Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Business and Globalisation

International Journal of Business and Globalisation (IJBG)

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International Journal of Business and Globalisation (109 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Effect of Demonetisation and GST on the Economy of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.   Order a copy of this article
    by Roshani Goel 
    Abstract: In 2016 and 2017 India faced two major policy implications- demonetisation and GST (Goods service tax). The reason for this was to stop inflation, remove counterfeit currency and to promote plastic money. But it is undeniable that different sectors have been negatively affected by these two policies especially the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). The study explores how demonetisation and GST impacted businesses and small enterprises by leading to a complete change in their working structure. This paper tries to look at mostly the negative effect of the policy without overlooking the positive effect on the MSMEs. The study emphasizes that the business of small enterprises became stagnant as they were mostly dependent on cash, in exchange of services; as after note ban, payments became constrained from clients. With the implementation of these policies, The Government of India should have worked to protect the interest of this group and also incentivized their participation in the new policy.
    Keywords: Demonetisation; Goods and Service Tax; MSME's; digitalisation; positive impact; negative impact,.

  • Entrepreneurial characteristics in third generation small businesses in a VUCA world   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Yadav, Manoj Joshi, Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: Sweet houses as micro, small and medium-sized businesses are a flourishing business. The period between the 1980s and 1990s witnessed their genesis exhibiting entrepreneurial characteristics with few being family businesses. Some siblings went on to acquire professional education honing their characteristics, additionally. Hence, the entrepreneurial characteristics and higher education became the foundation of third generation small businesses. These firms are currently undergoing the challenges posited by volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous business situation. How entrepreneurial characteristics were harnessed by generations in the small businesses to counter the VUCA challenges is the centre of this study! Few published papers on the subject theme between 2009 and 2019 were examined. The authors explored in Kanpur City (North India) and randomly identified 40 sweet shops in their third generation, reflecting continuity in their entrepreneurial characteristics, via qualitative case method of research, demonstrating our posit via the incumbent firm Thaggu Ke Laddu (TKL).
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneur; small business; entrepreneurial characteristics; third generation family business; VUCA; Thaggu Ke Laddu; TKL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10042520
  • Imparting industry relevant skills through skill development initiatives in the apparel industry: a literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Roopali Shukla, Anuradha Thakur 
    Abstract: The global apparel market is positioned at US $1.7 trillion, approximately 2% of the worlds GDP and is expected to reach US $2.6 trillion by 2025. In India, this sector contributes 11% to exports and 4% to the gross domestic product. It is the second largest employment generating sector and to remain globally competitive, it requires a huge skilled human resource. The training programs provide industry relevant skill trainings. The current paper conducts a systematic review of literature covering publications and studies on global skill development initiatives. It also aims to identify the directions for further research after studying 90 publications during the period of 19912020. It identifies the skill gaps in the job role of sewing machine operator (SMO) in the apparel sector in India. Through the content analysis, this paper identifies three skill constructs that impact the employability of the candidates after completion of such training programs.
    Keywords: apparel industry; sewing machine operator; SMO; basic literacy skills; soft skills; technical skills; skill development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040375
  • Private funding, profitability and growth opportunities of immigrant SMMEs: A Resource Based View   Order a copy of this article
    by Pateint Rambe, Takawira Munyaradzi Ndofirepi, Nosiphiwe Mpiti 
    Abstract: Although studies examining the relationships among private funding, profitability and growth of immigrant SMMEs have emphasised high growth ventures, research on these concepts covering nascent ventures is yet to emerge. Given the constrained access to productive resources of SMMEs, this study explored the constitution and effects of private funding on the profitability and growth of SMMEs in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 110 Afro hair salon SMMEs in the Free State province. The findings suggest that while debt funding constituted 36.4% of total funding of Afro hair salons, Matshonisas, group savings and bank loans combined accounted for most of the funding. Moreover, findings revealed a negative relationship between private financing and business growth. Results also revealed a negative relationship between the accessibility of private equity financing and business profitability. The study recommends the diversification of funding sources to ensure sustainable profitability and growth of SMMEs.
    Keywords: immigrant SMMEs; debt financing; equity financing; business growth; profitability; funding agencies; business sustainability; resource based view; funding choices; interest rate attractiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10042222
  • Blockchain Technology Business in Healthcare System: Benefits, Challenges and Health Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Barkha Kakkar, Prashant Johri, Yogesh Kumar, Avneesh Kumar 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to cover an extensive analysis of Blockchain technology (BT) in the healthcare system and interrelated applications. The ease of access of e-health data is required for efficacious therapy, policy resolutions, and exchange of healthcare data. Due to the mysterious nature of digital data, healthcare data is as well liable to security, confidentiality, and data breaches. The study discussed the benefits of the BT in healthcare in respective fields and acknowledged the work of various researchers in this field, which definitely helps the novice researchers in getting a better understanding of the technology. The finding of the study reveals that intense growth in BT has delivered various new usage chances, comprising healthcare applications. Also, to improve the healthcare system, it is required to make new revolutions in the system by implementing BT.
    Keywords: Blockchain; healthcare; e-health; electronic-health; clinical trial; disease detection; electronic health record; EHR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039061
  • Impact of Global Recession on Carbon Credits with special reference to India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aarugonda Kotishwar 
    Abstract: The present study emphasised the effect of the global recession on carbon credits. The study considered Indian carbon credits from NSE India for the full stop 20082009 to 20182019 years. The study looked at economic factors and sectors. The bivariate correlation was used to assess the relationship between carbon credits and the selected economic variables under the Kendal tau. The normal least square approach has been used to know the impact on carbon credits of the global financial crisis and the outcome has been shown to have a significant impact. The vector auto-regression was applied for future movements and the result showed that carbon credits are expected to move forward.
    Keywords: carbon credits; gross domestic product; global recession; index of industrial production; Kyoto protocol; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10043752
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Technopreneurship Innovation (TIN) as key enablers for lean start-ups growth.   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepak Singh, Balvinder Shukla, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a process of initiating a small business termed as a start-up, undergoing different stages of business lifecycle. Hence, success and failure depend upon how start-ups affect the ecosystem, adding value towards economic growth. Start-ups are redefining ecosystems with technopreneurship innovation (TIN), an innovative use of technologies in designing systems. Thus, it is necessary to inspect lean start-ups that are using TIN aided with artificial intelligence (AI). The ontology has led us to conduct a qualitative profiling of shortlisted 75 AI-based start-ups identified across pan India, followed by epistemological assumptions, as to why the lean start-ups need to focus on the TIN. The authors delved into how these technologies can act as a key enabler for sustainable growth (SD) of start-ups. The results are in the form of AI-start-ups working in the TIN with new-age technologies like data science (DS), machine learning algorithm (MLA) and graphical processing units (GPUs).
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; entrepreneurship; technopreneurship innovation; TIN; technologies; start-up; machine learning algorithm; MLA; graphical processing units; GPUs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042521
  • Environmental management decisions under risk and uncertainty: a systematic literature review of prospect theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Asma Zeeshan, Tariq Aziz, Muhammad Abbas, Satish Kumar 
    Abstract: This study explores the applicability of prospect theory in environmental management decisions and how much it is effective in achieving sustainability. We aim to investigate the already available literature about the given issue and show the limitations of the existing research to make way for future researchers. Further, it explores how the theory applies to different industries and how this fact is acknowledged or ignored in environmental management.
    Keywords: prospect theory; environmental management; sustainability; consumer traits; consumer behaviour; health traits; favourable choices; psychological tendencies; eco-friendly behaviour; message framing; loss aversion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10059717
  • Endorsing Organisations Towards International Business: Insights from Finland   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaakko Sauvola, Jarkko Hyysalo, Matti Kinnunen, Paavo Kosonen, Pekka Jokitalo, Marko Jurmu, Jukka Riekki 
    Abstract: Growth and internationalisation are challenges for SMEs that may lack the necessary resources and networks. For example, in Finland the scope of the companies is often too limited, or the companies are too small to compete for large business with international clients. We propose a solution to this challenge: a systematic way to build research to business networks and agile working models to endorse growth and internationalisation. We present a case study on how Allied ICT Finland (AIF) helps Finnish companies in building projects and capabilities towards internationalisation. AIF supports companies in creating new solutions by combining usually separate areas of special knowledge and expertise, R&D platforms and resources, and using these to create globally attractive products and services. AIF increases Finnish competitive edge by combining business development, shared RDI environments, funding expertise, research and ecosystems. We believe that the experiences can also be adapted and utilised elsewhere.
    Keywords: regional development; internationalisation; business; networking; research to business; value co-creation; commercialisation; scaling up; growth.

  • Investigating the Influence of Cultural Factors in the Disclosure of Corporate Strategies in Annual Reports by 100 European Firms: Does Context Matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jan Ulijn, Aidin Salamzadeh 
    Abstract: Since Geert Hofstedes path-breaking studies, quantitative methods of intercultural research are very popular. This article presents quantitative intercultural research in this domain that appeared to need badly to call upon the prolific qualitative anthropological studies of American and European cultures by Hall to give conclusive results. As businesses become more international, corporate strategy disclosure must often be done across cultural groups. This has implications for the globalising business rhetoric to be used by technical and business communicators who often help develop a corporate strategy. They do this by effective annual report writing by both text and visuals. We summarise research on the influence of cultural factors in disclosing corporate strategies in annual reports by 100 European firms equally distributed over five countries. Hall's high-low context distinction appears to offer a better perspective for international communicators to help them globalise annual reports for a better corporate strategy to benefit all stakeholders.
    Keywords: Cultural factors; Disclosure; Corporate strategy; Annual report; European firms; Context.

    by Andrii Martyn, Oleksandr Shevchenko, Ivan Openko, Oleksandr Krasnolutsky, Taras Ievsiukov, Ruslan Tykhenko, Oleg Tsvyakh 
    Abstract: It has been established that the issues of agricultural land use in the post-socialist countries of Europe are becoming more acute, as land reforms there have either completed or almost completed that have resulted in large-scale privatisation or redistribution of agricultural land. Indeed, in recent years, small and medium-sized enterprises have been rapidly losing their viability, especially in non-EU countries. It has been studied that large areas of agricultural land are under control of large agricultural holdings and non-agricultural investors. In addition, the agricultural land market is being transformed into the corporate rights market of land-controlling companies, so that traditional methods of regulating land market turnover are rapidly losing their inefficiency. There is considerable interest in investing in agricultural land acquisition from 'portfolio investors', leading to a sharp rise in prices and the displacement of small and medium-sized farmers from the market.
    Keywords: agricultural land market; agroholding; agricultural lands; corporate enterprises; economic concentration.

  • An exploration of pull and push motivational factors among the transgender entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Preethi Sarah, Karthigai Prakasam Chellaswamy 
    Abstract: To date, studies have focused on the men and women entrepreneurs and the gender difference in motivations among cisgender entrepreneurs. The study aims to determine whether a transgender individual entrepreneur is motivated through a push motivational factor or a pull motivational factor. This study employs a qualitative approach uses face-to-face interviews and a semi-structured interview with a sample size of 16 transgender entrepreneurs in India. It was found that the participants in this study were motivated by both push and pull factors. The motivational factors which add to the knowledge of already existing push and pull factors were to forego begging and commercial sex work, to break stereotypes, to create a business opportunity for other transgender individuals, to earn respect from society, to prove entrepreneurship is non-binary, to be a role model for other transgender individuals and to the society. In contrast, the push motivational factors were the limited opportunities, support received from society, the hijra guru, media, government support, family, friends, landlords, NGOs and another push motivational factor was the exhibitions conducted exclusively for the transgender individual entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Transgender Individual Entrepreneur; Motivation; Self-employment; India.

