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International Journal of Economics and Accounting (7 papers in press)
Assurance of financial audit reporting and sustainability reporting by Melinda Timea Fülöp, Gabriel Raita Abstract: Certification and auditors responsibility for financial and non-financial statements has been a hotly debated topic in the literature recently. Given national, international, and even global economic changes, auditors are subject to risks specific to their activities. The publics perception and confidence in the auditors assurance has waned because of major scandals, leading to several legislative changes at the international level in terms of audit work. The purpose of the paper is to ensure the audit report related to financial statements and sustainable reporting. The research results show that there is a link between the financial statement auditor and the sustainable reporting auditor. It is also required in the international framework: the election of a big 4 auditor to audit the financial statements is the promoter of the election of a big 4 auditor and for the certification of sustainable reporting. Keywords: audit; assurance; corporate reporting. DOI: 10.1504/IJEA.2022.10047819
Working capital management and shareholders' value creation in the emerging Asian market: the evidence from Indian manufacturing sector by Sangeeta Mittal, Sonali Garg Abstract: The recent global financial crisis had made working capital management more significant for the firms owing to its impact on the firm's liquidity and profitability. The objective of this study is to scrutinise the influence of working capital management and its components on shareholders' value creation in the Indian manufacturing sector, as there is a dearth of literature on their relationship. The dependent variable, economic value added is used as a measure of shareholders' value creation to analyse the association between working capital management and shareholders' value creation in selected firms for the period of 2011 to 2019. Using panel data regression methodology, the results showed that shareholders' value creation is significantly affected by working capital management. The study also inferred that shareholders' value creation is positively and significantly affected by the inventory conversion period and accounts payables period. The study recommends that firms with a high level of inventory and having good relations with their suppliers can create more shareholders' value. The managers were also urged to use an aggressive working capital financing policy. Keywords: working capital; shareholder value; economic value; manufacturing sector; liquidity; profitability. DOI: 10.1504/IJEA.2022.10046148
The use of multidimensional information in credit decisions: a study from the inside of a successful bank by Gunnar Wahlström Abstract: This study explores credit decisions in a bank that, according to Standard and Poor, is one of the largest in the world in terms of assets and that Moody's has described as one of the least likely banks in the world to default. This study reveals that local credit officers, who were geographically close to their customers, had great freedom in credit decisions, regardless of the size of the loan. Larger credit decisions must be confirmed by headquarters. Once confirmed, the local officer handles the credit further. Freedom for local credit officers worked as a device to motivate to work beyond the formal system of risk measurement, and to seek complex information in their face-to-face meetings with customers. The described approach to credit decisions was set by strict control through the use of numbers, as top management could step in if middle managers or local credit officers were incompetent. Keywords: bank; credit decisions; management control; risk measurement; freedom in decision. DOI: 10.1504/IJEA.2021.10039509
Studying the performance of the Greek public insurance organisations consolidation as a measure for their competitiveness and viability by Aida Sy, Christos Konstantinidis, Anneta Polychroniadoy, Evanthia Rizopoulou Abstract: The viability of public insurance organisations in Greece was an issue that significantly concerned all researchers, the vast majority of whom ended up consolidating the organisations as the most effective solution. For this reason, the purpose of this work is, on one hand, the measurement of the efficiency of the employees before and after the consolidation of the public insurance organisations in Greece, and on the other hand, the reflection of the degree of their agreement in its individual dimensions. From the results that emerged, it is found that the employees of the new united created organisation called E.F.K.A., agree that before the unification they served citizens efficiently and that they worked with less stress, in contrast to the unification, which does not seem to be a measure to stimulate the competitiveness-viability of the organisations as it has negatively affected their own efficiency compared to the previous period. Keywords: sustainability; insurance organisations; employee efficiency. DOI: 10.1504/IJEA.2021.10040279
The morality of edge sorting and the indefatigability of resourceful evasion and avoidance gambits by Luiz Henrique De Lacerda Sanglard, Ana Lucia Fontes De Souza Vasconcelos, Liliane Cristina Segura Abstract: Notwithstanding the harm's extent produced by the relevant avoidance method, this should not determine whether the conduct should be punished, it should be reprimanded regardless. The fact of the matter is that, even though players play according to previously established rules, abuses will eventually be committed, therefore tax authorities must possess the proper tools to deter such abusive measures. Despite that fact that taxpayers have the right to pre-tax income, this argument cannot be used as to overcome the collectivity's needs, represented by the state, for economic agents depend on the state to derive wealth. An active market, the protection of private property, a functional stock market, all that would not be possible without effective taxation. The obvious economic benefit is not the only reason why individuals and companies alike avoid and evade, that is, a sense of justice and economic inequality also influences the extent individuals comply, ultimately affecting taxpayers' and planners' behaviour. Keywords: tax evasion; tax avoidance; white-collar crime; tax crime; inequality; taxation. DOI: 10.1504/IJEA.2022.10048475
Behavioural finance: understanding impact of human behaviour towards financial decision making by Rajashree K. Gethe, Ankit Bajaj, Mahesh S. Hulage Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to develop a conceptual framework and understanding of the field of behavioural finance. This paper puts forth theoretical aspects and practical implications of how human's behaviour affects a person's financial decision making. The research paper proposes a conceptual interrelation between finance, psychology, and sociology where the paper focuses on developing a certain factor which will help to deeply understand human's behaviour while making a financial decision (behavioural finance). Behavioural finance is one of the emerging areas of research in the field of finance. It focuses on the impact of human psychology and behaviour on financial decision making. So, it will be really interesting to find out the behavioural and emotional state factors that promote a human being to make a financial decision. This research paper is to find out the factors that promotes a human being to make the financial decisions which sometimes are not as per the financial theories. Keywords: behavioural finance; behavioural biases; individual's financial decision making; psychology of investors. DOI: 10.1504/IJEA.2022.10047755
TARCH model-based dynamic hedging strategy of ADR portfolios by Haochen Guo, Zdeněk Zmeškal Abstract: Traditional hedging is only applied to minimise uncertainty about the financial asset's value at some particular future time when the hedge is closed, and it is only concerned with one scenario. However, dynamic hedging is used with simulation techniques to value the financial assets and to measure risk. The framework relies on solving the traditional hedging strategy, but it is used to simulate various multi-scenarios for the portfolio value. The purpose of this paper is to apply Monte Carlo to simulate the threshold autoregressive conditionally heteroschedastic (TARCH) process to determine the dynamic hedging strategy of the proposed American depositary receipt (ADR) stock portfolios. The empirical study examines Germany and the UK ADR portfolios to reduce China's ADR portfolio risk in the US equity market. It contributes to solving investing in foreign stocks to hedge risky stocks in the US equity market. The result presents that using Germany and the UK's ADR portfolios could lead against the risk of investment of China's ADRs in the US equity market. It can improve the investor's portfolio allocation and protects the profit. Keywords: TARCH model; dynamic hedging strategy; value at risk; Monte Carlo simulation; volatility model; American depositary receipt; ADR; the US equity market. DOI: 10.1504/IJEA.2022.10043407