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International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics

International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics (IJBGE)

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International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics (46 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Corporate governance and firm performance of listed Indian companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Premananda Sethi, Tarak Nath Sahu, Sudarshan Maity 
    Abstract: The present study investigates the interrelationship of corporate governance parameters like board independence and corporate board meetings. The other important control variables like age, leverage, firms liquidity and size of the firm have been employed to analyse the alliance between corporate governance, vertical agency cost and performance of the firm. The study considers data corresponding to a panel of seventy six non-financial firms during 2010-2019 listed in the National Stock Exchange, India. The study tries to empirically evaluate the association between corporate governance parameters and performance of the firm. By selecting the static panel data regression, researchers found no significant impact of corporate board meeting and board independence on firm performance. The study also documents a positive and significant relationship between board independence and asset utilisation ratio. Further, corporate board meetings have a negative relationship with vertical agency crisis.
    Keywords: corporate governance; firm performance; vertical agency crisis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10046159
  • Updating UK CSR legislation and potentials for voluntary application   Order a copy of this article
    by William Hyslop, Dilshad Sarwar, Amin Hosseinian-Far 
    Abstract: UK legislation is to follow the moral views of society, has begun to incorporate CSR into legislation, forcing companies to conform the voluntary inclusion of CSR into the business framework beyond the legislated minima. Although the incorporation of CSR is a relatively new concept, the relevant legislation does not address certain key points; this allows some companies to find loopholes within the law and perform actions that are damaging the environment, but are technically still within the constraints of the legislation. The absence of a structured assessment of legislations in the UK, against CSR guidelines has left legal escapes which some companies may exploit to avoid their social responsibility. To study the reality of this, thematic analysis was used to identify areas of CSR that are currently present within the UK legislation. Further, thematic analysis was also conducted on Carroll’s sustainability pyramid to establish the main areas of CSR that are absent from the selected UK legislation. Accordingly, this study outlines a structured assessment of the current UK legislation in relation to CSR activities. Furthermore, we have provided a set of recommendations that can be espoused by the UK legislators.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; thematic analysis; CSR pyramid; UK legislations; sustainable business practices; UK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10046483
  • Do corporate governance mechanisms restrain earnings management? Evidence from Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Olojede Paul, Erin Olayinka, Adetula Dorcas 
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of corporate governance mechanisms on earnings management within the Nigerian context. The study adopted the panel generalised least square regression to analyse the data. A sample size of 49 companies was selected from the non-financial companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange for six years (2012-2017). Overall, corporate governance mechanisms jointly have not restrained the possibility of earnings management in Nigeria, but the degree of impact by individual corporate mechanisms showed mixed results. From the analysis, five corporate governance variables (ownership concentration, managerial ownership, board size, gender diversity, and audit committee independence) have positive relationship with earnings management. This indicates that an increase in any of these variables increases managers' latitude for using earnings management to manage the firms earnings. This confirms ineffectiveness of all these variables in restraining earnings management. In contrast, two variables (CEO duality and board independence) contribute to the reduction of earnings management of the selected firms in Nigeria. However, CEO duality is not statistically significant. Given the findings, the study recommends stricter compliance and enforcement to the corporate governance codes and appropriate legislation. Besides, more independent directors' representation on the board should be encouraged.
    Keywords: corporate failures; corporate governance mechanisms; earnings management; non-financial listed companies; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10046484
  • Governance and the prevention of fraud in charities in England and Wales   Order a copy of this article
    by Saffet Aras Uygur, Christopher J. Napier 
    Abstract: Despite increasing public attention and media coverage of fraud, no solution to this problem has been designed specifically for the not-for-profit sector. This study focuses on charities in England and Wales and examines variables derived from a content analysis of 42 fraud and 42 no-fraud charities’ annual reports and financial statements. We use logistic regression to explain and predict fraud in the charity sector. We examine whether a range of governance-type variables are significantly related to the likelihood of fraud in charities. We find that smaller boards, which imply a small cosy environment for governance, are associated with a greater likelihood of fraud, suggesting that larger boards enhance monitoring in the not-for-profit sector. Also, a low or zero-level of grant funding is associated with a greater likelihood of fraud, implying that monitoring by long-term donors is also important in curbing fraud.
    Keywords: fraud; fraud in the not-for-profit sector; board size; logistic regression; England.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10046485
  • Governance in non-profit organisations: a plural or ambiguous research field? Bibliometrics and definitions of a broad concept   Order a copy of this article
    by Guillaume Plaisance 
    Abstract: This article focuses on the concept of non-profit governance and the associated literature. It proposes a bibliometric analysis and a study of the definitions of non-profit governance to examine the ambiguity of the concept, decried by some researchers. Others rather think that it is a question of plurality. Two hundred seventy-seven articles were selected from Scopus as well as from the main publishers of scientific journals in management sciences. A bibliometric analysis (main authors, preferred journals, date of publication, countries, etc.) is complemented by a lexicometric and linguistic analysis of keywords, abstracts and definitions of non-profit governance. The results indicate a strong inspiration towards for-profit governance, a focus on the board of directors and a plurality of definitions of non-profit governance. This article therefore opens up many new research perspectives, complementary to those already stated by researchers who have constructed research agendas.
