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International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy (7 papers in press)
Economic and corporate diplomacy in the exports of tequila to China
by Francisco Javier Gorjón-Gómez, Gabriela Mata-Sánchez Abstract: Tequila exports to China have seen an important increase over the last few years. This is due to the efforts of public and private actors. The aim of this paper is to analyse the efforts for increasing tequila exports in China from the perspectives of Economic and Corporate Diplomacy. The methodology consisted of semi-structured interviews made to agents that have participated directly in the promotion of the tequila exports into China. The data collected from the interviews shows that the presence of tequila in China is due to the combined strategies of different Mexican actors. It is suggested that further lines of investigation could focus on the impact of private-public cooperation and legitimacy building. Keywords: diplomacy; economic diplomacy; corporate diplomacy; tequila;
exports; multinationals; legitimacy; stakeholders; transnational actors; international negotiation. DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2021.10038284
Economic diplomacy in the field of supporting the internationalization Slovenian small and medium-sized enterprises by Edina Zejnic Abstract: The article distinguishes between economic, commercial and financial diplomacy. The Slovenian economy is small but fast growing and export-oriented economy. Economic diplomacy, focused in this article, helps Slovenian companies to plan the entering new markets, to enter and/or upon regular business on new markets. Internationalization enables SMEs to grow and compete, but SMEs need an effective supportive enovroment to achieve them. In Slovenia these are the Ministry of Economic Development and Technology in close cooperation with other ministries, Public Agency for Entrepreneurship, Internationalization, Foreign Investments and Technology, Republic of Slovenia Public Fund for Entrepreneurship, SID Bank, diplomatic consular missions and honorary consuls of the Republic of Slovenia abroad, Slovenian business clubs operating abroad, network Enterprise Europe Network, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia, Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia, other chambers of industry and other institutions. The article focuses on the main question of whether and why small and medium-sized enterprises need the help of economic diplomacy in internationalization. Keywords: economic diplomacy; commercial diplomacy; financial diplomacy; small and medium-sized enterprises; internationalization; promotion of internationalization; exports; foreign direct investments; Slovenian economy.
International comparison of transport services based on the trade performance index Slovenias position in relation to other EU countries by Marjan Sternad, Tina Cvahte Ojsteršek Abstract: Transport services are a prerequisite for trade and economic development and at the same time an integral part of it. International trade in transport services is growing, but the comparability of individual countries in comparison to its trade partners varies greatly. In the present paper, we strived to analyse 24 EU member countries regarding a set of transport services international trade indicators. The indicators were calculated based on raw data from Intracen, and countries were grouped into four major groups with cluster analysis. Cluster analysis revealed four clusters of EU countries with similar international transport services trade indicators. Slovenia was taken as a focal country to further analyse the state of transport services trade and its position as an exporter and importer of transport services. The main finding is that Slovenia has a high growth of export services and it is expected that its position on the market of transport services will continue to grow in the following years. Keywords: transport services; international trade; trade performance index.
Supply and Inventory Management Resilience: How Ugandan Businesses Aim to Overcome Black Swans by Bernhard Maier, Vito Bobek, Tatjana Horvat Abstract: Financial crises are impacting companies and their supply chains in many ways. This paper aims to build upon knowledge about supply chain and inventory management threats and extend the knowledge to which extent they are connected to financial crises. While there are existing works exploring strategies of companies trying to build resilience against supply chain threats in general, literature about their connection to financial crises is still scarce even more so in an emerging market context. Therefore, the present work is exploring the strategies of Ugandan businesses, operating in an emerging market context, on building resilience against threats arising in times of financial crisis. By building on other authors' works, a list of 18 sub-threats of financial crises has been identified within this research paper. Furthermore, the empirical research brought forward a list of 26 strategies applied by Ugandan businesses to build resilience against those sub-threats. Keywords: Supply Chain Resilience; Inventory Management; Financial Crises; Uganda.
NigeriaChina bilateral relations: a skewed or balance relation? by Joshua Adeyemi Afolabi, Chinonyerem Emmanuel Oji Abstract: This study examined the China-Nigeria bilateral relation with a view to ensuring a balanced relation between the countries. The study showed that Nigeria has had more official visits to China than China to Nigeria and that while Nigeria has had series of balance of payment deficits trading with China, China continues to enjoy surplus balance of payment. This contrast has been attributed to the nature of goods and services traded between these countries. The study also showed that China has invested massively in different sectors of the Nigerian economy notably the manufacturing sector, construction sector, oil and gas sector and in technological services and these Chinese investments in Nigeria benefits from special incentives including tax holidays, expatriation quota and tariff-free imports, among others. Based on these findings, China and Nigeria need to review their relation with each other with a view to ensuring a balanced relation. Keywords: China; Nigeria; bilateral relation; trade; diplomacy. DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2021.10041566
Normative diplomacy to support market positioning: postures of Basque international niche market leaders by Bart Kamp Abstract: This paper presents insights from 24 international niche market leaders from the Basque Country and their participation in international committees where product or material safety and quality standards are adopted for the markets that they operate in. It finds that approximately half of them participate in these arenas. Those that do so participate primarily for the following reasons. Competitive purposes: proposing ideas to improve the positioning of the own company (corporate diplomacy); Informational purposes: participating to keep abreast of new developments and regulations, and to contribute with information about own novelties (business diplomacy); Acting in an ombudsman spirit: supporting requests expressed by customers (business diplomacy). Altogether, it discerns a tendency among the analysed
firms to attach an increasing importance to diplomacy acts. This suggests that it may be of interest to encourage more companies to take an active role in the standard-setting processes that affect their products and markets. Keywords: diplomacy; norms; standards; regulations; niche markets; international business; hidden champions.
Special Issue on: 2nd International Conference on Business Diplomacy 2020 Business Diplomacy and Values
City diplomacy and its requirements for Tehran membership in international organizations (with emphasis on C40 organization) by Golnoosh Darvish, Behzad MalekpourAsl, Morteza Ghourchi Abstract: City diplomacy is part of public diplomacy of countries. In the contemporary world, political leaders are no longer able to deal with the increasing global challenges. Hence, one way to solve the global problems is to think of measures for cities to enter global networks and international organizations with the help of policy-making processes to enter the city diplomacy arena, which leads to the cooperation of different cities to solve global concerns such as climate change in the C40 organization. Thus, the current applied research investigates the challenges and shortcomings of City Diplomacy in Tehran and also examines the requirements of Tehran membership in the C40 organization by employing a qualitative method using interviews with experts and qualitative content analysis of interviews using MAXQDA software. Finally, it provides strategies for strengthening Tehran city diplomacy as well as strategies for its membership in the C40 organization regarding the experts' opinions.
Keywords: City diplomacy; C40 organization; Globalization; Greenhouse gases.