Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics

International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics (IJCVR)

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International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics (35 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • ARP Cache Poisoning: Detection, Mitigation & Prevention Schemes   Order a copy of this article
    by Jayati Bhardwaj, Virendra Yadav, Munesh Chandra Trivedi, Anurag Sen 
    Abstract: Providing security to the networks is of utmost importance for all kinds of users. The fundamental of any communication network are implemented protocols. Hence ensuring security at the protocol level is point of concern. Major communication protocols like IP and ARP lack mechanisms for protection against malicious activities.ARP is a network communication protocol employed for mapping a network address to a MAC address at the data link layer of the IP suite. However, the absence of authentication process in the ARP protocol allows vulnerabilities like ARP Cache Poisoning or Arp Spoofing to take place. This allows malicious nodes to associate its MAC address with the IP address of host and hence resulting in the exposure of network to several severe attacks like DoS, MITM, Session hijacking and many more. With the ongoing increasing number of attacks a lot number of detection, prevention and mitigation schemes have been proposed regarding the scope of the problem. However, there is no universally accepted benchmark scheme that reaches to the solution at fullest. This paper presents a comprehensive review of all those schemes along with their associated strengths and weaknesses. Also a comparative evaluation of schemes is included in the paper for further insight into the development of improvised solutions to the above stated problem. This evaluation leads to a summary of all the requirements to be needed for a novel approach leading to the solution of the mentioned problem
    Keywords: ARP Cache Poisoning; MAC address; Proxy ARP; Public Key Cryptography; Spoofing.

  • Human Skin Ringworm Detection Using Wavelet and Curvelet Transforms: A Comparative Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Manas Saha, Mrinal Kanti Naskar, B. N. Chatterji 
    Abstract: The common human skin disease called ringworm is investigated in the light of computer vision. Two distinct methodologies are developed for its detection. The first methodology implements three level multi-wavelet decomposition of the skin images and subsequent evaluation of the approximation and detail subband energies which act as the texture characterizing features. The second methodology incorporates the curvelet to segment the circular protrusion of the skin images especially with ringworms followed by statistical texture investigation by gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). After feature extraction by both the methodologies, binary classifier called the support vector machine (SVM) recognizes the images as ringworm with detection accuracy of around 87% and 80% for the first and second methodologies respectively. In addition, the performance indexing parameters of SVM classification like sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) which are not previously addressed are evaluated. Both the methodologies are comprehensively demonstrated and compared to select the better one. The selected method is then compared with the available technique and commented upon.
    Keywords: Multiresolution; Wavelet; Curvelet; Approximation subband; Detail subband; Energy signature.

  • A Wikipedia-based Semantic Tensor Space Model for Text Analytics   Order a copy of this article
    by Han-joon Kim, Jae-Young Chang 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a 3rd-order tensor space model that represents textual documents, which contains the concept space independently of the document and term spaces. In the vector space model (VSM), a document is represented as a vector in which each dimension corresponds to a term. In contrast, the model described here represents a document as a matrix. Most current text mining algorithms only take vectors as their input, but they suffer from term independence and loss of term senses issues. To overcome these problems, we incorporate the concept as a distinct space in the VSM. For this, it is necessary to produce the concept vector for each term that occurs in a given document, which is related to word sense disambiguation. As an external knowledge source for concept weighting, we employ the Wikipedia encyclopedia, which has been evaluated as world knowledge and used to improve many text-mining algorithms. Through experiments using two popular document corpora, we demonstrate the superiority of the model in terms of text clustering and text classification.
    Keywords: tensor space model; vector space model; text mining; concepts; Wikipedia.

    Abstract: Image processing are widely used by medical experts since it can help them by providing extra visualization for early detection and treatment. Nuclei or cell counting represents a critical part of the histopathological analysis. Nuclei segmentation is the initial step in cell counting and is very challenging, especially in determining between the normal and abnormal cell nuclei. This is due to the variation of the cell shape and size. The Ki67 is a nuclear protein that was widely used among the pathologists to measure the proliferation of tumour cells. Generally, the pathologists use the manual counting technique for counting the Ki67 cells. However, the counting results has poor reliability and lack of accuracy. The current study aimed to propose an automatic Ki67 cell counting for meningioma images by using the colour thresholding approach. The proposed method has been tested on 12 photomicrographs of meningiomas. The performance of the proposed method was compared to the manually segmented images, which have been validated in prior by the medical expert. The results showed that the proposed method was able to segment the immunostained positive and immunostained negative Ki67 cells with an average accuracy of more than 90%. For counting results, the proposed system produced good results in counting the Ki67 cells with an average relative accuracy of 0.91 for positive Ki67 cells and 0.89 for negative cells. Furthermore, the average time of executing the proposed algorithm was fast at 24 seconds per image.
    Keywords: Automated Counting; Colour Thresholding; Image Segmentation; Immunohistochemical Staining; Ki67 Cell; Meningioma.

