International Journal of Digital Signals and Smart Systems (17 papers in press)
Analytical model of multi-coil inductive power transmission system for movable low-power wireless devices with constant speed
by Bilel Kallel, Olfa Kanoun, Hafedh Trabelsi
Abstract: Inductive power transmission IPT can be considered to transfer power to wireless sensors installed in movable devices. The main challenge thereby is the variable mutual inductance and therefore the coupling factor which is decisive for the amount of transmitted energy. Suitable models for the mutual coupling are therefore very important not only for predicting the system behavior, but also for the system design in general. In this paper, we present an analytical model for a multi-coil IPT system consisting of an array of multiple circular air-cored coils connected in series, without any magnetic or soft-magnetic materials around them and a receiving coil in movement in parallel to them and having a constant speed. The equivalent inductance, equivalent mutual inductance, coupling factor and induced voltage and current are estimated. The proposed analytical models are validated by both finite element simulations and experiments. Results fit very well together implying the validity of the proposed model. The model is not only limited to low-power IPT systems having a receiver with constant speed but also it is principally applicable for higher power range applications including electrical vehicles and trains.
Keywords: inductive power transfer; multi-coil system; wireless sensors; movable receiver; analytical model; finite element simulations; experimental verification.
Development and Power consumption analysis of Low cost Wireless Sensor Node for Fire Detection
by Shivani Sharma, Chandan , Kailash Chand, Deepak Sharma Sharma, Paramita Guha
Abstract: Fire becomes a problem when it goes untamed and destroys in part or whole the ecological balance of the area. Thus arises a need to develop a system for early detection of fire with significant accuracy. In this work, a wireless sensor network has been developed for fire detection and its essential parameters, such as effective detection distance and power consumption have been monitored. The hardware developed for this system comprises of the components as a controller board and a transceiver. Without the inclusion of energy saving algorithm the system has shown a considerable lifetime and effective detection distance.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Fire Detection; Microcontroller; Transceiver; Power consumption.
Modern explanation of the proton radius puzzle, an extension of the Standard Model: muonic radiuses ????????(????????) , ????????(????????) and ????????(????????) are novel physical constants
by Jamil KOOLI
Abstract: The polemic on muonic measurements is continuing for a decade. So far, the proton radius puzzle remains entire. In fact, there is a general tendency of experimenters and theorists, according to which an absolute solution of the problem is beyond the Standard Model. The main object of this paper is to demonstrate the existing of real fundamental links between the constants of muonic and electronic hydrogen and deuterium, which could confirm the muonic radiuses as new fundamental physical constants, which also could provide the first muonic constants of a novel physics incorporating the exotic atoms. We determined an absolute expression for the deuteron radius, ???? ????, from electronic deuterium, and another absolute expression for the muonic deuteron radius, ???????? ???????? , from muonic deuterium. We established a close relationship between the electronic radius ???????? and the muonic radiuses, ???????? ???????? , ???????? ???????? (R. Pohl et al., 2016), and ???????? ???????? . For our calculations, we utilized the most precise experimental data of Randolf Pohls team. We obtain (1) ???????? ???????? ?2.12852(78) fm, (2) ?????????0.87564(61) ????????, (3) ???????? ???????? ?0.83580(20) fm, (4) electronic (????????2 ? ????????2) ? 3.81928(35) ???????? 2, all linked to (5) ?????????2.1415(45)fm (R. Pohl et al.,), and (6) ????????(????????)? 0.8409(4) fm (Pohl R., Mainz, 2 June 2014). We reserve the sign equal (=) only for absolute physical constants
Keywords: proton radius puzzle; electronic deuteron radius; electronic proton radius; muonic radiuses; Standard Model; novel physics; fundamental links.
Power control system assessment of LiFePo4 battery/supercapacitors for a 500 KVA UPS
by Imen Ben Amira
Abstract: Combining hybrid Electrical Storage Systems (ESS) has solved many electrical devices problems while using them separately. Batteries have presented limited charge/ discharge cycles which has affected their lifetime and has increased their cost. In fact, the lithium ion (li-ion) batteries have been studied and evolving in term of cycles. They provide high energy density while the supercapacitors (SCs) ensure long lifetime cycles and operate at large range temperatures. This paper presents a control strategy of battery/ SCs in Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) application in order to improve the efficiency, lifetime and reduce the cost. A comparison of using the hybridization using three different architectures with and without control system has been established to highlight the power split between the two storage systems. A comparison of lead acid and li-ion battery has been established. Finally, different ESS financial study has been set.
Keywords: Lithium ion; hybridization; Supercapacitors; cost; Uninterruptible Power Supply.
