Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation

International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation (IJBIC)

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International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation (43 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Magnetotactic bacteria optimization algorithm with self-regulation interaction energy   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiao Zhao, Hongwei Mo 
    Abstract: Magnetotactic bacteria optimization algorithm (MBOA) is a new optimization algorithm inspired by the biology characteristics of magnetotactic bacteria in the nature. The original MBOA is vulnerable to premature convergence and has poor exploration capability. In this paper, a modified magnetotactic bacteria optimization algorithm (MMBOA) is proposed to improve the performance of algorithm. It uses a kind of self-regulation interaction energy to enhance the diversity of the swarm for encouraging broader exploration. And as the number of iterations increases, the self-regulation interaction energy can keep MMBOA convergence. Convergence analysis of MMBOA is also implemented. The proposed algorithm converges to the global optimum with a probability one when the number of iterations tends to infinity. Experimental results on CEC2013 and a part of CEC2011 benchmark functions show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and robust, especially in optimizing multimodal functions.
    Keywords: Magnetotactic bacteria optimization algorithm; self-regulation interaction energy; exploration; global convergence.

  • Formation control of multiple UAVs via pigeon swarm optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by B.A.I. TINGTING, WANG DAOBO, Zain Anwar Ali, Suhaib Masroor 
    Abstract: A distributed coordinated control is proposed for the group of UAVs to map the behaviour rule for the pigeon group. Moreover, on the basis of pigeon inspired optimization (PIO), the UAV groups are clustered and synchronized through the coordinated control algorithm. To control the speed, direction of nth UAVs for the desired formation of flight are controlled by proportional integral (PI) and proportional integral differential (PID) controller. A high degree of convergence control method is presented to control the UAV groups at the same level of height during formation of flight. On the basis of pigeon flight obstacle avoidance, a method of UAV obstacle avoidance is designed, and a method of obstacle obstructing is also designed along with the improved artificial physical method. The proposed methodology provides obstacle avoidance for a group of UAV and overcome traditional physical methods, and can easily make the desired formation in which sudden obstacles lie in the way of formation through the arrow channel.
    Keywords: Pigeon Swarm Optimization; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Pigeon Behavior and Coordinated Control.

  • A Novel Oversampling Technique Based on the Manifold Distance for Class Imbalance Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Yinan Guo, Botao Jiao, Lingkai Yang, Jian Cheng, Shengxiang Yang, Fengzhen Tang 
    Abstract: Oversampling is a popular problem-solver for class imbalance learning by generating more minority samples to balance the dataset size of different classes. However, resampling in original space is ineffective for the imbalance datasets with class overlapping or small disjunction. Based on this, a novel oversampling technique based on manifold distance is proposed, in which a new minority sample is produced in terms of the distances among neighbors in manifold space, rather than the Euclidean distance among them. After mapping the original data to its manifold structure, the overlapped majority and minority samples will lie in areas easily being partitioned. In addition, the new samples are generated based on the neighbors locating nearby in manifold space, avoiding the adverse effect of the disjoint minority classes. Following that, an adaptive adjustment method is presented to determine the number of the newly generated minority samples according to the distribution density of the matched-pair data. The experimental results on 48 imbalanced datasets indicate that the proposed oversampling technique has the better classification accuracy.
    Keywords: (class imbalance learning; oversampling; manifold learning; overlapping; small disjuncts).

  • Pigeon-inspired optimization algorithm with hierarchical topology and receding horizon control for multi-UAV formation   Order a copy of this article
    by Yankai Shen, Yiming Deng 
    Abstract: Multi-UAV formation is a crucial research aspect of UAV cooperation control. This paper proposes a hierarchical topology pigeon-inspired optimization (HPIO) and a receding horizon control (RHC) to deal with the problem. The RHC method can convert the problem into an online optimization problem. Besides, inspired by the structure of pigeon flock, a new topology with a hierarchical structure of pigeons is designed. The velocity updating formula of the original PIO is redesigned. Then discuss the stability of the modified PIO. Finally, use the HPIO to generate the desired formation control in each time domain of the RHC. The simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Keywords: Multi-UAV Formation; Receding horizon control (RHC); Pigeon-inspired optimization (PIO); Hierarchical topology.

  • Pigeon inspired optimization based cooperative target searching for multi-UAV in uncertain environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Delin Luo 
    Abstract: In this paper, the multi-UAV cooperative target searching problem is investigated and a close loop path planning method is developed for UAVs in uncertain environment. The proposed method includes two consecutive parts, the multi-UAV cooperative target search algorithm developed based on cooperative pigeon inspired optimization (CPIO) and the base returning algorithm for each UAV based on artificial potential field (APF) method. Firstly, a concerned regional environment and the initial search probability map models are established. Then, by applying the rolling prediction strategy, the cooperative target search paths for multiple UAVs are generated by utilizing the proposed CPIO. With this method, UAVs can reinforce target search in the key areas in a cooperative way and avoid flying into the no-fly zones. In the meanwhile, the Bayesian theorem is used to constantly update the search probability map in each search step. Finally, at the end of the target search phase, an optimized safe path is generated for each UAV returning back to its original by using the APF method. Simulations are performed and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective for multiple UAVs carrying out cooperative target search task in a complex environment.
    Keywords: multi-UAV; cooperative search; pigeon-inspired algorithm; artificial potential field.

  • An improved extension neural network methodology for fault diagnosis of complex electromechanical system   Order a copy of this article
    by Yunfei Zhou, Yunxiu Sai, Li Yan 
    Abstract: Fault diagnosis is a complex and challenging problem in the operation of machines and equipment, the crucial component of which is the recognition, extraction and classification of fault features, which are closely related to the training sets. A good diagnostic method can yield twice the result with half the effort result. In the existing intelligent diagnostic methods, artificial neural network (ANN) is widely used to identify and classify fault patterns. Although this approach solves the Fault diagnosis problem of complex electromechanical system (CES), there are still two defects: (1) The training process converges slowly; (2) Feature recognition and extraction are largely influenced by the training data sets. In order to solve the above problem, we propose a novel intelligent fault diagnosis method based on the extension neural network (ENN) and a uniform distribution search for particle swarm optimization (UPSO). The data set of the turbine generator set verifies the validity of this method. The diagnostic results show that compared with the existing method, the proposed method can not only extract the available classical domain characteristic from the collected training data set adaptively, but also have high diagnostic accuracy and rapid training process.
    Keywords: fault diagnosis; complex electromechanical system; particle swarm optimization; extension neural network.