  • Blob Analysis of an Automatic Vision Guided System for Fruit Picking and Placing Robot   Order a copy of this article
    by Tresna Dewi, Zarqa Mulya, Pola Risma, Yurni Oktarina 
    Abstract: Agriculture has a strategic role in improving the economic development in a country. As the population grows, the demand to feed the nation. The agriculture strategy needs to be improved adopting automation for better handling of the harvest. The automation can be accommodated by robotics application started by implementing a pick and place robot to move the product. This paper presents the blob analysis method as the visual cue for a pick and place robot handling fruit. Blob analysis is used to detect fruit based on color and shape that is processed by filtering objects and extracting blob using morphological operators. The main controller of the robot is an Arduino Mega that moves the robot based on the input from processed image using Phyton and OpenCV in Raspberry Pi. The captured images are facilitated by a PI Camera functioning as an "eye" for the robot. The experiment was conducted to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method where the average time of picking and placing fruit is 6.69 s for fruit in Position 1 with a range of 332-334 of x and 255-266 of y coordinates respectively, and 7.63 s for Position 2 with a range of 475-576 in x and 205-206 of y coordinates. The image plane considered in this study is 600 x 480 pixel frame. The experiment shows that the proposed method is effective as an automatic vision guided system for fruit picking and placing robot.
    Keywords: Agriculture robot; Blob analysis; Pick and place robot; Visual cue.

  • Automatic Defect Inspection System for Beer Bottles based on Deep Residual Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiaokang Liang, Shao Xiang, Jianyong Long, Dan Zhang, Gianmarc Coppola, Wei Sun, Yaonan Wang 
    Abstract: Recyclable beer bottles are increasingly popular due to the cost effectiveness in recent years. Prior to refill, they need to be scrubbed and sanitized, which requires quality inspection. Automatic detection of defects in recyclable beer bottles would reduce both the cost of the production process and the time spent in the quality inspection. A novel approach is proposed for automatic detection of defects occurring on the beer bottles by deep residual learning. This method extracts the characteristic information of beer bottle defects through the deep learning network and realizes the classification of defect characters. In this work, the recognition of 3 kinds of common defects (defective body, defective mouth, and defective bottom) is realized, and the promising result demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of inspecting defects of beer bottles with outstanding accuracy. Particularly, a state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was applied to the detection of beer bottle defects, which improved the accuracy of beer bottle detection comparing with traditional methods. Experimental results show that the new approach satisfies the requirement of defect detection and is able to improve the production efficiency.
    Keywords: Detection of defects; Deep learning; Convolutional Neural Network; Quality inspection.

  • Maximum Entropy Based Semi Supervised Learning for Automatic Detection and Recognition of Objects Using Deep Convnets.   Order a copy of this article
    by Vipul Sharma, Roohie Naaz Mir 
    Abstract: Object detection and localisation is one of the major research areas in computer vision that is growing very rapidly. Currently, there is a plethora of pre-trained models for object detection including YOLO, mask RCNN, RCNN, fast RCNN, multi-box, etc. In this paper, we proposed a new framework for object detection called maximum entropy-based semisupervised learning for automatic detection and recognition of objects. The main objective of this paper is to recognise objects from a number of visual object classes in a realistic scene simultaneously. The major operations of our proposed approach are preprocessing, localisation, segmentation and object detection. In preprocessing, three processes namely noise reduction, intensity normalisation, and morphology are considered. Then localisation and object segmentation is performed using maximum entropy in which optimal threshold is detected and in the end, object detection is performed using deep ConvNet. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated using MATLAB-R2018b and it is compared with some previous state of the art techniques in terms of localisation error, detection and segmentation accuracy along with computation time
    Keywords: maximum entropy; object detection; weakly supervised learning; deep convolutional neural networks; segmentation and localisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2021.10028526
  • Multi source Retinal Fundus Image Classification Using Convolution Neural Networks Fusion and Gabor-Based Texture Representation   Order a copy of this article
    by Radia Touahri, Nabiha AZIZI, Nacer Eddine Hammami, MONTHER ALDWAIRI, Nacer Eddine Benzebouchi, Ouided Moumene 
    Abstract: Glaucoma is one of the most known irreversible chronic eye disease that leads to permanent blindness but its earlier diagnosis can be treated. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), a branch of deep learning, have an impressive record for applications in image analysis and interpretation, including medical imaging. This necessity is justified by their capacity and adaptability to extract pertinent features automatically from the original image. In other hand, the use of Ensemble learning algorithms has an important impact to improve the classification rate. In this paper, a two stage based image processing and ensemble learning approach is proposed for automated glaucoma diagnosis. In the first stage, the generation of different modalities from original images is adopted by the application of advanced image processing techniques especially gabor filter based texture image. Next, each dataset constructing from the corresponding modality will be learned by an individual Cnn classifier. Aggregation techniques will be then applied to generate the final decision taking into account the outputs of all Cnns classifiers. Experiments were carried out on Rime-one dataset for glaucoma diagnosis. The obtained results proved the superiority of the proposed ensemble learning system compared to the existing studies with classification accuracy of 89.63%.
    Keywords: deep learning; ensemble Classifier Fusion; Convolution Neural Networks; Glaucoma diagnosis; Gabor filter.

