finance; sustainable development goals; SDGs; financial inclusion; bibliometric analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059748
  • International Public Sector Accounting Standard Adoption and Compliance: Implications on Accounting Transparency and Quality in Jordan Public Sector
    by Ahmad Bani Ahmad  
    Abstract: In order to evaluate the adoption and compliance with worldwide public sector accounting standards as well as their effects on accounting transparency and quality in the Jordanian public sector, research was undertaken. The study’s population comprised all 250 Jordan’s Ministry of Finance, employees. The research used a survey approach; 152 participants were randomly chosen from the pool. The respondents’ responses were elicited using a standard questionnaire. Simple percentages and t-test analysis were used to gather and analyse the data. It was determined that the public sector’s adoption of the international public sector accounting system would result in more open data, improve government accountability, and foster a better and more thorough decision-making process. The decision-makers, public sector accountants, the Jordan Ministry of Finance, and the Jordanian public sector are among the many parties to which this research is anticipated to be helpful. It was suggested that the government and authorities ensure that professional accountants have access to training facilities and materials on the idea of international public sector accounting and related concerns.
    Keywords: public sector; accounting; standard; adoption; improvement; transparency and quality; Jordan Ministry of Finance; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10059960
  • A Combined Deep Learning Approach for Fraudulent Detection in The Financial Sector
    by Nripendra Das, Sivashanmugam C, Sameer Shekhar 
    Abstract: One of the crucial topics in the banking sector is fraud detection (FD). The involvement of fraud has significantly increased as new technologies are introduced daily. The main reason why current algorithms cannot accurately identify fraud is because of ineffective feature learning and prediction methods. Most work only concentrated on a few parameters to identify fraud. In reality, though, fraudsters quickly change their identities and other traits. By integrating the two data mining techniques of optimum feature learning (OFL) and precise classification methodologies, this research finds a solution to the issue. The tri-teaching learning (TTL) optimisation approach is used after the system initially gathers the financial data. Then, the fully recurrent neural network (FRNN) algorithm divides the data into legitimate and fraudulent categories. In trials, the proposed feature learning and deep detection methodology improves accuracy (around 98%), precision (93%), and recall (92%).
    Keywords: fraud detection; data mining; deep learning; financial sector; feature extraction; fully recurrent neural network; FRNN; optimum feature learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060194
  • Exploring Career Intention of Unemployed Youths to Participate in Skill Development Training
    by S. Lakshmi Devi, Simanchala Das, BISWAJIT ACHARJYA 
    Abstract: The unemployment amongst the rural youths in India remains a critical and significant concern. This urgently requires the stakeholders to address this pertinent issue by designing and implementing various skill development training programs to improve the employability of the educated unemployed youths in India. However, there is a problem with the active participation of the potential beneficiaries in the training due to their differing intentions. The previous models used to assess training participation suffer from self-reporting biases, determining the participant’s actual intention difficult. To address these difficulties, we examined TPB's predictive power in predicting unemployed teenagers' career intentions toward DDUGKY, a government-sponsored plan. PIA-selected convenience sampling was used to present a structured questionnaire to 518 jobless youngsters from three Andhra Pradesh districts. The Smart PLS 3 platform used PLS-SEM for data analysis. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control predicted career intention by 71.4 and training engagement by 88.2%. Our study, which employed TPB as a basic theory, had stronger predictive validity than previous training participation models. Policymakers, government agencies, and stakeholders creating and executing skill development programs to reduce rural unemployment can learn from the study.
    Keywords: heory of planned behaviour; TPB; Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gramin Kushalya Yojna; DDUGKY; career intention; skill development; program implementation agency; PIA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060338
  • The Effects of The Covid-19 Epidemic on Peruvian Nurses' Occupational Stress and Quality of Performance
    by Vicenta Li-Bardales, Norma Ramirez-Asis, Uvaldo Cuno-Chunga, Edwin Asnate-Salazar, Ursula Lezameta-Blas, Edwin Hernan Asis 
    Abstract: This study examines job stress and nurse performance in the emergency department of the Uldarico Rocca Fernandez Hospital in Villa El Salvador, Peru, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study populations socio-demographic features and physical, social, and psychological stress levels were identified for this purpose. This was done using a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study. 73 nurses, 42 graduates and 21 assistants completed a 34-item questionnaire. We observed extra dangers for frontline nurses. We observed that personal COVID-19 experiences greatly affect medical status, corroborating earlier research. SPSS 26 statistically analysed data. The Uldarico Rocca Fernandez Hospital in Villa El Salvador, Peru, accommodated 73 participants, 42 nursing graduates, and 21 nursing assistants. Research personnel report moderate stress in the first setting (52.10%), high stress in the second (87.50%), and low stress in the third compared to the physical environment (which generates the most stress) (56.30%). Men 2130 and 4150, married or divorced, auxiliary, and 2630 years in the military have greater mild stress. COVID-19 nurses were less stressed, improving teamwork. All essential staff assured study participants enthusiasm. The Villa El Salvador, Peru, Uldarico Rocca Fernandez Hospital could benefit from similar investigations.
    Keywords: COVID-19; quality of performance; nursing stress scale; job stress; multivariate examination of interaction; various psychological and sleep problems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060468
  • Is Right to Health Include Right to Access to Adequate Clean Water? - A Constitutional Perspective on Quality of Life
    by Mahalakshmi J 
    Abstract: Individual Mother Earth is the greatest gift from the universe since it offers many necessities for human survival, including commodities and services. The future of humanity depends on natural conservation. The priceless resource that sustains life is water. Even great civilisations have formed in Nile, Indus, Tigress, and other river valleys. Rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, and population growth degrade water supplies. The main cause of epidemics and viral fevers is water contamination. Typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, gastroenteritis, cholera, and others are often caused by water pollution. Due to increasing urbanisation and industrialisation, water source contamination has become a major environmental pollution issue. However, the amount of water supplied is fixed, making water scarcity in quantity and quality serious. This study investigates the origins of water pollution generated by human exploitation in a limitless manner, focusing on hazardous bacteria, pathogens, and chemicals that cause serious health difficulties in drinking water. This article examines the concept of Right to Life under Article 21 and focus Right to Life in the context of the Right to Health, which could be structured to enlarge to cover the Right to Adequate Access to Safe Drinking Water.
    Keywords: health includes right; urbanisation and industrialisation; safe drinking water; population growth; human exploitation; hazardous bacteria; humane living; water and health protocol.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060482
  • Compulsory License of Cancer Drugs: Patent Vs. Price
    by Mariya Fatma, P.R.L. Rajavenkatesan 
    Abstract: Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases, progressively affecting global populations and contributing to rising morbidity rates. A significant obstacle in oncology is enhancing patient access to expensive, life-saving cancer drugs unaffordable to their income. One of the reasons for the high price of cancer drugs is that these drugs are patented, allowing the pharmaceutical industry to rule the market for a limited period. Though patent law gives a monopoly to the patent holder, at the same time, it also provides the mechanism of compulsory licensing, which the states can deploy to make the drugs accessible in terms of availability as well as affordability. Though compulsory licensing has been used limitedly and for certain diseases only, it is necessary to utilise the mechanism for providing wider access to cancer drugs. The article aims to analyse the provisions of compulsory licensing under the TRIPS Agreement and the DOHA declaration and their importance in providing access to pharmaceutical drugs. It also aims to analyse the future role of compulsory licensing in providing access to cancer drugs in developing countries, especially India.