Direct Power Control with Neutral-Point Voltage Balance of Grid-Connected Three-Level NPC Inverter (Selected from SSD'18)
by Ben Mahmoud Zouhaira, Hamouda Mahmoud, Khedher Adel
Abstract: Multi-level power converters are nowadays the most appropriate solution for medium-voltage grid-connected Renewable Energy Sources (RES) such as variable speed wind-turbines and photovoltaic (PV) generators. This paper presents a three-level Direct Power Control (DPC) scheme for a grid-connected NPC inverter with neutral point voltage (NPV) balance. The developed DPC scheme provides the active (P) and reactive (Q) powers control and commonly it preserves the voltages of the two DC-link capacitors at one half of the full DC bus voltage. At each sampling period, the adequate space vector is selected from a predefined switching table designed regarding the effect of the inverters space vectors on both, P and Q powers, and their ability to achieve the NPV balance. Numerical simulations are carried out, and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed DPC approach in controlling the P and Q powers and minimizing the fluctuations of the DC link capacitors voltages.
Keywords: Direct power control (DPC); switching table (ST); grid connected-multilevel inverters; neutral-point voltage(NPV) balance; smart grid.
Modelling of Distributed Generation System Based on Virtual Synchronous Generator Control Technique
by Yacine Daili, Abd Elghani Harrag
Abstract: Virtual synchronous generator control method is considered as a suitable solution for controlling distributed generation system based inverter, due to its ability to improve the stability of the micro-grid with a high penetration level of renewable energy into the micro-grid. The VSG control method consists in controlling the inverter based DG unit to mimic the main dynamic of the conventional synchronous generator. Unlike, conventional synchronous generators, DG systems are usually connected to the grid through low and medium voltage lines, where the line impedance is not purely inductive, result in a strong coupling between active and reactive powers, and nonlinearity between controls variables and active and reactive powers, making the analysis and control design of active and reactive loops more complicated. The main contribution of this paper is to propose
Keywords: Virtual synchronous generator; VSG; micro-grid; power electronics converter; renewable energy sources; distributed generator; grid stability.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART HOME NODES FOR SECURITY USING RADIO FREQUENCY MODULES
by SUNDAY AJAGBE, Idowu Bamimore
Abstract: Radio frequency (RF) is a preferred choice of wireless communication because of the ability to penetrate through walls. RF device has advantage of been relatively cheap and readily available in developing countries compared to other wireless communication modules, unlike infrared modules, it communicates in the presence of some form of obstruction such as walls, trees etc. Smart home system comprising a set of RF nodes was designed and implemented for security purposes. These nodes are made up of a set of sensors and actuators to observe the environment and automatically control home devices respectively. This was done using microcontrollers and RF modules. The sensors monitor and sense the ongoing activities in the home environment and communicate accordingly the information received to the microcontroller. The receiver then receives and sends the signals to the actuators via the microcontroller. The results show fantastic security device for domestic purposes.
Keywords: Actuator; Microcontroller; Modules; Nodes; Radio Frequency; Relay; Security; Sensor Monitor; Smart Home;.
Delay-dependent robust optimal H-infinity control for uncertain 2-D discrete systems described by the general model with both state and input delays
by Arun Kumar Singh
Abstract: This paper presents the problem of delay-dependent robust optimal H-infinity control for a class of uncertain two-dimensional (2-D) discrete systems described by the general model (GM) with both state and input delays. The parameter uncertainties are assumed to be norm-bounded. Based on a summation inequality, a linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based sufficient condition for the existence of gamma-suboptimal state feedback H-infinity controllers is established. Furthermore, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design a delay-dependent optimal state feedback H-infinity controller which minimizes the H-infinity noise attenuation gamma of the closed-loop system. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords: General model; H-infinity control; input delays; linear matrix inequality; state delays; uncertain systems.
Special Issue on: CISTEM 2018 Application of Optimisation Algorithms in Electric Power Systems
Design and Implementation of Three-level T-type Inverter based on Simplified SVPWM Using cost-effective STM32F4 Board
by Yacine AYACHI AMOR, Aissa KHELDOUN, Brahim METIDJI, Farid HAMOUDI, Abdeslam MERAZKA, Youssouf LAZOUECHE
Abstract: This paper investigates the design and validation of simplified Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) as a switching control for a three-phase three-level T-type inverter using STM32F4 board interfaced with Matlab/Simulink environment. Usually, the SVPWM algorithm implemented using either DSP card or Dspace platform, which affects the cost of the system. On the contrary, the proposed algorithm offers a great reduction of computations compared with the conventional one, which grants an easy digital implementation. Thanks to the geometrical symmetry of six sectors, in which exists a close relationship between on-time calculations and on-time arrangement of the switching states. This can be exploited for the remaining sectors based on a single computation that relies on the first sector only. The proposed algorithm has been validated in both simulation and experimental tests. The results show the ability and the flexibility of using the STM32F4 board to drive a three-level T-type inverter.