    Keywords: bibliometric analysis; bibliometrics; definition; governance; non-profit governance; non-profit organisations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10047033
  • The influence of corporate social responsibility perception on employees' job performance: an evidence from Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Bui Nhat Vuong 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of corporate social responsibility perception (CSRP) on job performance through the mediating role of work attitude (job satisfaction and employee commitment), and the moderating roles of income level. Survey data were collected from 626 employees who are working in small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. Results from the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) using the SmartPLS 3.0 program showed that employees’ CSR perception is positively related to job performance. Besides, this relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction and employee commitment. Additionally, the interaction effect analysis also confirmed that the positive relationship between CSR perception and work attitude will increase significantly in higher-income employees than low-income employees. Furthermore, employees with more experience tended to have more performance than employees with less experience. This finding implied that managers should develop appropriate CSR to enhance employees’ positive work attitudes and behaviours.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility perception; CSRP; job satisfaction; employee commitment; job performance; income.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10047335
  • Corporate strategic objective, corporate social responsibility practices and employees’ affective commitment: a managerial perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Mai Ngoc Khuong, Khoa Truong An Nguyen, Thi Phuong Ngan To 
    Abstract: Currently, although the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and its incorporation into business strategies is emphasised widely in developed countries as a key to sustainable growth and economic profitability, this term is still new to the Vietnamese market because of the low awareness of the importance of CSR practices, which leads to the failure of many firms. Since Vietnamese firms do not prioritise CSR implementation, Vietnam is experiencing an increasing shortage of skilled employees owing to a lack of motivation. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between the corporate strategic objective (CSO), CSR practices and employee commitment, to provide recommendations to enhance motivation. This study used a quantitative approach and data from a questionnaire delivered to 869 enterprises in 2019 in Vietnam. Results suggest that the CSO had direct and indirect effects on employee commitment through the mediation of CSR practices.
    Keywords: corporate strategic objective; CSO; corporate social responsibilities; CSR; affective commitment; managerial perspective; developing context.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10049135
  • Corporate social responsibility perceptions and manager creativity: testing the mediating role of organisational identification   Order a copy of this article
    by Um-E-Roman Fayyaz, Raja Nabeel-Ud-Din Jalal, Michelina Venditti 
    Abstract: We examine how corporate social responsibility perceptions (association and participation) affect manager creativity at the workplace and its mediating link through organisational identification. We collected data from listed in the National Forum of Environment and Health (NFEH) 2019, awarded 52 companies in Pakistan. NFEH is a purely non-profit, non-governmental, and voluntary organisation registered under the Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies Ordinance 1961. We employed convenience sampling to collect data from managers of 52 CSR performing organisations in Pakistan. We analyse the data with structural equation modelling (SEM) via R. Findings reveal that CSR association does not affect creativity. In contrast, CSR participation has a significant positive effect on manager creative performance. Furthermore, the decomposition analysis indicated that only in the case of CSR participation, OI has a mediating effect.
    Keywords: CSR perceptions; CSR association; CSR participation; manager creativity; organisational identification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10049380
  • Religious context and its influence on banking sector regulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Ainur Ramazanova, Assyl Sabitova, Raissa Orsayeva, Gulmira Bairkenova, Indira Smailova 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to identify typical religiously-based regulatory practices in the banking sector of secular states. With this end in view, the intersection of religion and banking was qualitatively analysed, as well as confessional-based economies of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were characterised. The results obtained provide evidence that religion exerts a notable influence on the social and economic life of the country. The Jewish banking system is based on the analogy of the Islamic finance paradigm - it is built upon Sharia law but provides services for the population according to national jurisdiction of the state and the laws of the Torah. In the meantime, the regulation of basic banking practices in the Christian tradition is not religiously conditioned. The originality of this study is in the analytical tool designed to manage financial activities within the particular economic system while making allowances to the moral values of society.
    Keywords: business ethics; religion; Islamic society; bank; economic behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10049381
  • Corporate governance in real estate investment trusts: a systematic literature review and ideas for future research   Order a copy of this article
    by Michail Pazarskis, Stergios Galanis, Andreas G. Koutoupis, Athina Stavrou 
    Abstract: Although much has been written globally about the key issues of corporate governance in REITs, there are not enough studies inspired by the systematic literature review method. This study reviews the literature on corporate governance in real estate investment trusts (REITs) published after 2004 and addresses three interrelated research questions. We examined 77 peer-reviewed journal articles using a systematic literature review approach. We found that there has been a rise in studies since 2010, with a brief decrease in 2015 and 2017 before increasing again in 2016. Moreover, the vast majority of the studies were published in the areas of economics/econometrics/finance and business/management/accounting. Besides, most of the papers are single-country studies, the minority are multi-country. The majority of the papers are focused on US and Asia. Similarly, the majority of these analyses concentrate on developed countries and ignore emerging and frontier markets.
    Keywords: corporate governance; real estate investment trusts; REITs; systematic literature review; SLR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10050238
  • Basic human values of Indian management professionals: a demographic profile   Order a copy of this article
    by Alex Joseph, Sarin Raju, T.M. Rofin 
    Abstract: This study tries to check the degree of basic human values among management professionals in India with considerable cultural and linguistic differences and how it varies across the different demographic influences. We have checked the impact of demographic variables like gender, age, education, type of organisation, place of residence, and work experience on basic human values. Hypotheses testing were conducted using MANOVA. It was inferred that the perception regarding the degree of basic human values differs among different management professionals based on their age, gender, education, type of organisation, and place of residence. Surprisingly, the work experience of the person does not have a significant influence on basic human values. Consequently, we imply that the demographics of an individual carve their basic human values. The findings and inferences of the proposed study will be of great importance to policymakers and recruiting managers to fetch the right candidate.