  • Majority voting based hybrid feature selection in machine learning paradigm for epilepsy detection using EEG   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunandan Mandal, Bikesh Kumar Singh, Kavita Thakur 
    Abstract: This article presents a combination of statistical and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based features for the identification of epileptic seizures in Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. A total of 150 quantitative features are extracted from EEG signals. A multi-criteria hybrid feature selection is proposed by combining 6 feature ranking methods using the majority voting technique to identify the most relevant EEG markers. Kernel-based support vector machine is used to evaluate the proposed approach along with a hybrid classifier namely Support Vector Neural Network (SVNN) which is combination of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). For performance evaluation of the proposed method a benchmarked database is used. A comparative study of various types of SVM and SVNN with 10-fold and hold-out cross-validation techniques is conducted. The highest classification accuracy (CA) of 98.18 % and 100% sensitivity is achieved with a fine Gaussian SVM classifier with hold-out data division protocol.
    Keywords: EEG quantitative features; epilepsy; wavelet transform; multi-criteria feature selection; classification.

  • A Feature-Based Approach for Digital Camera Identification using Photo-Response Non-Uniformity Noise   Order a copy of this article
    by Megha Borole, Satish Kolhe 
    Abstract: Source camera identification of an image is an emerging field of digital forensics. To identify the source camera through which the image is captured, Photo-Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) noise is used as a camera fingerprint, as it is a unique characteristic that distinguishes images taken from the similar cameras. This paper presents a feature-based approach to identify the source camera. The input image is denoised using the denoising filter and from this denoised image, PRNU noise pattern is extracted. These PRNU noise patterns are represented by Hus invariants, which are perpetual under image scaling, translation, and rotation. These features are fed to Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (FMNN) for training and classification for digital camera identification. The proposed approach has the ability to identify the cameras capturing the same scene.
    Keywords: Camera Identification; Photo-Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU); Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (FMNN).

  • An integrative approach for path planning and tracking of shape aware mobile robot in structured environment using vision sensor   Order a copy of this article
    by Sangram Keshari Das, Sabyasachi Dash, B.K. Rout 
    Abstract: A shape aware path planning algorithm is necessary for real-time execution of a task by a mobile robot whereas path planning algorithms available in literature consider mobile robot as a point object. Current work proposes a shape-aware A* path planning approach with a heuristic function to accommodate the shape of mobile robot. In this paper, the detection, tracking and control of the robot has been carried out for the mobile robot while performing a task in a structured environment. For the implementation and validation, an overhead camera is used to capture the images of obstacles in the task space and published in ROS platform. The captured images are also processed using OpenCV software for detection, and tracking using Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) and Kalman filter algorithms for different test scenarios. The proposed approach accurately detects and tracks the shape aware mobile robot with % error ranging from 610% in different cases.
    Keywords: obstacle detection; path planning; shape aware algorithm; robot operating system; ROS; KLT-based tracking; Kalman filter; OpenCV.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2020.10034377
  • Design of an ICT Convergence Farm Machinery for an Automatic Agricultural Planter   Order a copy of this article
    by Byungchul Kim, Jaesu Jang, Sangjo Kim, Seonmin Hwang, MoonSun Shin 
    Abstract: Recently, ICT technology such as information technology and automatic control technology has been applied into agriculture, and the era of conversion to smart agriculture aimed at improving productivity and improving quality of agriculture has been reached. In particular, it is required to develop a technology that maximizes productivity through growth and quality control based on optimized parameters for each cultivated crop by applying a new automatic control system to the existing traditional agricultural field. In this paper, we propose and design a controller module of agriculture planter applying ICT convergence techniques in order to control rotating speed of various devices in real time. The planters with the controller are useful for saving time than the existing planters which has been dependent on mechanical type.
    Keywords: Agricultural Machinery; Smart Farming; ICT convergence farm machinery; Agriculture Planters.

  • Malware Classifier for Dynamic Deep Learning Algorithm.   Order a copy of this article
    by Youngbok Cho 
    Abstract: This study proposes a malware classification model that can handle arbitrary length input data using the Microsoft Malware Classification Challenge dataset. We are based on imaging existing data from malware. The proposed model generates a lot of images when malware data is large, and generates a small image of small data. Dynamic RNN learns the generated image as time series data. The output value of the RNN is classified into malware by using only the highest weighted output by applying the Attention technique, and learning the RNN output value by Residual CNN again. Experiments on the proposed model showed a Micro-average F1 score of 92% in the validation data set. Experimental results show that the performance of a model capable of learning and classifying arbitrary length data can be verified without special feature extraction and dimension reduction
    Keywords: : Convolution neural network; malware; deep learning; recurrent neural network; kaggle data.