  • Conflict Barometer: An investigation into cross-cultural conflict and its effect on performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Vic Benuyenah 
    Abstract: This study seeks to present new ways of exploring and understanding organisational conflict whilst introducing a modern conflict measurement tool. Conflict can arise in every social situation and is commonly demonstrable in a number of ways, including personality clashes, insults, non-cooperation, mistreatment, anger and other types of stressful miscommunication. The research was conducted to explore the critical antecedents of cross-cultural conflict among international business employees and to indicate whether organisational conflict is framed as functional or dysfunctional. Using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques, the findings support the hypothesis that cross-cultural conflict negatively impacts employee emotions and performance. Finally, the paper proposes the conflict barometer tool to help managers gauge the levels of conflict among employees working in complex cross-cultural environments.
    Keywords: cross-cultural conflict; conflict barometer; negative emotions; Vietnamese culture; cross-cultural management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10041071
  • Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Malaysia: The Case of Mainland Chinese-Owned SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Mengdie Ruan, Angathevar Baskaran, Shanshan Zhou 
    Abstract: Using data obtained from 15 Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs, this paper investigates the personal characteristics of mainland Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs, their contributions to the Malaysian economy and the major constraints experienced by them. The findings are: 1) most Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs are aged 30 to 40, married, and hold minimum educational qualification of a bachelors degree; 2) innovativeness is regarded as the most important personal trait, followed by sociability and decisiveness; 3) their contribution to the economy is significant in areas of employment and wealth creation, as well as the production of diverse goods and services for local and export markets; 4) while they experience some general constraints which are similarly encountered by native entrepreneurs, they also experience specific constraints such as language barriers, lack of policy assistance, and tax and visa problems. The study recommends the creation of a dedicated government department and the formulation of specific policies to support immigrant-owned SMEs.
    Keywords: entrepreneur characteristics; Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs; immigrant entrepreneurship; ethnic minority entrepreneurship; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10044060
  • India and Bangladesh: An analysis of bilateral trade between two emerging economies of SAFTA   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The paper analyses India-Bangladesh bilateral trade with reference to South Asian Free Trade Area. For the purpose of analysis, the data period ranges from 1995 to 2019. The primary analysis reveals that bilateral trade has been weak, lackadaisical and the SAFTA agreement has not brought about any perceptible change in bilateral trade performance of these two countries. The causes of poor trade performance have been checked by applying Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) as suggested by Balassa (1965) and Trade Complementarity Index (TCI) as suggested by the International Trade Department of World Bank (ITD, World Bank, 2010). The prospect of intra-industry increment was also examined by using GrubelLloyd index introduced by Herb Grubel and Peter Lloyd (1971). The analysis reveals that India and Bangladesh suffer from lack of export specialisation in a majority of product groups and weak trade complementarities exist between them.
    Keywords: India-Bangladesh trade; Revealed Comparative Advantage; Trade Complementarity; Grubel–Lloyd index; SAARC; SAFTA.

  • Phenomenon of leaving money on the Indonesians IPO Table   Order a copy of this article
    by Fajri Adrianto 
    Abstract: This research aims to study leaving money on the table phenomenon in emerging market IPO. This phenomenon exists in the emerging market, including the Indonesian stock market. During 2010-2018, there is more than 80 percent of Indonesian IPOs are underpriced. Therefore, this study is essential to examine the relationship between fundamental information/ underwriters and the amount of money left on the Indonesian IPO table. We test our non-financial institutional IPO using the cross-sectional regression model. We find that firms with experienced underwriters and good governance are more likely to leave lower money on the Indonesia IPO table.
    Keywords: Initial Public Offering; Underwriter; Governance; Underpricing.

  • Are Robo Advisors robbing Financial Advisors? A Systematic Literature Review Paper   Order a copy of this article
    by Arti Chandani, Ankita Bhatia 
    Abstract: Financial technology (FinTech) has been playing a crucial role presently in the area of behavioural finance. Robo advisory is being adapted on a larger scale by investor(s) to supplement the financial advisory services. This paper is intended to study the emerging role of robo advisory services in investment decision making and wealth management practices. The objective of this paper is to provide available literature on robo advisory services. A systematic literature review (SLR) technique has been adopted as the methodology for the current research. An effective review is necessary to lay a strong foundation for advancing knowledge (Webster and Watson, 2002). This review is limited to the keywords used which are related to the topic, the journals included and time period of papers published. The study included robo-advisory in the context of investment decisions and behavioural finance, along with artificial intelligence (AI), FinTech and regulation of robo-advisory. This work will help researchers in understanding the digital investment advice landscape with special focus on robo advisory services in the Indian context thereby enabling then recognising a right direction for future work.
    Keywords: robo-advisory; artificial intelligence; behavioural finance; systematic literature review; SLR; financial technology; FinTech; wealth management; digital investment advice.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10049939
  • Comparative Analysis of Macro-performance of Indian States: Meaningful Lessons   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashwani Bishnoi, Satbir Singh 
    Abstract: Indian economy has shifted to higher growth trajectory since the beginning of 21st century, largely credited to the economic reforms of 1990s and followed by second generation reforms of public finances. The country has practiced the federal system of governance, wherein state or province governments are empowered to manage the economic system. In the due process, majority of Indian states have experienced relatively market-enabling economic environment. This phenomenon motivates the researchers to investigate that how Indian states have performed on macro-economic front in this new changed environment. Present study uses the Wroclaw Taxonomic Method to make the comparative assessment of economic activities at regional level in India so as to draw the meaningful lessons for the poor performing regions. It is found that the states namely Gujarat, Goa and Maharashtra are classified as resilient states. Over the period of time Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh had shown more catch-up effect as compared to other states. The low ranked states include WB, Bihar, Kerala and Punjab. Based on the findings and from the experiences of other states, it can be argued that there is enough space for Haryana, Punjab and WB to align the fiscal resources towards capital expenditure especially for innovation and technology up gradation as these states are already well equipped with infra facilities.
    Keywords: India; states or regions; economic performance; fiscal; Wroclaw Taxonomic.

  • Arab identity crisis and consumer ethnocentric tendencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeb Al Ganideh, Saad Yassen 
    Abstract: This study examines the extent to which possible identity facets, namely, patriotic feelings, ethnic identification, and religious commitment affect consumers ethnocentric tendencies towards home country, co-ethnic countries, countries share the same predominant religion with their home country. Using Jordanians as proxy for Arab Muslim consumers, data were collected from 312 subjects living in three main Jordanian cities. Structural equation modeling was used to test our model and hypotheses. Our results reveal that patriotic feelings and ethnic identification motivate Jordanian consumers to express strong ethnocentric tendencies towards home country (Jordan) and co-ethnic (Arab) countries respectively. In addition, Islamic religious commitment was found to impact significantly on individuals ethnocentric tendencies towards Muslim countries. Our results confirm the recent rise of ethnic and religious identities for Arabs as a result of the Arab Spring events. Further, the study presents practical implications of these findings for international marketers.
    Keywords: Consumer ethnocentrism; ethnicity; religiously; patriotism; identity facets; Arabs; Muslims.

    by Preethi Sarah, Karthigai Prakasam Chellaswamy 
    Abstract: Social exclusion has impeded transgender individuals to enter mainstream society and curbing them to start a business venture. Sporadic transgender individuals have paved their way to start the business venture. This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial challenges faced by transgender entrepreneurs. Twenty transgender entrepreneurs who have relinquished begging and commercial sex work were interviewed. The grounded theory analysis has revealed six significant categories: financial resources, competitors, human resources, marketing issues, natural calamities, and transphobia. The participants expressed that transphobia and financial resources were highly challenging to start a business venture. These findings extend our understanding of their challenges beyond the current knowledge of cisgender entrepreneurs. Finally, the limitation of the study is enunciated.
    Keywords: Transgender; Transgender Entrepreneurs; Challenges; Entrepreneurship; India.

  • Assessment of Barriers for Small Scale Contractors in Adopting Sustainable Construction Practices: The Perspective of Indian Construction Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Kolte, Deepak Patil, Avinash Pawar, Anushree Patil 
    Abstract: This paper assesses the barriers faced by small contractors in India from the building sector while adopting sustainable construction strategies and proposing suitable solutions. Small contractors face numerous barriers in the segments of financial, political, management, operational, human resource, and material and equipment. Additionally, high initial investment cost for acquiring advanced technologies and equipment, the long payback period for the investments done for sustainable construction, lack of forceful implementation of sustainable building codes and regulations, uncertainty of getting continuous business in sustainable construction, lack of framework for implementation is endorsed by the respondents as the topmost barriers. The outcome proposes the key solutions that include higher subsidies on sustainable technologies and materials along with the mandatory implementation of sustainable building codes and regulations by the government, use of integrated project delivery for effective collaboration, conducting site training to adopt modernised methods of sustainability, and government support for new start-ups.
    Keywords: sustainable construction; small construction contractors; barriers; small business; Indian construction industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10039856
  • Impact of Information Technology Adoption and Internal Financing Sources on Firm Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Harvinder Mand, Gaganpreet Kaur 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Indian economy very hard and negatively impacted the firm performance. This study investigated the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. We employed a survey research design (a non-experimental research design). The owners of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) were surveyed to test the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. Empirical analysis shows that IT adoption and internal financing sources enhance MSMEs performance in India. Information technology adoption and internal financing sources increase the chances of MSMEs' performance enhancement by 26.24% and 64.05%, respectively. This study may help scholars develop further studies on the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. MSME owners may also find the study's results helpful to enhance their firm performance to survive and prosper in the future.
    Keywords: IT adoption; internal financing sources; firm performance; MSMEs; India.

  • Challenges and factors affecting purchase intention in emerging market of Afghanistan: a global perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Hakimeh Sajjadi, Mohsen Alvandi, Mahyar Shahpouri Arani 
    Abstract: Various factors affect the formation of peoples purchase intention, yet no research has been found on reviewing consumer behaviour and factors affecting the purchase intention in Afghanistan by the researchers. Due to the increasing amount of importing goods and changing customers behaviour in Afghanistan, predicting and explaining consumer attitudes and behavioural intentions to buy foreign versus domestic products plays a critical role in designing marketing strategies for this emerging market. This research aimed to study the factors affecting the purchase intention of Iranian goods by customers in Herat, Afghanistan, and the conceptual framework of this paper could be a basis for future research in this field. It has also been attempted to simultaneously consider several variables affecting the purchase intention and examine a comprehensive conceptual model. The present study was a survey type, and a questionnaire was used to collect the research data. The research hypotheses were tested using path analysis methods, ANOVA, single-sample T and simple and multivariate regression. This research can be considered as the first researches related to consumer behaviour in Afghanistan.
    Keywords: purchase intention; consumer attitude; subjective norms; perceived behavioural control; demographic factors; global businesses; Afghanistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10057860
  • Augmenting the Taguchi Loss Function with AHP to perform Economic Evaluation of Reducing Variations in Processes and Products   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Zainal 
    Abstract: This study combines the Taguchi Loss Function (TLF) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to develop an asymmetric function to measure the loss associated with deviations from a target level for a particular quality characteristic (QC). To this end, initially, the domain of the permissible values for a QC is divided into two significant intervalsnamely, the customer- and manufacturer tolerances. AHP is then applied for obtaining weights for (1) the quality characteristics and (2) various intervals within the two tolerance domains. An analysis of the cost savings accrued from the process improvement, using the proposed AHP-based asymmetric loss function, is presented to help decision-makers evaluate the viability and economic feasibility of improving a process. An illustrative example demonstrates the application of the suggested methodology and its ease of use and extent of applicability
    Keywords: Taguchi Loss Function (TLF); Asymmetric Loss Function; Quality Characteristics; weighted loss function; Economic Analysis.

  • Volatility of oil price and exchange rate in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Banerji, Mohammed Shettima 
    Abstract: The most demanding sector in todays era is the energy sector. India is now the third highest consumer of crude oil in the world, after the USA and China, with 4.6% share of world total according to worldometre. Thus, when there is increase in the oil prices; Indian economy suffers from the relentless. This paper seeks to carry out a study on the volatility of oil price and the real exchange rate and its effects on Indian rupee and the US dollar. The study will make use of the Garch analysis model to analyse and predict the volatility of the two variables (crude oil prices and exchange rate). Empirical findings points out an asymmetrical relationship between crude oil prices and dollar exchange rate. Recommendations are made to the Indian Government to provide effective energy security source by establishing strategic crude oil storage facilities so as to reduce importation of crude oil.
    Keywords: energy; exchange rate; Garch analysis; India; oil price; volatility.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10059718
  • Perceived gender discrimination and work engagement: An insight from IT sector in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Hung Pham Manh, Vy Nguyen Khanh 
    Abstract: The presence of discrimination has become more pressing than ever along with the civilisation of the work, especially in work context. This study is designed to study the relationship between perceived gender discrimination in the workplace (in three dimensions: Workload and Participation; Resource access and Personal communication) and work engagement in technology companies in Vietnam. Besides, the study also examined the moderating role of gender in the above relationships. Results indicate that there exist negative relationships between perceived gender discrimination behaviours and work engagement in two aspects: Workload & Participation and Resource access, and no meaningful relationship between gender discrimination behaviours in Personal communication and the employees work engagement. Second, data also shows that these relationships can be moderated by gender, where the relationship becomes weaker for men than for women.
    Keywords: gender discrimination; perceived discrimination; technology companies; work engagement; Vietnam.