    Keywords: cancer drugs; compulsory license; DOHA declaration; patent law; and TRIPS agreement; human immunodeficiency virus; HIV.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060641
  • A Study on Unfolding Asymmetric Volatility in Selected IT Stocks in NSE
    by Krishnamurthy Subramanya Suryanarayana, V.S. Prasad Kandi, K. Ravi Kiran Yasaswi 
    Abstract: The day trading of Nifty Index futures uses the generalised autoregressive conditionally heteroscedastic (GARCH) model to determine volatility. Our study aims to assess the asymmetric volatility of historical data and forecast future volatility for a small number of carefully chosen giant IT stocks that have been included in the NIFTY IT Index often over an extended time. Preliminary tests like the Ljung Box Test and the Lagrange Multiplier Test are used to get a clear picture of the volatility. The National Stock Exchange, a stand-in for the NSE, was studied for asymmetries. A prior study examined asset prices and volatility in the Indian stocks market. The investigation assessed volatility using asymmetry GARCH. The model limits volatility. EGARCH also captured asymmetric volatility. After determining volatility, the GARCH technique with the GARCH (1, 1) order is used to test statistically. As a result, the NIFTY IT Index exhibits asymmetric volatility. This study shows that open interest has a smaller impact on volatility than volume and that noise trading occurs when there is a complete lack of bidirectional causality in any one occurrence.
    Keywords: National Stock Exchange of India; Information Technology; Daily Returns Volatility; Casula Relation; Generalised Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic Model; Asymmetric Volatility,.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060812
  • Firms Performance and Cryptocurrencies: A Comparative Study before and after COVID-19
    by Abdullah Alajmi 
    Abstract: The primary objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between firm performance and cryptocurrencies while highlighting the significance of blockchain technology in promoting transparency in financial statements. Our findings demonstrate that the impact of cryptocurrencies on firm performance during a COVID-19 outbreak is varied, with mixed results. Specifically, profitability is partially positively influenced by profit but negatively influenced by stakeholders. Moreover, there is a decrease in cash flow from operating activities. It is important to note that our data is limited to a single country, and the lack of legislation surrounding cryptocurrencies in the accounting field is concerning. Additionally, we observed that the level of knowledge about cryptocurrencies differs between our country and others, potentially influenced by cultural factors. The timeframe of our dataset may also influence the understanding of cryptocurrencies and their relationship with firm performance within Kuwaiti firms. Lastly, to the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to examine the impact of COVID-19 on provincial business performance and the utilisation of cryptocurrencies in Kuwait and the broader Middle East region.
    Keywords: cryptocurrency; firm performance; COVID-19; Bitcoins; cultural factors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060813
  • The Impact of Inspirational Techniques on Engagement to Participate in Volunteering Opportunities
    by Sandeep Sandeep, Amit Mittal, Long Tam Pham, Bestoon Othman, Saravanan Sakthi, TRIBHUWAN KUMAR 
    Abstract: The best way to define volunteering is as an unpaid action that typically promotes social welfare. Its primary component of voluntariness sets it apart from other sorts of work. In addition to civic participation or personal compassion, when someone discusses volunteering, they accidentally mention the federal system of gainful work, with which free labour must coexist. Non-profit organisations differ from for-profit ones in several ways. A crucial aspect is that people donate their time and labour to the group’s operations. The ongoing lack of new volunteers is one of the greatest difficulties non-profit organisations face daily. We were interested in learning how non-profits compel and keep their members and whether and how this activity may have been enhanced. According to research on volunteer-involving organisations’ motivating strategies, people are primarily inspired to volunteer by their aspirations for social action and their feelings of usefulness and production at their service posts. The study also demonstrates how rewarding volunteers for their efforts and giving them feedback might motivate them to do better. The study’s findings suggest that incentive strategies used by volunteer-involved organisations must be profitable to both the organisation and its volunteers.
    Keywords: humanitarian; inspiration; independent initiative; adolescents; concert; volunteering opportunities; non-profit organisations; federal system; healthcare and drug development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060918
  • E-HRM: A New Panorama for Retaining Sustainable Employees and Creating Employer Brand
    by E. Hymavathi, Kalpana Koneru 
    Abstract: In the age of commercial digitisation, nothing is exempt from the incredible achievements of science and technology, and the banking and financial sectors are no exception. The unique idea of online human resources management (E-HRM) is developed by applying information technology concepts to the human resources management process. Ensuring that the HRM process is equitable strengthens organisational devotion and works wonders for creating an employer brand. Office politics may negatively impact employee engagement. Because every microtask is automated and recorded while using E-HRM, there will not be any personal politics. This boosts employee retention and recruiting. E-HRM studies on hospitality must identify cultural qualities and devise tools to measure them. Understanding the organisational climate helps optimise service delivery by identifying administrative strengths and weaknesses. Online companies need an E-HRM department. This study explains e-fundamentals HRM’s and value-based philosophies. Additionally, employee value proposition process transparency improves greatly. Numerous international case studies have shown that computerised human resource planning outperforms traditional human capital management practises, especially in commercial organisations. Four research hypotheses were tested in the suggested work and found valid. When E-HRM is adopted at higher levels, organisational performance improves.
    Keywords: electronic human resources management; E-HRM; organisational commitment; employer branding; employee engagement; employee value proposition; employee attraction and retention; degree of performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10060919
  • Develop A Critical Success Factor Framework for Improving Requirement Elicitation Impacting Software Quality Management
    by Udhayakumar S. P., M. Sivasubramanian 
    Abstract: The requirements engineering (RE) process is not specifically covered in any of the existing software process improvement (SPI) standards, which instead treat it as one of several activities that make up the entire development process. According to research, improving the RE process has to receive more attention if excellent software is to be produced. This research expanded the idea of crucial success elements in order to enhance the RE process (CSFs). Using the quantitative method, the survey has been conducted. Our findings demonstrate that the elements of the requirement elicitation process, like stakeholders’ interest, stakeholder’s knowledge, stakeholder’s role, negotiation capacity, learning capacity, perceived utility factors, and semi-autonomous influence the quality of software development. Additionally, this study finds the moderating impact of communication skills on the relationship between the requirement elicitation process and Software quality development. Our findings also discussed that CSFs across practitioner groups share more characteristics than they do variances. It demonstrates that RE professionals are aware of the perception of IT employees towards the Requirement engineering for process improvement.
    Keywords: requirement elicitation; software quality management; communication skill; quantitative method; stakeholder’s knowledge; impact of communication skill; perception of IT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061046
  • Blockchain Technology in the Investment Domain: A Bibliometric Analysis
    by Shubhangi Gautam, Pardeep Kumar 
    Abstract: Blockchain technology has significant implications for investments and has opened up new opportunities for investors by providing a more secure and decentralised system for financial transactions. Therefore, the study employs bibliometric analysis to assess how blockchain technology growing in the investment domain. A bibliometric analysis of the biographies of articles published in the category of blockchain and investment trends is carried out using the VOSviewer tool and Scopus analysis. A total of 165 publications were taken from the Scopus database to analyse the patterns in this field. We studied the total number of citations, the most-cited papers, authors and journals, notable organisations and country contributions. This study offers insight into the top five renowned journals of investing and blockchain trends in addition to listing the top ten most substantial articles with their years of publication and total citations. In addition, during the past few years, publications and citations in the disciplines of investing and blockchain trends have been most frequently received by Germany, the Netherlands and the USA. This analysis also identifies and critically examines the top five journals in the specialised field with the greatest SNIP, SJR and citation scores.