  • A Review on Content Based Image Retrieval System: Present Trends and Future Challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Narendra Kumar Rout, Mithilesh Atulkar, Mitul Kumar Ahirwal 
    Abstract: Recently, to get similar image with better accuracy is becoming matter into concern for Content based image retrieval (CBIR) system due to exponential rise in image databases. In CBIR system, a user takes a sample image as input query and retrieves its relevant similar images from a large database of images by the help of features based on color, shape and texture. This study is based on different databases used in the CBIR system, focusing on commonly used databases e.g., Wang, Corel and Brodatz database. Low level features are used in the CBIR system and importance of each feature was graded by their repute based on citations in various comparable studies. In the CBIR system, the features which are more frequently used for achieving better result have been further considered to search images from the image databases. Along with the feature, different weight assignment methods like individual weightage, equal assignment of weights and other assignment methods employed in the analysis of CBIR systems are also reported. However, the percentage weight assignment to the features of the image is calibrated based on its importance in doing accurate searches on the used image databases. This paper presents an intense review of CBIR systems and frequently used features with different weight assignment methods. Including this, the future challenge of entire study is user-free or automated weight assignment methods based on soft computing approaches are required in CBIR systems.
    Keywords: CBIR; low level features; feature extraction methods; weight assignment method; Image database.

  • A Clustering Based Differential Evolution with Parapatric and Cross-Generation Selection   Order a copy of this article
    by Seong-Yoon Shin 
    Abstract: Differential evolution (DE) is one of the efficient Evolutionary algorithm (EA) for continuous optimization problems. It is commonly known that the mutation is one of the cores of the DE algorithm. However, the mutation strategies randomly selected from the current population cant be fully exploited to search the optimal solution, especially in the big data era. To provide some suitable parent individuals for the mutation strategies, it is essential to exploit the data-driven method for analyzing the population data. Tensor decomposition, proven to be an efficient data processing method, can be used to provide data-driven services. We propose a novel data-driven mutation strategy for parent individuals selection, namely tensor-based DE with parapatric and cross-generation (TPCDE). Firstly, we construct a third-order population tensor to represent the relationship among generation, individual, boundary partition. Then the population data is classified into multiple clusters by combing the tensor-based feature extraction approach and affinity propagation (AP) clustering algorithm. Finally, different parent individuals are selected from other clusters to guide evolution. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed TPCDE, a series of data-driven experiments are carried out on 13 benchmark functions. The experimental results indicate that TPCDE is an effective and efficient framework to enhance the performance of the DE algorithms.
    Keywords: differential evolution; tensor; clustering; parapatric selection scheme; cross-generation selection scheme.

  • Novel video coding methods for versatile video coding   Order a copy of this article
    by Heeji Han, Daehyeok Gwon, Jaeryun Choe, Haechul Choi 
    Abstract: Versatile video coding (VVC), which is the next generation video coding standard, is being developed to provide greater coding efficiency than existing video coding standards. In VVC, various coding tools related to intra and inter prediction modes have been adopted. This paper introduces several methods that improve coding efficiency or reduce computational complexity on top of VVC adopted tools. The first method enhances the most probable mode list derivation with the statistics of the intra modes of neighbouring blocks. The second method reduces the number of contexts of the merge with motion vector difference mode. The third method excludes invalid block vector predictors early for the intra block copy mode to improve block vector coding. The experimental results show that the three proposed methods show coding efficiencies of -0.05% for all intra coding, -0.02% for random access, and -0.14% for random access coding scenarios, respectively.
    Keywords: versatile video coding; intra prediction; inter prediction; most probable mode; intra block copy.

  • A high-quality frame rate up-conversion technique for Super SloMo   Order a copy of this article
    by Minseop Kim, Haechul Choi 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose several methods to improve Super SloMo, a deep learning-based frame rate up-conversion technique for the temporal quality improvement of video. In the proposed methods, the training dataset and hyper-parameter are changed and trained to obtain optimal results while maintaining the existing network structure of Super SloMo. The first method improves the cognition of images when trained with the validation set of characteristics similar to the training set. The second method reduces video loss in all validation sets when trained by adjusting the hyper-parameters of the error function value. The experimental results show that the two proposed methods improved the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and the Mean of the Structural Similarity index by 0.11 dB and 0.033% with the specialised training set and by 0.37dB and 0.077% via adjusting the reconstruction and warping loss parameters, respectively.
    Keywords: frame rate up-conversion; deep learning; image processing.