  • Explicating Internet Usage of Farmer Households. Evidence from Ben Tre Province, Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Phuong Van Nguyen, Tung Van Nguyen, Cuc Thi Pham 
    Abstract: In the era of the knowledge economy and information and communication technology development most prominently, the internet people can access valuable information resources in many different fields and seek challenging opportunities to learn and apply knowledge and skills in their area. Specifically, in agricultural development, farmers have efficiently used the internet to learn about cultivation and animal husbandry, search for markets for farm products, enjoy entertainment and acquire farming skills and knowledge. This paper explores potential factors impacting the purposes of internet usage by analysing data collected from 317 farmer households in Ben Tre Province, Vietnam. Using ordinary least squares regression, the findings revealed the significant factors in six models of internet usage among farmers: developing a career in the field of agriculture through internet usage; finding useful information; engaging in online discussions; shopping online; watching videos; and studying online. This research contributes several practical implications for governments that can support farmers in rural regions in using the internet to build their careers especially to maximise agricultural production as the internet gradually spreads to the entirety of Vietnam.
    Keywords: internet usage; farmer households; useful information; online shopping online study; entertainment; rural areas.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10047922
  • Exploring E-commerce potential in Rural India: Opportunities in Northern India   Order a copy of this article
    by Hemanti Richa, Alpana Srivastava, Madhu Pandey 
    Abstract: E-commerce facilitated online shopping is well established and populated in urban areas facilitating the buyers with lower price and delivery at their convenience. However, the type and nature of demand in rural areas is different. The supply chain is less developed along with product portfolio. Using primary data from rural areas, the study aims to gauze the penetration of online shopping in rural areas and their specific considerations and barriers to it. Applying basic descriptive statistics, the findings reveal that there is serious problem in logistics and rural people desire more agricultural products than fashion and entertainment. It has been recommended, if seeds, fertilisers and equipment are sold to the rural people, there would be a huge market to tap which is untapped till now.
    Keywords: e-commerce; electronic commerce; rural e-commerce; agriculture; online shopping; rural supply chain; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10044591
  • Cognitive biases in innovation ecosystems: global luxury fashion on the eve of post COVID-19 recovery   Order a copy of this article
    by Manel Arribas-Ibar, Nuria Arimany-Serrat, Petra A. Nylund 
    Abstract: Luxury fashion is an innovation ecosystem experiencing great change, and the COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated some of these dynamics. With roots in a traditional industry, certain cognitive barriers impede interaction within the luxury fashion ecosystem. We therefore analyse the factors that drive innovation and technological change through an inductive case study of this specific ecosystem. We identify and analyse six biases within the luxury fashion ecosystem that are affecting the cognitive barriers of the ecosystem. Consequentially, we propose that consumer bias impedes a transition from the traditional luxury customer to a more differentiated consumer. Market-segmentation bias can hinder necessary micro-segmentation to reflect new needs. Product bias obscures possible product innovation due to excessive brand focus. Sourcing bias toward traditional partners slows the move towards sustainability. Second-hand market bias stops fashion brands from fully exploiting circular business models. Finally, ambidexterity bias may block the exploration of new markets necessary following a crisis. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including the need to develop more adaptive and flexible strategies through open innovation that adapts to the phases of recovery from the pandemic.
    Keywords: innovation; innovation ecosystem; product development; cognitive bias; luxury fashion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10045435
  • Social media influencers credibility swayed on brand credibility, e-WOM and consumer behavioural intention: a study of food and fashion blogging   Order a copy of this article
    by Megha Sharma, Prachi Sahai, Vinod Kumar Singh, Naman Sharma 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of social media food and fashion influencers on brand credibility and consumer behavioural intention while analysing the moderation effect of e-WOM on social media influencers credibility (SMIC) and brand credibility (BC). To accomplish this objective, the authors collected data from 208 respondents residing in India and data was analysed using EFA, CFA and SEM. Further, this study exemplified a favourable impact on brand credibility of social media food and fashion influencers and further on consumer behavioural intention. Moreover, e-WOM failed to have a moderating relationship between SMIC and BC. Further, conclusions and implications have been discussed.
    Keywords: social media influencers; SMIs; credibility; brand credibility; electronic word-of-mouth; e-WOM; consumer behavioural intention; CBI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10063475
  • Favourableness of Reverse Mentoring across Generation X, Y and Z in the Automobile Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Mlalhotra 
    Abstract: Purpose In the present era the work place has been profusely changed. Multigenerational workforce has been working together with their diverse working styles. Therefore, technological and operational efficiency, high coordination and social engagement become necessity for all generations employees. This has also necessitated the need of reverse mentoring. Reverse mentoring is the knowledge sharing platform where multi-generational workforce can learn from one anothers expertise. Organisations are using it as a social exchange tool. The purpose of the study was to explore whether all the generations of present business scenario (Generations X, Y and Z) are favourable towards reverse mentoring practices of organisation. Design/Methodology A survey of 236 white collar employees from the automobile industry in North central region of India was conducted. Findings The present study concludes that all the three generations (Generations X, Y and Z) show pragmatic response towards reverse mentoring. In fact, the research done till date also suggests that organisations should implement reverse mentoring programs following proper planning and execution methods. Empirical Significance the study is significant for the automotive industry to design reverse mentoring programs through which organisations can provide opportunity Mentee and mentor can learn from each other on aspects such as technical know-how, content expertise and generational perspectives. Originality/ Value the main finding of the study is that three generations are getting benefits from reverse mentoring as they like to share their knowledge and experience among one another. Thus by implementing reverse mentoring, the organisations persuade all the employees irrespective of their generational group to share goals, be supportive and have mutual understanding with one another and together get strength to cope up with any uncertainty.
    Keywords: Generation X; Generation Y; Generation Z; Reverse Mentoring; Automobile Industry.

  • Ethical Leadership and Organisational Commitment: Some Insights from Kuwait   Order a copy of this article
    by Dina Youssef, Halil Zaim, Shqipe Gerguri-Rashiti, Mohaned Hassanin 
    Abstract: Leadership is one of the essential indicators that determine the organisational commitment of employees. This paper aims at examining the impact of ethical leadership on organisational commitment in the Kuwaiti organisations. A conceptual model of ethical leadership and its impact on organisational commitment is proposed. It is hypothesised that wisdom, justice, and temperance as indicators of ethical leadership are positively associated with organisational commitment. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to employees and managers working in different organisations in the service sector in Kuwait. 255 useful questionnaires were analysed. Results show that there is a significant positive relationship between the three dimensions of ethical leadership (i.e., wisdom, justice, and temperance) and organisational commitment. Hence, ethical leadership should be applied and practiced by leaders in Kuwaiti organisations to foster the organisational commitment, thus improving its performance. Based on the paper findings, the implications of the study are presented.
    Keywords: Ethical leadership; Organisational commitment; Wisdom; Justice; Temperance; Service sector; Kuwait.

  • Business Naming Practice in the Provincial Town of Jengka: The Foreign Language Influence   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This study examined the foreign language elements in business naming practice in the provincial town of Jengka in Malaysia. It looked into the foreign languages found in the shop names and the factors that influenced the inclusion of the languages. Data were collected by capturing still images of the shop signs from the research area and interviews with owners who were willing to disclose the motivation behind their choice in the business naming. The analysis shows that foreign languages had exerted their influence in the business naming practice in this Malay-dominated, remote town. English language elements were pervasively found in the shop signs. Other elements included those of French, Arabic, Chinese, and Spanish. The findings exhibit the language trends and the language situation in this town and indicate how the owners dealt with the commercial drive to attract customers by prioritising certain languages and the increasing multilingualism in the society.
    Keywords: business naming; shop names; foreign languages; Jengka.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10049991
  • A machine learning decision tree model to predict consumer purchase behaviour: A microeconomics view from online social platforms in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Pejman Ebrahimi, Mohammad Naeim Hassani, Aidin Salamzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Khansari, Maria Fekete-Farkas 
    Abstract: This study proposes a map to predict consumer purchase behaviour using a decision tree algorithm using machine learning. Python programming language (Jupyter and visual studio code IDEs) is used accordingly. The study's statistical population involved Iranian online social platform users who made at least one online purchasing. Instagram, Facebook, Telegram, YouTube, and WhatsApp platforms were used for data gathering. According to the map results presented based on data of demographic variables of 376 respondents, Instagram is the most popular platform in Iran with a high difference in terms of advertising and online shopping. It has more popularity in almost all age and education groups; however, other platforms also have their users according to their demographic attributes. The proposed model is also practically capable of prediction with an accuracy of > 96%. This research contributes to the extant literature by using machine learning and its practical libraries to predict consumer behaviour.
    Keywords: Media brand; Co-creation; Value proposition; Customer loyalty; Social media.

  • A Genetic Programming Based Credit Risk Assessment Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Vashishtha, Shivankit Andotra, Amit Kant Pandit, Shubham Mahajan 
    Abstract: The acute necessity for evolving an effective and accurate credit default prediction model was felt post Global Financial Crisis of 2008. Financial institutions significantly revised and reformulated their risk management practices and gradually shifted towards machine learning-based credit risk management approach. Numerous machine learning-based models like logistic regression, artificial neural networks, decision trees, etc. are being employed by financial institutions for predicting the probability of default by the borrowers. In this paper, we introduce a genetic program (GP)-based model for predicting the probability of default and compare this model with other existing models in the domain of credit default and risk assessment. We used two different evaluation metrics for performance analysis: accuracy and negative log predictive density (NLPD) loss. Our results indicate that the proposed GP-based model has higher accuracy of prediction of credit default as compared to other risk assessment models.
    Keywords: credit risk management; machine learning; artificial neural network; decision tree; credit risk GP-based model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10055248
  • Is Psychological Capital the Silver Bullet of Business Firms in Globalised World? Examining the Impact of Meaningful Work on Affective Commitment: Mediating Role of Psychological Capital   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Dhir, Vandna Sharma 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to understand the mediating role of psychological capital in the association between meaningful work and affective commitment. The purpose is achieved by collecting the data from 224 employees from Information Technology sector. The sample employees are from five IT organisations in Delhi-NCR. The results support our hypotheses and it was found that structural analysis presented a full mediation, with psychological capital as a mediator between meaningful work (independent variable) and affective commitment (outcome variable). Moreover, the findings also suggest that organisations should understand the role of meaningful work in creating affective commitment and must encourage positive psychology practices that facilitate the same. The uniqueness of this paper lies in the fact that meaningful work was found as an antecedent to psychological capital, a much- emphasised domain in psychological capital research.
    Keywords: Psychological Capital; Meaningful Work; Affective Commitment; SEM; Mediation; IT employees.

  • The impact of the human capital of women on the economic development of Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Verena Habrich, Vito Bobek, Gorazd Justinek, Tatjana Horvat 
    Abstract: Women have long been a new source of talent. They are an untapped resource with an enormous labor market and economic potential. In most emerging markets, female labor force participation (FLFP) is lower than in developed countries. The act of fostering female human capital is one of the highest-return investments a developing economy can generate. Thus, the paper aims to determine the main obstacles for women in the job market and identify the impact of female participation on national development. This was executed by conducting a case study analysis for Malaysias emerging market. The authors applied a data triangulation approach and chose a mixture of three data sources: documents, archival records, and interviews. Malaysia holds an unfavorable rank in the Global Gender Gap Index. The findings demonstrate that the rate of women in the workforce is increasing but still severely lower than the men's rate. In Malaysia, the high number of women in tertiary education does not translate into higher female workforce participation. The main issues are cultural stereotypes, limited access to the job market, and difficulties with combining work and childcare. The main implications are that increasing female human capital and raising women's participation in the workforce leads to a rise in economic growth and overall development in Malaysia. To achieve that, the country must overcome gender inequalities, properly enforce female-related regulations, and invest in human development. This points out the relevance of a country's level of development, culture, education, female-related laws, and their influence on women's decisions or ability to work.
    Keywords: female labor force participation; women's workforce participation; impact on economic growth; economic development; human development; human capital; gender gap; gender equality.

  • Variables affecting the internationalisation of small and medium-size companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramon Ortiz 
    Abstract: Within the context of global integration and intense increase in international transactions, more small and medium-sized companies are trying to enter foreign markets. In this scenario, the aim of this study is to identify variables that affect the internationalisation of small and medium-sized companies through a literature review and meta-analysis with content analysis. Results of the study propose two dimensions of variables affecting the internationalisation of small and medium-sized companies, namely: the Intra dimension and the Extra dimension, each of which comprise two sub-dimensions: Capabilities and Performance for the former, and Environment out and Environment in for the latter.
    Keywords: business internationalisation; small and medium-size companies; variables affecting internationalisation.