  • ELM-NeuralWalk: Trust evaluation for online social networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuoshuo Zhang, Xiangrong Tong, Shuigen Wang 
    Abstract: Trust relationship plays an important role in online shopping, recommendation systems, Internet of Things, etc. The problem of trust evaluation among users in online social network (OSN) has attracted much attention, and has become a hot issue in the domain of social computing. However, the way of trust propagation and aggregation in OSN is still not clear, as well as the accuracy of trust calculation. In order to calculate the indirect trust, an ELM-NeuralWalk algorithm to implement trust propagation and aggregation is proposed. ELM-WalkNet firstly learns two-hop trust calculation rules, calculates two-hop trust among users in the OSN. After that, ELM-NeuralWalk updates the OSN with the calculated trust value, so as to realize the calculation of multi-hop trust among users through iterative calling ELM-WalkNet. Unlike traditional solutions that use inference methods, ELM-WalkNet can learn trust calculation rules in an inductive way and accurately calculate indirect trust between users. Experiments on two real OSN datasets showed that ELM-NeuralWalk outperforms existing solutions.
    Keywords: Trust; online social networks; extreme learning machine; machine learning.

  • Jumping particle swarm optimization method for solving minimum weight vertex cover problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Balaji Sankarasubramanian, Kanagasabapathy G, Vikram S. T. 
    Abstract: The minimum weight vertex cover problem (MWVCP) is one of the classic combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper we have proposed a modified jumping particle swarm optimization approach, named JPS-VC, for MWVCP. This method contains two new local search approaches incorporated with the jumping particle swarm optimization approach and it admits several remarkable features such as novel construction of feasible solution and also the quick conversion of feasible solution to optimal solution. The computed results indicate that the proposed approach has got appreciable performance over the recent state-of-the-art algorithms.
    Keywords: minimum weight vertex cover; discrete particle swarm optimization; computational methods; combinatorial optimization.

  • Effect of potential well model for quantum heuristic algorithm: A comparative study and application   Order a copy of this article
    by Jin Jin, Peng Wang 
    Abstract: The multiscale quantum harmonic-oscillator algorithm (MQHOA) is an intelligent optimization algorithm based on quantum harmonic wave functions. Although it is effective for many optimization problems, an analysis for its performance is still lacking. This paper discusses the harmonic-oscillator potential well, delta-function potential well, and infinite-square potential well in terms of their application in evolutionary algorithms. Of the three, the harmonic-oscillator potential well is considered to give the most precise approximation for complex objective functions. To verify its global optimization performance, experiments are conducted using a suite of benchmark functions to compare the performance of different potential wells and heuristic algorithms. The experimental results indicate that MQHOA with the harmonic-oscillator potential well is a better practical choice than the other two potential well models, and show that MQHOA is a potential quantum heuristic algorithm.
    Keywords: Multiscale quantum harmonic oscillator algorithm; quantum heuristic algorithm; global optimization; potential well; wave function.

  • A novel whale optimization algorithm with filtering disturbance and non-linear step   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinkun Luo, Fazhi He, Haoran Li, Xian-Tao Zeng, Yaqian Liang 
    Abstract: As a recent addition of population-based meta-heuristic algorithms, whale optimization algorithm (WOA) has attracted a lot of attention recently. However, WOA still has room for improvement in the accuracy and reliability of solution. In this study, a novel WOA with filtering disturbance and non-linear step (FDNS-WOA) is proposed. Firstly, to enhance the population diversity and the global search ability, we design a weighted Cauchy mutation equation to perturb solution space. Secondly, the excessive disturbance may cause the imbalance between exploration and exploitation, and the quality of solutions will be decreased. Thus, before the disturbance, we propose a filtering mechanism to dynamically select different individuals for disturbance at different evolutionary stages. Thirdly, a weighted local walk mechanism is designed to improve the local exploitation capability. Different from original linear step with large fluctuation, we propose a non-linear step to reduce blind spots in the local exploitation process. Finally, the proposed FDNS-WOA is tested on benchmark functions and applied in a real world problem. The experimental results show that the proposed FDNS-WOA not only outperforms other recent meta-heuristic algorithms in term of accuracy and reliability for most benchmark functions, but also achieves satisfactory results in real world problem.
    Keywords: whale optimization algorithm; Cauchy mutation; economic load dispatch; meta-heuristic algorithm; population-based algorithm; filtering disturbance; non-linear step.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIC.2020.10036562
  • An adaptive multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm based on fitness distance to streamline repository   Order a copy of this article
    by Suyu Wang, Dengcheng Ma, Ze Ren, Yuanyuan Qu, Miao Wu 
    Abstract: In recent years, multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (MOPSO) has been paid more attention. One of its indispensable structures is the maintenance and update mechanism of the repository. The existing mechanisms are relatively simple, and most of them are based on the crowding distance sorting strategy, and not conducive to the distribution and accuracy of the algorithms. The paper innovated this mechanism and proposed an adaptive multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm to streamline repository based on fitness distance (FDMOPSO). Both the concept of fitness distance and the corresponding improve methods of mutation mechanism and adaptive mechanism were proposed. The algorithm itself was tested using benchmarks. The results shown that the proposed application of fitness distance had a better improvement on the convergence and distribution. Compared with other algorithms, the FDMOPSO algorithm had the best overall performance.
    Keywords: MOPSO; fitness distance; streamline repository; adaptive; multi-objective optimization.