  • Study on Hand Gesture Recognition with CNN-based Deep Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Buemjun Kim, Kyounghee Lee 
    Abstract: Currently, natural user interface technology is actively studied to enable a computer to understand a users natural behaviours such as gestures and expressions. To recognize humans motions, while the existing approaches generally require additional facilities such as an infrared camera or motion detection sensors, this paper proposes a system based on deep learning to recognize a users hand gestures in normal images generated by common devices such as a webcam. A key feature of the proposed system is input image pre-processing to improve training efficiency and inference accuracy of a deep neural network. It performs black-white binarization process of each image to effectively distinguish a users hand area from the others. Then the proposed system trains a deep neural network by learning from those black-white scale images and makes an inference model to classify various hand signals. Our implementation shows the proposed system has a practicality to be applied for hand gesture recognition by correctly classifying a lot of hand signals such as rock-paper-scissor signs, decimal number 0~9 and Korean alphabet consonants. It is also shown that the confidence degree of those classifications can be considerably improved by the aforementioned image pre-processing. Our future work will be to extend our study to recognize a meaning of hand movements included in a series of continuous images to understand more complicated gestures such as a sign language.
    Keywords: hand gesture recognition; convolutional neural network; deep learning; image binarization; natural user interface.

  • A New Framework for Contour Tracing using Euclidean Distance Mapping   Order a copy of this article
    by Raju G., Sobhana Mari S. 
    Abstract: In this paper a new fast, efficient and accurate contour extraction method, using eight sequential Euclidean distance map and connectivity criteria based on maximal disk, is proposed. The connectivity criterion is based on a set of point pairs along the image boundary pixels. The proposed algorithm generates a contour of an image with less number of iterations compared to many of the existing methods. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested with a database of handwritten character images. In comparison to two standard contour tracing algorithms (the Moore method and the Canny edge detection method) the proposed algorithm found to give good quality contour images and require less computing time. Further, features extracted from contours of handwritten character images, generated using the proposed algorithm, resulted in better recognition accuracy.
    Keywords: Contour tracing; Euclidean Distance Mapping; Medial Axis Transform; Handwritten Character Recognition.

  • Improving transmission method of Cluster Head Node in Two-level Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Jong-Yong Lee, Daesung Lee 
    Abstract: WSN is a wirelessly configured network of nodes equipped with sensors that can collect data in the real world. Sensor nodes have limited energy because they are configured wirelessly. Therefore, long-term use of the network should minimize energy consumption. There are many WSN protocols to increase energy efficiency, among which LEACH Protocol is typical. LEACH Protocol improves energy consumption by reducing the transmission distance of the sensor nodes. However, the transmission distance of nodes elected by the CH node has not been reduced. To improve this, TL- LEACH Protocol has been proposed. The second Clusters are composed of only the CH nodes, so that the transmission distance can be reduced. However, depending on the situation, the transmission distance may increase. In this paper, we applied the Dual-hop method to solve this problem and showed better network lifetime than the existing protocol.
    Keywords: Cluster; Energy; Network; Protocol; Sensor; WSN.

  • A study on selection of optimised piping supports and E-BOM generation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jung-Cheol Kim, Il-Young Moon 
    Abstract: A piping support is an element installed to maintain the stability of a piping system in the design process of a construction plant project. The type and size of the components are determined according to pipe size and pipe load values. Pipe supports change depending on the type and characteristics of the fluid flowing through the pipe, the weight of the pipe and the installation environment. In particular, in the order production environment, the design is frequently changed at the request of the ordering party. Whenever a design change occurs, the type and specifications of the piping supports are changed. When the piping is changed, selection of the piping support must be repeated, which consumes a large amount of time and money. This study proposes a method for constructing a portable document format drawing and an optimised design bill of material without two-dimensional drawing design for piping supports that are frequently changed. This is achieved by a programme according to the characteristics of the piping.
    Keywords: computer aided design; automatic drawing program; selection program; engineering bill of materials; development of software; hanger support.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2020.10033156
  • Cluster-based WSN Protocol that Improves Network Lifetime through CH Replacement   Order a copy of this article
    by Jong-Yong Lee, Daesung Lee 
    Abstract: Sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks are wirelessly configured, so they are free to install, but there is a problem with limited energy. Since these nodes are no longer usable when they are exhausted, they must use energy efficiently to maximize the network lifetime span. A variety of protocols have been proposed for this, and the cluster-based protocol, the LEACH Protocol, is typical. LEACH Protocol has improved the problem of having the same node elected as the cluster head multiple times through a critical expression, but because it is a probability formula, the cluster can be configured inefficiently. In this paper, we are going to improve the network lifetime by replacing the cluster head with a node in an appropriate position after the cluster is constructed.
    Keywords: Clustering; CH; Formation; Network; Sensor; WSN.