  • Factors affecting the selling price of luxury apartments in Vietnam. A quantitative analysis.   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Tien Nguyen Hoang, Duc Le Doan Minh, Hieu Vu Minh 
    Abstract: The article analyses factors affecting the selling price of high-end apartments in Vietnam. The foreign and domestic literature review shows that the theoretical framework indicates four main factors impacting selling price in the real estate market: physical features, location and position, surrounding environment, and quality of management and maintenance services. Empirical research conducted in this paper pointed to the need to consider two additional factors: characteristics of the customer segment and characteristics of the real estate investor. The results of analysis led to a conclusion that all the six above mentioned factors have a different but positive relationship with the selling price of a high-end apartment. Finally, the article proposed some suggestions for managers on how to optimise the selling price to gain maximal profit in this very lucrative segment of the market.
    Keywords: high-end apartment; property market; real estate valuation; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10056377
  • The effect of COVID-19 induced work stressors on life satisfaction of university teachers in India: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Pardeep Bawa Sharma, Gagandeep Kaur, Rasna Pathak 
    Abstract: This paper explores the effect of COVID19-induced work stressors on life satisfaction. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the results. The results show that a) Covid19-induced stressors, namely role overload and psychological distress, negatively relate to life satisfaction, whereas family distractions do not. b) The indirect effect of all Covid-19 induced stressors on life satisfaction is significant, and gender moderates the relationship between job performance and life satisfaction. Human resource practitioners must not see work-from-home as another tool to manage a situation. There is a need to relook at work-from-home from the perspective of facilitating employees to manage work without affecting their homes to improve their life satisfaction. The issue should be openly discussed with employees on board to explore how the adverse effect of stressors on employees' life satisfaction in work-from-home situations can be minimized.
    Keywords: Role overload; psychological distress; family distractions; job performance; life satisfaction; work-life balance; occupational stress; work-life domains.

  • The role of triangulated narratives of sport, music and film festival in building Kosovos Nation Branding   Order a copy of this article
    by Emira Limani, Blerim Limani 
    Abstract: The aim of the present study is to illustrate the role of music, sports and film festival in building countrys nation branding. Sunny Hill festival founded and supported by Dua Lipa and Dukagjin Lipa together with Doku Fest a 20 plus years annual film festival, and tremendous successes in the sport of Judo started with golden medallist Marlinda Kelmendi are considered to be main sources of promoting Kosovo to the foreign public. Interviews are conducted and content analyses is applied to identify main themes deriving from the stakeholder narratives. A Nation Branding model is offered for practitioners and public institutions in order to design nation branding strategies and measure their results.
    Keywords: nation branding; Kosovo; music; film; sport.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10051060
  • Factors affecting Green Purchase Intention, Case of Lebanon   Order a copy of this article
    by Yahya Skaf, Sam El Nemar, Demetris Vrontis, Hassan Dennaoui 
    Abstract: Building effective strategies to promote green purchase intention GPI as required by the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the UN for 2030 depends on understanding the factors influencing this behaviour. The objective of this research work is to identify how nine factors as concluded from literature influence the green purchase intention through a structural equation model. To do this, a survey is constructed to measure the GPI and the nine factors and distributed to 400 respondents in Lebanon. The data analysis was executed using the PLS-PM method from SmartPLS3 software. The results revealed that the environmental awareness, environmental concern, knowledge about green consumption, perceived effectiveness, altruism, selfimage, and the level of religious commitment have significant positive impact on the green purchase intention. In contrast, the results showed that increased believes in government role have significant negative impact on green purchase intention. On the other hand, the social references have no significant influence on green purchase intention. This study is important as it add evidences to this topics literature in developing countries such as Lebanon and is beneficial for firms marketing themselves as socially responsible to develop their marketing strategies
    Keywords: personal factors; consumer; green purchase intention; GPI; green products; corporate social responsibility; CSR; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10053007
  • Analysis of factors affecting job satisfaction of manual workers: A case study from a garment factory in northern Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Hanh Vu Thi, Huong Pham Thu, Lan Anh Nguyen Thi, Tra Ly Thu 
    Abstract: Numerical studies have been performed to investigate determinants of employees' job satisfaction in recent years. However, little is known about how blue-collar workers are satisfied with their job. Because manual workers are primary stakeholders who contribute to the success of a company, comprehending employee interest may help answer the question about the high or low levels of employee engagement in the workplace. Using a classical formal measurement of explanatory factor analysis (EFA), this study contributes to the literature by addressing the factors affecting the job satisfaction of manual workers at a garment manufacturing company in a developing country like Vietnam. The research result shows that superior-subordinate work relationships, benefits, and occupational safety encourage the job satisfaction of manual workers. However, work conditions are not as significant to keep them satisfied as other factors. The insignificance of compensation in this research could be explained by the low educational levels. More importantly, the study indicates that superiors should use their power constructively when interacting with workers and offer a benefits package, which includes reward, recognition, travel expense support and paid time-off to drive employee loyalty.
    Keywords: job satisfaction; garment factory; exploratory factor analysis; Vietnam.

  • The relevance of factors affecting real estate investment decisions for post pandemic time   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Duc Le Doan Minh, Tien Nguyen Hoang, Hieu Vu Minh 
    Abstract: Real estate is always one of the most important markets and investment channels of many ordinary people and organisations. In recent years, when the pandemic affected negatively all the aspects of socio-economic life, paradoxically Vietnams real estate market was still growing. Why do people and organisations decide to invest in real estate assets during the pandemic, what factors have influenced their investment decisions are very critical questions needed to be addressed to understand the economy and some of its specific sectors. The article used a mix of qualitative and quantitive methods to answer these questions. Specifically, the research results show that the main factors include: institutions and laws, economic factors, cultural and community, other markets, and investment opportunity. Finally, the authors propose reasonable policies to make the real estate market develop sustainably in the future, questioning at the same time the relevance of those factors also for the post pandemic time.
    Keywords: investment decision; personal investment; real estate; pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10056378
  • Impact of Business Incubation Support on Startups Performance in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjali Dubey, Archana Shrivastava 
    Abstract: Startups, like other businesses, had a greater failure rate owing to a reputation, networks, lack of resources, credibility, inventiveness, or marketing expertise needed to produce and sell goods. As a result, the study focuses on quantifying the influence of business incubation on startup performance and determining if business incubation is advantageous to startup performance. We made use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), and a conceptual model had been proposed that focus on the impact of the incubation support on startup performance. The findings revealed that the significance and success of business incubation programmes influence a startup's motivation to participate in them. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the quality of the business incubator's services and facilities to promote startup participation in business incubator programmes. This study, similar to other research on company incubation, can be utilised to confirm the beneficial effects of incubation programmes on startup performance.
    Keywords: Business Incubation Support; Startup Performance; Structural Equation Modelling (SEM).

  • Determinants of online consumer buying behaviour: an empirical study on apparel retail   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Katiyar, Abhinav Priyadarshi Tripathi 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the customer attitude towards apparel segment available online. A questionnaire is framed on the basis of extensive literature review and through which 654 valid responses were received from the online survey. The objective of the study has been fulfilled with the help of internal consistency reliability analysis, validity analysis (Cronbach’s alpha and CFA) of the factors identified. Based on the data collected through the primary survey, it has been identified that overall convenience, price attribute, website quality, product brand image and perceived risk are the major determinants of customer online purchase intention. The study has many implications for online retailers, strategists, internet marketers and online shoppers in India. The majority of the shoppers in India seek offers and discounts instead of brand or high quality. The study reveals that online retailers may target the appropriate socio-economic background for the success.
    Keywords: online purchase intention; buying behaviour; SEM modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10063335
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Organisational Performance in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Khuong Mai, Khoa Truong An Nguyen 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate how corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices can affect employee commitment and the financial performance of firms in Vietnam-a developing country, and to build a conceptual framework for these factors to achieve theoretical and practical contributions. The framework is tested by conducting data analysis of 869 firms in different sectors in Vietnam. The empirical results show that CSR practices have positive and direct effects on employee commitment and financial performance. In addition, employee commitment directly affects financial performance, confirming the mediating role of employee commitment on the relationship between CSR practices and financial performance. It is suggested that for the sustainable development of firms, managers should deploy more CSR practices, especially in developing countries where corporate social responsibility practices are not sufficiently or widely fulfilled
    Keywords: CSR; employee commitment; financial performance; CSR practices in Vietnam; developing countries; public sector; private sector; foreign direct investment.

  • The Role of Incubators and Business Accelerators in India: An Entrepreneurial Viewpoint   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjali Dubey, Archana Srivastava 
    Abstract: This paper aims to put forward the Indian entrepreneurs perspective on business incubators and accelerators. The paper attempts to understand how respondents perceive both incubators and accelerators. A closed-ended survey method was deployed to reach 83 entrepreneurs and Indian students who are studying entrepreneurial courses. The findings of the survey revealed that many Indian entrepreneurs are not satisfied with the governments provision of not aiding the entrepreneurs and only focusing on low socio-economic backgrounds. The analysis revealed that the development of an entrepreneurial ecosystem is of primal importance to fostering BIA (Business Incubation and Accelerators) schemes. Further, it was found that Indian entrepreneurs are in favour of using BIAs for fostering entrepreneurial growth and development. The entrepreneurs value this program because it not only provides with necessary knowledge but also fosters the idea of networking opportunities, capital support, and a varied range of training programs.
    Keywords: Incubator; Accelerator; Entrepreneurial ecosystem; capital support; networking.

  • Is Ostracism Impeding Spiritual Leaders' Efforts to Innovate and Engage?   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Chaudhary, Patiraj Kumari 
    Abstract: This study looks into both the direct and indirect links between spiritual leadership (SL) and innovative work behaviour (IWB), as well as the mediating role of work engagement (WE). Furthermore, the role of work engagement and workplace ostracism (WO) as mediating moderators is being studied. Hypotheses are tested using data from 214 hotel employees. SL was found to be positively connected with IWB via WE. Furthermore, when WO was high, the positive relationship between SL and IWB weakened. In addition, the indirect impact of WE were reduced. Two theoretical approaches are presented in this study. The conservation of resources theory investigates how WO jeopardises a positive relationship between two critical organisational resources (SL and IWB). Using social exchange theory, the reciprocal relationship between SL and WE are also investigated. The conclusions of this study suggest that leaders take steps to eliminate WO, improve SL, and promote ties with employees.
    Keywords: Spiritual leadership (SL); Innovative work behaviour (IWB); Work engagement (WE); Workplace ostracism (WO); Conservation of resource theory (COR); Social exchange theory (SET).

  • Antecedents and Consequences of Millennial Engagement: Evidence from IT Business Professionals   Order a copy of this article
    by Muskan Khan, Rajni , Pragati Hemrajani, Neha Naagar 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the antecedents, viz., meaningful work, prosocial motivation and work-life balance and the consequences, viz., organisational commitment and career commitment while keeping the millennial engagement as the intervening variable. The study intends to test the hypotheses using data from 202 employees working in the IT companies located in Delhi/NCR through a structured questionnaire using PLS-SEM. The findings from the survey of members of the IT Millennial Generation indicated that millennial engagement intervenes the relationship between meaningful work and organisational commitment and between meaningful work and career commitment. This exploratory research also highlights the significance of undertaking an enquiry on millennials in information technology organisations and, more broadly, on all the components that led them to inevitably take a job. Since the findings are based on limited millennial employees responses, there is no universal claim for generalisation.
    Keywords: millennial-gen Y; meaningful work; pro-social motivation; PSM; work-life balance; WLB; organisational commitment; career commitment; millennial engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10053315
  • Is there a relation between Corruption and Ease of Doing Business?   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramroop Sharma 
    Abstract: Corruption is a global phenomenon. It is worth investigating whether corruption (Corruption Perception Index: CPI) and ease of doing business (EODB) are correlated and their causality. Results show a high degree of correlation between CPI and EODB ranks and scores considering the database of CPI (Transparency International) and the EODB (World Bank) for 180 countries for the year 2019. Findings imply that a decrease in corruption improves the EODB and there is unidirectional causality between CPI and EODB ranks. The paper contributes to corruption and EODB literature by examining the correlation and causality between CPI and the EODB, a subject not recently examined. The economies must devise suitable policies to abate corruption and promote EODB for business competitiveness and sustainability, to promote investments for skills, start-ups, and innovations, and to support the extant business environment as well as to protect the interests of stakeholders, particularly in emerging nations.
    Keywords: Corruption Perception Index; CPI; ease of doing business; EODB; investments; emerging nations; Granger causality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10056220
  • Factors affecting the willingness to pay for management services of apartments in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Tien Nguyen Hoang, Hieu Vu Minh, Duc Le Doan Minh 
    Abstract: This article examines the impact of factors such as service quality, trust in service providers, and perceived fairness of prices on the willingness to pay for apartment management and operation services of households in Vietnam. A quantitative analysis was applied based on a survey on 400 customers (350 votes collected and 327 votes valid). Research results show that the service quality and trust in service providers are factors that have a positive impact on the residents willingness to pay. The research results serve as a foundation for further policy discussions on how to optimise the service charges and uplift the relevant service quality of different types of apartment in Vietnam.
    Keywords: apartment; property market; management services; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10056382
  • COVID-19 and Human Resource Management Research: Current Status and Future Directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Nasser Easa, Micheal Wang, Rayan Abdul-Al 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly created a complex and difficult environment for leaders and human resource management (HRM) professionals in coping with these unprecedented challenges. In this context, there are very few studies on the impact of COVID-19 on HRM. Therefore, this paper aims to review the existing literature on this topic to expand the current knowledge, detect research gaps and offer a foundation for future research in this area. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) technique was followed for this review. Different academic databases were searched, e.g. Wiley, Emerald Insight, Taylor & Francis, SpringerLink, Cambridge Core, and ScienceDirect. A total of 43 articles published in 2020 and 2021 were reviewed. Findings show that Research on COVID-19 and HRM was linked to five major themes: leadership, employee performance, employee mental health, employee well-being, and job insecurity. Scholars gave high concern to leadership, a moderate concern to employee performance and mental health, and a low concern to employee well-being and Job insecurity. The paper provides directions for future research.
    Keywords: COVID-19; human resource management; leadership; systematic review & meta-analysis.