    Keywords: basic human values; managers; demographic factors; Schwartz; respect for humanity; self-enhancement; conservation; openness to change; recruiters; MANOVA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10050375
  • Directors’ remuneration, banks’ specific and board characteristics: the case of Indian listed banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Najib H. S. Farhan, Faozi A. Almaqtari, Waleed M. Al-ahdal, Hafiza Aishah Hashim 
    Abstract: The article attempts to examine the impact of banks’ specifics and board of directors’ characteristics on directors’ remuneration (REM) of 38 Indian listed banks from 2010 to 2019. The current study is based on secondary data that are extracted from the Prowess IQ database. Fixed effect model is used for analysing the data and generalised method of moment is applied for dealing with endogeneity problem. Finally, the sample is classified into three groups in order to check the robustness of the results. Results revealed that return on assets, size, and market capitalisation positively and significantly impact directors’ REM of Indian listed banks. While banks’ age, capital adequacy, current ratio, and board of directors’ composition have an insignificant impact on directors’ REM of Indian listed banks. The findings of the study provide new evidence about the impact of banks’ specifics and board of directors’ characteristics on directors’ REM in the Indian banking sector. The findings suggest that firms’ specifics are significant determinants of directors’ REM.
    Keywords: directors’ remuneration; board characteristics; Indian listed banks; banks’ characteristics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10050495
  • The moderating role of CEO race on the relationship between CEO masculinity and company financial performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamer Elsheikh, Hafiza Aishah Hashim, Nor Raihan Mohamad, Khaled Hussainey, Faozi A. Almaqtari 
    Abstract: The paper investigates the moderating effect of CEO race on the relationship between CEO masculinity and company performance. The sample includes 260 companies listed on the Bursa Malaysia for the period from 2009 to 2019. Data extracted for 405 unique CEOs from different races (Malay, Chinese, Indian, and others). The paper uses two indicators of CEO masculinity, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) and testosterone level (Tsh). The fWHR of CEOs is measured using artificial intelligence (Python code/c). In addition, a contemporary model is applied to estimate Tsh based on face measures and CEO age. The results indicate that CEO race moderates the relationship between masculinity and company performance. The findings reveal that high masculinity is positively associated with company performance only among the non-Bumiputera group, however, there is no significant evidence among the Bumiputera group. This study uniquely links CEO characteristics and financial performance with neuro finance and biological aspects. Therefore, this study offers novel contributions to literature and implications for investors, board members, policymakers, and academicians.
    Keywords: masculinity; testosterone; financial performance; ethnicity; Bumiputera; non-Bumiputera; Bursa Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10050891
  • Credit reporting agency stakeholder and CSR reporting linkages   Order a copy of this article
    by Edward T. Vieira Jr., Susan Grantham, Susan D. Sampson 
    Abstract: This Experian corporate social responsibility (CSR) report case study was informed by the 3Ps of sustainability along with legal, ethical, economic, and philanthropic CSR practices. Text network analysis yielded keywords, an overall theme, and 15 sub-themes. In its CSR report, Experian described and emphasised how its services can help consumers develop and protect their financial identity, which lead to greater choices, opportunities, and a sustainable quality life. At the same time, some of Experian’s business practices suggest a misalignment with stated strategic goals and practices. This research is unique in that it examines CSR reporting of an organisation in which its key stakeholders are both customers and the product at the same time, making them vital to the company’s existence. Results suggest how legitimacy theory and lack of disclosing negative events are deployed to maintain credibility between the organisation and these essential stakeholders.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR reporting; CSR disclosure; Experian; business ethics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10051200
  • Social ties, group dynamics, and executive compensation: an integrative two-stage framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Won-Yong Oh, Rami Jung, Young Kyun Chang 
    Abstract: While the effect of top executives’ social networks on their compensations has received substantial scholarly attention, little effort has been made to integrate segmented views to offer more complete understanding of this effect. In this paper, we propose an integrative two-stage model by taking both economic and socio-political views into account. We theorise that some characteristics of top executive’s outside social ties are positively related to firm performance, and those relationships are conditioned by external and internal strategic contexts, such as environmental uncertainty, strategic relevance, and tie strength. We also theorise that firm performance leads to executives’ compensations, but this linkage is moderated by the socio-political dynamics among executives (within-group dynamics) as well as between executives and a board of directors (between-group dynamics) inside the firm. Based on our integrative framework, this paper provides the comprehensive understanding of how executives’ compensations are determined and highlights the importance of executive’s social ties and their implications.
    Keywords: social ties; executive compensation; strategic contexts; economic view; socio-political view.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10051375
  • The ripple effect of organisational inclusiveness on perception of ethical climate - an empirical investigation   Order a copy of this article
    by P.C. Gita, Sheeja Krishnakumar 
    Abstract: Business ethics is considered a key performance indicator for multiple stakeholders such as consumers, suppliers, shareholders, management and society. The adherence to business ethics has changed the way organisations function. The study argues that inclusiveness in an organisation drives several positive outcomes, including the perception of ethical climate. The study also tries to break the loop that suggests inclusiveness is practiced to enable the company to confirm legal requirements instead of a proactive approach. A conclusive research method was adopted in which primary data from 540 respondents was analysed. Findings indicate that inclusiveness at the workplace is a precursor to creating a positive perception of an ethical climate. Increasing inclusiveness and ensuring reduction in discrimination create a stable and positive work culture that enables the employee to positively perceive the environment and climate. The paper will add a new perspective of support for organisations to take a proactive approach toward inclusiveness.
    Keywords: organisational inclusiveness; ethical climate; ripple effect of inclusiveness; diversity and inclusion; corporate governance; impact of inclusiveness; workplace inclusiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10051609
  • Investment in ESG activities and bank performance: does bank ownership matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Marc Kouzez, Ji-Yong Lee, Jomana Mahfod-Leroux 
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the relation between environmental, social and governance (ESG) activities and bank performance in European markets. Different from existing literature, we also explore whether ESG activities differently affect the performance of foreign-owned banks and domestic-owned banks. The results show that higher involvement in ESG activities is associated with better performance only for foreign-owned banks, and suggest that investment in ESG activities is relevant for foreign banks since it helps to obtain legitimacy in foreign markets, and enhance their reputation on international level. Our findings provide a better understanding of whether a banks ESG activities are in the interest of shareholders, and partially explain the contradictory results in previous studies.