  • Melanoma skin cancer identification with amalgamated TSBTC and BTC colour features using ensemble of machine learning algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Sudeep D. Thepade, Gaurav Ramnani, Shubham Mandhare 
    Abstract: Manual diagnosis of diseases is time-consuming, subjective and error prone. There is significant scarcity of medical experts in rural areas. Computer assisted diagnosis may help to overcome these challenges. Melanoma skin cancer may become fatal if not detected during its early stages. In absence of experienced medical professionals, early diagnosis of melanoma may be attempted using machine learning. This paper proposes the melanoma skin cancer identification from dermoscopy skin images by exploring the ensembles of machine learning algorithms using amalgamation of TSBTC and BTC feature extraction methods with various colour spaces. Experimentations conducted with various colour spaces and machine learning algorithms with ensembles resulted in 432 variations of proposed technique. Considering the average of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity; ensemble of AD tree-random forest-SVM in YCbCr colour space with TSBTC features performs best, followed by ensemble of random tree-random forest-AD Tree-SVM in LUV colour space with TSBTC features.
    Keywords: dermoscopy skin images; melanoma; machine learning; feature extraction; colour spaces; ensemble; TSBTC; LUV.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2020.10032197
  • Cooperative Pixel Clustering for Accurate Automatic Inflamed Appendix Extraction from Ultrasound Images   Order a copy of this article
    by Kwang Baek Kim, Doo Heon Song, Hyun Jun Park 
    Abstract: Reliable diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis is a difficult problem. Automatic extraction of inflamed appendix from ultrasonography is desirable to minimize the operator subjectivity of the ultrasound image analysis. In this paper, we propose a cooperative unsupervised machine learning approach to this automatic segmentation problem. The quantization process is done by fuzzy ART with dynamic controlled vigilance parameter and fuzzy C-Means pixel clustering with good parameter initialization related with fuzzy ART. Two results are combined to produce a conservative but reliable inflamed appendix object formation. In experiment using 80 DICOM format Ultrasonographic images with inflamed appendix, the proposed method was successful in 77 cases or 96.25% correct by pathologists evaluation which is much better performance than previous edge detection-based approach whose performance was less than 83%. This new approach is also relatively immune to the appendix shape which was a weak point of previous pixel clustering approaches.
    Keywords: appendicitis; ultrasound; fuzzy ART; fuzzy c-means; image quantization.

  • An Improved Edge Detection Technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishtasp Meherhomji, Ajitha K. B. Shenoy 
    Abstract: Traditional edge detection methods tend to apply a single threshold over the entire image. However, natural images rarely have uniform illumination throughout, thus just a single threshold across the image is insufficient. This paper explores a method to recursively divide an image into regions and provide each region with an optimal threshold. For each region, we have calculated the threshold automatically using Otsus binarization method. The methods key goal is to reduce the effect of noise present in images, which leads to the elimination of false edges. It does this while also ensuring that true edges present within the image are not lost. We have proved that asymptotic time complexity of the proposed method is O(MNlogl) (where l = min{M,N}). We have compared the performance of our method with the Canny edge detection technique. The Canny edge detector is a well known and widely used edge detection technique which outperforms all the classical edge detection techniques. The results show that our method outperforms the Canny edge detection technique. PSNR values for our method are much higher than that of the Canny edge detection algorithm for almost all the images considered from BSD500 benchmark dataset.
    Keywords: Image Processing; Edge Detection; Feature Extraction; Computer Vision; PSNR; Otsus Binarization.

  • Dynamic hand gesture recognition of sign language using geometric features learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Saba Joudaki, Amjad Rehman 
    Abstract: In the sign language alphabet, several hand signs are in use. Automatic recognition of dynamic hand gestures could facilitate several applications such as people with a speech impairment to communicate with healthy people. This research presents dynamic hand gesture recognition of the Sign Language alphabet based on the neural network model with enhanced geometric features fusion. A 3D depth-based sensor camera captures the user's hand in motion. Consequently, the hand is segmented using by extracting depth features. The proposed system is termed as Depth based Geometrical Sign Language Recognition (DGSLR). The DGSLR adopted in easier hand segmentation approach, which is further used in other segmentation applications. The proposed geometrical features fusion improves the accuracy of recognition due to unchangeable features against hand orientation or rotation compared to Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Moment Invariant. The findings of the iterations demonstrated that the fusion of the extracted features resulted in a better accuracy rate. Finally, a trained neural network is employed to enhance recognition accuracy. The proposed framework is proficient for sign language recognition using dynamic hand gesture and produces an accuracy of up to 89.52 %.
    Keywords: Digital learning; Deaf community; Healthcare; Sign language; Dynamic hand gesture; Best features selection.