  • Efficient Optimization Methods in a Distributed Memory Storage System Using Data Compression   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoyang Yu, Songfu Lu, Tongyang Wang, Xinfang Zhang, Shaohua Wan 
    Abstract: The storage of data in a memory-centric storage system benefits from great improvements in read and write I/Ornperformance at the price of consuming a large amount of valuable memory resources. As the amount of data grows, a distributedrnsystem must scale accordingly, resulting in an increased number of nodes and greater communication overhead that may impact thernoverall performance. We believe that achieving an appropriate trade-off among computation, storage and network transportation will bernbeneficial for a distributed memory storage system, leading to higher overall efficiency. The challenges of achieving such a trade-off arerndetermining how and when this trade-off should be applied. In this paper, we explore a method to achieve this trade-off by introducingrndata compression technology in a transparent manner. Instead of focusing on specific compressed data structures, we target blockrnlevel compression for a general purpose storage system to incorporate a wide range of existing data analysis frameworks and usagernscenarios, especially with big data. A prototype is implemented and evaluated based on the memory-centric distributed storage systemrnAlluxio to provide transparent compression and decompression during write/read operations. A series of experiments for data withrndifferent types of compression ratio is conducted to determine the proper situation in which this technology can help to improve thernsystem efficiency. The experimental results prove that our approach can achieve huge write/read throughput boosts for highlyrncompressible data and performs better for moderately compressible data when there are remote operations. From the results, wernsuggest that our approach can be applied for data with a medium up to high compression ratio in practical data processing pipelinesrnand provides useful insights for optimizing future memory-based storage systems.
    Keywords: System performance optimization; Data compression; Distributed memory storage.

  • A new multi-objective artificial bee colony algorithm based on reference point and opposition   Order a copy of this article
    by Songyi Xiao, Wenjun Wang, Hui Wang, Zhikai Huang 
    Abstract: A new multi-objective artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm based on reference point and opposition (called ROMOABC) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the original framework of ABC is modified to improve the efficiency of population renewal and accelerate the convergence rate. On basis of this framework, two new strategies are proposed. In the scout bee search, opposition-based learning and elite solutions are used to reduce the waste of computing resources. Distribution of solutions is improved by using reference points associated external archive. Experiments are conducted on sixteen multi-objective benchmark functions including ZDT, DTLZ and WFG multi-objective benchmark functions. The comparison of ROMOABC with five other multi-objective algorithms shows that it has competitive convergence and diversity.
    Keywords: artificial bee colony; multi-objective optimization; external archive; opposition; elite learning.

  • A Novel Bio-Inspired Stochastic Framework to Solve Energy Management Problem in Hybrid AC-DC Microgrids with Uncertainty   Order a copy of this article
    by Sattar Shojaeiyan, Taher Niknam, Mehdi Nafar 
    Abstract: This paper develops a new management framework for optimal operation of the hybrid AC-DC microgrids incorporating renewable energy sources and storages. Hybrid microgrid consists of two parts of AC and DC to supply the AC and DC loads, respectively. The power exchange capability of hybrid microgrids between the AC and DC parts makes it possible to reduce the total microgrid costs, effectively. To make it a realistic analysis, a stochastic method based on cloud theory is proposed to model the uncertainty effects of wind turbine power, photovoltaic power, load demand and market price sufficiently. The proposed framework makes use of a new optimization algorithm based on flower pollination mechanism to minimize the total network costs through the optimal dispatch of the units. Also, a three stage modification method is proposed to improve the population diversity and avoid the premature convergence. The performance of the proposed method is examined on the IEEE test system through two different operation scenarios.
    Keywords: Evolutionary Algorithm; Energy Management; Hybrid Microgrid; Flower Pollination Algorithm; Cloud Theory; Modification; Uncertainty; Optimization.

  • Parameter Optimization of Sliding Window Algorithm Based on Ensemble Multi-objective Evolutionary Computation   Order a copy of this article
    by Guang Li, Jie Wang, Jing Liang, Caitong Yue, Taishan Lou 
    Abstract: The parameters of sliding window algorithm are difficult to determine. Therefore, a sliding window-based method for parameter optimization of data stream trend anomaly detection algorithm is proposed in this study. This method regards the data stream anomaly detection as a two-objective optimization problem. Three optimization algorithms and ensemble strategies were used to obtain the optimal parameter settings of the algorithm. With this strategy, it is no longer difficult to determine the parameters of the data stream trend anomaly detection algorithm based on the sliding window. Through verification of multiple real parameter data in Tarim Oilfield, it could be known that this method could realize the optimal parameter settings, which provides a reference for the parameter setting of the data stream trend anomaly detection algorithm based on sliding window.
    Keywords: data stream; sliding window; parameter optimization; machine learning; anomaly detection; evolutionary computation; ensemble strategy; Multi-objective evolutionary; industry data; project parameters.

  • Performance Assessment of Biogeography Based Multi-objective Algorithm for frequency Assignment Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Daoudi Asma, Benatchba Karima, Bessedik Malika, Hamdad Leila 
    Abstract: Solving Frequency Assignment Problem (FAP) with multiple objectives is NP-hard. The network has many constraints to be respected when assigning frequencies. In this paper, we consider two objectives: reduce the number of frequencies and the interference caused by the violation of the network constraints. We use a new model based on a Set-T-coloring graph which takes in consideration all constraints related to cellular network. We propose to use an evolutionary metaheuristic, Biogeography Based Multi-objective Optimization Algorithm (BBMO), to solve the considered problem. As it is a bi-objective approach, our results are represented by a set of non-dominated solutions based on the definition of Pareto optimum front. A framework to study and measure the quality of the obtained Pareto fronts based on six performance indicators (ONVGR, HV, Spread, GS, GD, IGD) has been implemented. The obtained results show the efficiency of the BBMO on FAP based on a well known COST259 data set. Moreover, a statistical analysis compares our approach BBMO-FAP to NSGA-II and identifies the best-performing method.
    Keywords: Frequency Assignment Problem (FAP); Multi-objective optimization; Biogeography Based Multi-objective Optimization (BBMO); performance indicators; Kruscal-Wallis statistical test.

  • Open Set Recognition Through Monte Carlo Dropout-based Uncertainty   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaojie Yin, Qinghua Hu, Gerald Schaefer 
    Abstract: Open set recognition has received much attention in recent years. In this paper, we present a novel open set recognition method that is able to obtain improved recognition by applying Monte Carlo Dropout to capture uncertainty in order to yield high quality predicted probabilities. Experimental results on six benchmark datasets show that our method gives better open set recognition performance than other state- of-the-art methods, with at least 6.4%, 3.9%, 2.9% and 1.0% performance increase in AUROC on the challenging object datasets CIFAR-10, CIFAR+10, CIFAR+50 and TinyImageNet respectively. We also perform an analysis on the benefits of combining predictive uncertainty with an EVT-based open set recognition model which indicates that Monte Carlo Dropout-based uncertainty allows to obtain high quality predicted probabilities and to learn more accurate open set recognition scores. This, in turn, helps to reduce the overlap between known and unknown classes, thus making them more separable.
    Keywords: Open Set Recognition; Monte Carlo Dropout; Predictive Uncertainty.