    Keywords: bibliometric; blockchain; cryptocurrency; investment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061055
  • Contagion Effect of Priority Sector Lending of Banks on Non-Performing Assets: A Special Reference to Loan Disbursement to Self Help Groups
    by MUHAMMED SHAFI M.K, Shaik Saleem, Praveen Kakada 
    Abstract: For the last few years, bad loans and NPAs have been a significant cause of concern within India’s banking sector, with priority lending sectors generally regarded as one of the main factors behind them. This study aimed to analyse the impact of the priority sector lending (PSL) norm of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on the banking sector, especially on non-performing assets (NPAs). Since the self-help groups (SHGs) are one of the major lending categories under this norm, the study analysed the overall progress of SHGs and sector-wise banking contribution to the eight PSL categories of the primary economic sectors. For the study, aggregated data on credit deployment to priority sector and NPAs was collected from the RBI database for public, private, and foreign banks. Statistical tools like correlation, structural equation modelling, and ordinary least squares have been incorporated to meet the study’s objectives. The results indicate a negative relationship between the gross NPA of banks and loan disbursement to the SHGs over the years, and all the bank groups continue to attain the 40% prescribed target of PSL, especially private sector banks.
    Keywords: priority sector lending; PSL; self-help groups; SHGs; credit deployment; micro credit; non-performing asset; NPA; bank linkage programs; micro finance institutions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061146
  • An Analysis of Awareness and Understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility among Indian Consumers
    by Santanu Kumar Das  
    Abstract: India was the first country globally to include a CSR compliance obligation into law that included a quantification requirement for enterprises. In addition, the provision institutionalised CSR practice by establishing standards for penalising corporations and the persons in charge of CSR-related activities. Despite growing interest in social responsibility for businesses, we still know relatively little about how perceived CSR works and how it affects how customers behave. Little is known about how brand trust affects brand advocacy. Consumer perceptions of CSR effect brand advocacy directly and indirectly, according to this study. This study examines CSR and consumer loyalty, particularly brand trust, and proposes a structure. This was done alongside the prior point. The study examines the factors that distinguish a CSR effort from its competitors to attract a wider audience, the influence of CSR perception on customers, and consumer knowledge of CSR activities. The questionnaire included closed-ended questions to avoid information bias. Employees of many Indian companies could participate in the election. Women and middle-aged men are more familiar with CSR than other demographic groups, according to empirical studies. In addition, revenue is not expected to predict corporate understanding of environmentally friendly projects.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; consumer awareness; CSR policy; banking survey; support for brands; consumer perceptions; Indian companies; economy’s growth; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061226
  • The Relationship Between Inclusive Leadership and Employee Green Behavior: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support   Order a copy of this article
    by H. Hari Harasudha, Balasubramanian K., S.A.Vignesh Karthik, Baiju P. Samuel, Maya Rathnasabapathy 
    Abstract: This research aims to examine the correlation between inclusive leadership and employee green behaviour, with the mediating influence of perceived organisational support, among employees of chosen home appliances manufacturing companies. The data collection includes a questionnaire survey from 125 employees of various departments of the selected home appliances company. The study used the correlation to examine the connection between the factors. The Hayes process is used to assess the mediating effect. The studies indicate that inclusive leadership, perceived organisational support, and employee green behaviour are highly associated. The result also says that path ‘a’ and path ‘b,’ which is an indirect effect, show a positive effect, which means the full mediation effect prevails. It can be concluded that as the leaders are open, supportive, and sharing their vision with followers, they can foster environmental green behaviour in the organisation and support the environmental policy of the organisation.
    Keywords: inclusive leadership; employee green behaviour; EGB; perceived organisational support; POS; corporate social responsibility; CSR; environmental sustainability; Hayes process.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061331
  • A Holistic Framework to Examine the Effects of Women on Profitability and Corporate Social Responsibility   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: How do female and independent directors effect social conscience and financial success? Evaluation of the playing surface and executive directors is an effective business management strategy in nations with growing capital markets. Upper-echelon theory was used to create a publicly available index of directors’ qualities to manage gender diversity and the economy. The study adds to knowledge by employing a composite indicator of financial performance created by applying the multiway technique to panel data and by developing ten CSR panel models using five financial indicators and two gender diversity proxies. The results show that gender diversity on boards improves CSR reporting significantly. We see no outside directors affecting CSR reporting. Non-executive directors on a board have minimal influence over CSR reporting decisions; hence, their existence is essentially immaterial nationally. Controlled variables like leverage, board size, and board meeting frequency strongly affect CSR reporting. Our findings provide a new viewpoint on social responsibility reporting, particularly in India. We also get reliable results when other parameters are included. Our study has broad consequences. Our study adds to CSR knowledge. It emphasises the need for autonomous female and director roles in CSR reporting decisions.
    Keywords: sustainability investment; open innovation; independent directors; female managers; CSR reporting; corporate governance; upper-echelon theory; non-executive directors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061444
  • Post-Pandemic Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firms - Enhancement and Upgradation Facts   Order a copy of this article
    by Sameer Kumar Kolli, Akondi Srikanth 
    Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a private form of self-regulation that aims to contribute to goals of society that are self-motivated and charitable. Organisations take responsibility for society to impact their activities on shareholders and customers, suppliers and employees, environment and community in every aspect of their operational activities. In the field of CSR practice during the pandemic, focusing on the ideas of the future (post-pandemic) attributed to current circumstances. Additionally, to take tangible steps in virology research to address CSR programme organisation factors that can ease technology procurement responsibility. This report covers key CSR contributions and improvements in firms and government policies updated during and after the pandemic. Companies expect revisions and legislation to assist CSR firms comply with government policies. The research also highlighted the opportunity seeker in businesses' shift toward true and genuine CSR that addresses global social and environmental issues. The paper focuses on Indian legal code and conduct facts and potential reach that fruitfully leads research in strategic endeavours.
    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; organizational identification; COVID; enhancement; operational activities; job embeddedness; promotional activities; ethical customer decisions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061446
  • Are Investors moving towards Robo-Advisory Services?   Order a copy of this article
    by Parth Shah, Amola Bhatt 
    Abstract: The present research aims to understand the usage intention of investors toward robo-advisory services in the Indian context. The UTAUT model, along with two new variables, risk tolerance and financial literacy, was reviewed to study their effect on the usage intention of investors. Performance expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions have a significant positive effect on the usage intention of investors towards robo-advisory services. The study also finds that the level of risk tolerance and financial literacy of the investors negatively affect the usage intention of investors towards robo-advisors. Gender and the education level of the investor significantly moderate the effects of financial literacy and social influence on usage intention, respectively. This study will help the financial service providers understand how to raise awareness and adoption rates of robo-advisory services.
    Keywords: fintech; robo-advisory; digital investment management system; UTAUT; financial literacy; FL; risk tolerance; RT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061755
  • Technophobia and ICT Device Adaptability in Financial Services Workers   Order a copy of this article
    by Herald M. Dhas, R.Jackulin Ancy, Santhiya Sreejith, R.Kavitha Rani 
    Abstract: As the use of ICT equipment permeates the knowledge workforce, the study of technophobia, as well as the impact of technology on people’s professional and personal lives, becomes increasingly important. This study extracts numerous work-life balance characteristics and links their relationships with workers’ adaption to ICT gadgets. The rapid advancement of technological advances has outpaced society’s expectations. Technical discoveries are frequent and stressful for many workers and students in technology organisations. Working people often experience technological stress. We do not know how much techno-stress affects higher education workers’ physical and emotional health or job performance. Qualitative methods were used. When technology malfunctioned, workers were more concerned about it because they could not regulate it, which negatively affected worker outcomes. This study also examines whether personal variables like gender, age, and geography affect workers’ adaption to technology and their work-life balance. 256 respondents from five financial services sector professionals in the study area provided data for this study. The study found that workers’ location affects their technology adaption and time management, which are critical to work-life balance.