    Keywords: bank performance; ESG; foreign banks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10053288
  • Egregious separation payments? The role of internal and external corporate governance   Order a copy of this article
    by Cyrine Ben-Hafaïedh, Pierpaolo Pattitoni, Barbara Petracci 
    Abstract: Egregious, unfair, unethical, and immoral are all adjectives that the public and shareholder activists use to describe separation payments, which are payments made to executives who leave firms for various reasons. Such complaints often cite corporate governance issues as well, noting the potentially problematic relationships between executives’ and board members’ compensation levels. However, some studies of separation pay agreements suggest a lack of any significant relationship between the quality of corporate governance and separation payments. Using a unique, hand-collected dataset pertaining to actual payouts received by the top executives who left their posts between 2002 and 2013 in Italy, this study reveals instead that better quality corporate governance, in both internal and external dimensions, helps regulate the level of separation payments. In turn, it can offset stakeholders’ perceptions of unfairness and the resulting negative consequences for the firm; such governance also can help minimise the prevalence of pay-for-failure cases.
    Keywords: boards; corporate governance; ethics; executive compensation; separation payments.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10052221
  • Governance and internal control in LGOs: a systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Stergios Galanis, Michail Pazarskis, Maria Kyriakou 
    Abstract: This research examines the literature on governance and especially internal control in local government organisations (LGOs) and responds to three interconnected research questions (RQ): How is research on governance and internal control in local government organisations being evolved? What are the important aspects and criticisms of the literature on governance and internal control in local government organisations? What does the future of governance and internal control in local government organisations look like? Using a systematic literature review technique, we examine 90 peer-reviewed journal publications between 1986 and 2021. Following 2014, we witness an increase in publications, most in a single country, in developed and emerging markets. Studies on governance and internal control in local government organisations emphasise survey/questionnaire/other empirical methods, while the majority employ agency theory as a methodology. Furthermore, we discovered that governance and operational effectiveness are highly valued by academics.
    Keywords: local governance; internal control; local government organisations; LGOs; municipalities; systematic literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10052272
  • Shifting attention from board anatomy to board physiology to understand the roles of directors: evidence from UK companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Ioannis Gkliatis, Dimitrios N. Koufopoulos 
    Abstract: The study seeks to delineate the roles of board directors under agency and resource dependence perspectives. The literature review conducted suggests further research in clarifying the directors’ roles. The results of the principal component analysis from 115 surveyed board directors in the UK suggest that while the dominant roles used in the literature are still supported, they do not capture the whole picture of directors’ roles. The study advocates that future research on directors’ roles should consider additional tasks and also that researchers should account these roles as a continuum, rather than independent to each other. A new set of six roles is offered, highlighting some undervalued roles. Policy makers may benefit from this study by paying further attention to the important functional aspects of the board, as current focus is mainly on the structural elements. Also, strong recommendation is made to shift attention from board characteristics (anatomy) to board functions (physiology).
    Keywords: corporate governance; board roles; agency theory; resource dependence theory; RDT; UK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10053237
  • Does foreign ownership affect corporate cash holdings? Evidence from Amman Stock Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Lara Al-Haddad, Abdullah Al-Ahmad 
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of foreign ownership on corporate cash holdings of Jordanian companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange. Using a sample of 83 Jordanian companies during the 2010 to 2019 period, our results reveal that there is a statistically significant negative relationship between foreign ownership and corporate cash holdings, suggesting favourable effects of foreign investors on the financing structure of Jordanian companies. That is, when Jordanian companies reduce their cash holdings levels, more financial resources became available to be assigned to other activities, (e.g., investments) that can contribute positively to the growth of these companies. Further, lower cash balances might restrict the managers’ ability to overinvest in value-decreasing projects. Hence, foreign investors appeared to enhance the corporate governance quality by reducing the information asymmetry and agency costs associated with excessive cash balances. Our findings have significant policy implications for policymakers, regulators, academics, current and future investors.
    Keywords: Amman Stock Exchange; ASE; cash holdings; foreign ownership; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10053498
  • Board characteristics and firm success: does the institutional context always matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Cristina Zaccone 
    Abstract: Relying on the core premise that the board of directors is a collective decision-making group, this study aims at expanding the literature on the influence of internal corporate governance on firm success assuming a comparative approach. Based on a sample of publicly traded companies nested in liberal market economies and coordinated market economies, the results indicate that the relationship between board eldership and firm success holds regardless of the institutional setting where the firm is nested. Similarly, I provide evidence board tenure negatively influences firm success regardless of the institutional setting where the firm is nested. In addition, the results show that directors’ attendance to board meetings positively influence firm success regardless of the institutional setting where the firm is nested. Overall, the empirical findings contribute to and extend the existing literature on internal corporate governance and comparative corporate governance.