  • Modeling the Green Supply Chain of Hotel Based on Front-back Stage Decoupling: Perspective of Ant Colony Labor Division   Order a copy of this article
    by Changbin Jiang, Ruolan Li, Jue Chen, Shufang Li, Tinggui Chen, Chonghuan Xu 
    Abstract: To face up to the challenges from fierce competition in traditional industry and increasing concern on environment protection, hotels in China are seeking practice of green supply chain (GSC) which helps to both raising operation efficiency and minimizing environmental impacts. Rooting from a case study in chinas hotel industry, this study intends to firstly build a new conceptual model of hotel GSC by integrating the concept of front-back stage decoupling. Then a mathematical model based on the concept of Ant Colony Labor Division is constructed to explain and verify the mechanism of the new GSC model. Moreover simulation is conducted for model testing and further discussion, which finally leading to the conclusions and future research suggestion.
    Keywords: Green Supply Chain; Ant Colony Labor Division; Front-back stage decoupling.

  • Perfectly Convergent Particle Swarm Optimization in Multidimensional Space   Order a copy of this article
    by Devinder Kumar, N.K. Jain, Uma Nangia 
    Abstract: In this paper a novel evolutionary algorithm, Perfectly Convergent Particle Swarm Optimization (PCPSO) has been proposed. This is an intelligent algorithm which does not get trapped in local minima by using personal best value along with new parameters and new velocity update equation for better exploration in the search space. The velocity clamping effectively helped to control the maximum velocity of the particles from explosion state and align them towards the true global minimum. Experimental results show that by using perfect convergent Particle Swarm Optimization (PCPSO) approach computational efficiency is increased compared to other variants of PSO and finds true global minimum in less time.
    Keywords: Particle swarm optimization; Exploration; stagnation; Premature convergence; velocity clamping; PCPSO.

  • PSO-based Optimal Online Operation Strategy for Multiple Chillers Energy Conservation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jing An, Luyuan Xu, Kefan Wang, Qi Deng, Qi Kang 
    Abstract: As a key part of energy conservation in HVAC system, reasonable operation strategy of multiple chillers is essential to most industrial buildings. In traditional chiller control strategies, the operation state of chillers mainly depends on the experience of on-site workers. Therefore, it is important to analyse the characteristics and integrate them into a set of effective control strategy of the chiller system. In this paper, we propose an efficient control strategy for energy conservation of multiple chillers. The system energy consumption and the constrains of the chillers are firstly modelled, and a two-layer control strategy for the chillers is proposed, which is respectively used to control the selection of starting scheme of the chillers under the cooling load at the current time and the setting of control parameter values of the chiller under the selected starting scheme. The core of the two-layer strategy is the use of PSO algorithm. Experimental results have suggested that the strategy can effectively optimize the energy consumption of the multiple chillers system and realize the accurate control in different periods.
    Keywords: multiple chillers; energy conservation; PSO; two-layer control structure.

  • A novel parameter optimization method of hydraulic turbine regulating system based on fuzzy PID controller and fuzzy differential evolution algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhensheng Huang, Xiaoyong Liu, Hui Fu, Zhiguo Du 
    Abstract: Aiming at the parameter regulation problem of hydraulic turbine regulating system with the "water hammer" effect, combining the advantages of fuzzy PID and FDE (fuzzy differential evolution algorithm), a fuzzy PID-FDE method for optimizing the parameters of the hydraulic turbine regulating system is proposed. It is used for the regulation simulation of the regulating system of the hydraulic turbine under two different disturbance conditions. The simulation results of the hydraulic turbine regulating system show that the FDE method can break through the stagnation of the DE algorithm in the later stage and continue to find a better solution. The search speed is faster than other methods but slower than fuzzy particle swarm optimization. At the same time, the simulation results also show that the parameters optimized by fuzzy PID-FDE are better, which makes the response of the simulation curve of hydraulic turbine regulating system to step signal smoother and more stable, with less overshoot and faster response speed.
    Keywords: fuzzy PID; fuzzy differential evolution algorithm; hydraulic turbine regulating system; parameter optimization; Fuzzy PID-FDE.

  • Artificial Leaf-vein network optimization algorithm for urban transportation network design   Order a copy of this article
    by Baozhen Yao, Chao Chen, Wenxuan Shan, Bin Yu 
    Abstract: The structure of transportation networks determines the traffic flow characteristic of urban roads. In a case where demand and supply are fixed and given, the unevenly distributed traffic flow may lead to traffic congestion. Therefore, designing a rational urban transportation network (i.e., the urban transportation network design problem, UTNDP) has become one of the hottest topics in the transportation field. Due to the property of multi-objects, multi-constraints, and non-convexity, UTNDP is recognized as NP-Hard. Thus, many heuristic algorithms, based on biological laws or swarm intelligence, have been proposed in recent years. However, rare researches paid attention to the perfect topology of the leaf-vein network in nature. In this paper, a definitely new heuristic algorithm is proposed based on the leaf-vein network. By analyzing the growth process of leaf veins, the underlying relationship between urban transportation network and leaf-vein network is first investigated. An evolutionary mechanism of the algorithm or called the artificial leaf-vein generation rule, is then built by simulating the natural selection of biological evolution and genetic transmission. Given the differences between urban transportation networks and leaf-vein networks, a transformation method between the two networks is also designed. Finally, a benchmark instance, the Sioux Falls Network, is set up to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that, compared with conventional heuristic algorithms (e.g., GA, SA, and ACO), the proposed algorithm has superior performance and the high application potential in the reduction of the total travel time and length of the entire transportation network. The algorithm may help designers and planners optimize the urban transportation network and alleviate the negative effect of congestion in booming cities.
    Keywords: Urban transportation network design problem; artificial leaf-vein network; heuristic algorithm; auxin transport.