    Keywords: adaptability; ICT devices; work life integration; technophobia; financial services; industry workers; substantial relationship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061766
  • Digital banking as a buffer between adoption, use, and effects on the digital economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Hasman Hasyim, Sarika Keswani, Nasir Abdul Jalil, Gioia Arnone, Bestoon Othman, Hashem Ali Almashaqbeh 
    Abstract: Banking is one of the most important factors in economic development since banks directly touch the people and the country’s economic concerns. As a result, banking institutions are considered one of the Indian economy’s most significant pillars. The state’s practically entire economy is now covered by the digital banking system as the banking industry’s interactions with the people have become more digital. Massive advances in productivity, service quality, and reach show how digitisation has affected the global economy. The success of e-commerce is largely attributable to the phenomenal growth of numerous digital payment technologies, such as card processing technology solutions like card payments, e-cash, payment gateways, e-payments, smart cards, mobile money, wallets, etc. In this regard, it has been investigated how older banking clients’ use of the service is impacted by their adoption of digital banking. Previous studies found that elderly people resisted digitisation owing to ignorance, a lack of understanding, a poor attitude caused by ignorance, etc. Many studies show that elderly people are more tech-savvy. This study examined how senior banking consumers accept digital banking. Effects of digital banking adoption have also been studied.
    Keywords: digital banking; awareness on informal; computerisation; human resources; digital economy and digitalisation; financial results; COVID-19 epidemic; banking industry; information technology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061767
  • Achieving Inclusive Fintech and Digital Financial Inclusion through Financial Capability   Order a copy of this article
    by Mark Yama Tampuri Jnr, JOHN GARTCHIE GATSI, Emmanuel Attah Kumah Amponsah 
    Abstract: The study involved 1,080 employees from the public sector in the Bono East Region of Ghana to examine the impact of financial capability on digital financial inclusion using econometrics analysis. The study implores Sen’s capability approach (CA) as an alternative framework with data gathered between July 2021 and November 2022 which was transformed into panel data. Overall, 75.4% of the variation in digital financial inclusion is accounted for by financial literacy, financial skills, financial behaviour and financial attitude. While financial literacy increased digital financial inclusion by 0.029% at the 5% level, financial skills enhanced digital financial inclusion by 2.289% at the 1% level, financial attitude enhanced digital financial inclusion by 1.419% while, financial behaviour contributed to a 0.915% surge in digital financial inclusion. The findings reveal that financial literacy, financial skills, financial attitude, and financial behaviour contribute to digital financial inclusion.
    Keywords: digital financial inclusion; financial capability; financial literacy; financial skills; financial behaviour; financial attitude.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061774
  • An Empirical Study on Consumer Attitude and Intention to adopt Digital Payment in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Mehta, Sweety Shah 
    Abstract: Digital payment has proliferated due to pervasive telecommunications infrastructure, internet connectivity, and technology adoption. With recent government moves, India’s digital payment system might be a success tale for emerging economies. The current study uses the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to determine the elements that drive digital payment adoption in India. Primary data were acquired from 412 Indian respondents using a structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using AMOS structural equation modelling (SEM) that indicated that performance expectancy and effort expectancy positively affect the attitude towards technology of an individual, leading to behavioural intention. The facilitating conditions are another important contributor that impacts behavioural intentions. The moderating factors of age and income suggest that younger consumers with higher incomes are more likely to embrace digital financial transactions. This study helps economists, policymakers, and digital payment service providers understand digital payment system usage.
    Keywords: digital payments; UTAUT model; attitude; facilitating condition; behavioural intention; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10061877
  • An Empirical Study on Awareness of Consumer Decision-Making Process in Life Insurance Services   Order a copy of this article
    by SEKAR S 
    Abstract: This research aimed to analyse data from a survey of life insurance customers in India to determine the factors that most influence their satisfaction with the service they receive from their insurance agents. It is important to note that although the questionnaire was tested on a small sample of respondents to ensure accuracy, their responses were not included in the subsequent examination and interpretation of the data. The results provide empirical evidence to support the multidimensional nature of the linkages between service attributes, perceived value, overall satisfaction, and expected future behaviours. This research found that product knowledge, empathy, dependability, and trust are the most significant antecedents of positive behavioural outcomes associated with agents’ service quality. Recommendation intentions are significantly influenced by agents’ service quality, customer contentment, and perceived value. Overall, providers and consumers can better understand the life insurance consumer decision-making process since it leads to more educated and satisfying choices.
    Keywords: awareness of consumer decision-making; tax benefits; risk protection; consumer decision and quality of service; multidimensional nature; life insurance services.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062211
  • Effect of Resource Allocation on Pharmaceutical Firm Profitability in the Indian Market   Order a copy of this article
    by T. Shenbagavalli, N. Sathyanarayana, S. Suman Rajest, P. Paramasivan, Antonio Huaman-Osorio, Mercedes Huerta-Soto 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of capital structure factors on key financial performance indicators, including PAT, ROE, ROA, and EPS, as well as the risk profile of 19 pharmaceutical companies listed on NSE-India. The analysis seeks to elucidate how the combination of debt-equity ratios influences profitability and risk. Statistical analyses, specifically regression and panel regression tools, were conducted using SPSS 27 and STATA 17 over ten years (2012-2013 to 2021-2022). To categorise the companies based on size and risk, the 19 firms were divided into groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. The study found that random effects models were preferred, as indicated by the Hausman test. It was statistically significant for low-risk companies, while the results were insignificant for the remaining categories. Notably, the study revealed significant fixed effects for EPS in large companies based on size. These findings offer valuable insights for corporate managers when formulating capital structure strategies, particularly concerning firm size and risk management. Moreover, the study’s methodology can be applied to other sectors, contributing to broader socioeconomic development.
    Keywords: capital structure; return on equity; ROE; return on assets; ROA; debt equity ratio; DER; pharmaceutical sector; risk management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062007
  • A Decade of E-Payment Literature: Systematic Review, Synthesis, and Future Research Agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanu Kathuria, Sahil Gupta, Tapan Kumar Nayak, Amar Kumar Mishra 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to synthesise and examine the literature on e-payment methodically and systematically along with summarising the various theories and determinants in the chosen field. For the present review, articles published in Scopus from 2011-2023 have been compiled, examined, and analysed; based on the commonly used theories and the factors affecting the use of e-payment in digital scenarios. The study reveals that e-payment can be considered as a technical measure since the research in the field involves application of theories that plays a key role to discover their determinants. Over a decade of identified research, we have not come across any detailed review in the field, making it notable at present. Further, the present review is unique as it provides a detailed review by exploring the theories, and their determinants along with adding further context and constructs to the chosen field to offer a thorough picture.
    Keywords: e-payment; SLR; bibliometric analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062212
  • Use and effect of Fintech awareness by women for sustainable development in the handicraft industry during the COVID-19 pandemic: an empirical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Uma Shankar Yadav, Ravindra Tripathi, Ravinder Rena, Shad Ahmad Khan, Indrajit Ghosal 
    Abstract: At a time when the entire planet is shifting toward digital transactions or mobile payments and the universal application of digital technology, this is a crucial question. A lack of research includes such data from developing countries and India. Fintech’s role in helping small businesses thrive is highlighted in the sustainable development goals (SDG). This is used by developed nations like the Bharat interface money (BHIM) app in India and PayPal in the USA, which ultimately helps in sustainable development. Therefore, a technical research paper was created to connect the use of Fintech during a digital time and pandemic period with the Fintech awareness of the handicraft industry, which aids in accomplishing the goal of sustainable development alongside Generation Y.