  • Salient Object Detection Using Semantic Segmentation Technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Bashir Ghariba, Mohamed Shehata, Peter McGuire 
    Abstract: Salient Object Detection (SOD) is the operation of detecting and segmenting a salient object in a natural scene. Several studies have examined various state-of-the-art machine learning approaches for SOD. In particular, Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are commonly applied for SOD because of their powerful feature extraction abilities. In this paper, we investigate the capability of several well-known pre-trained models for semantic segmentation, including FCNs, VGGs, ResNets, MobileNet-v2, Xception, and InceptionResNet-v2. These models have been trained over an ImageNet dataset, fine-tuned on a MSRA-10K dataset, and evaluated using other public datasets, such as ECSSD, MSRA-B, DUTS, and THUR15k. The results illustrate the superiority of ResNet50 and ResNet18, which have Mean Absolute Errors (MAE) of approximately 0.93 and 0.92, respectively, compared to other well-known FCN models. Moreover, the most robust model against noise is ResNet50, whereas VGG-16 is the most sensitive, relative to other state-of-the-art models.
    Keywords: Salient Object Detection; Deep learning; Fully Convolutional Network; Semantic segmentation.

  • U-Mosquitto: Extension of Mosquitto Broker for Delivery of Urgent MQTT Message   Order a copy of this article
    by Kitae Hwang, Inhwan Jung, Jae Moon Lee 
    Abstract: MQTT is a message communication protocol that is useful for applications where small devices or remote sensors communicate with low processing capacity or low network bandwidth due to low communication burden or communication code. However, since MQTT does not distinguish between urgent and normal messages, it is not suitable for applications that need to deliver urgent information quickly. This paper attempts to modify the existing MQTT broker to able to accept urgent messages by not modifying the MQTT protocol. We implemented U-Mosquitto to handle urgent messages by modifying Mosquitto well known as the standard MQTT broker. Also, we inserted a message type information into the payload of the MQTT packet. U-Mosquitto\'s urgent message handling effect increases as the number of clients sending messages or traffic increase. It\'s because that urgent messages rarely compete with normal messages when message traffic is low. In this paper, a test system was constructed with a server computer running U-Mosquitto and a number of client computers and various experiments were conducted. Experimental results show that the effect of delivering urgent message faster gets higher as the number of publisher increases in U-Mosquitto. However, it is found that there is a limit to the fast delivery of urgent messages as long as the base algorithm of Mosquitto processing messages is maintained
    Keywords: MQTT; publish-subscribe; Mosquitto; Urgent Message.

  • Energy Based Virtual Screening of Drugs Documented for Schizophrenia against DRD2 and HTR2A   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushma Rani Martha, Ganapati Panda, Manorama Patri 
    Abstract: Schizophrenia is the most commonly known mental disorder with the number of reported cases increasing very fast. The drugs available for the disorder are unable to cure the disease completely and can only offer symptom based treatment and relief. At the same time, it is difficult for practitioners to choose and prescribe the best out of many drugs available in the market. Therefore, it is attempted to find all possible drugs documented for Schizophrenia in the Drugbank and perform Virtual Screening of these drugs against two widely known proteins, DRD2 (Dopamine Receptor - D2) and HTR2A (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A) to discover the drugs that have a higher affinity towards these proteins. After all analysis, it is found that Bromocriptine, Paliperidone, Perospirone, and Risperidone were ranked as the best drugs by Autodock Vina with lowest binding energy values as -10.7, -9.4, -9.2 and 9.1 with DRD2 and -10.2, -9.7, -9.9, -9.9 HTR2A respectively. Due to the unavailability of complete 3D structures of the proteins in Protein Data Bank (PDB), they were modeled using the advanced modeling program of Modeller 9.19 taking three templates for each target protein which were obtained after five rounds of iteration of Delta BLAST (Domain Enhanced Lookup Time Accelerated BLAST) program.
    Keywords: Schizophrenia; Dopamine Receptor; Serotonin Receptor; Delta BLAST; Virtual Screening.

  • Narrow Passage RRT*: A new variant of RRT*   Order a copy of this article
    by Amine BELAID, Boubekeur MENDIL, Ali DJENADI 
    Abstract: Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star (RRT*) has been widely used for optimal path planning for the reason that can solve high degrees of freedom problems. However, this method has many limitations such as slow convergence rate and solving problems with narrow passages. In addition, the collision checking for this method consumes a lot of time in cluttered environments. In this paper, we present a new variant of RRT* named Narrow Passage RRT* (NP-RRT*), to deal mainly with narrow passage problems and cluttered environments. Our idea is to generate samples near obstacles to explore ef?ciently complex regions in the con?guration space. We have also implemented a path optimization technique to speed up the convergence rate. In order to reduce the complexity of collision checking, we used a pre-procedure that localizes the obstacles before running the planning process. We demonstrate that the complexity of collision checking with our approach does not depend on number of obstacles. Simulation results, performed in different environments comparing our algorithm with RRT*, alongside statistical analysis, con?rm the ef?ciency of NP-RRT* method.
    Keywords: path planning; collision checking; steer function; narrow passage.