    Keywords: board of directors; firm success; liberal market economies; LMEs; coordinated market economies; CMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10054084
  • Corporate social responsibility, allegation of corruption, and media sentiment   Order a copy of this article
    by Suresh Kalagnanam, Abhilash Nair 
    Abstract: This study examines the two possible effects of CSR on reputation - the insurance like effect and the boomerang effect - within the context of a uniform integrity-questioning negative event through the eyes of the media. Accordingly, we tested whether prior CSR engagement prompts media to give the firm the benefit of doubt when it is accused of grand corruption. We estimated media sentiment using textual analysis on 45,000 media reports covering firms allegedly involved in grand corruption. The studys findings provide no evidence of CSR providing insurance like effect, particularly in the context of integrity-based negative events. In contrast, our results appear to support the idea of the boomerang effect or a punishment for irresponsible behaviour.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; insurance like effect; media sentiment; grand corruption; boomerang effect; textual analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10054555
  • CSR and firm performance nexus in a highly unstable political context: institutional influence and community cohesion   Order a copy of this article
    by Islam Abdeljawad, Mamunur Rashid, Nour Abdul-Rahman Arafat, Hadeel Naifeh, Nadeen Ghanem 
    Abstract: We provide evidence of the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) in Palestine, a highly unstable political context. Annual reports of all firms listed on the Palestine Exchange (PEX) for the period 2016-2019 were manually content analysed. A checklist of reported CSR items is summarised into four areas: environmental information, human resources, community involvement, and product and customer service quality. Results indicate a robust positive connection between each of the four dimensions and the composite CSR index with three performance indicators: ROA, ROE, and Tobins Q. Results also find better performing companies with a higher degree of community involvement being greatly appealing, while the environmental dimension was the least resilient. We discuss the significance of community engagement for an unstable context like Palestine from a community cohesion standpoint.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; corporate financial performance; CFP; unstable economies; small economies; Palestine.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10054626
  • Role of technology director in boosting internationalisation and performance:an evidence from EU sustainable firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Um-E-Roman Fayyaz, Gianluca Antonucci, Raja Nabeel-Ud-Din Jalal, Michelina Venditti 
    Abstract: The present study investigates the relationship between technology director, internationalisation, and firm performance, assuming the beneficial effect of digital-sustainable corporate governance reforms. We implied the presence of a technology director on the board and empirically examined its impact on firm performance. In addition, we also test business internationalisation as a mediator between the technology director on the board and firm performance. The empirical findings rely on the data retrieved from the S&P Dow Jones Sustainability Index 2019 for 115 top sustainable EU firms and the Thomson Reuters Refinitiv Eikon database. The results reveal a significant positive relationship between the technology director’s presence on the board and firm performance. We also find business internationalisation mediates the relationship between the technology director’s presence on the board and firm performance. Overall, we try to lay a foundation for a digitally aware board and its impact on important firm decisions.
    Keywords: digitalisation; sustainability; firm internationalisation; technology director; CEO; chief digital officer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10055007
  • The impact of corporate governance on financial leverage: evidence from Egypt   Order a copy of this article
    by Rimon Micheal, K. Sandy Kyaw, Kwami H. Quao 
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of corporate governance on financial leverage of emerging market firms. This study shows the effects of corporate governance by estimating empirical model in which firms financial leverage is dependent variable, while board size, blockholder ownership, independent directorship, and duality are independent variables. The study employs the panel dataset of 50 listed non-financial firms in Egypt in the period 20082019 and the econometric method for panel data which is multiple regression model. The study suggests a significant and negative effect of board size and duality on the financial leverage relation. The impact of board independence on the financial leverage inclines to be positive significant, and the effect of blockholder ownership tends to be positive, although it is statistically insignificant. The results are inline with diverse of estimation methods. Overall, the findings are consistent with the view that in a context with weak institutional environment, internal corporate governance mechanisms play a particularly important role in the risk-taking activities of emerging market firms.
    Keywords: corporate governance; financial risk; managerial entrenchment; ownership structure; regulation; auditing.

  • Corporate social responsibility and stock price crash risk: the mediating effect of accounting conservatism   Order a copy of this article
    by Emna Brahem, Florence Depoers, Faten Lakhal, Assil Guizani 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of corporate social responsibility on the firm-specific stock price crash risk. It also examines how this effect is driven through accounting conservatism. Based on a sample of French-listed firms from the period 2007 to 2016, the authors use GLS regression models on panel data estimated with robust standard errors, clustered at the firm level. The results show that firms’ CSR performance is negatively associated with stock price crash risk. These findings suggest that socially responsible firms are less likely to hide bad news and poor performance to comply with stakeholders’ ethical expectations, which reduces the stock price crash risk. Furthermore, we find that CSR indirectly decreases the stock price crash risk by enhancing accounting conservatism. This result suggests that accounting conservatism is a channel through which CSR decreases stock price crash risk. Our results provide practical implications for policymakers about the necessity to increase CSR activities as a good corporate governance device.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; stock price crash risk; accounting conservatism; mediating role.

  • Board of directors' configurations and the performance of banks: lessons learned from the global financial crisis   Order a copy of this article
    by Nicola Cucari, Michele Simoni, Antonio Renzi 
    Abstract: Our paper analyses the characteristics of the boards of directors of the best performing listed Italian banks during the last global financial crisis (from 2008 to 2015). Through a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the study identifies three different board configurations (archetypes) that these banks adopted: a committee-based board, a gender diversity-based board, and a large size-based board. Although different in some of their characteristics, these configurations share the rationale of favouring the advisory services that the board can provide to managers in their decision-making activities. These services, in turn, are particularly valuable in a time of high risk and uncertainty for banks. With its results, the paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between board characteristics and organisational performance and to a better understanding of the configurations that can best serve when firms' decision-making, for various reasons, becomes particularly complex and can benefit from board support. Our results also contribute to further detail the governance characteristics of banks in the Italian context.
    Keywords: board of directors; board role; financial performance; bank governance; qualitative comparative analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2021.10043353
  • Striving towards better governance and a knowledge-based economy: impact of intangible resources on firm performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanwal Iqbal Khan, Syed Khurram Abbas Sherazia, Hafsa Hamida 
    Abstract: The nexus between corporate governance, intellectual capital, and firm performance is imperative for developing countries striving towards being more knowledge-based. This paper investigates the influence of innovation and competitive advantage on the relationship between intellectual capital, corporate governance, and firm performance. An industry-wise analysis of the non-financial sector of Pakistan is conducted. In order to assess corporate governance and intellectual capital, internal mechanisms of corporate governance and modified value-added intellectual coefficient were used. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. A multi-group analysis was conducted to examine the industry-wise performance of the firms. The findings indicate that innovation and competitive advantage partially mediate the relationship of corporate governance, intellectual capital, and firm performance. This study is one of the first attempts to investigate the multi-group analysis of the non-financial sector of Pakistan concerning mechanisms of corporate governance and intellectual capital. The findings will help the non-financial sector of Pakistan to develop strategies and focus on intangible resources that can add value to their firms.