  • An Adaptive Ant Colony Optimization for improved Lane Detection in Intelligent Automobiles Vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Tijani Salawudeen, Ime Jarlarth Umoh, Bashir Olaniyi Sadiq, Olubukola Ishola Oyenike, Muhammed Bashir Mu’azu 
    Abstract: This paper presents an improved lane detection algorithm using an adaptive Ant Colony Optimization (aACO) based edge detection technique. In the paper, we first modified the ACO to select its control parameters (pheromone influencer, heuristic influencer, evaporation rate and the pheromone decay coefficient) adaptively. A threshold tolerance technique was developed to determine the element of the final ant pheromone matrix that constitutes a lane edge.Three lane detection test scenarios (Traffic, Liquid and Cloudy) was created to evaluate the performance of the develop algorithm. Simulations were performed using MATLAB and results shows a significant improvement over canny edge detector based lane lane detection method.
    Keywords: Edge Detection; Lane Detection; Ant Colony Optimization; Automobile Vehicles.

  • Computationally Efficient Hybrid Differential Evolution with Learning for Engineering Application   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanjoy Debnath 
    Abstract: Evolutionary computation is popular as an optimization technique for its ability to achieve a globally optimal solution in a non-convex fitness landscape. Amongst the evolutionary techniques, Differential Evolution (DE) is most prominent for its relative computational simplicity and faster asymptotic convergence. However, its convergence rate is still unsuitable for real-time applications. Hence, a new leader-centric learning algorithm based on DE named Hybrid Differential Evolution with Learning (HDEL) is proposed in this work to improve the convergence performance of DE. In the proposed scheme, we introduce a novel learning-based mutation and crossover method, where the mutation and crossover strategy of the algorithm is supervised by the learning knowledge of the global best and global worst individual as well as the personal best of an individual in its current generation. The proposed method brings three distinct advantages: first, the convergence is better and faster due to update of position by the best and worst individuals; second, the overall diversity of the population is increased due to learning from different individuals avoiding worst individual and third, the exploitation of the search space is improved due to inclusion of personal best of the individual into the evolution. Extensive simulations have been performed on a set of twenty-three standard mathematical benchmark functions, six CEC2005, and fifteen CEC2015 benchmark functions, and one new problem of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) planning to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. The inherent advantages of the proposed HDEL facilitate quick response attributes, which is essential in UAV planning for communication. Performance comparison of the proposed HDEL with other state-of-the-art algorithms is also performed and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the proposed HDEL offers a significant improvement in terms of optimum value, convergence speed, and computational complexity in comparison to most of the reported optimization algorithms.
    Keywords: Optimization; Evolutionary Algorithms; Differential Evolution; Hybridization.

  • Hybrid Moth-Flame optimization algorithm with Differential Evolution for visual object tracking   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The improvement of the metaheuristic algorithms is one of the interesting topics to investigators in current years for resolving the optimization problems and constrained engineering problems. One of the population-based search method i.e., Moth-Flame Optimization algorithm (MFO) is eminent by easy execution, low amount of limits and its high speed. On the other hand, the MFO process has shortcomings for instance verdict the local minimum as a substitute of the global minimum and weakness in global pursuit proficiency. In this paper, to resolve these shortages, the MFO algorithm is integrated with Differential Evolution (DE) and proposed a new hybrid method called MFO-DE. The exploration ability of the MFO algorithm is improved and as well, existence trapped in the local minimum is prohibited by via a mixture of the MFO and DE in the MFO-DE algorithm. The proposed algorithm was tested on the set of best known unimodal and multimodal benchmark functions in various dimensions. The obtained results from basic and non-parametric statistical tests confirmed that this hybrid method dominates in terms of convergence and success rate. Furthermore, MFO-DE is applied to visual object tracking as a real-life application. All experimental outcomes, illustrations, and comparative investigation found the MFO-DE algorithm can vigorously track a random target object in many stimulating circumstances than the other trackers successfully.
    Keywords: Population-based algorithm; Meta-heuristic; Differential Evolution (DE); Global optimization; Visual object tracking.

  • Deep learning based mitosis detection using genetic optimal feature set selection   Order a copy of this article
    by Lakshmanan B, Anand S 
    Abstract: Mitosis detection in breast cancer is considered to be a vital factor in cancer progression. The significance of identifying mitotic count will be more helpful to estimate the aggressiveness and proliferation rate of the tumour. The manual mitosis detection process is prone to intra-observer variability and also a challenging task. To alleviate this limitation, we present a deep convolution neural network-based genetic optimizer to detect mitosis signature from histopathology images. In this study, the proposed model is designed to solve the problems of feature dimensionality, computational cost and misclassification rate. The deep learning-based genetic optimizer consists of two phases: first, deep convolutional neural network and second is genetic optimizer. It is compared to state-of-the-art algorithms using MITOS-ATYPIA-14 dataset. The proposed architecture achieved an accuracy of 98.7% with 91% precision, 89% recall and 92% F-score. Results are obtained from experiments conducted on 760 histopathology breast cancer images in which 415 images are used for training and 345 images are taken for testing. Significantly, the proposed model will intelligently assist and help pathologists to do their jobs more efficiently. Finally, the model could help pathologists, medical practitioner to understand the progression of the cancer stages.
    Keywords: Breast cancer; histopathology images; convolutional neural network; genetic optimizer; mitosis detection.

  • Solving systems of nonlinear equations with real world problems using an advanced hybrid algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja Verma, Raghav Parouha 
    Abstract: System of nonlinear equations (SNLEs) existed in various disciplines such as engineering, economics, chemistry, mechanics, and applied mathematics. Finding solutions to SNLES is one of the most challenging problems that scholars face, because it cannot be solved as easily as linear systems. An advanced hybrid algorithm (haDEPSO) is proposed in this paper for finding the solution of SNLEs and real world problems, based on multi-population approach. Suggested advanced differential evolution (aDE) and particle swarm optimization (aPSO) integrated with proposed haDEPSO. In aDE a novel, mutation strategy and crossover probability along with slightly changed selection scheme is introduced, to avoid premature convergence effectively. And aPSO comprises of novel gradually varying parameters, to avoid stagnation. Therefore, convergence characteristic of aDE and aPSO provides different approximation to the solution space. Thus, haDEPSO achieve better solutions due to integrating merits of aDE and aPSO. Also in haDEPSO individual population is merged with other in a pre-defined manner, to balance between global and local search capability. Performance of proposed hybrid haDEPSO as well as its integrating component aDE and aPSO are used to solve 3 benchmark SNLEs and 3 complex real world problems. Several numerical, graphical and statistical experiments have been done to verify performances of the proposed algorithms. Additionally, comparative analysis confirms superiority of the proposed algorithms over many state-of-the-art algorithms.
    Keywords: System of nonlinear equations; Real world applications; Meta-heuristics algorithms; Hybrid algorithm.