  • Automated system for road extraction and traffic volume estimation for traffic jam detection   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyoti Parsola, Durgaprasad Gangodkar, Ankush Mittal 
    Abstract: Vehicle detection and traffic density estimation is one of the essential tasks for traffic congestion estimation and is solved up to some extent. We also propose an automated surveillance system for vehicle detection from a traffic scene which perform functions like path followed by vehicle, traffic volume estimation, traffic analysis and reports traffic jam. Our system directly extracts road region from traffic scene by segmentation of moving vehicle. Further based on the movement of vehicle, path is plotted. Vehicular density is computed with respect to the corresponding road of moving vehicle. A traffic jam alert is generated based on the intensity of traffic density and density is categorised in heavy, medium or low based on the flow of the traffic. Performance of our system is evaluated using various benchmark datasets which, shows the ability of proposed method to work in any road conditions and thus makes it suitable for deployment.
    Keywords: intelligent transportation system; traffic density estimation; congestion detection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2021.10034107
  • Perceptual image quality assessment based on gradient similarity and Ruderman operator   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Zeggari, Zianou Ahmed Seghir, Mounir Hemam 
    Abstract: In this work, a new metric for image quality assessment is suggested, which provides more suppleness than previous measures in using Ruderman operator, visual region of interest and gradient similarity. Firstly, the luminance distortion between the reference and test images is determined. Secondly, the gradient similarity is computed by using canny filter and proposed gradient mask. Thirdly, the test and reference images are transformed using Ruderman operator. Fourthly, the visual region of interest is calculated by employing entropy operator. Lastly, the dissimilarity between the reference and test images is obtained, by combining all previous metrics: luminance distortion measure, gradient similarity measures, Ruderman measure and visual region of interest measure. Experimental comparison demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Keywords: Ruderman operator; gradient similarity; image quality assessment; IQA; objective methods; human visual system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2021.10034110
  • Comprehensive analysis of a diverse group of features and development of vision-based two-level hand detector under practical environment conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Songhita Misra, Rabul Hussain Laskar 
    Abstract: Developing a bare-hand detection system for practical environment conditions is a complex and challenging task. Factors such as change in appearance, uneven illumination, and complex background add up to the difficulty in detecting the target hand. Present study newly explored 13 colour-texture and integrates them with texture models to develop robust two-level hand detector under practical conditions mentioned above. Colour-texture and texture models are assessed using multiple classification tools and employed in two subsequent levels such that the second level only classifies the optimal sub-windows classified in the first level. The analysis showed that the proposed two-level detection system detects the hand with 53.4% higher accuracy than the baseline model which the integrated motion detection and skin filtering method, under the practical conditions. With five times lower time-complexity than the baseline model, the proposed system can be used to detect hand in both static as well as dynamic gesture systems.
    Keywords: two-level hand detection system; complex background; positional variation; rotation variation; uneven illumination; AdaBoost classifier; naïve Bayes; support vector machine; colour-texture features.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2021.10034108
  • Design of filter for image de-noising using discrete wavelet transform for ASIP   Order a copy of this article
    by Mood Venkanna, Rameshwar Rao, P. Chandra Sekhar 
    Abstract: Application specific instruction-set processors (ASIP) is a customised processor for user specific application. Though a significant research has been done on this, still it is most promising technology, due to lack of efficient methodologies for designing the processor configuration according to the applications. Again ASIP solution explores the trade-off between the dedicated hardware design and flexibility among software. It endeavours to fulfil the functionality of an algorithmic with low power costs and less complexity. In this paper, an approach is considered to design a processor for image de-noising. The design of suitable filter is an important task for the transmission and real-time processing. Designing ASIPs requires a suitable design of custom data path simultaneously modify the instruction-set, decoder including the compiler. We present an ASIP based on custom architecture design using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a filter. It starts with the general purpose data path like MIPS. It customises the data path iteratively for better power utilisation, usable area and performance. All the experiments have been synthesised using Xilinx FPGA and also verified in Spartan board. The subjective evaluations of the filter is analysed through various figures. Further it is implemented in HDL to support the customised processor.
    Keywords: image filtering; wavelet transform; application specific instruction-set processor; ASIP; impulse noise; field programming gate array; FPGA; VHDL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2021.10033526
  • A novel approach for secured multimodal biometric authentication based on data fusion technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Gayatri U. Bokade, Rajendra D. Kanphade 
    Abstract: The upcoming biometric technology is focusing more on multiple biometric traits to authenticate the user for security, access control and universal identity. This is because utmost considered powerful biometric when used solely, grieves from spoof attacks, intra-class erraticism, noise, vulnerability, etc. In the arena of biometrics, the integration of evidences offered by multiple biometric is considered as an effective mode of enhancing the authentication accuracy and security. This research work proposes an authentication technique for a multimodal biometric scheme using three traits, i.e., face, ear and palmprint at feature level fusion. This novel method utilises the raw data fusion technique to create unique pattern for each registered user. Even with the use of three different biometrics traits, the template is created with extreme low dimension and by using a single algorithm. The proposed system provides security with reduced computational complexity and improved robustness.
    Keywords: authentication; multimodal biometric; raw data fusion; face; ear; palmprint; computational complexity; robustness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2020.10032847