    Keywords: small industries; handicraft industry; financial technology; FinTeach; women; COVID-19; UTAUT model; financial awareness; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062118
  • Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on Intention to Join an organization: An Empirical Study with Mediating Role Employer Branding   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Mittal, Anuradha Jain, Sonia Singh, S. Suman Rajest 
    Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been among the most important contributors to corporate image and employer branding (EB). The main purpose of this study is to measure the impact of CSR on the intention to join (ITJ) an organisation and to find the mediating role between CSR and ITJ. CSR is constituted by philanthropic orientation (PO), clarity and transparency (CT), social concern (SC), and good corporate citizenship (GCC). Similarly, IJT and EB were also measured as latent constructs. The data were collected from 311 young professionals from ‘Generation Y’ who are studying in various universities and institutions in India. ‘Confirmatory factor analysis’ and ‘structural equation modelling’ (SEM) have been applied for data analysis. It was found that all four constituents of CSR, i.e., PO, CT, SC, and GCC, along with EB, have a positive and significant impact on ITJ. EB partially mediates the PO, SC and GCC, and ITJ relationship.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; employer branding; professional students; structural equation modelling; SEM; mediation effect.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062183
  • Does P2P Lending Increase Banking Risk in Indonesia?   Order a copy of this article
    by Fitri Susilowati, Hari Purnama, Suryanto  
    Abstract: Regional banking and peer-to-peer (P2P) lending have contributed to increasing financial inclusion in Indonesia as an archipelagic country. Growing financial inclusion is endorsed by the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Development Index and Human Development Index (HDI). This research aimed to determine the effect of P2P lending on banking risk and performance and to determine the effect of P2P lending on risk and performance. The sample is banking in 33 provinces in Indonesia from 2020 to 2021. The research analysis applied monthly data with static panels and dynamic panels. The research found that P2P lending had an impact on risk and credit distribution by banks. The influence of P2P lending was greater in areas with high ICT. Meanwhile, the impact of P2P lending on credit distribution in areas of high and low HDI showed a similar trend. P2P lending was able to compete outside Java, such as in Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. Implications of equitable economic development in Indonesia can be achieved by increasing financial inclusion. Financial inclusion can be boosted with technological readiness and financial literacy. A balance between inclusion and financial literacy will stimulate the growth of digital financial services and positively impacts on equitable economic development.
    Keywords: risk; regional; P2P lending; information and communication technology; ICT; Human Development Index; HDI; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062251
  • Driving Accounting Transformation: The Interplay of Institutional Logics in Dubai Smart Government's ERP Implementation   Order a copy of this article
    by Nizar Alsharari, ADEL ALMASARWAH 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the institutional logic involved in implementing ERP systems in the Dubai Smart Government. This paper presents a case study in Dubai Smart City that applies institutional logics to ERP implementation in a public organisation. It argues that ERP has a dual impact, being shaped by institutional forces and regulating human actions. The study finds that the DSG effectively aligned its institutional work processes with the inherent logics of ERP, resulting in a successful implementation of the standard version. The decision to adopt the ERP system was driven by external pressure and drew upon the organisation’s capacity for consensus-building to facilitate change management. However, the findings of this case study may not apply to other organisations, but they suggest that alignment between institutional work and institutional logics is important for the successful implementation of ERP systems. This perspective suggests several areas for future research. Finally, this paper represents one of the few studies available on the implementation of ERP systems in the Middle East. It showcases a case study that explores a highly successful ERP implementation, analysing it through the lens of key factors that influenced the outcome.
    Keywords: ERP implementation; accounting change; public sector management; Dubai Smart Government; DSG.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062263
  • Weighted and Aggregated LSTM Model for Improved Credit Card Usage Monitoring and Suspect Transaction Identification   Order a copy of this article
    by Anbarasu T, Latha Parthiban 
    Abstract: Fraudulent activities are elusive, constantly evolving to escape detection, particularly in online transactions. The advanced variant of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) is known as the long short-term memory (LSTM) model to counteract this unpredictable behaviour. LSTMs are ideal for complex applications like natural language processing, speech recognition, and time series analysis because they can capture long-term dependencies in sequential data better than RNNs. Our innovative solution uses LSTM technology to monitor credit card usage and identify questionable transactions. Specialised gates control data storage, retrieval, and alteration in the LSTM model. The forget gate removes extraneous data, the input gate adds data, and the output gate determines the concealed state. These gates and crucial components like cell and hidden states, activation functions, and backpropagation through time help the model comprehend complicated patterns. Our weighted and aggregated approach improves LSTM predicting accuracy, making our research unique. The innovative model is compared to GRU 2020, SVM 2021, KNN 2021, and ANN 2021 in accuracy, precision, and recall. Compared to conventional solutions, our upgraded LSTM model is strong and adaptable to the ever-changing financial fraud scenario.
    Keywords: long short-term memory; LSTM; recurrent neural networks; RNNs; weighted and aggregated model; accuracy and precision parameters; transaction identification; reliability of credit cards.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062264
  • Financial Reporting Influence on the Development of Corporate Investment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Mert 
    Abstract: The study analyses future research potential, reviews the term’s experience literature, and gives a framework for organising this material. A literature review and analysis were included in the study. Different points of view on the subject have been classified to study earlier authors’ opinions. This research is a preliminary conceptual presentation. The study’s findings reveal that, first and foremost, financial statements show readers a company’s financial health through its continuing existence. Second, reporting practices have a substantial impact on a company’s financials. It is decided that financial statements substantially impact a company’s financial health to lessen the dangers connected with placing faith in financial statements. Financial statements are now available in a variety of formats. As a result, comparing financial statements among organisations in the same region for client reports is difficult. Some companies want to give detailed line item information, while others do not. Adopting a uniform standard might strengthen the framework for business decision-makers. A good financial statement should document data in an easy-to-read and understandable manner. Only displaying an accounting record aids organisations in evaluating results and planning for a more profitable future.
    Keywords: financial reporting; financial information; financial investments; corporate investment; capital investments; financial statements substantially; historical evidence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062410
  • Assessing Agility of Safety Practices in Corporate Organizations in India Through Social Sustainability Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Gaurav Mittra, Manmohan Rahul, Gitanjali Mehta 
    Abstract: Social sustainability plays a pivotal role in facilitating growth and advancement within the workplace. It forges a vital link between learning and adaptation, as the work environment significantly influences a majority of employees. In recent years, this concept has gained substantial traction as a focal point of research. It is crucial to recognise that safety practices cannot exist in isolation; they are intricately intertwined with both the internal dynamics and the external influences that shape an organisational framework. These combined elements establish a comprehensive system within the organisation, ultimately impacting its holistic performance, encompassing financial, social, and environmental dimensions. The aim of the research is to investigate how organisational agility in implementing and adopting safety protocols is affected by social sustainability. Our research delves into the influence of social sustainability on employees’ well-being in relation to the efficacy of safety measures in organisational settings. Furthermore, our study delves into the repercussions of employees’ perceptions regarding an organisation, its leadership, safety protocols, and the fairness of HR practices. We analyse how these factors collectively influence safety-related behaviour across various hierarchical levels.
    Keywords: social sustainability; corporate social responsibility; CSR; occupational health and safety; OHS; sustainable development; safety practices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062487
  • ChatGPT in Financial Education: Assessing its Role in Improving Financial Literacy and Investor Knowledge   Order a copy of this article
    by Shruti Bansal, Rachit Agarwal, Shwetabh Mittal, Ambuj Sharma 
    Abstract: The research aims to assess the role of ChatGPT in financial literacy as level of education can be affected by using such chatbots. The adoption of AI-based technology can have an impact on the intellectual and cognitive abilities of investors. This study employs a combination of descriptive and exploratory research designs. A comprehensive survey instrument consisting of 30 statements pertaining to various aspects, measured on a five-point Likert scale, has been developed for the purpose of gathering primary data from respondents residing in the Delhi-NCR region. The sample size for this study was 392. It has been found that people might have trust on the use of ChatGPT and they recommend it to other but assurance and trust; identification and helpful in finding best financial assistance related to make any investment decision by ChatGPT, not found significant impact on the financial education and financial decision making by investors. This research theme is pioneering research into how AI can catalyse good changes in financial literacy and investor knowledge and ultimately lead to a more financially intelligent and empowered society.