  • An Improved Chemical Reaction Optimization Algorithm for the 0-1 Knapsack Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamza Salami, Abubakar Bala 
    Abstract: Knapsack Problems (KPs) are well studied NP-hard problems with numerous real-life applications like capital budgeting, cargo loading, load-shedding in microgrids, and resource allocation in cloud computing. Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) is a recently developed metaheuristic algorithm that works based on the principles of chemical reactions. This paper proposes a CRO-based algorithm for solving the 0-1 knapsack problem (0-1 KP). The proposed algorithm (newCRO) utilizes a novel, optimistic neighborhood search operator and a greedy repair and optimization operator to fix invalid solutions and improve feasible solutions. We test the newCRO on a wide range of large scale 0-1 KP benchmark problems, and its results are compared with five other existing methods to show its superior optimization capabilities.
    Keywords: chemical reaction optimization; knapsack problems; metaheuristic algorithms.

  • Deep Convolutional Neural Network applied to Trypanosoma cruzi Detection in Blood Samples   Order a copy of this article
    by André S. Pereira, Leonardo O. Mazza, Pedro C. C. Pinto, José Gabriel R. C. Gomes, Nadia Nedjah, Daniel F. Vanzan, Alexandre S. Pyrrho, Juliana G. M. Soares 
    Abstract: Chagas Disease is a tropical parasitic disease endemic to Latin America. During the acute phase, standard diagnosis is based on Trypanosoma cruzi visualization through microscopy applied to peripheral blood slides. In the present work, we apply a deep convolutional neural network to the binary classification of image tiles from acute-phase peripheral blood samples. A single-neuron binary classifier receives 1280-dimensional vectors from a MobileNetV2 feature extractor, thus yielding a relatively simple and effective Trypanosoma cruzi detector. In a preliminary experiment using a reduced data set with sample image tiles from 12 slides, we achieve accuracy equal to 96.4\% on a balanced validation subset. On image tiles from a thirteenth blood smear slide, test accuracy is estimated at 72.0%. To improve the accuracy, we extend the data set with images from six additional slides, which include two thick blood samples. Validation accuracy oscillates to 95.5%, but independent tests on two extra slides indicate test accuracy improvement from 72.0% to 95.4%. We provide examples of raster scans with overlapping windows leading to the detection of all positive instances of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood smear and thick blood images, without any false alarm. Furthermore, we start an investigation of the boosting algorithms on the performance of the classification process.
    Keywords: Chagas disease; Trypanosoma cruzi; deep convolutional neural networks.

  • Adaptive Chaotic Equilibrium Optimizer   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Yang, Jiayi Li, Runqun Xiong, Yuki Todo, Shangce Gao 
    Abstract: Equilibrium optimizer (EO) is a new algorithm inspired by the control volume mass balance model. It uses particles with concentration as the search agents to search for the optimal solution. The equilibrium pool is an important part for EO to update particles. To improve the quality of the equilibrium pool, a scheme based on differential radius and adaptive chaotic local search is proposed. The resultant algorithm is termed as adaptive chaotic equilibrium optimizer (CEO). CEO improves the population diversity of the original algorithm and obtains a better balance between exploration and exploitation. The performance of CEO is verified based on a number of benchmark functions with 30 and 50 dimensions taken from IEEE CEC2017. In addition, four real-world optimization problems are employed to further validate the effectiveness of CEO.
    Keywords: Chaotic local search; Chaotic maps; Equilibrium optimizer; Memetic algorithm; Metaheuristic algorithm.

  • Spatial Information Sampling: Another Feedback Mechanism of Realizing Adaptive Parameter Control in Meta-heuristic Algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Haichuan Yang, Sichen Tao, Zhiming Zhang, Zonghui Cai, Shangce Gao 
    Abstract: This paper innovatively proposes a spatial information sampling strategy to adaptively control the parameters of meta-heuristic algorithms (MHAs). The solutions spatial distribution information in current iterations is used to control the parameters in the following iterations. An adaptive parameter control method requires obtaining information from the operation of MHAs and feeding it back to the adjustment of parameters. The mainstream information acquisition method is to record the changes to the solutions in the iterative process. In essence, the proposed feedback method, i.e., chaotic perceptron (CP), makes use of the temporal information arising from the change of solutions in MHAs. The wingsuit flying search algorithm and differential evolution are employed as case studies. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. The source code of CP can be found at
    Keywords: Meta-heuristic algorithms; Adaptive parameter control method; Feedback method; Historical information; Space-based information.

  • A novel prediction model based on long short-term memory optimized by dynamic evolutionary glowworm swarm optimization for money laundering risk   Order a copy of this article
    by Pingfan Xia, Zhiwei Ni, Xuhui Zhu, Qizhi He, Qian Chen 
    Abstract: The accurate prediction of the money laundering risk is conducive to the risk prevention, and its task implies the characteristics of time series. Long short-term memory (LSTM) is widely developed in time series problems, but its parameters need to be optimized for delivering good predictive capacity. In this work, a novel bio-inspired algorithm, named dynamic evolutionary glowworm swarm optimization (DEGSO), is designed. DEGSO employs adaptive step size strategy, dynamic evolutionary mechanism, and directional mutation mechanism for improving the search performance. The money laundering risk is identified via a combination of DEGSO and LSTM (DEGSO-LSTM). DEGSO is wielded to optimize the main parameters of LSTM. Numerical results on 4 test functions indicate that DEGSO delivers better performance. Performance test results demonstrate that DEGSO-LSTM performs better than other state-of-the-art approaches. DEGSO-LSTM also attains satisfactory results in money laundering risk prediction, and its potential as a solution to financial fraud risk prediction.
    Keywords: glowworm swarm optimization; dynamic evolutionary mechanism; long short-term memory; money laundering risk prediction.