  • Internal Migration in Haryana during the Age of COVID-19 Pandemic: Understanding the Root Causes, Impacts, and Policy Consequences   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurwinder Singh Badal, Rudhita Goel 
    Abstract: While the process of migration is one of the paramount factors which determine the socio-economic and demographic structure of every nation, at the same time internal movement of migrants, interestingly, is responsible for changing the internal pattern of the population within the country. This paper attempts to comprehend the general statistics of internal migration in the Indian state of Haryana during the phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and to find out how the outbreak has affected the states socio-economic and demographic structure. Apart from this, various reasons/factors responsible for this migration flow during this particular phase have been identified through a primary survey conducted post-lock-down period (JanuaryJuly 2022). Additionally, disproportionate impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak have been identified using a Hennery Garrett ranking technique. At last, a different public policy has been proposed to address the socio-economic issue brought on by COVID-19 medical exigency.
    Keywords: internal migration; COVID-19 pandemic; impacts; reasons; determinants; economic development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10055252
  • How far are Board Characteristics Liable for Enforcement of Corporate Governance? A Study of Indian Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Amita Rani, Monita Mago, Sandeep Singh 
    Abstract: The present study is an attempt to examine the effect of each as well as overall board characteristics on corporate governance of the companies under study. The sample of the study comprised of 1001 observations made over the year about 91 companies listed at Bombay Stock Exchange and covered a period of eleven years ranging from 2010-20. The data was analysed by using panel regression and structural equation modeling through the application of E- Views (11.0) and Smart PLS version 3.3.3.It was found that the board characteristics such as institutional investors, non-institutional investors, non-executive chairperson, promoter chairperson, board size, woman CEO, proportion of women in the board, woman chairperson, board meetings, multiple directorships of outside director had a significant effect on two or more corporate governance measures. Further, there was a significant positive effect of overall board characteristics on corporate governance of the firms under study.
    Keywords: Profitability; Ownership Structure; Board Structure; Board Busyness; Agency Theory; Resource Allocation Theory; Financial Performance.

  • Determinants of FDI and Competitive Federalism in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Prashant Vadikar, HARDIK BHADESHIYA 
    Abstract: The state's attempts to draw FDI are critical if India is to see rapid economic growth. States are working to improve governance as a result of the competitive and collaborative federalism strategy that New India has taken to attain its goals. Panel data regression has been employed in the study to objectively evaluate the influence of socio-economic and political variables on FDI. The results demonstrate that, in the short term, the economy's digitalisation is the most critical element in luring FDI inflow for States and UTs. Only e-readiness or digitalisation has an immediate impact on FDI inflow since other resources are mobile between states and are manageable. Business ease is immediately impacted by digitalisation. The states should work to improve the digital infrastructure, digital literacy and e-governance.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); Competitive Federalism; India; States.

  • Leaders’ spiritual identity and refugee integration in German family firms: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Eleftheria Egel 
    Abstract: In 26 qualitative interviews with family-owned SME leaders in the region of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, I explore how the leaders’ spiritual identity builds the employed refugees’ sense of belonging. Towards that end, I first draw from the fields of sociology and psychology to construct an interdisciplinary theoretical framework that combines a model of social integration with a psychological approach to spiritual identity. The study’s findings suggest that there is a direct link between the leaders’ spiritual identity and the employed refugees’ sense of belonging. This study informs the literature of family business and provides a better comprehension regarding the impact of religious or spiritual beliefs to prosocial, ethical goals, citizenship and community social responsibility. It also brings into light the impact that refugee trauma may have on their successful integration in the host country. More broadly the study has implications for the design of successful social integration programs for refugees and other minorities.
    Keywords: refugees; integration; family firms; spiritual identity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10055897
  • Exploring the Mediating Effect of Person-Organisation Fit between Workplace Spirituality and Organisational Commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajni Khari, Alka Swami 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of workplace spirituality on organisational commitment by investigating the mediating effect of person-organisation fit (P-O fit). The results of the study were obtained by analysing the data collected through a questionnaire from 215 employees working in the automobile service industry using structural equation modelling. The results of the bootstrapping procedure showed no direct relationship between spirituality in the workplace and organisational commitment; however, a significant relationship between workplace spirituality and person-organisation fit was reported. Furthermore, P-O fits serve as a complete mediator between workplace spirituality and organisational commitment. Also, we are the first to examine the mediating role of perceived fit between workplace spirituality and organisational commitment, thereby shedding light on the mechanism by which workplace spirituality impacts employees commitment levels, which is unique. It is fair to conclude that spirituality may be a critical element in enhancing the commitment.
    Keywords: workplace spirituality; WPS; person-organisation fit; P-O fit; organisational commitment; structural equation modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10055005
  • Riding Harley Davidson through brand communities: A vehicle to deidentification and self-actualization of South Korean female riders   Order a copy of this article
    by Kyuho Lee, Byung-Jin (Robert) Park, Melih Madanoglu, Dohee Kim 
    Abstract: This study explores the gender norm implications of brand community in the Asian context. Specifically, based on the tenets of social identity theory, this study examines the underlying motivations, symbolic meanings of riding Harley Davidson and its impact among Korean females. A qualitative method consisting of in-depth interviews was employed to understand the underlying motivations of riding Harley Davidsons, the relationships among brand community members, and the nature of the brand community. Findings reveal that the Harley Davidson female brand community plays a pivotal role in the respondents choice to ride Harley Davidson. The relationships among members are much stickier and more personal compared to members of identical Western brand communities.
    Keywords: Harley Davidson; brand community; brand value; female rider; social identity.

  • Is the export-led growth model good for an emerging economy? Evidence from Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Le Thanh Tung 
    Abstract: Economic model and economic growth are always recognized such as the most important topic in economics. This paper aims to examine the export-led growth hypothesis in Vietnam, an emerging economy in Asia. The Error correction model and Johansen cointegration test are employed for checking this hypothesis. The database is collected by a quarterly form in the period of 2000-2020 and divided into two sub-periods. The cointegration test confirms that there is an existence of long-term cointegration relationships between variables. The long-term and short-term coefficients of the export variable are significantly positive and confirm the export-led growth hypothesis in Vietnam. The coefficients of the export variable have robustly raised over the study periods, which suggest that international integration has improved the impact of exports on economic growth. Finally, some policy implications are provided for enhancing trade development and support exports as the key development strategy in Vietnam in the future.
    Keywords: export-led growth; economic growth; emerging economy; cointegration test; dynamic model; international integration.

  • Is the gender gap in entrepreneurship closing? An investigation with a technologically empowered systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohail Hassan, Meghna Chhabra, Ridhi Bhatia, Monika Agarwal, Sahil Malik 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to seek an answer to the question of whether the gender gap in entrepreneurship still persists. For this objective, the study explores the thematic landscape of the research field of Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship (GGIE) and contributes toward exploring relationships among speci?c constructs in the area of GGIE. Further, for general publication pro?ling aims to identify and analyze specific subject areas and leading contributors in the field regarding countries, research organizations, authors, and source titles. Keywords co-occurrence analysis technique categorizes and explores prominent and emerging topics. This study differentiates itself from the other studies in this field in terms of applying the bibliometric methodology and the detailed work done on the relationships amongst various topics that were categorized into different thematic clusters. The findings of the study reveal that there still exists a wide disparity in the mens and womens entrepreneurship rates with the former still predominant in entrepreneurship. This inequality is also reflected in the size and the business growth rate of existing businesses owned by men and women with the latter still lagging field. Besides womens entrepreneurial propensity is negatively affected by gender stenotypes. The majority of the studies in the field are conducted from developed countries' contexts, and there is a dearth of studies from developing countries contexts. A lack of theoretical support also marks the field. The research field of GGIE has gained significant attention in advanced economies. However, key didactical issues related to the opportunities and challenges of women entrepreneurs remain debatable worldwide. The findings of this paper will be helpful to researchers, academicians, and those working in the area of GGIE in understanding the current research in the field, and the study also recommends future research directions. To the best of the authors knowledge, this study is the first to use the systematic literature review method in the area of GGIE.
    Keywords: gender gap in entrepreneurship; bibliometric analysis; review; women entrepreneurs.

  • Talent Management Practices: A growing buzz among Millennials and Gen X   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratiksha Mishra, Sushma Rani, Sanjeev Kumar 
    Abstract: The present research aims to study the response of millennials and Gen X towards talent management practices followed by the organization. The study follows an exploratory research design while the sample has been collected through a random sampling technique. From the analysis, it has been found that among the millennials, strong talent management practices have shown a great impact as compared to Gen X. The study gives a new insight into the impact of talent management practices among the millennials and Gen X. The study reveals that there is a positive impact of talent management practices on males as compared to females in case of millennials.
    Keywords: Talent management; Millennial; Digitalization; Gen X.

  • An ARDL approach: case study of COVID-19 death and insurance stock returns   Order a copy of this article
    by Himani Gupta, Shalini Singh, Renu Bala, Bhavna Sharma 
    Abstract: The movement of investment vehicles helps investors communicate as a stock market shield via a diverse portfolio. The COVID-19 outbreak had impacted the India along with other countries across the globe. The diseases progression and economic impact are highly uncertain. The current study is a novel effort to untangle the dynamic relationship between COVID-19 death and returns of NSE-listed life insurance stocks. We look at COVID-19 death data as well as returns from SBI Life, HDFC Life, and ICICI PRU from April 2020 to July 2021, when pandemic was the leading cause of death. Using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model technique, we discover that COVID-19 death has no dynamic relationship with the returns of selected life insurance stocks. In conclusion, our findings will provide stockholders, investment advisors, and policy experts with significant foresight into guaranteeing returns on life insurance stocks free from uncertain calamities such as COVID-19.
    Keywords: insurance; economic development; financial markets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10058418
  • Impact of covid-19 on low-income financial consumers in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ardhendu Shekhar Singh, Dilip Ambarkhane, Bhama Venkataramani 
    Abstract: The Pandemic has enormously impacted human beings in general and people with low incomes in particular. It has eliminated the livelihood opportunities for those working in unorganized and small-scale industries. The consumption of products and services could have been higher and more specific. We used the secondary data to analyze the impact of the Pandemic on low-income consumers. We found that the effect was felt more in the service sector; within it, financial services were a severely impacted sector. Low-income consumers needed more income to save, and at the same time, loan facilities to smoothen consumption were also unavailable. They facedlimitations from the demand and supply sides. The Pandemic also created fear and anxiety among consumers. Banks had to respond to it by taking measures like social distancing, protective equipment, etc., to eliminate those fears and uncertainties that have affected the consumption of financial services. This paper has analyzed various factors affecting the consumption of financial services among low-income consumers.
    Keywords: Low-income consumers; COVID-19; Impact; Financial services; Microfinance.

Special Issue on: IC-BBS 2019 Interacting Business and Behaviour Studies Using Interdisciplinary Approaches

    by Adisak Suvittawatt 
    Abstract: Most people think Banana flour is the flower of the banana tree wrong. Banana flower is still relatively unknown in the western world. Banana flour (BF) is in fact the starch of green bananas (Musa spp.) and has been used as substitute for wheat flour in Africa Asia and South America as it is hard to grow wheat in those regions. Banana starch (BS) has been predicted by industry experts to reach a market value of US$ 730 million worldwide by the end of 2027. From a chemical standpoint banana flour is a type of resistant starch (RS) that can pass through the intestines undigested and therefore offers a wide range of health benefits among others for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. However banana flour needs to be introduced to world-wide consumers through the design of an appropriate marketing mix. This quantitative research project focused on the reactions of consumers to the marketing mix of banana flour in Thailand. The study was conducted with a random sample of four hundred participants among shoppers in local grocery stores in Surin Province, Nakon Ratchasima (Korat) Province and Buri Ram Province This research project concentrated on the perceptions of the banana flour shoppers. With the main points to be researched being, the consumer perspectives on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place and promotion. We also explored the consumer attitude towards the banana flour being introduced to the market place. It is hoped to replicate this banana flour marketing mix study at other retail outlets in Thailand and neighbouring countries as well as around the world.
    Keywords: banana flour; banana starch; marketing mix; musa,.