Keywords: Simplified SVPWM; Three-level T-type inverter; STM32F4 discovery board.
A hybrid sensorless Control of PMSG Wind-Power Generator with frequency signal injection method and extended Kalman Filter
by Lila HOCINE, Mohamed Menaa, Krim Yazid
Abstract: Based on the rotating high-frequency voltage-signal injection technique this paper presents two approaches to extract the rotor position information for sensorless low speed control of direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind power system. One of the approaches is to extract the rotor position information from the carrier current of permanent magnet synchronous generator by the traditional bandpass filter. The other one is to use an extended kalman filter algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed sensorless low speed control is shown by numerical simulations using Matlab/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that both control schemes provide an accurate estimate of the position of the PMSG-wind turbine and shaft speed. But extended kalman filter algorithm improves the efficiency of the high-frequency voltage-signal injection method by eliminate the phase shift introduce by the traditional bandpass filter.
Keywords: Wind energy; Sensorless direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG); Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT): pitch angle control; High-frequency signal injection; EKF Filter.
Induction Motor Rotor bars faults diagnosis based on Multiple features extraction and selection with Self-Organizing Map Neural Network
by Smail HAROUN, Amirouche Nait Seghir, Said Touati
Abstract: This paper presents an accurate and high performances fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) approach for broken rotor bar (BRB) and severity evaluation in squirrel cage induction motors. The aim is to ensure a robust condition monitoring and reduced false or missed alarms rate for BRB faults of induction motors operating in sensitive and critical areas. This paper proposes the combination of multiple features extraction, features selection, and the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) neural network as classifier in a BRB fault detection and severity evaluation process. The proposed approach is based on the three-phase stator currents analysis. It calls multiple features extraction methods. First, the envelope and the zero crossing times (ZCT) signals of the three phase stator currents are extracted. Next, statistical parameters from time and frequency domains, in addition to fault-related frequencies are calculated as features from the current waveform, the envelope, and the ZCT signals. The extracted features are then filtered to select the most sensitive and relevant ones using the ReliefF feature selection algorithm. Finally, the SOM is used for the decision-making step. The conducted experimental investigations using a healthy and faulty machines with broken rotor bars, have exposed the robustness of the proposed BRB fault detection technique in terms of accuracy in fault detection and severity evaluation.
Keywords: Broken rotor bar faults; Induction Motor; Fault detection and diagnosis (FDD); multiple features extraction; Relief feature Selection; Self-Organizing Map neural network.
GWO based Direct Power Control with Improved LCL Filter design for Three-Phase inverters
by Mohamed Amine Djema, Mohamed Boudour, Kodjo Agbossou, Alben Cardenas, Mamadou Lamine Doumbia
Abstract: This paper presents a Direct Power Control (DPC) technique based on instantaneous power theory with optimised PI controllers using a Grey Wolf Optimiser (GWO) algorithm. The method allows to control active and reactive power and to improve the generated power quality. Double Second-Order Generalized Integrator with Frequency-Locked Loop (DSOGI-FLL) is performed to ensure the grid synchronisation. New objective functions were defined and the optimisation process is carried using the Grey Wolf Optimiser. A three-phase inverter based grid-connected system was investigated for the simulation. The superiority of the new method was proven by analysing of the different operating modes and conducting a comparative study.
Keywords: MicroGrid; LCL Filter design; Grid Synchronisation; Power Quality; Grey Wolf Optimiser; Direct Power Control.
Special Issue on: IMAT3E'18 Advanced Technologies in Energy and Electrical Engineering
Solar Integrated Combined Cooling-Power Generation Systems for Waste Heat Recovery Using Different Energy Efficient Materials
by Kaushalendra Dubey, R.S. Mishra
Abstract: The prominent issues of energy crisis and environment toxicity are disused in these days globally. The CO2 concentration in atmosphere and depletion of conventional fuels can be control by the implementation of eco-friendly and energy efficient material based cooling systems for heat recovery. The un-covered heat in terms of waste heat from different industrial process of power generation plant, iron industry, refineries etc is capable to produces combine generation of power-heating and cooling. This paper conduct the theoretical analysis of solar thermal energy operated vapour adsorption and steam jet cooling system for heat recovery of different capacity of power generation system. The result of present work is summaries the efficient cooling effect with minimum high grade energy consumption. The integration of solar parabolic trough collector based water heating unit helps to increase the desorber temperature and further improvement in refrigerator performance with the utilization of alternative refrigerant material and achieve the de-carbonize infrastructure for massive industry.