    Keywords: ChatGPT; financial literacy; sustainable finance; artificial intelligence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062488
  • Exploring the Impact of Human Resource Analytics on Employee Engagement Using Neural Networks in Public Sector in India   Order a copy of this article
    by CA.Kamakshi Mehta, Srinivas Kolachina, Sudha Mavuri, Ajith Kumar Vadakki Veetil, Jayashree Patil, Jithesh Mon Mullool 
    Abstract: In human resource management, the untapped potential of human resource analytics has remained a challenge, resulting in a notable loss of operational efficiency within the public sector. This project uses artificial intelligence to illuminate human resource statistics topics for stakeholders. Human resource analytics, specifically neural networks, can transform public sector human resource departments. Our study covers manufacturing and public-sector employee engagement. Engagement is key to productivity and organisational success, making it a priority for improvement. We show how human resource analytics, especially when combined with neural networks, can transform the game. Human resource analytics is multidimensional and can be used efficiently in the public sector. Our research shows that public enterprises must use human resource analytics to achieve their goals. When used properly, these analytics factors help achieve public sector goals, boosting staff morale and productivity. In conclusion, this study seeks to connect human resource analytics to public sector employee engagement, a crucial topic. We hope to improve human resource operations and create a more engaged and productive public-sector workforce by using neural networks.
    Keywords: human resource management; HRM; human resource operations analytics; artificial intelligence; employee engagement; public sector; digital economy; employing neural networks; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062632
  • Geographic Location, Finance, and Educational Quality Influence Parents' Private School Choices   Order a copy of this article
    by VINNARAS NITHYANANTHAM, Madhurima Ganguly, Sukhwinder Sharma, Bestoon Othman, P. Ramesh, TRIBHUWAN KUMAR 
    Abstract: This study delves into the complex process of selecting private schools by city-dwelling parents, focusing on factors such as school quality, prospects, and family income while downplaying the roles of parental education and school popularity. The research in Chittagong, Bangladesh, highlights unique preferences in private school selection, particularly in a global pandemic that has shifted learning to online platforms. This shift raises concerns about student engagement and the development of self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, underscoring the need for further research. The study also investigates how transitioning from elementary to secondary school impacts students’ commitment and identity formation. Utilising a quantitative approach, it employs SPSS for data analysis, exploring multiple and correlation regression. The findings reveal that parents and teachers are crucial in supporting students through this transition. The research examines students’ perceptions of their transition, character development, and motivation, finding no significant gender differences in these aspects. The results suggest that effective teaching strategies can enhance students’ SRL abilities, contributing valuable insights to educational planning and student development.
    Keywords: exposure on inspiration; identity education; transformation of secondary school; COVID-19; finance and geographic location; finance and educational; quality influence parents; private school choices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062633
  • Qualitative analysis of accounting in financial stability and sustainable development of companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Mert 
    Abstract: Financial accounting is a critical source of financial stability. Traditional accounting practices, such as old rules, could not cover specific problems and facilitate instability. Hence, it is important to identify the role of financial accounting in financial stability. The study implemented a qualitative research method to explore the topic in detail and to have subjective perspectives of people from the finance sector who had experience using financial accounting to maintain stability. Hence, interviews were conducted with the finance managers to understand different aspects linked to financial stability. The results demonstrated that rule-based accounting systems allow manipulation through earnings management and lack openness and accountability. Financial organisations are stable due to capital buffer and liquidity management by preserving current ratio and cash. Besides, bank disclosures, involving financial and non-financial disclosures, are necessary for compliance and transparency that improves the stability position. Lastly, IFRS rules help avoid using earnings management techniques to indicate a strong financial position based on manipulation. It was concluded that effective accounting policies and rules must be aligned with the market and environmental factors to optimise the financial accounting benefits and ensure financial stability.
    Keywords: sustainable accounting; financial accounting; accounting and financial stability; development of companies; principle-based accounting system; exposures to risky assets; earnings management approaches; treatment of financial leases.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062957
  • The evolution of human rights protection: a comparative analysis between the technology era and the traditional epoch   Order a copy of this article
    by M.S. Sharmila, K. Kamban Socretes 
    Abstract: From the age of cave paintings to the age of tweets, humanity has been entangled in an ever-evolving dance with the concept of human rights. These once-hushed rights now echo across the digital cosmos. Sociologists know that change is the only constant in society. Each technological and scientific development has been a stanza in the social and economic revolution ballad. Technology has moved from backdrop to principal character on the global stage recently. It is not just altering the material world; it is rewriting the script for immaterial constructs like rights and freedoms. We have transcended from etching laws on stone tablets to encoding them in algorithms, marking the transition from traditional to modern human rights. This philosophical journey addresses two important questions. First, did human rights exist in the past, and how far did they spread? Second, in this brilliant tech age, are our new digital rights strengthened or fraying? Man, and machine are racing at great speeds, but who is defining who? Can technology protect our rights or degrade the legal sanctuaries we have built? This debate explores technology’s human rights problems and asks for a worldwide framework to manage this complicated new landscape.
    Keywords: digital world; human rights; natural law; traditional epoch; human rights protection; philosophical journey; technology era; the traditional epoch.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10062958
  • Role of organisational sensemaking in the emergence of a hybrid logic: the case of the National Gallery in London   Order a copy of this article
    by Nasser AlShawaaf, AbdulWahab Baroun, Ahmad Alqatan, Muhammad Arslan 
    Abstract: This study explores how a micro-level mechanism leads to change in institutional logic by examining the role of sensemaking in emergence of a hybrid logic.Examining the mechanisms that lead to logic emergence is important to improve our understanding of why and how organisations become hybrids.Through a case study analysis, this study illustrates how a top-down process of organisational sensemaking resulted in emergence of a hybrid logic which provides multiple organising principles that are combined in novel ways.The findings reveal dominant logic wasn’t changed but a new logic is combined to assist in coping with the demands from the institutional environment and survive.Institutional pressures represent multiple circumstances that organisational actors identify, assign meaning by interpretation, and take action by configuring activities of multiple logics.The emerged hybridity is a resort by which it is intended to cope with institutional pressures but not optimal for competitiveness and sustainability.
    Keywords: institutional logic; institutional change; sensemaking; hybrid logic; art museums; National Gallery; London.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10063360
  • Unveiling the psychology of impulse cosmetic purchases in the digital age among youth   Order a copy of this article
    by Shamini James, S. Karthik, Binu Thomas 
    Abstract: This pioneering study examines digital natives’ impulsive cosmetic purchases and the complex dynamics that drive them online. In an era of rapid e-commerce growth and virtual retail, marketers and consumers must grasp the complex drivers of impulsive buying. Our research examines the complex world of online shopping, including website aesthetics, crowd-sourced user reviews, tantalising price incentives, cutting-edge promotional strategies, marketplace competitiveness, diverse payment options, gender-specific preferences, and social media dynamics. This study examines these stimulation factors to understand the complex consumer behaviour that leads to impulsive online cosmetic purchasing. Through careful investigation, we find that user-generated reviews and social media are the main drivers of impulsive cosmetic purchases online. We show how hedonistic experiences, payment flexibility, and demographics drive online impulsive buying. This research adds to the knowledge base by revealing the causes of impulsive online cosmetic product purchases by young consumers. These novel results provide marketers an edge in creating strategies that appeal to this sensitive consumer group. Consumers can make better educated and intentional digital purchases by recognising the causes of impulsive buying.
