Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy

International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy (IJDipE)

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International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy (7 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Business diplomacy and justification: new postpandemic Rules of the Game   Order a copy of this article
    by Kirsten Mogensen 
    Abstract: The pandemic disrupted normal life worldwide in 202021 and created room for the recreation of society as a moral community. History shows that moral norms and power structures that are developed during social crises impact the future rules of the game for transnational businesses. During the pandemic, many governments made health their top priority and imposed restrictions that harmed some business interests. By doing so, they demonstrated both a willingness and an ability to prioritise other goals than economic growth, and post-pandemic this may lead to prioritising other of the UN SDGs. This study contributes to the existing literature with the suggestion that firms will be motivated to engage in diplomacy when economy is not the sole priority for governments and governments have demonstrated the strength and willingness to impose restrictions on business. In short, the incentives come from the acknowledgment of societies need to balance and mediate between different priorities and actors from different spheres with different interests. Benevolence seems to be increasingly important for trust in businesses and for justification.
    Keywords: government-business relation; business diplomacy; corporate diplomacy; international trade and investments; transnational corporations; hierarchy of values; benevolence; justification; ‘Rules of the Game’; COVID19 lock-down; stakeholder capitalism; shareholder capitalism; trust; globalisation; spokesperson.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2021.10042697
     
  • COVID-19 impacts on multilateralism and diplomacy: the potential of business diplomacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Sergio Caballero, Íñigo Arbiol 
    Abstract: This article begins by analysing the pandemic as an accelerator of previous trends. The international context from which these trends emerged was one of a crisis in globalisation, in conjunction with an increase in protectionism and heightened tensions between Donald Trumps USA and Xi Jinpings China. After analysing how multilateralism has been questioned and eroded, the present article turns its attention to currently unfolding developments: from transregionalism
    Keywords: business diplomacy; multilateralism; pandemic; US–China tensions; business internationalisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2021.10042849
     
  • Critical revaluation of the theories of international political economy: business diplomacy, a new dimension of study?   Order a copy of this article
    by Naiara Igarabide 
    Abstract: Although the International Political Economy (IPE) field has traditionally been divided into ontological and epistemological terms, the main schools coincide in developing a perspective on Multinational Corporations (MNC) that perceives them as subordinated actors or promoters of unequal political structures. However, the role of corporations has changed in the last few decades. Due to the 2030 Agenda and the post-globalisation process, MNC have created new strategies in order to adapt their business to this new context, such as Business Diplomacy, seeking to converge both corporate and State interests. This study has two goals: firstly, to critically analyse the different schools of IPE to identify potentially conditioning ideas in research into MNC. Secondly, to problematise the lack of perspectives in IPE by exploring the role of Business Diplomacy in the post-global context in which close state-corporation relations will be crucial. Business Diplomacy may offer a new perspective on IPE regarding the role of multinationals in development.
    Keywords: IPE; international political economy; MNC; multinational corporations; business diplomacy; post-globalisation; SDG; sustainable development goals; CSR; corporate social responsibility.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2021.10043253
     
  • International business diplomacy: mining for good practices in Latin America   Order a copy of this article
    by Francisco J. Valderrey, Adriana Sánchez, Alejandro Delgadillo 
    Abstract: Historically, diplomacy has been an inherent aspect of international commerce and trade. Diplomacy has evolved, providing innovative tools and a theoretical foundation to conceptualise International Business Diplomacy (IBD). Despite numerous success stories, there is little awareness of how IBD may assist Managers of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs), specifically in some crucial sectors. One of those sectors is the mining industry. This paper proposes enhancing IBD as a valuable area for providing value to MNEs in their relationships with different stakeholders, emphasising sustainability issues. After a brief review of the literature, we propose a working definition for international business diplomacy. Then, we describe the mining industry and the factors that create a need for private diplomatic intervention. Afterward, we move the discussion to Latin America, presenting the methodology and findings of our investigation. The final remarks share some findings that may help managers of MNEs operating in emerging markets.
    Keywords: diplomacy; international business; Latin America; mining; MNEs; negotiations; sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2022.10046784
     
  • Corporate diplomacy and sustainable internationalisation: a conceptual and empirical exploration   Order a copy of this article
    by Rodolfo Maria Salvi, Huub J.M. Ruël 
    Abstract: This paper analyses how internationalising companies can instrumentalise sustainability principles within diplomatic strategies to identify, prioritise and manage holistically and in a sustainable way stakeholders pressures. The research is conducted through a multi-perspective and interdisciplinary literature review, whose deductions are evaluated on a case study analysis based on the Enel S.p.A. internationalisation process in Chile. Corporate diplomacy offers a systemic approach to handle external pressures by engaging stakeholders, managing networks and detecting socio-economics dynamics. Complementary, corporate sustainability proposes a framework to manage and prioritise external pressures, collecting and analysing the nature of social expectations via replicable methods and international-recognised standards. The findings indicate that sustainable principles positively integrated within corporate diplomatic strategies produce direct, tangible and sustainable effects during the internationalisation process, for the company and its stakeholders. The outcomes are measured using key indicators, such as sustainable performances, value creation, financial profit, co-creational partnerships and corporate local reputation.
    Keywords: corporate diplomacy; business diplomacy; sustainable internationalisation; sustainability; business internationalisation; Enel S.p.A.; stakeholder theory; network managing; stakeholder engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2022.10049679
     
  • International negotiations in a hybrid diplomatic arena: new actors, new tools: a practitioners’ contribution   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajmund Kiss, Huub J.M. Ruël 
    Abstract: The diplomatic arena has become hybrid arena with actors of a diverse set of backgrounds: next to the traditional diplomats there are international business representatives, representatives of international Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), civil society organisations and local communications. They have all been accepted and given access to the diplomatic arena since in the current global governance arena, governments need these new actors in order to deal with global challenges. Negotiation competences are key for diplomats, representatives of businesses, NGOs, civil society organisations or governments alike, to get things done in the global diplomatic arena. This is not new and the literature on negotiations is vast. However, much of the literature is derived from or based on theory, or lacks an empirical basis to demonstrate that the negotiation tools as proposed actually work. In this paper, we introduce three negotiation tools that are build on extensive experience in international diplomatic negotiations, build on practice.
    Keywords: international negotiations; business diplomacy; commercial diplomacy; diplomacy practice.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2022.10049711
     

Special Issue on: 2nd International Conference on Business Diplomacy 2020 Business Diplomacy and Values

  • City diplomacy and its requirements for Tehran membership in international organisations (with emphasis on C40 organisation)   Order a copy of this article
    by Golnoosh Darvish, Behzad Malekpourasl, Morteza Ghourchi 
    Abstract: City diplomacy is part of public diplomacy of countries. In the contemporary world, political leaders are no longer able to deal with the increasing global challenges. Hence, one way to solve the global problems is to think of measures for cities to enter global networks and international organisations with the help of policy-making processes to enter the city diplomacy arena, which leads to the cooperation of different cities to solve global concerns such as climate change in the C40 organisation. Thus, the current applied research investigates the challenges and shortcomings of City Diplomacy in Tehran and also examines the requirements of Tehran membership in the C40 organisation by employing a qualitative method using interviews with experts and qualitative content analysis of interviews using MAXQDA software. Finally, it provides strategies for strengthening Tehran city diplomacy as well as strategies for its membership in the C40 organisation regarding the experts opinions.
    Keywords: city diplomacy; C40 organisation; globalisation; greenhouse gases.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2022.10044352