Special Issue on: GloHMT 2019 Global Trends in Health and Medical Tourism The Way Forward

    by Manisha Seth, Anupam Saxena, Deepa Sethi 
    Abstract: Healthcare professionals, especially nursing staff, are the backbone of any healthcare ecosystem as the connecting link between patients and doctors. Motivation levels of nursing staff can impact patients well-being. There are several studies regarding motivation of nurses; however, few studies were found relating to causes of low motivation in the context of the Northern State of Uttar Pradesh in India. Therefore, the present study was conducted to ascertain the causes of low motivation among health workers in three different hospitals in Uttar Pradesh: private, charitable, and government. The study found that there are two categories of reasons for low motivation: organisational and financial. It also found some common causes and few specific causes of low motivation in each type of hospital. The study suggests that each hospital should maintain transparency and must incorporate proper work scheduling, workload management, and also organise camps for training, de-stressing and emotional management.
    Keywords: healthcare workers; motivation; low motivation; government hospitals; private hospitals; charitable hospitals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042286

Special Issue on: VCBMC-2019 New Paradigms in Consumer Behaviour and Marketing

    by Parag Shukla, Parimal Vyas, Madhusudan Pandya 
    Abstract: The growth of retail sector can be attribute to colossal shopper base, rising income and financial thriving, and world class products (Technopak Report on Emerging Trends in Indian Retail and Consumer, 2011). The revenue generated from organised/modern retail was US dollar 15.5 billion in 2009, USD 41.4 billion, and is expected to continue growing at an impressive rate to a projected US dollar 94.8 billion by 2019 (Retail Report Crisil Research Estimates, 2014; KPMG Retail Report, 2014). The shopper experience is a higher priority than at any other time as retailers are endeavouring to separate themselves in a difficult and swarmed market. There are retailers who began on the web and are moving to physical stores and others are consolidating physical and digital. The purpose of this empirical examination is to study the impact of accessibility and ambiance as critical aspects of store attributes on general satisfaction of shoppers.
    Keywords: accessibility; ambiance; retail shoppers’; shoppers’ satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10040532
  • DIGITAL TELEVISION BROADCASTING IN INDIA- an insight into TRAI new regulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonal Trivedi 
    Abstract: TV viewing is revolutionised with new rules under Telecommunication services interconnection regulations 2017 and telecommunication services tariff order 2017. These new sets of rules have enabled consumers to pay for only those channels which they actually watch. The present study focuses on the impact of digitalising the broadcasting in India. It analyses the cost and benefit to consumers and broadcasters under this new regime. This study also discusses the scenario of TV broadcasting around the world and competition faced by TV industry from new platforms such as Netflix and Amazon prime.
    Keywords: Broadcasting; cable network; channels bouquets; TRAI; TV industry.

  • A study of consumer buying behaviour of healthy confectionary gums: Indian perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Naveen Arora 
    Abstract: Confectionary gums that are helpful in improving tooth health and oral hygiene are categorised as healthy chewing gums. This product category is in its nascent stage in India. This paper aims to identify the dimensions and factors that influence buying decision for healthy chewing gums. Paper also intends to understand consumers’ buying behaviour of healthy chewing gums. Exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analysis has been used to reduce and summarise different correlated variables to a manageable level and examine the whole set of interdependent relationships among variables. It is found that product experience and appearance are considered important by the respondents. A large number of respondents might consider consumption of healthy gums if it is recommended by dentists and/or clinically approved. The results and recommendations of the study can be helpful for entrepreneurs and decision-makers in confectionary and gums industry to understand consumers’ behaviour and formulate strategies accordingly.
    Keywords: healthy chewing gums; consumer behaviour; factor analysis; confectionary; Indian confectionary market; buying preference; product attributes; impulse buying; buying behaviour; consumers’ perception.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10061963

Special Issue on: FORBS 2019 Trends in Management Science Research and Practices

    by HARITHA PH 
    Abstract: This empirical study analyses the influence of factors such as market and social dynamics on the Indian equity market of individual investors. Due to advancements in science and technology, the media and the internet make the information quickly accessible to the investors. Technology advancement plays a major role in the process of investment decision making of equity investors. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of social and market dynamics influence of investment decision making by Indian equity investors. The various social dynamics which influence investors' decision-making mainly includes media, internet and social interaction. Change in market conditions influences the stock market which consequently influences the investment decision making of equity investment. To analyze the data, factor analysis and multiple regression were used. The results from a representative sample of individual investors pointed out that their resolution in stock selection was strongly influenced by the behavioral factors of those investors. The major findings of this study are to understand the social and market dynamics influencing investment decision making of equity investors in India.
    Keywords: Behavioral Finance; Market effect; Social dynamics; Internet; Media; Stock market.

  • Does economic factors improves Property Liability Insurance consumption in India: an empirical assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijit Mukherjee, Amlan Ghosh 
    Abstract: Property Liability Insurance (PLI) is an important constituent of the financial system and a positive relationship with economic growth has already been established in India. This study aims at finding the economic factors that impact PLI consumption which consequently has a cascading effect on economic growth in India. Annual data series in the post reform period from 1992 to 2017 has been taken in the study. OLS regression method is used to find the strength of the relationship and for high collinearity between explanatory variables, Factor analysis is conducted to reduce the highly correlated variables to certain factor/s. Infrastructure development, registered motor vehicles, income, financial development, trade activity have positive relationship & Inflation, price and interest rate on alternative instruments have significant negative relationship with PLI consumption. Policymakers can focus on the identified economic factors and implement policies to boost the PLI consumption to have a positive impact on economic growth in India.
    Keywords: India; Property Liability insurance; Economic factors; Infrastructure development; Ordinary Least Squares regression method; Factor analysis; Economic growth.

  • A comparative analysis of greening policies and CSR efforts in a government-led sustainable supply chain across different channel powers   Order a copy of this article
    by Chirantan Mondal, Bibhas C. Giri 
    Abstract: This article considers a government-led sustainable supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer under selling price, greening level and CSR effort dependent market demand. The manufacturer and the retailer are responsible for product greening and CSR, respectively. To stimulate product greening and CSR effort, the government subsidises both of them. The optimal decisions are obtained both analytically and numerically under four game-theoretic policies viz. centralised policy (model C), manufacturer-led decentralised policy (model M), retailer-led decentralised policy (model R) and Nash game (model N). Three special cases are examined by considering that the manufacturer does not produce green products, the retailer does not give any effort in CSR, and both of them do not provide any effort. Our results show that model N provides comparatively better outcome, and each member prefers to lead the channel as it helps to gain higher profit.
    Keywords: sustainable supply chain; greening level; corporate social responsibility; CSR; government subsidy; game theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10041806

Special Issue on: SIFICO 2020 Trends in Financial Markets and Institutions

  • Investor Intentions of Stock Market Participation in India: An Extended TPB Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Anubhuti Dwivedi, Maroof Ahmad Mir 
    Abstract: Emerging economies like India exhibit low rates of stock market participation despite high rates of growth in income. This paper aims at analysing the attitudinal, social and behavioural control factors influencing the investor intentions of stock market participation using constructs from an extended model of theory of planned behaviour. Attitude and perceived behavioural control are found to be significantly related to motivational intention but subjective norm is not significantly related to motivational intention of investors to participate in stock market. Finally, motivational intention has a significant influence on implementation intention which in turn has positive influence on actual participation in stock market.
    Keywords: stock market participation; investor intentions; theory of planned behaviour; behavioural intention; implementation intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10041805
    by Savitha Lakkol, Srilakshminarayana G, Nalina K B 
    Abstract: Securities lending and short selling are two major instruments used by emerging markets as a tool to enhance liquidity and efficiency. This paper focuses on security lending and borrowing (SLB) and volatility interdependence considering the prices of individual stocks and the stock market data. The purpose is to explain the causality between SLB trade in individual stocks, on volatility of both stocks and the market index. NSE Nifty stocks and Nifty index were considered and data was collated for a period of three years, between January 2017 and December 2019. Applying Granger causality, study finds that there is a bilateral causality between SLB trades and stock price volatility but the SLB trades do not impact the stock market return. Even in the long run SLB trades and individual stock return steady relationship. The study also tracks the development of SLB market in its present form since its introduction in the year 2010.
    Keywords: Security Lending and Borrowing; short selling; Volatility; Causality; Panel Granger.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10043320

Special Issue on: FORBS 2019 Recent Trends in Management Science Research and Practices

  • Evaluation of Performance of the Indian Power Sector from the Lens of Ratio Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharadinu Bikask Majumdar, Susmia Chatterjee, J.K. Das, Sangita Dutta Gupta 
    Abstract: The financial ratio analysis is an analytical tool performed to verify the financial efficiency of a firm. In this study, different financial or accounting ratios have been considered and performance evaluation of Indian power sector has been conducted. A comparative evaluation has also been carried out between the public and private power sectors associated in the generation and distribution of power in India. It was revealed from the study that in case current ratio (CURAT), return on asset (ROA), return on capital employed (ROCE) and return on equity (ROE), the values of mean are higher for the public sectors compared to the private sectors. However, the private sectors also have higher mean values for the ratios, return on sale (ROS), debt-equity ratio (DERAT) and asset turnover ratio (ATRAT). The steady financial position of the private sector is supportive to well-structured privatisation of power sector to overcome the gaps in the distribution of electricity.
    Keywords: financial efficiency; ratio analysis; public firm private firm comparison; current ratio; CURAT; return on asset; ROA; return on capital employed; ROCE; return on equity; ROE; return on sale; ROS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10051057

Special Issue on: BSVUCA-2020 “Business and Management in Changing Times

  • Green Bond Market: A Critical Review   Order a copy of this article
    by ASHIMA VERMA, Rachna Agrawal 
    Abstract: Climate change is real, and its impact is visible throughout the world in the form of melting of ice sheets, forest wildfires, earthquakes and cyclones. The study follows a combination of qualitative and empirical analysis to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the green bonds. It also aims to provide a critical view of the working of green bonds globally. The study diagnosed various barriers like the legal and judicial system of a nation, macro-economic environment, political instability, new technology costs, greenwashing, green bond verification requirements, supply and demand of green bonds and financial attractiveness of green bonds. This study will form a great help to governments and policymakers in providing measures for improving and facilitating a transition to a greener world.
    Keywords: green bonds; greenwashing; green bond principles; GBP; initial COVID-19 period; peak COVID-19 period.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10040790
  • Identifying and prioritising MOOC attrition reasons using best worst method   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeraj Chopra, Rajiv Sindwani, Manisha Goel, Ashutosh Nigam 
    Abstract: Despite the noticeable strengths of massive open online courses (MOOCs), the high attrition rate of learners is posing challenges in its way to successful diffusion. This created the need to know the reasons behind the high attrition rate among learners. The present work identifies nine MOOC attrition specific reasons from the literature on MOOC and resistance to innovation. The study also classifies and prioritises the attrition reasons in terms of criticality. The reasons for attrition are grouped according to their nature into three categories, referred to as general reasons. The prominence of reasons is established by using the best worst method (BWM), a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. The optimised weights determined by BWM arranged them from most critical to least critical in terms of learners’ attrition. The results revealed ‘technical reasons’ as the most critical general reason. The most and least critical specific reasons are identified as ‘perceived risk’ and ‘no penalty or reward’. The study also suggested effective measures to address the challenges posed by various attrition reasons.
    Keywords: MOOC attrition; prioritisation; best worst method; BWM; general reasons; specific reasons.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10063523
  • Impact of sensory marketing on brand loyalty and consumers purchase intention: A quantitative study in the QSR industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunaina Kothari, Meenakshi Sharma 
    Abstract: The prime purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of dimensions of sensory marketing on consumers purchase intention and brand loyalty in the quick service restaurant (QSR) industry. On the basis of in-depth literature review, a conceptual model showing the dimensions and outcomes of sensory marketing was developed and structural equation modelling was carried out to ascertain the research framework. The conceptual model shows the hypothesised relation between the seven constructs: sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, consumers purchase intention and brand loyalty. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data of a sample size of 540 respondents. The empirical results reveal that sensory marketing dimensions: sight, smell, taste and touch positively influences consumers brand loyalty whereas sound has no impact on brand loyalty in the QSR industry. Also sight, smell and taste positively influences the consumers purchase intention whereas sound and touch has no impact on consumers purchase intention in the QSR industry. The contribution of the paper lies in filling the research gaps, developing an original sensory marketing model for the QSR industry and further validating it through quantitative study. The result of the research is of significance to academicians, policy makers and marketing practitioners.
    Keywords: Sensory marketing; branding; brand loyalty; consumer purchase intention; product differentiator; quantitative study; structural equation modelling.