    Keywords: online shopping; impulsive buying; stimulus factors; promotion strategies; price off; hedonic shopping consumer group; YouTube beauty Bloggers; online impulsive buying; cosmetic purchases.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10063530
  • Justice perception and organisational commitment: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Arup Roy Chowdhury, Lopamudra Pattanayak, Poulami Chowdhury, M.G. Jomon 
    Abstract: This paper focused on the impact of organisational justice on organisational commitment. The sectors understudy was: 1) the manufacturing sector; 2) the information technology sector; 3) the pharmaceutical sector; 4) the educational sector; and 5) the banking and finance sector. Considerable analysis has been conducted with the help of quantitative tools and surveys. The objective of the research was to determine the influence of the various types of organisational justices on organisational commitment. Workers who believe their employer treats them fairly and acts justly in its operations are more likely to be engaged and productive. Improved employee dedication to the company is one effect of efforts to increase organisational fairness. Managers can utilise distributive and procedural justice to decrease employee turnover by increasing job satisfaction and employee loyalty. According to the concept of ' organisational justice', workers' attitudes regarding whether or not they have been treated fairly are of the utmost importance.
    Keywords: organisational justice perception; organisational commitment; motivated healthcare workforce; enhanced employee loyalty; manufacturing sector; information technology sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10063531
  • Implementation of FinTech In Indian banks for improvement in banking services - a comparative study between private and public-sector banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandhiya Karunakaran, Buvanesh Chandrasekaran 
    Abstract: In the modern business environment, technological advancement is necessary to sustain the increased competition. Banking is the lifeblood of an economy, and technical advances enable a country to compete globally. This study compares Indian public and private sector banks to assess FinTech deployment in the banking industry. For this study, the FinTech scenario of three renowned public-sector banks, namely State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, and Central Bank of India, along with three renowned private banks, namely ICICI, HDFC and Axis banks in India, have been chosen. Secondary and primary data from all six banks were collected to assess FinTech implementation in both industries. Thus, a mixed methodology was adopted to conduct this research study. These banks study AI, blockchain, big data, and other FinTech fields. The findings show how FinTech has improved these banks’ nationwide offerings. The studies also showed that private banks implement FinTech more than public banks. According to this study, FinTech could change the banking industry. Public sector banks can help urban and rural communities become financially included, even while private sector banks lead this innovation.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; implementation of FinTech; Indian banks for improvement; banking services; private and public-sector banks; FinTech fields; FinTech industries; financial technology; adoption and bank profitability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10063576
  • Volatility spillover effect of Nifty futures returns on Nifty spot returns   Order a copy of this article
    by Matraju Venkata Ramana Raju , V.S. Prasad Kandi , Naveen Chinni 
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between volatility and the returns of Nifty spot and Nifty futures in the Indian stock market. It employs a bivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model to forecast the volatility of spot returns based on future returns. Additionally, the research utilises a vector autoregression (VAR) model to examine the effects on the NSE Nifty 50 index. The analysis is grounded in daily Nifty futures, and spot returns data over a specified period. By incorporating lagged conditional variances and covariances, the bivariate GARCH model predicts the conditional volatility of spot returns. Subsequently, the VAR model explores the influence of Nifty futures returns on spot returns and their collective effect on the Nifty 50 index. The findings hold significance for market participants like traders and investors regarding risk management and informed decision making. Regulators and policymakers can also leverage the results to enhance their understanding of volatility transmission and its implications for market stability. This research sheds light on the volatility transmission between Nifty futures and spot returns, offering important perspectives for the Indian stock market.
    Keywords: cross-asset volatility impact; international volatility linkages; equity market volatility spillover; VAR forecasting model; vector autoregressive estimation; impact assessment immediate asset returns; current price return analysis; spot market profitability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10063694
  • Marketing strategy analysis for sustainable market access to strengthen agricultural value chains in Salem District   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Saravanan, K. Maruthamuthu 
    Abstract: In developing nations like India, the expansion and development of agricultural value chains for both domestic and foreign markets can be seen as a potent weapon for combating the problems of food insecurity and poverty. Better agricultural value chains that connect rural and urban areas can offer chances to start development initiatives. It is expected that new technologies, cloud computing, and the internet of things (IoT) will spur development and introduce robotics and AI into farming. Salem District agriculture businesses’ marketing methods will be examined in this study. Each factor’s economic performance was assessed using marketing margins and value chain mapping. It also examines agricultural entrepreneurs’ personalities, marketing strategies, and Salem District rural agricultural entrepreneurs’ obstacles. It promotes innovation to boost rural agriculture enterprises’ competitiveness. The current study sought to establish if farmers and dealers were satisfied with these markets. The study used statistical methods, binary logistic regression, and correlation analysis to determine the underlying characteristics of numerous factors related to farmers’ and sellers’ satisfaction with Salem District’s agricultural marketplaces. Farmers liked the agricultural market sites based on most market performance features and metrics.
    Keywords: agricultural marketing; entrepreneurs in Salem District; farmers and marketing strategy; sustainable market access; strengthen agricultural value chains; digital technology; e-commerce platforms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10063824
  • Analysis of behavioural intention to use digital lending: a serial mediation model   Order a copy of this article
    by Milan Yadav, Subramanian Shanmugam 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between perceived security (PS) and behavioural intention (BI) through perceived utility (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU). The data were congregate from 288 mobile banking users, who are willing to borrow through digital mode. To verify the proposed model, the researcher used Smart PLS. The research findings offered strong evidence in favour of the proposed connections between PS, PEOU, PU, and BI. The findings from our serial mediation model indicate that PS has a considerable impact on the BI of mobile banking customers to use digital lending, both directly and indirectly via proximal cognitive factors. The findings of this paper can be used by the authorities to establish mandatory data security and privacy standards for digital platforms. The article offers some pertinent insights for them. It was proposed that to obtain more in-depth study findings, future studies should use qualitative techniques like interviewing respondents.
    Keywords: digital lending; technology acceptance model; TAM; perceived security; PS; perceived usefulness; PU; perceived ease of use; PEOU.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10064100
  • Understanding the regional disparity of micro, small and medium enterprises in Uttar Pradesh, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditya Kumar Sharma, Shivani Sinha 
    Abstract: The study intends to evaluate the regional characteristics and disparities in the distribution of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME) in a different region of Uttar Pradesh. The study uses data from UAM registration of the MSMEs from 2016 to 2019. MSMEs’ regional characteristics were evaluated based on the number of enterprises, employment, investment, and ownership through data profiling and regional disparity through concentration analysis such as the Gini coefficient, the Lorenz curve, and the Balassa-Hoover Index. The findings show that micro-enterprises are more than the small and medium enterprises in the regions. The regional disparities analysis results indicate that micro-enterprises are comparatively equally distributed among regions while small and medium enterprises are mainly concentrated in Western UP. The ownership data indicate that ownership of MSMEs is fairly distributed among different social categories compared to the national level, in which half of the MSMEs are owned by the general category.
    Keywords: MSMEs; UAM registrations; ownership type; employment; investment; Uttar Pradesh; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2025.10064223
  • Consumer awareness about road sector in India and suggested approach for improved involvement of citizens in road development programs   Order a copy of this article
    by Kedar Bhagwat, Dhiraj Prakash Sethi, Anand Venkatesh, Yogesh Mahajan 
    Abstract: With the success of road development programs in terms of the availability of quality road networks across the country and acceptance of roads as a primary mode of transportation amongst road users, in this study, we have conducted road user awareness regarding road transportation system and related road safety aspects through a comprehensively designed web-based objective type questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed online to road users nationwide, mainly passenger car drivers. All the satisfactory responses have been analysed using descriptive analysis and regression analysis. According to the survey, road users think they comprehend traffic laws, road networks, and toll policies. The average awareness score was 16 out of 31 items (approximately 50%), which is poor considering that 47% of respondents were from the civil/infrastructure industry, contributing heavily to India's road-building program. This study examined user awareness across programs, not just safety. Policymakers can utilise the study's findings to comprehend passenger car users' awareness of the road network, driving behaviours, road safety, toll policy, and technological initiatives.