  • An Improved Physarum polycephalum Algorithm for the Steiner tree problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Yi, Yang Zhengquan, Qi Xin 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present an improved algorithm based on the physarum polycephalum to solve Steiner tree problem (STP).The Phytophthora Polycephalum algorithm has faster convergence speed and higher precision in the problem of network structure. Our improved method has greater randomness and errors when calculating the minimum Steiner tree cost compared with other heuristic algorithms. We can maintain a stable output when calculating the optimal value in this model. Experiments show that the model has strong convergence and high convergence efficiency, and the optimal value can be obtained in a small number of iterations. We can get more improvements compared with the optimal solutions of some data sets.
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum?Steiner tree problem; integrated circuits routing.

  • A dynamic firefly algorithm based on two-way guidance and dimensional mutation   Order a copy of this article
    by Wang Jing, Yanfeng Ji, Hui Chen, William Wei Song 
    Abstract: As a stochastic optimizer, the firefly algorithm (FA) has been successfully and widely used in the solutions to various optimization problems. Recent related research shows that the standard FA does not sufficiently balance between exploration and exploitation. Especially in high-dimensional problems, it is easy for the standard FA to fall into the local optimum and lead to premature convergence. To overcome the problems as mentioned above, DMTgFA uses three strategies: dynamic step length setting strategy (DS), non-elite two-way guidance model (TG) and elites dimensional mutation strategy (DM). The dynamic step length setting strategy makes the algorithm convergence speed faster. The non-elite two-way guidance model and the elite dimensional mutation strategy cooperate to solve the balance problem between global search and local search. Experimental results show that DMTgFA has stronger optimization ability and faster convergence speed than other state-of-the-art FA variants.
    Keywords: firefly algorithm; single-objective optimization; non-elite two-way guidance model; elite dimensional mutation strategy.

  • Optimal Design of Second Generation Current Conveyor using Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Soumen Mallick, Rajib Kar, Durbadal Mandal 
    Abstract: In this paper, a population-based meta-heuristic search algorithm called Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization (CRPSO) has beenemployed for the optimal design of positive second-generation current conveyor based on a trans-linear loop (CCII+). CRPSO accepts several random variables for encompassing improved and quicker search and utilization in multidimensional search space. The main goal of this work is to optimally size the CCII+ building block to attain the suitable aspect ratios of the MOS transistors. To enhance the performance of a CCII+ design, it needs to increase the higher cut-off frequency of the current signal (fCI) as well as to decrease the input X-port parasitic resistance (RX). Accordingly, the optimization problem is developed as a bi-objective problem of minimization to obtain the least value of RX and the superior value of fCI. The CCII+ building block having voltage and current gain closer to 0 dB is presented in this paper. The current conveyor is simulated and validated using UMC 180 nm CMOS technology with a power supply of
    Keywords: CMOS; circuit sizing; second generation current conveyor; trans-linear loop; CRPSO; evolutionary optimization techniques; X-Port parasitic resistance; higher cut-off frequency.

  • Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Medical Enterprise Warehousing Process Based on FlexSim Model and Greedy Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Hexu Wang, Fei Xie, Jing Li, Fei Miu 
    Abstract: With the modern logistics gradual transformed from labor-intensive to technology-intensive industry, artificial intelligence technology is widely used in logistics scheduling optimization. As the warehouse management is one of the most important activities of logistics, the operation level of warehousing has a direct impact on the efficiency and total cost of the whole supply chain. Therefore, this paper takes the medical enterprise as the research object, investigates the current situation of its warehousing process, and finds out the existing problems. Then, FlexSim modal and greedy algorithm are used to simulate and optimize the operation process. After optimization, the efficiency of medical storage has been improved obviously, and the operation cost has been reduced significantly, so as to realize the lean management of the whole medical supply chain.
    Keywords: Medical supply chain?Medical warehousing?FlexSim?Greedy algorithm?Artificial intelligence application.

  • A Multi-Layer Two-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network for Sentiment Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Wang, Zuqiang Meng, Lina Yang 
    Abstract: The sentiment analysis method combining long short-term memory network (LSTM) and one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) has become the focus in sentiment analysis tasks. However, 1D-CNN usually captures local features, and LSTM is time-inefficient due to its serialization characteristics. To this end, we propose a multi-layer two-dimensional convolutional neural network (ML-2D-CNN) for sentiment analysis. In our method, the character-based integer encoding method is used to retain fine-grained sentiment information. Besides, we innovatively introduce interactive features to improve the dimension of feature vectors and enhance sentiment information. The group expansion strategy is used to form several feature mapping groups, which is conducive to the learning of similar sentiment features in the group. Finally, we exploit multi-layer 2D-CNN to extract and mine the fine-grained information of the text. Extensive experiments are conducted on the SST dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method superior to other baseline and state-of-the-art methods.
    Keywords: Multi-layer; 2D-CNN; Character-based integer encoding; Interactive features; Group expansion strategy.

  • A Many-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm based on convergence assistant strategy   Order a copy of this article
    by Wusi Yang, Li CHEN, Yanyan LI, Abid Fazeel 
    Abstract: The multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm based on Pareto dominance also has specific dilemmas when dealing with many-objective optimization problems. For example, how to make the algorithm more effectively approach the true Pareto front, and maintain the diversity of solutions. This paper proposes a convergence assistance framework that couples different convergence operators separately to handle many-objective optimization problems. To maintain the convergence and diversity of populations in the environmental selection, random sampling was performed on the population obtained by the shift density estimation and vector angle. The proposed algorithm is compared with several advanced many-objective optimization algorithms on test suites DTLZ and MaF with 4, 6, 8, 10, and 15 objectives. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better convergence and diversity, outperforms most of the comparison algorithms, and verifies the robustness of the algorithm framework.
    Keywords: many-objective optimization; particle swarm optimization; self-controlling dominance area of solutions; convergence assistant strategy.