  • Verification of a decision support model for export opportunities in the South African hardwood industries at The company   Order a copy of this article
    by Seugnet Bronkhorst, Cecile Niewenhuizen 
    Abstract: Entering a global market competitively, whilst ensuring profitability and sustainability of the organisation, requires a clear understanding of all factors impacting on such a strategic endeavour. Optimising global market opportunities and ensuring appropriate responsiveness to its dynamic and competitive nature, guidance and support of strategic decision making and concomitant decision support models seem to be inevitable. The indicators of trade and export competitiveness have not only multiplied, but became obscured, sometimes by seasonal global headlines, the fact that the global value chain proved to be erratic at times and not conclusively researched, as well as the reality that the sources of competitiveness on the supply side of international trade remain vague and the list incomplete. Therefore, the decision making process have become a complex process and procedure, which must, in the interest of consistency, responsiveness and inclusiveness, preferably manifest through a decision support model to clearly present prevailing business opportunities.
    Keywords: decision support model; decision making; strategic management; export opportunities; hardwood; European countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10047918
  • Twitter-based content analysis unravelling operational performance issues for Indian Railways: a comparative study on focus of current and former rail ministers   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeraj Bhanot, Astha Sharma 
    Abstract: Indian Railways are considered as the lifeline of the nation wherein the government has been investing an appreciable part of their GDP for its improvement. To provide better services to the public, the work analyses the functional approach of two Indian railway ministers concerning the public. The study employs elbow technique to find the number of clusters and then latent Dirichlet allocation technique is utilised to identify the emerging themes in all the defined scenarios based on the tweets. The results of the study are expected to highlight major issues in Indian Railways during the tenure of above-mentioned ministers and how the government tackled the issues as evident from their tweets. The study aims to guide the policy-makers in identifying suitable strategies to address the concerns and problematic areas for enhancing the operational performance of Indian Railways.
    Keywords: Indian railways; Twitter; data mining; operational performance; rail ministers; rail passengers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10064624

Special Issue on: SIMSARC'20 The Indian Economy Transcending Barriers through Innovative Global Management Practices

  • Influence of Advertisement's Controversial Element and Emotional Appeal on Customer Intention to Buy   Order a copy of this article
    by Prabha Kiran, Jayanta Banerjee, Vasudevan M, Krishna Kishore S V 
    Abstract: This paper studies the influence of an advertisements controversial element and emotional appeal on the customer intention to buy. The research paper is both exploratory and conclusive. S-O-R model was used for the study. Convenience sampling was used to draw a sample of 264 respondents. The data were tested for reliability, correlation and regression. The advertisements controversial element and emotional appeal significantly influence the customers intention to buy. The controversial element and the emotional appeal are positively correlated with the customer intention to buy. The research was done within a limited time and resources. The future research paper can include more moderators in the research model. The research paper provides a better understanding of the emotional appeal and the controversial element of an advertisement on customer intention to buy.
    Keywords: controversial element; emotional appeal; customer intention to buy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10048253
  • A study on adoption of mobile wallet: Moderating role of Gender   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhavna Prajapati, Arijit Goswami, Archa Agrawal, Drishti Tibrewala 
    Abstract: The cashless economy is growing with ease of usage and its applicability. Mobile wallet helps in payment electronically with the use of a device. The modes of payment have shifted from traditional way to digital payment. Several factors like attitude, mobility, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, and social influence encourage the customers to use mobile wallets. The paper aims to find out the various factors, which motivate people in the adoption of mobile wallets. To add more gender was used as moderating variable to investigate whether males and females are of the same opinion towards intention to use mobile wallets. A total of 238 respondents were administered by partial least square structural equational modelling (PLS SEM) in Smart PLS version 3.3.2. The paper will be beneficial for all the e-wallet companies.
    Keywords: cashless economy; digital payment; mobile wallet; social influence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10048254
  • A study on Managerial Capabilities (Entrepreneurial Orientation and Mindset) and respective international opportunity exploitation in North Indian SMEs of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek Misra, Arpit Khurana, Rajesh Shankar Sharma 
    Abstract: The study focuses on the middle rung managers and their perceptions of capabilities as influencing their ability to exploit international growth opportunities across developing economy. The study operationalises the managerial capabilities with aid of two broad set of factors representing managerial perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation and dimensions of managerial individual global mindset. The managerial perceptions of exploiting international opportunity have been operationalised with aid of factors of internationalisation drive, export engagement and export commitment. The study focuses on the traditional and new age small to medium enterprises in Northern India namely automobile, textile, ITES and Biopharma clusters. The study seeks to examine the influences of capabilities across managerial class on their respective firm based international opportunity exploitation.
    Keywords: global mindsets; managerial capabilities; internationalisation drive; export commitment; export engagement; firm’s entrepreneurial orientation; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10044741
  • Culture, employee well-being and engagement relationship: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Sivapragasam Panneerselvam, Kavitha Balaraman 
    Abstract: The study purported to identify elements of positive culture and explore the effect of positive culture on engagement, well-being, and efficacy levels of knowledge professionals in Indian IT and ITES organisations. A sample of 626 knowledge professionals drawn from multiple IT companies identified through multi-stage sampling. This study show that the positive culture is positively related to employee well-being (path = 0.29, p < 0.01) and in turn, the intervening variable employee well-being is positively and significantly related (path = 0.58, p < 0.01) to the dependent variables such as work-related perceived efficacy and to engaged employee (path = 0.44, p < 0.01). Compared to the direct effect of positive culture on employee efficacy beliefs and engagement level, the study asserts that employee well-being plays a mediating role in the culture-engagement relationship.
    Keywords: employee well-being; engaged employees; IT industry; knowledge professionals; India; perceived efficacy; positive culture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10047876
    by Amir Hafizullah Khan, Rijuta P. Joshi, Kimsy Gulhane 
    Abstract: Online video streaming services industry has experienced a radical shift among consumer choices towards entertainment content. It is not only witnessing the shift from traditional habit of content consumption to the binge-watching behaviour among viewers but also addressing the increased concern among online streaming content providers to woo buyers. From a survey administered to online streaming content subscribers, researchers in the current study have identified factors that influence consumer buying behaviour towards online streaming services, several of which are different than the ones found in the previous studies. These parameters were selected by considering social commerce and social media marketing efforts of the firms. The study sought to capture the impact of selected indicators on consumer buying behaviour towards online streaming services. A conceptual model was tested using structural equation modelling which proved the goodness of fit of the model. Theoretical implications and future development of factors influencing online streaming content adoption among consumers were also discussed.
    Keywords: consumer buying behaviour; CBB; decision making; social media; social commerce; online streaming services; OSS; OTT platforms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10047899
    by Uzoma Ogbonna, Collins Irem, Chioma Ibiam 
    Abstract: This study examined poverty reduction in Nigeria: the impact of financial inclusion with the objective of determining the impact of financial inclusion on poverty reduction in Nigeria. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test, the Johansen cointegration and error correction model were used in data analysis. The study revealed that commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults and depositors with commercial bank per 1,000 adults have positive and significant impact on poverty reduction in Nigeria while borrowers from commercial banks has negative and significant impact on poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study recommended that commercial banks should increase their marketing strategies in order to attract much deposits. In the same vein, banks should be encouraged to expand branch operations to penetrate the rural economy so as to encourage the poor have access to financial services and reduce poverty incidence and borrowers should be educated on the implication of misappropriation of borrowed fund.
    Keywords: financial inclusion; poverty index; poverty alleviation; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10048259
  • Relationship between organisational learning and business architecture: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Debangsu Sarma Chaudhuri, Partha Sarkar 
    Abstract: In this study, the relationship between organisational learning (OL) and business architecture (BA) is objectively established by using three different approaches. Organisational learning for this research is characterised by using aspects like employee knowledge for development of the organisation through the process of knowledge acquisition, transition, development and synthesis whereas that of business architecture involves information and synergy between environment-strategy-structure-process-output paradigm. The present research has been carried out in the port and shipping industry of India. Data were collected through validated questionnaires and analysed by canonical correlation, bivariate correlation and stepwise regression. In all the three cases, it was found that the constructs are highly correlated as a whole as well as between individual variables.
    Keywords: organisational learning; business architecture; knowledge; learning; canonical correlation; stepwise regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10047877

Special Issue on: Academy of Management Annual Meeting 2019 Spirituality and Religion's Role in Creating Collaborative Advantage and a Relationship with Management

  • A Work/Life Teeter Totter: Using Demand Based Principles for Spiritual Operations Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Bumblauskas, Paul Bumblauskas 
    Abstract: Business owners and management teams are often tasked with making difficult prioritisation decisions. One difficult decision for how to balance the goals, objectives, and purpose of the organisation. This article is to detail how spirituality is a critical component to work/life balance and how individual and organisational spirituality impact operations management. Balancing key areas of work and professional life become an important part of creating happy and mutually satisfying relationships. We have identified six critical elements of life balance that lead towards optimised productivity (in no order of significance): Career, Family, Community, Spiritual, Health (includes sleep), Pleasure. Spirituality is one of the six components that must be defined, with a corresponding work and personal development plan, at an individual and organisational and operations management level.
    Keywords: Work-life balance; workplace spirituality; religion / faith; competitive advantage; demand-based approach; family / private businesses.

Special Issue on: INCONSYM 2020 Global Economy Trends, Opportunities and Challenges