    Keywords: road user awareness; road safety initiatives; road development programs; civil/infrastructure industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10055791
  • The consequences of efficient communication on operational efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Hasan Ali Al-Abyadh, Iskandar Muda, Budhi Sagar Mishra, Aram Jawhar Mohammad, Bestoon Othman, Arup Roy Chowdhury 
    Abstract: Conversation is a crucial and essential part of the organisation since it successfully promotes managers, which impacts organisational administration and outcomes. The systems theory is used in this important study to evaluate how communication firm outcomes. In meeting its goals, the study's objectives were to determine the theory-based network characteristics that impact effective interaction and then design a communication model that considers these aspects. In the study, the organisational culture serves as a facilitator as it evaluates the effect of efficient communication on firm success. The information was gathered from a few people employed by businesses in a country's IT and telecom sectors. The study's findings indicate that good communication favours organisational performance, but if an organisation's culture is not supportive, performance will suffer. The findings of this study suggest that management should support and develop a culture of good communication both within and between enterprises to boost performance.
    Keywords: effective communication; performance; knowledge management; organisational; performance; organisational culture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10055898
  • Analysis of significant problems in horticultural sector by asserting developing and modern constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Madhu Kumar Reddy, V.S. Prasad Kandi, M. Radhika 
    Abstract: The present horticulture industry represents one of the fastest growing sectors, making significant contributions to societal development, production dynamics, and the cultivation of greenhouse plants. This industry plays a pivotal role in economic development. It is important to highlight that the horticulture sector encounters critical issues that illuminate the challenges associated with the selling and marketing of horticultural products in India. These challenges not only impact the economic outcomes but also influence the financial strategies within the sector. Industry professionals used Delphi technique to identify the emerging horticulture sector challenges. Experts agreed on 58 topics with 15 related to selling and marketing horticulture products. The constant comparative method analysed crucial topics like environmental and economic sustainability, government regulations and research education, marketing and supply chain management, production and harvesting, and workforce development. With this altering culture, supplementary businesses have used their wide selection of positive things. This article also examines how these organisations work, their competitiveness, consumer needs, and ways to improve their competitiveness using four important subsectors. Each variable's qualifying conditions were picked using the Delphi technique. The results revealed that horticultural product sales and marketing are the challenges.
    Keywords: environmental sustainability; marketing; supply chain management; critical issues; labour shortage; critical concerns; landscaping; labour crisis; ecology; horticultural production; pest control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057056
  • Unravelling the legal conundrum of DNA profiling in India: an analysis of its adoption, implementation and unresolved issues   Order a copy of this article
    by D. Sankar 
    Abstract: DNA profiling has transformed criminal justice by helping identify defendants. DNA profiling is an art that uses genetics to identify people. Recently, DNA profiling has helped solve crimes. Scientists can now decipher the DNA code and compare DNA samples to find similarities and differences, which have helped courts convict or acquit criminals. The Indian Evidence Act 1872 and Criminal Procedure Act 1973 govern DNA evidence admissibility and significance. DNA profiling has been a helpful technology in law investigation since it has the potential to both secure just punishments and exonerate innocent people. Moreover, DNA profiling, in contrast to other forms of scientific evidence, is simple to acquire and durable, thus enhancing the likelihood of a correct analysis. Human DNA profiling must be regulated and limited to legal uses. The DNA Technology Regulations Bill 2019 regulates DNA profiling in India. This study attempts to explain India's DNA profiling justice system dilemma. The uniqueness of DNA profiling and its use in criminal investigation to reveal grey zones that lead to miscarriage of justice.
    Keywords: Criminal Procedure Code; CrPC; constitutional law; DNA profiling; genetic makeup; National Registry of Exonerations; NRE; evidence law; forensic science; justice system; technology; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057097
  • Application of the UTAUT model toward individual acceptance: emerging trends in artificial intelligence-based banking services   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Sharma, Sanjay Taneja, Pawan Kumar, Ercan Özen, Amandeep Singh 
    Abstract: In the business world, acceptance of new technologies, in particular internet banking is becoming more crucial. Numerous researches on internet banking have discovered that the opinions and experiences of customers are crucial to the service's effectiveness. To determine factors influencing internet banking adoption, the study may employ the use of technology and unified theory of acceptance anxiety, and security risk. For the data collection, 116 replies were received, and factor analysis was performed using PLS-SEM. The SEM found that roughly 55.66% of the variation in intention of users to use digital banking was explained by predictors. The integrated UTAUT model had the biggest impact on consumers' intents to utilise digital banking. Additionally, use of the UTAUT model can help academics to gain an updated knowledge on ways to encourage internet banking acceptability for clients of public and private banks, thereby assisting in the expansion of internet banking acceptance. In this paper, commercial bank customers offer a fresh viewpoint on technology-based banking services. In order to increase trust of banking clients, the RBI as well as bank officials shall concentrate on technological and factor driving customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: UTAUT model; internet/digital banking; anxiety; security risk; PLS-SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10056287
  • Composite financial performance score - a new performance measure for evaluating the impact of working capital efficiency of firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Shiv Shankar Kumar, N. Sivasankaran, Subrata Roy, Naresh Gopal 
    Abstract: Working capital management is vital to the functioning of a healthy and successful commercial firm. A major portion of working capital literature has empirically examined the impact of working capital efficiency (WCE) on the firm's profitability. In literature, profitability is often used as a proxy for a company's financial performance. However, the drawback of these studies is that the outcome measure used by them does not reflect the full/aggregate impact of WCE because these measures (ROA, ROCE, ROE, NOI and GOI) only account for the impact of WCE on business profitability and ignore the impact of WCE on other sub-metrics of financial performance. In this research, we present a new performance measure of WCE, namely, composite financial performance score (CFPS) by considering the most important performance indicators such as profitability, liquidity, solvency, cash flow management, and leverage. Borrowing from Piotroski's F-score framework, we have developed a discrete binary scoring system using scores of 0 or 1 on 22 sub-parameters that form part of the above stated performance indicators of a firm. The study is useful for academicians and industry practitioners as it provides new insights and implications for them in the performance assessment of firms.
    Keywords: profitability; liquidity; solvency; cash flow management; leverage; composite financial performance score; working capital efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10056394
  • Moderating effects of challenges on self-efficacy and satisfaction of women street vendors   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Muthulakshmi, J. Tamilselvi, S. Shahul Hameed 
    Abstract: Street vending is a means of survival for many families in India, especially women who are economically disadvantaged or have limited opportunities for formal employment. However, these vendors face significant legal obstacles in establishing their businesses due to insufficient infrastructure and limited resources. They struggle to acquire room and financing to run a profitable firm due to a lack of infrastructure. Women's street vendors in India often face various challenges and hindrances from the government, the public, licensed establishments, law enforcement, and other sources. Despite such challenges, they run their businesses successfully due to their economic conditions. Self-efficacy affects these vendors' business management, problem-solving, and satisfaction. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 421 Tamil Nadu residents from Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari. SPSS and AMOS studied female street seller data. Our findings show that female street vendors' business happiness depends on their satisfaction in overcoming hurdles. High amounts decrease satisfaction, while low levels boost it. Self-efficacy affects satisfaction too. Street merchants need public and government support to succeed.
    Keywords: street vending; women; self-efficacy; challenges; satisfaction; infrastructure; legal obstacles; formal employment; licensed establishments; law enforcement; public support; facilities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEF.2024.10057783