    Keywords: corporate governance; competitive advantage; firm performance; intellectual capital; innovation; non-financial sector; modified value-added intellectual coefficient.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2021.10043369
  • Do gender-diverse boards lead to selection of female CEOs: a study of life insurance firms in the USA   Order a copy of this article
    by B. Elango 
    Abstract: In recent years, one overarching corporate governance goal in the corporate world has been to increase the number of female CEOs of firms. It has been argued that one approach to achieve this goal is through a gender-diverse board. This study empirically tests to see if a relationship exists between gender-diverse boards and female CEOs. This study focuses on a sample of firms in the USA operating in the life insurance segment of the financial services industry, with data from hand-collected and secondary data sources. Findings indicate that a greater number of women on a company's board of directors leads to a greater likelihood that a firm will have a female CEO. This finding is quite robust in the alternate specifications of the model tested, offering confidence in the study findings.
    Keywords: female; CEO; corporate governance; gender-diverse board; female CEO; logit modelling; financial services industry; life insurance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10044027
  • The ethics of talent management practices in China, exploring the role of guanxi in talent recruitment and talent development   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuai Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper explores talent management (TM) ethics in China, specifically examines the role of Chinese guanxi in TM practices. Guanxi in the Chinese business context has been widely acknowledged amongst Western academics and business managers, and there is a growing literature on TM and its ethics. However, guanxi-related behaviours and ethical issues arising from TM practices' operation have been overlooked but need to be addressed. This paper explores the roles of guanxi in talent recruitment and development with views of TM ethics. Fifteen interviews were conducted in a case company to explore how guanxi factors impact its talent recruitment and development activities. The roles of guanxi are analysed based on the ethics of elitist TM. This paper also identifies several ethical dilemmas related to guanxi in TM practices. This paper recommends that TM practitioners take account of guanxi effects to discuss TM ethics in China's context.
    Keywords: talent management; ethics; guanxi; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10044026
  • Director categorisation and monitoring efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Samira Abi Dames, Bilal Al-Dah, Mustafa Dah 
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of director co-option on the relationship between board structure and firm monitoring. Though non-co-opted independent directors enhance internal monitoring, co-opted independent directors seem to be the worst monitors. We do not observe a substantial difference in the monitoring functionality of co-opted and non-co-opted inside board members. Our paper suggests that co-opted independent directors are the main driving factor behind the converse association between co-opted boards and internal monitoring. We conclude that the efficiency of board monitoring should not be analysed solely based on director classification or director co-option, but rather a combination of both.
    Keywords: director co-option; board structure; monitoring efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10045351

Special Issue on: EFS-2022 Sustainable Finance, Governance and Business Ethics

  • CSR investment and operating and financial leverage under competitive pressure   Order a copy of this article
    by Taher Hamza, Rym Mhadhbi, Zeineb Barka 
    Abstract: We investigate the cost of socially behaving firms and its impact on firms’ operating and financial leverage. In addition, this relationship is likely to be subject to a potential moderating effect of industry competitive pressure. Using a sample of French-listed companies over 2002-2016, our empirical findings show that: 1) CSR affects positively and significantly, via social performance, the firm operating leverage (OPLEV). Environmental performance however, has no significant impact; 2) industry competition has a significant and negative impact on the association between CSR and OPLEV. In less competitive industries, CSR policy creates a competitive advantage that reduces firm’s operating risk; 3) a negative effect of CSR on the financial leverage (FINLEV). Overall, our findings continue to hold after controlling for endogeneity and conducting alternative econometric specifications and have important policy implications.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; social performance; environment performance; operating leverage; OPLEV; financial leverage; competitive pressure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10053634
  • Do CEO debt-like compensation promote investment efficiency?   Order a copy of this article
    by Wajih Abbassi, Sabri Boubaker, Kaouther Chebbi, Riadh Manita 
    Abstract: This paper investigates how incentives from CEO debt-like compensations affect labour investment efficiency. Using a sample of 9,644 US firms-year observations from 2006 to 2018, we provide empirical evidence that labour investment inefficiencies, proxied by the absolute difference between the actual net hiring level and the optimal one predicted by economic fundamentals, decrease with CEO inside debt. These results are robust to using alternative proxies of CEO inside debt and the control for endogeneity. We further examine under-investment (under-hiring and over-firing) and over-investment (over-hiring and under-firing) problems and provide evidence that each form of distortion decreases as CEO inside debt increases. We also show that the positive impact of CEO inside debt on labour investment efficiency is more pronounced in firms facing lower financial constraints. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of CEO debt-like compensations in shaping firm-level employment decisions.
