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International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy (4 papers in press)
Business diplomacy and justification: new postpandemic Rules of the Game by Kirsten Mogensen Abstract: The pandemic disrupted normal life worldwide in 202021 and created room for the recreation of society as a moral community. History shows that moral norms and power structures that are developed during social crises impact the future rules of the game for transnational businesses. During the pandemic, many governments made health their top priority and imposed restrictions that harmed some business interests. By doing so, they demonstrated both a willingness and an ability to prioritise other goals than
economic growth, and post-pandemic this may lead to prioritising other of the UN SDGs. This study contributes to the existing literature with the suggestion that firms will be motivated to engage in diplomacy when economy is not the sole priority for governments and governments have demonstrated the strength and willingness to impose restrictions on business. In short, the incentives come from the acknowledgment of societies need to balance and mediate between different priorities and actors from different spheres with different interests. Benevolence seems to be increasingly important for trust in
businesses and for justification. Keywords: government-business relation; business diplomacy; corporate diplomacy; international trade and investments; transnational corporations; hierarchy of values; benevolence; justification; ‘Rules of the Game’; COVID19 lock-down; stakeholder capitalism; shareholder capitalism; trust; globalisation; spokesperson. DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2021.10042697
COVID-19 impacts on multilateralism and diplomacy: the potential of business diplomacy by Sergio Caballero, Íñigo Arbiol Abstract: This article begins by analysing the pandemic as an accelerator of previous trends. The international context from which these trends emerged was one of a crisis in globalisation, in conjunction with an increase in protectionism and heightened tensions between Donald Trumps USA and Xi Jinpings China. After analysing how multilateralism has been questioned and eroded, the present article turns its attention to currently unfolding developments: from transregionalism Keywords: business diplomacy; multilateralism; pandemic; US–China tensions; business internationalisation. DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2021.10042849
Critical revaluation of the theories of international political economy: business diplomacy, a new dimension of study?
by Naiara Igarabide Abstract: Although the International Political Economy (IPE) field has traditionally been divided into ontological and epistemological terms, the main schools coincide in developing a perspective on Multinational Corporations (MNC) that perceives them as subordinated actors or promoters of unequal political structures. However, the role of corporations has changed in the last few decades. Due to the 2030 Agenda and the post-globalisation process, MNC have created new strategies in order to adapt their business to this new
context, such as Business Diplomacy, seeking to converge both corporate and State interests. This study has two goals: firstly, to critically analyse the different schools of IPE to identify potentially conditioning ideas in research into MNC. Secondly, to problematise the lack of perspectives in IPE by exploring the role of Business Diplomacy in the post-global context in which close state-corporation relations will be crucial. Business Diplomacy may offer a new perspective on IPE regarding the role of multinationals in development. Keywords: IPE; international political economy; MNC; multinational corporations; business diplomacy; post-globalisation; SDG; sustainable development goals; CSR; corporate social responsibility. DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2021.10043253
Special Issue on: 2nd International Conference on Business Diplomacy 2020 Business Diplomacy and Values
City diplomacy and its requirements for Tehran membership in international organisations (with emphasis on C40 organisation)
by Golnoosh Darvish, Behzad Malekpourasl, Morteza Ghourchi Abstract: City diplomacy is part of public diplomacy of countries. In the contemporary world, political leaders are no longer able to deal with the increasing global challenges. Hence, one way to solve the global problems is to think of measures for cities to enter global networks and international organisations with the help of policy-making processes to enter the city diplomacy arena, which leads to the cooperation of different cities to solve global concerns such as climate change in the C40 organisation. Thus, the current applied research investigates the challenges and shortcomings of City Diplomacy in Tehran and also examines the requirements of Tehran membership in the C40 organisation by employing a qualitative method using interviews with experts and qualitative content analysis of interviews using MAXQDA software. Finally, it provides strategies for strengthening Tehran city diplomacy as well as strategies for its membership in the C40 organisation regarding the experts opinions. Keywords: city diplomacy; C40 organisation; globalisation; greenhouse gases. DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2022.10044352