Special Issue on: Bio-inspired Evolutionary Computations and Their Applications

  • Brushless Direct Current Motor Design Using A Self-adaptive JAYA Optimization Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Yan, Chuang Zhang, Boyang Qu, Kunjie Yu, Caitong Yue 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a self-adaptive JAYA (SAJAYA) to maximize the efficiency of the brushless direct current (BLDC) motor by optimizing the design parameters. In SAJAYA, an adaptive weight strategy is introduced into the original JAYA to control the degree of approaching the best solution and avoiding the worst solution at different evolution stages. Moreover, to maintain the diversity and enhance the local search ability, a new hybrid learning strategy is developed. Further, a self-adaptive selection mechanism is designed in order to dispatch the original learning strategy and the new hybrid learning strategy to each individual automatically. Based on this framework, the exploration and exploitation abilities of the population are expected to be balanced. Besides, a chaotic elite search is introduced to further refine the best solution of each generation. Experimental results show that the proposed SAJAYA shows a superior performance in solving the BLDC motor optimization problem compared with other well-established algorithms.
    Keywords: Evolutionary computation; JAYA algorithm; Optimization; Brushless DC wheel motor.

  • Genetic regulatory network-based optimization of master production scheduling and mixed-model sequencing in assembly lines   Order a copy of this article
    by Youlong Lv, Jie Zhang, Liling Zuo 
    Abstract: The integration of master production scheduling and mixed-model sequencing ensures just-in-time production of orders and workload balancing between stations for assembly lines. However, such integrated optimization is complicated because of the high interdependence between these two problems. Based on mathematical model of the integrated optimization problem, a two-level genetic regulatory network is constructed by representing decision variables with gene states and describing multiple objectives and various constraints with gene regulation equations. The solutions are generated through gene expression procedures in which some gene states are activated based on regulation equations, and the optimal one with minimum objective function value is obtained via parameter optimization in regulation equations. The genetic regulatory network-based method is validated under sixteen testing scenarios and applied to the case study of a diesel engine assembly line. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method over other ones in realizing integrated optimization.
    Keywords: integrated optimization; diesel engine assembly line; master production scheduling; mixed-model sequencing; genetic regulatory network.

  • A parallel algorithm to solve the multiple traveling salesmen problem based on molecular computing model   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhaocai Wang, Tunhua Wu 
    Abstract: The Multiple Traveling Salesmen Problem (MTSP), which includes m salesmen starting and ending their tours at a same fixed node (m>1), is an extension of Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and has more applications and significance in the field of optimal control. As a classic NP-hard static combinatorial optimization problem, its efficient solution has always been the direction of scholars efforts. In this work we propose biocomputing algorithms to solve the MTSP using Adleman-Lipton model. We make use of DNA chains to appropriately represent the nodes, edges and corresponding weights, then efficiently generate all traveling salesmen tours combinations by biochemical reactions. Combining with the nature of the problem, we exclude the infeasible solution strands to get the optimal solutions, and reduce the algorithm computational complexity to O(n^2) level. Meanwhile, the feasibility and practicability of DNA parallel algorithms are verified by theoretical proof and simulation experiments. The proposed algorithms are also helpful to better understand the nature of computing and can be further applied to the study of extended problems.
    Keywords: DNA computing; Multiple Traveling Salesmen Problem; Adleman-Lipton model; NP-hard problem.

  • Techno Economic Analysis Of Novel Multiobjective Quasi-Oppositional Grey Wolf Optimizer   Order a copy of this article
    by Gourab Das 
    Abstract: The optimal DG placement in radial distribution system is an important way for techno-economic analysis. The maximum technical benefits can be extracted by minimizing the distribution power loss as well as bus voltage deviation, whereas the maximum economical benefits can be procured by minimizing the total yearly economic loss which includes installation, operation and maintenance cost. So for the maximum techno-economic benefits, all three objectives should be simultaneously minimized by considering a multiobjective optimization technique. For optimal results, a Pareto optimal concept based a novel multiobjective quasi-oppositional grey wolf optimizer (MQOGWO) algorithm has been proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on IEEE-33 bus radial distribution system. In this analysis, various voltage dependent load models such as constant power, constant current, constant impedance, residential, industrial and commercial load models have been considered at different loading conditions like light load, full load and heavy load. The effects of DG type on the system performance has also been analysed to find the best optimal solution.
    Keywords: Distributed Generation; Yearly Economic Loss; Power Loss; Voltage Deviation; Multiobjective Quasi-Oppositional Grey Wolf Optimizer.

  • Filter-based feature selection: a comparison among binary and continuous cuckoo optimisation algorithms along with multi-objective optimisation algorithms using gain ratio-based entropy   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Muhammad Usman, Umi Kalsom Yusof, Syibrah Naim 
    Abstract: Feature selection is one of the data mining processes that is used to eliminate both irrelevant and redundant features while maintaining the datasets standard. Filter-based used the intrinsic statistical characteristic to select the high- rank features which make it computationally faster and scalable to high dimensional data. On the other hand, it affects the classification performance due to lack of feature interaction among the selected high-ranked features. In this study, entropy is used as the fitness functions of the cuckoo optimisation algorithm (COA) as well as its binary (BCOA) counterpart to enhance feature interaction. Now, that, FS is considered as multi-objective optimisation problem (MOP). Some of the prominent multi- objective optimisation algorithms, especially, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAIII), multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA) and evolutionary algorithm of non dominated sorting with radial basis (ENORA). The essence of using entropy is to improve the relationship between and among different features, respectively. Besides, information gain (IG) of the entropy is commonly used, to find the relevance and redundancy of the features. However, IG was reported to be problematic on features with many values, that leads to biased, fragmentation and selection of non- optimal features for the prediction. Thus, gain ration (GR) which is a modification of the IG is employed to correct the issues by considering the intrinsic information of a split. The results achieved showed the superiority of the proposed entropy with GR over the existing entropy with IG in most of the datasets. Besides, the proposed BCOA with the proposed entropy outperformed the standard COA as well as the existing studies of binary particle swarm optimisation algorithm and genetic algorithm. On the other hand, the proposed multi-objective algorithms perform better than the proposed single-objective in the majority of the datasets, with NSGAIII-E being the best among them.
    Keywords: Multi-ob jective optimisation; cucko o optimisation algorithm; feature selection; entropy; information gain; gain ration; NSGAIII; ENORA; MOEA/D.