    Keywords: inside debt; pension; deferred compensation; investment efficiency; labour investment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10053939
  • Cost-benefit analysis economic evaluation of CSR projects: evidence from Morocco   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelmajid Ibenrissoul, Souhaila Kammoun, Amine Lahiani 
    Abstract: In this paper, we perform a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) on a Moroccan corporate socially responsible company to evaluate not only the economic profitability of corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagement for the firm but also the environmental and societal benefits for Morocco. Our approach also offers the possibility to measure the value created by the anti-pollution system project of Casablanca area for all stakeholders and for the community. It has the advantage of evaluating, in monetary terms, a project that does not generate financial resources, which allows calculating the economic value of the CSR project. The obtained results show that the project is viable regardless of the considered benefits and costs subcategories. Important policy implications can be drawn from our analysis.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; cost-benefit analysis; CBA; anti-pollution system; APS; economic evaluation; Morocco.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10054123
  • Financial expert CEOs and corporate social responsibility decoupling   Order a copy of this article
    by Sana Akbar Khan, René P. Orij, Nhung Vu 
    Abstract: We study CEOs with a financial background in relation to firms corporate social responsibility (CSR) decoupling, referred to the gap between the actual and reported CSR performance. Using a sample of 2,513 firms operating in 29 countries from 2006 to 2017, we examine whether financial expert CEOs facilitate firms to tackle the institutional pressure and mitigate CSR decoupling. The result shows that financial expert CEOs reduce the CSR gap. We provide evidence suggesting that financial expert CEOs only affect the environmental dimension since this dimension is at the most concern of stakeholders. Moreover, board independence strengthens the relationship between financial expert CEOs and CSR decoupling, especially in the environmental dimension. Overall, the results suggest that CEOs with financial background matter to improve the CSR reporting quality and reduce the information asymmetry between firms and their stakeholders, contributing to the upper echelons theory.
    Keywords: financial expert CEOs; CSR decoupling; upper echelons theory; corporate governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10054533
  • The effect of corporate social responsibility on European bank credit ratings   Order a copy of this article
    by Islem Arous, Nidhaleddine Ben Cheikh, Salah Ben Hamed 
    Abstract: The possible influences of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on corporate credit ratings have been the subject of several studies in recent years, but no work has yet analysed this relationship among banks. As a result, this research aims to identify the effect of CSR on bank credit ratings in a sample of 27 European banks over the annual period 2007-2016. We suggest implementing a panel quantile regression analysis, where the impact of CSR is provided for low, medium, and high credit ratings, respectively. The empirical results show that the importance of CSR differs according to the credit rating level of each bank. Our findings point out that poorly rated banks need to develop and improve their environmental, social, and governance performance. In addition, we highlight that the environmental score has the strongest effect on European banks credit ratings in comparison to the social and governance scores.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; credit ratings; quantile regression; European banks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10054630
  • Politically connected CEOs and risk-taking behaviour: comparative evidence from private and foreign-owned banks in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Haithem Awijen, Hachmi Ben Ameur, Nidhaleddine Ben Cheikh, Younes Ben Zaied 
    Abstract: This study investigates the effect of CEOs political connections on the risk-taking behaviour of banks in China over the period 20032017. Using both credit and insolvency risk measures, we show that political connections have a positive effect on banks risk-taking behaviour. Bank ownership structure also positively moderates the relationship between political connections and risk-taking. Our empirical results have important policy implications for investors and the government. We highlight the importance of CEOs political connections, which potentially play a role in determining a banks risk-taking behaviour. Finally, our results are robust to alternative bank risk and ownership variables.
    Keywords: political connections; bank risk-taking; ownership structure; ownership concentration; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2023.10054872

Special Issue on: Ethics Practices and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Local and International Construction Companies

  • Severity of ethical issues in virtual teams on construction projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Olugbenga Timo Oladinrin, Lekan Damilola Ojo, Onaopepo Adeniyi, Funke Dorcas Adedeji 
    Abstract: The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic has brought a new dynamic into team decision-making on construction projects in which face-to-face meetings largely metamorphosised into virtual. Online decision-making process and virtual environment have been challenged by some ethical issues, especially in developing countries. The severity of these ethical issues confronting virtual construction team decision-making process were purposely investigated via online survey among construction professionals in Lagos State, Nigeria. The data collected were analysed with various descriptive and inferential analyses namely mean score, normality test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and modified relative severity value (mRSV). Based on the results of mRSV computed on the severity of the ethical issues inhibiting virtual team decision-making, the high ranked factors are technical uncertainties, unpredictable communication, lack of follow-through on ideas, and unequally distributed information, among others. Several recommendations such as collective appraisal of potential technical glitch before proposing a virtual collaboration, amongst others was suggested.
    Keywords: construction; ethical issues; Nigeria; virtual decision-making; severity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10050764
  • Managing construction delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK construction industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Temitope Omotayo, Tom R. Brudenell, Ayokunle Olanipekun, Temitope Egbelakin 
    Abstract: This study focused on maintaining the delivery of construction projects in a crisis scenario such as the COVID-19 pandemic to drawing construction project management lessons for future projects. A qualitative interpretive approach comprising a semi-structured interview was employed to understand the responses and strategies used by six interviewees in construction companies to maintain high productivity levels in their projects during the pandemic. Data obtained were subjected to thematic analysis to establish reoccurring strategies. The results revealed a clear disparity in the level of productivity that was achieved onsite and in the office. The UK construction industry is vulnerable to crisis, and individual organisations must build more resilience. Delays in project delivery were endemic during the peak of COVID-19, and contingency measures must be in place to bolster the efforts of onsite construction workers to meet deadlines. Finally, an extension of time due to the declaration of force majeure is not enough to support productivity.
    Keywords: COVID-19; crisis management; disruption; productivity project delivery; UK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10049842
  • Characterisation of the effects of coronavirus pandemic on construction projects delivery   Order a copy of this article
    by Dorcas Titilayo Moyanga, Lekan Damilola Ojo, Oluwadamilare Olamide Ilesanmi, Ahmed Elyamany 
    Abstract: The advent of coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly affected the delivery of construction projects globally. Sadly, the variants of COVID-19 present a proposition that the virus may not be easily overcome anytime soon. However, continual delivery of construction projects is indispensable, especially in developing nations for smooth running of the economy. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the effects of the COVID-19 on construction projects delivery and categorise them into manageable size for proffering practical solutions while meeting the needs of clients and ensuring safety of workers simultaneously. Through firm-based survey, 139 copies of questionnaire retrieved were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on the results of the factor analysis conducted, the effects of COVID-19 were grouped into workforce-related, cost-related, and project-related. Investing in automated construction equipment and devices was recommended for construction organisations in developing countries. Besides, mindfulness-based intervention programme was advised to combat construction worker’s anxiety.