Keywords: Global warming potential; Ozone depletion; Eco-Friendly Refrigerants; solar thermal renewable energy system.
Robust integral sliding mode controller design of a bidirectional DC charger in PV-EV charging station
by Youssef Cheddadi, Zakariae El Idrissi, Fatima Errahimi, Najia Es-Sbai
Abstract: The electric vehicle fleet is considerably growing and keep rising in the near future. Thus, the charging infrastructure should be developed and extended simultaneously. In this paper, the problem of controlling an energy storage unit used in the photovoltaic charging station for electric vehicles is considered. The purpose is to design a robust control of a bidirectional DC-DC converter in order to satisfy two essential requirements: i) perfect tracking of the battery current to its reference, and ii) asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. For this reason, a robust integral sliding mode control is designed in this paper, to regulate the current considering the output voltage of DC bus is regulated. The reference current could present not only the amount of current demanded by the electric vehicle battery during the charge period but also, the current injected from the EV to the grid during the shortage of energy time. In other words, the Vehicle to Grid concept is guaranteed using the bidirectional converter that interface between the energy storage unit and the EV battery through a DC bus. The formal analysis and simulation results are shown that the designed integral sliding mode controller was found to be robust and stable without steady-state errors, which matches all the objectives.
Keywords: PV charging station; bidirectional DC-DC converter; Integral sliding mode control; Current control; Electric Vehicle.
A Summary study on handwritten documents word spotting
by Manal Boualam, Youssef ELFAKIR, Ghizlane KHAISSIDI, Mostafa MRABTI
Abstract: The researchers have focused on the techniques used to create systems for data protection such as signature verification, investigation in crimes, handwriting mails, graphical documents analysing, human assisting, etc. Recently, several researchers have focused on creating an optimal system for data processing in handwriting documents. This paper aims to present an overview about the studies and techniques used to achieve this system, the document present at first the most used databases, then a general pipeline diagram for word spotting system, next in each step (pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification) the most used techniques/methods and a summary table about the published researches are presented. Finally, about the last studies in this field is provided.
Keywords: Handwritten; automatic research; word spotting; features extraction; classification.
Numerical approch for parameter extraction of photovoltaic module based on datasheet and five parameters model
by Fatima Cheddadi, Youssef Cheddadi, Fatima Errahimi, Ahmed Gaga
Abstract: The information provided by the constructors is not sufficient for modelling PV panels, where the need to determine the unknown parameters to predict the performances and to facilitate a better understanding of the behaviour of a PV generator under the climatic conditions variation. This work presents a numerical method for determining the unknown parameters of a photovoltaic PV module based on the current-voltage characteristic provided by the manufacturers. This numerical method helps to model any PV generator and then it allows us to study the static and dynamic performances of a PV system. In this paper, the operating principal of a PV module is described. The parameters which figure in the mathematical equation of a PV module are determined using MATLAB IDE in order to see the effect of climate change especially the effect of irradiance and temperature on the energy produced through graphical representations. The proposed method of extraction of the five unknown parameters is validated and compared with data given by the manufacturer for two different technologies: polycrystalline and monocrystalline PV module under various climatic conditions.
Keywords: Photovoltaic system; parameter extraction; MATLAB IDE; polycrystalline module; monocrystalline module.
T--S Fuzzy Observers Design and Actuator Fault Tolerant Control Applied to Vehicle Lateral Dynamics
by Naoufal El Youssfi, Rachid El Bachtiri, Hicham El Aiss
Abstract: In this study, we present a method for estimating actuator faults along with a technique of fault-tolerant control (FTC) based on fuzzy observers for continuous Takagi-Sugeno (T--S) fuzzy models, which are affected by modeling disturbances and actuator faults. The stability analysis is based on the quadratic function of Lyapunov and resolving a convex set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The purpose is to ensure the asymptotic stability of the system states and to compensate for the impact of disturbances and actuator faults. Ultimately, numerical simulations on the vehicle lateral dynamics model exemplify the efficiency of the proposed control and the fuzzy observers' design procedure.
Keywords: Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC); Vehicle Lateral Dynamics ; Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI); Fault Estimation; Continuous Takagi-Sugeno (T--S) Fuzzy Models.