    Keywords: construction project delivery; COVID-19; effects; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10049961

Special Issue on: Environmental, social and Governance (ESG) Disclosure Ethical Consideration And Implications

  • Sustainability reporting and assurance in Gulf Cooperation Council countries: what is missing?   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdulhadi H. Ramadan, Mahmoud Nassar, Mohammad Haroun Sharairi, Mohammed Hassan Makhlouf, Khalil Nimer 
    Abstract: This study explores the sustainability reporting (SR) and assurance market in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region from the Big 4 auditors’ perspectives, and investigates the drivers and barriers of SR and assurance in the GCC region. We have interviewed ten representatives of auditing firms (i.e., members of Big 4) in the GCC region. The results of study reveal the immaturity of the SR and assurance market in the region but are hopeful for the future contingent upon certain factors. In addition, the voluntary nature of SR, the cost of reporting and assurance, and religious concerns among others are primary barriers in front of the eagerness of firms to adopt SR and its assurance. Reputation building and accessing international markets among others are the main motivations for the adoption of SR and assurance. The interviewees have firmly expressed that there is no direct relationship between SR assurance and financial report audit.
    Keywords: sustainability report; assurance; Gulf Cooperation Council; GCC; Big 4; interview.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2021.10042227
  • Do investors care about corporate environmental responsibility engagement?   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaldoon Albitar, Siming Liu, Khaled Hussainey, Gaoke Liao 
    Abstract: We aim to investigate the effect of corporate environmental responsibility (CER) engagement on investors reactions. We also explore heterogeneity of this impact among different types of companies and different companys market performance. We use panel data models and quantile regression based on data related to firms listed on the A-share China security market and the final sample consists of 3,776 firm-year observations. The results show that CER engagement has a significant positive impact on investors' investment decisions. Further, investors are more sensitive to CER engagement of high energy-consumption companies and no matter the company is a state-owned or a non-state-owned, CER engagement has a significant positive impact on investors' reactions. CER engagement has a significant positive impact on investors' reactions in all quantiles except one and the promoting effect increases first and then decreases with the growth of corporate market value from lower to upper quantiles.
    Keywords: investor's reaction; corporate environmental responsibility; high energy-consumption; corporate market performance; heterogeneity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2021.10042854
  • Emergent themes of social and environmental reporting in the UK retail banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Saeudy, Khaled Hussainey 
    Abstract: We examine current practices in the development and communication of social and environmental reporting (SER) in the UK retail banks. Empirical data was triangulated between semi-structured interviews with bank executives, bank sustainability reports, and third-party sustainability entrepreneur initiatives (termed 'SEIs') to identify current practices and growth areas. We use social contract theory to examine how these social and environmental retail banks developed their SER practices. Our findings reveal that SER practices are crucial for pursuing more positive social and environmental values. We clarify the role of SER as a form of integrated reporting (IR) to assess and improve the usefulness of the IR reporting practices. The SER practices also appear to have benefited from the presence of a number of SEIs in the sampled banks who specialise in commercialising social and environmental projects. In addition, methodical analyses of SER components assist managers and regulators in determining which components are meaningful to stakeholders.
    Keywords: social and relationship capital; integrated reporting; sustainable banking; social contract; value creation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2021.10042907
  • Business utilitarian ethics and green lending policies: a thematic analysis on the Swedish global retail and commercial banking sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno F. Abrantes, Emelie Ström 
    Abstract: The pioneering work on environmental regulation in Sweden and that country's leading position in sustainability rankings has paradoxically passed almost unnoticed by academics. To this fact should be added, the scant attention given to the Nordic banking system. Becoming immersed into the realm of Swedish commercial banking ethics, we have focused on one of the top three commercial banks in the country, to map its corporate sustainability policies (CSP) and the compliance of the lending business process (LBP) to these policies. A descriptive-explanatory research framework utilises a critical case with a phronetic design. Data collected through interviews was manipulated under the Thematic Analysis method. We found a unique understanding of act-utilitarianism, in which, policies and practices are set to prevent financial risks and environment rebounds, as they are symbiotic. This allowed us to enlarge the body of knowledge on Nordic banking's sustainable governance, and design the green lending model (GLM).
    Keywords: business ethics; corporate governance; corporate social responsibility; CSR; green lending model; GLM; sustainable banking; utilitarianism; global retail and commercial banking; GRCB; corporate sustainability policies; CSP; lending business process; LBP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10045491
  • The disclosure practice of governance element of integrated reporting in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Haruna Maama, Md Humayun Kabir, Mishelle Doorasamy 
    Abstract: Integrated reporting encourages firms to provide information on their environmental, social and governance activities. Studies on this area in developing countries concentrate on the environmental and social aspects of the phenomenon, thus neglecting the governance disclosure element. Given this, the study examined the disclosure practices of the governance element of integrated reporting among Ghanaian listed firms. The content of 410 annual reports of 33 firms was examined based on a checklist of eighteen disclosure items. Moving average scores and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were employed to analyse the data. The study found that governance reporting is receiving attention in Ghana, suggesting that the firms have recognised its potentials. The findings imply that the firms employed governance reporting as a strategy to influence public perception and obtain their acceptance. This study provides insights into how firms address the governance aspect of integrated reporting that is neglected in the literature.
    Keywords: integrated reporting; environmental accounting; governance reporting; legitimacy theory; Ghanta stock exchange; Ghana.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2022.10051958