  • The Influence of Social Media Advertising on Indian Students' Perception Towards Online Purchase   Order a copy of this article
    by VAIBHAV MISRA, Anubha Vashisht 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the perception of students in social media advertising. The study was conducted on 126 respondents from the institutional area of Noida. The analysis was conducted using Spearmans correlation and K-independent samples test. It was found that there is a significant influence on social media advertising on students to purchase online. Further, it was also found that information, privacy, credibility, electronic word of mouth, and trust were the important factors of social media advertising that motivates students to purchase online. Practical applicability and managerial implications were discussed.
    Keywords: online shopping; social media; advertising; EWOM; privacy; information; credibility; trust; online purchase; social media factors; student perception; electronic word of mouth; EWOM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040374
  • Municipal solid waste management with reference to India: opportunities, challenges and future directions   Order a copy of this article
    by SNEHA KUMARI, K.K. Tripathy, Vidya Kumbhar 
    Abstract: Waste management involves reuse, recycle and reducing the waste, essential for sustaining the city. These wastes if left unused can lead to hazardous effect on health and environment. The aim of the study is to explore opportunities, challenges and future direction on municipal solid waste management in smart cities. The paper has undergone exploratory study identifying challenges, opportunities and future directions in municipal solid waste management of smart city. Primary data has been collected from 92 households in a smart city, Pune and the waste wards of 76 divisions (prabhags) of four zones of Pune. Data visualisation and data analytical tools have been used for analysis. The paper has come out with different parameters like doorstep waste collection, waste segregation and others in the smart city. The study provides future direction and opportunities for the solid wastes management. The study is beneficial for sustaining the waste management practices.
    Keywords: solid waste; management; smart city; challenges; opportunities; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10058846
  • The effect of social media advertisements on the AIDA model for young consumers in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kunal Kapoor, Divyansha Kumar, Anubha Vashisht 
    Abstract: Today, the entrepreneurs (Dana, 2000; Wright and Dana, 2003) are using social media advertising (SMA) to catch young consumers' eyes to persuade them to take action (Shanahan et al., 2019). Therefore, this study was designed to study the effectiveness of SMA (Poecze et al., 2018) with the help of AIDA model of advertising (Yoo et al., 2004). The primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire and maximum respondents were of the age group of 16 to 24 years. The primary data was analysed using Chi- square analysis, cross tab matrix and linear regression using SPSS. The result of this research shows that although major mobile phone brands can capture the attention and interest of the target population, it is not effectively being converted into buying (action). The authors also suggest, testing moderating and mediating factors that might affect the consumers' buying behaviour for future studies.
    Keywords: AIDA model; social media advertising; SMA; mobile phones; young consumers; Facebook advertisements; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10058847
  • Opportunities and challenges ahead of start-ups in emerging markets in the era of sharing economy and globalisation   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The start-ups culture is going up across the nations post-year 20082009. The birth of several institutions to support such budding entrepreneurs and start-ups are the real motivation for them. It is a known fact that such start-ups have reduced the burden of the economy and government in terms of shifting from job seeker to job creator. The purpose of the research is to study opportunities and challenges ahead of start-ups in emerging markets and analyse the possibility of globalisation. The study also includes analysing the existing business model of leading start-ups in emerging markets (India). Additionally, the study also aims to analyse the risk of over dependence of start-ups on technology in the long run. The study comes up with some interesting recommendations to start-ups for the prosperity of their business and categorically suggested that technology can be an enabler but creating value is the core of any business.
    Keywords: business model of start-ups; internationalisation of start-ups; institutional supports; emerging markets; organisational development; redefining business model; the sharing boom; start-ups under covid-2019; start- ups in India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10058848
  • A study of female consumer buying behaviour towards organic personal care product   Order a copy of this article
    by Minakshi Sharma, Manisha Goel, Rajiv Sindwani 
    Abstract: In investigating the consumer buying behaviour towards organic personal care products (OPCP) among Indian female consumers, the current paper reports findings of a study conducted in Delhi NCR region. The aim of the study is to identify the dimensions that influence female consumer buying behaviour towards OPCP and to identify the influence of various OPCP dimensions on consumer satisfaction. The literature suggests that the present work is among the pioneers in the field of Indian female buying behaviour towards organic personal care segment. Five dimensions namely health and safety, knowledge and awareness, hedonism, social factors, and labelling and certification are proposed on the basis of factor analysis. The relationship between OPCP dimensions and satisfaction was investigated using structured equation modelling. Findings revealed that all five dimensions have positive significant influence on customer satisfaction. The findings also revealed that social factors and labelling and certification showed the strongest effect on consumer satisfaction. The study provides insights for cosmetic firms and academicians.
    Keywords: organic personal care products; consumer buying behaviour; customer satisfaction; factor analysis; structural equation modeling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10058849
  • Impact of Microfinance on Socio-economic Status of Women Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries: A Sentiment Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruchika Bal, Kanwal Anil 
    Abstract: Microfinance has brought the ray of light in the times of darkness by financing the marginalised. Various studies have shown the evidence that microfinance has deeply influenced the economic as well as social capital of women in developing countries. The research evaluates the effect of microfinance on socio-economic status of women entrepreneurs in the developing countries. This study is based on the descriptive analysis performed through text-mining, sentiment analysis using NLP in RStudio and a systematic review of literature in the context of developing countries. The findings from the research underline that although microfinance has carved its niche in developing nations in building a positive image about itself, there are, however, certain factors that may retract this positive position. The present research can prove to be a useful reference point for micro finance institutions and policy making institutions in designing microfinancing programmes and policies more holistically, worldwide.
    Keywords: microfinance; empowerment; gender equality; socio-economic status; women entrepreneurs; global phenomenon; developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042809
  • EMO Sapiens: a study on the enchantment of emoted language and its impact on the emoji usage behaviour of the interlocutors   Order a copy of this article
    by Rashmi Jacob 
    Abstract: The term sapiens is commonly used in conjunction with the ancient Greek word Homo describing a species of bipedal primates to which modern human belongs. Emo Sapiens is characterised by the species of humans enchanted with the development of emoted language in the multimodal online environment. The objective of the study is to understand the factors affecting the emoji usage behaviour of interlocutors in the process of online communication on social media platforms. For this study, a survey questionnaire is used with the purpose to understand the growing emoji usage in online communication and its impact on the usage behaviour of interlocutors. Based on the responses, the structural equation modelling approach (SEM) is used to test four hypotheses. The standardised beta of the cause and effect relationship indicates conceptual clarity and the mood are the leading influencers on the usage behaviour of the interlocutors. Conceptual clarity is found to have the maximum impact on emoji usage in informal online communication on the different social media platforms.
    Keywords: emoji; confirmatory factor analysis; CFA; structural equation model; SEM; current usage behaviour; emoted developments.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10058850
  • Validation of buyer supplier relationship value dimensions- Qualitative study based evidence from auto component industry India   Order a copy of this article
    by Pranay More, Jaideep Jejurikar, Anil Keskar, Santosh Gopalkrishnan 
    Abstract: Contemporary studies done by both the researchers as well as the industry practitioners working in the marketing domain, have widely explored the concept of relationship value and its dimensions. Despite its expanding body of literature, limited study about the applicability of these dimensions amongst the relationship between the lower tier supply chain partners can be found in the marketing literature. This study seeks to validate the established relationship value dimensions amongst the relationship of, previously unmapped, upstream supply chain partners. The study is comprehensive in nature when compared with prior studies as it integrates the maximum number of value drivers (6 nos) and indicators (15 nos). The focal point of the study is the coalition of tier-1 and the tier-2 supply chain partners in Indian autocomponent industry. This paper offers twin insights; from a literary standpoint, it paves the way for further quantitative research in investigating the influence of these dimensions on relationship value at the level of upstream supply chain partners. From the application perspective, the inferences urges that the autocomponent supply chain partners to emphasise their efforts on these studied dimensions which will aid in establishing strong competitive advantage over their counterparts.
    Keywords: auto component supply chain; buyer-seller relationships; relationship value; value in a relationship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10046386

Special Issue on: Development Bridging the Gaps in Emerging Economies

  • Impact of Social Media on Marketing and Operational Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Jordan: Applying the Delphi Method in Social Media Studies   Order a copy of this article
    by Marzouq Al-Qeed 
    Abstract: Social media channels have achieved a worldwide reach and growing reputation over the last decade. Companies throughout the world now use them as part of their marketing and other business activities. This study explores the effect of social media and particularly in Jordan, how the concept of engagement impacts on Jordanian SMEs and what is the influence of word-of-mouth for those SMEs. The study also investigates the social media marketing efficacy of Jordanian SMEs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews using the Delphi method and five social media experts based in Jordan were interviewed. Result shows that social media is mostly used for promotion and brand creation in Jordan. However, the companies in Jordan have yet to apply both online and offline strategies when using social media. This study will create important insights for managers and policymakers about how they can capitalize on social media platforms in framing their marketing and operational strategies.
    Keywords: Social media; Social media marketing; Delphi method; Bidirectional communication; Operations; Jordan.

    by Nurazilah Zainal, Law Siong Hook, Mohammed Hariri Bakri, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Soheil Kazemian 
    Abstract: This study attempts to examine existence of Fisher Effect theory in Malaysias conventional and Islamic money markets. Time series data has been included for the years 2011 to 2018 and consists of two stages of data analysis. First stage analysis examines the existence of a Fisher Effect relationship by applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach as an estimation method. Second stage analysis determines the strength of the Fisher Effect relationship. The findings suggest that the Fisher Effect theory exists in Malaysias Islamic money market but there is evidence for this in the conventional one. This outcome suggests that the Islamic money market can accurately predict inflation in the future. However, it appears in a weak form of relationship. Overall, outcomes of this study provide benefits for policy-makers since the existence of the Fisher relationship reflects an effective monetary policy for economic growth and sustainable development.
    Keywords: Islamic Money Market rates; Fisher effect; Inflation rates; Monetary Policy; ARDL cointegration test.

  • Effect of Indonesian certification system and environmental sustainability practices on palm oil firm performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ria Nelly Sari, Dinda Intan Suri, Rita Anugerah, Vince Ratnawati, Erlane K Ghani 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine the effect of ISPO certificates on environmental sustainability practices and the effect of environmental sustainability practices on firm performance. This study also examines the role of environmental sustainability practices as a mediating variable that influences the relationship between ISPO certificates and firm performance. Data for this study were collected through a questionnaire submitted directly to managers of 158 SMEs in the palm oil industry in Riau Province, Indonesia. 134 responses were returned and analyzed by WarpPLS. The results showed that the ISPO certificate has a positive influence on firm performance and environmental sustainability practices. The findings suggest that palm oil companies have to obtain palm oil certificates to maintain their environmental sustainability practices and subsequently improve performance.
    Keywords: ISPO certification; environmental sustainability practices; firm performance; WarpPLS; Indonesia.

  • Corporate Governance and Earnings Management: Does Board Composition Matters?   Order a copy of this article
    by Aziatul Waznah Ghazali, D. Agus Harjito, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Jamaliah Said 
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between Board of directors composition and the practice of real earnings management of Malaysian listed firms. Malaysian corporate landscape offers an interesting platform for a study on relationship-based capitalism. The sample of this study comprise of 651 Malaysian listed firms from the period of 2010 2014. This study offers a contemporary study focusing on the relationship between the composition and diversity in the boardroom of directors and real earnings management. The findings of the study shows that boardroom with women on board, foreign directors and having directors with international experience are more inclined to engaged in real earnings management. In the wake of recent corporate failures and corporate governance reforms, this study should provide a greater contribution in understanding the relationship between board of directors attributes and financial reporting quality from the perspective of a multi-racial developing country.
    Keywords: Financial Misreporting; Corporate Governance; Real Earnings Management; Board of Directors; Earnings Quality.

  • Capital Structure, Liquidity and Firms Value: Evidence from Emerging Market in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Sholihun, Grahita Chandrarin, Prihat Assih, Diyah Sukanti Cahyaningsih 
    Abstract: This study examines the influence of liquidity on capital structure and firm value, and corporate governance is used as a variable to moderate the relationship between capital structure and firm value. This study uses a sample of companies in the manufacturing industry whose shares are actively traded on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The data used is data pooling, the cross-section data and time-series data, the period 2010 to 2014. Sampling by purposive sampling, while the analysis technique using phat analysis. First result, liquidity has a negative and significant effect on a company's capital structure. Second, liquidity has no significant effect on firm value. Third, capital structure analysis has a significant effect on firm value. Fourth, liquidity negatively affects firm value through capital structure. Fifth: analysis of the influence of corporate governance on the relationship between capital structure and firm value shows a positive and significant relationship
    Keywords: Capital Structure; Corporate Governance; Firm Value; Liquidity.

  • Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure: A Case Study of ASEAN-4 Large Non-Financial Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaratin Lily, Imbarine Bujang, Mori Kogid, Debbra Toria Anak Nipo, Normah Haji Omar 
    Abstract: Most research on exchange rate exposure concentrates on the symmetric framework, but little research has considered the asymmetric framework. For this reason the present study applies the asymmetric framework to investigate how exchange rate movements affect large non-financial firms share return in ASEAN-4 (Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand) using the Non-linear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) model. The study results provided support for asymmetric exchange rate exposure mainly in Indonesia and Malaysia. Further analysis of asymmetries indicated some firms experienced multiple asymmetric exchange rate exposure and especially in Thailand. The findings provide an alternative explanation for the exchange rate exposure puzzle. As well, stakeholders such as financial managers and policymakers should not ignore the multiple asymmetric exchange rate exposure when they are formulating an appropriate hedging strategy.
    Keywords: Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure; Orthogonal Market Return; ASEAN-4; NARDL; Non-Financial Firm.

  • The Political Economy of Saudi Arabias Vision 2030 in the era of Globalisation: The Role of Islam   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The world's current and pervasive global religious upheavals have been strongly identified with Islamic fundamentalism in several African and Middle East countries. This form of religious belief has generated much interest in its implications for the Saudi Arabian government's Vision 2030 strategy and how the Islamic religion is practised. This paper investigates the reasons why religious extremism in Saudi Arabia is very minimal, and how this state of affairs can be harnessed to achieve Vision 2030. A qualitative research method is employed here and the paper surmises that while religious extremists subject individuals and communities to distorted forms of religious beliefs and dogma, fundamentalist beliefs should be harnessed to moderate practices of religious principles. Such beliefs can serve as essential resources that could be mobilised and deployed to achieve economic development throughout an increasingly globalised world.
    Keywords: Africa; development agenda; extremists; fundamentalism; Saudi Arabia; Vision 2030.

  • Impact of human and Islamic social capital on Inclusive Economic Growth: Evidence from Malaysia and Nigeria.   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruhaini Muda, Ibrahim Abiodun Oladapo, Roshayani Arshad, Rahayu Abdul Rahman 
    Abstract: This study analyses the extent to which human capital and social capital contribute to economic growth. This study makes use of panel data for 14 states from 2005 to 2014 for Malaysia and eight states between 2009 and 2013 for Nigeria. These are two emerging economies of Muslim-dominated countries. This study uses zakat collections as social capital and enrolment rate while the poverty index serves as a proxy for human capital. Findings show that there is a positive and significant effect of social and human capital on the economic growth of both countries. Moreover, results indicate that Islamic social capital increases the potential for stimulating positive economic growth that creates opportunities for society. This study will assist policymakers to formulate a suitable policy response based on Islamic social and human capital for inclusive growth. Such a policy could form part of the solutions to many contemporary societal issues, including poverty and income inequality.
    Keywords: Islamic social capital; inclusive economic growth; Malaysia; Nigeria.

    by Rintan Nuzul Ainy, Jamaliah Said 
    Abstract: The information of corporate social responsibility is considered as a signal that the companies have been able to meet the interests of all stakeholders. Whereas, corporate governance function is to control the management behaviours to act in accordance to companys interest. The study investigates the direct relationship between the corporate governance quality and the company performance. Subsequently, this study examines the mediating effect of corporate social responsibility and the relationship between corporate governance and company performance. Corporate governance quality ensures companys ability to fulfil the interests of the stakeholders. The data were obtained from annual report of 100 manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results show that the companies that disclose more CSR information and having stronger corporate governance tend to perform better. This indicates that CSR information is considered as a signal that the companies have been able to meet the interests of stakeholders.
    Keywords: corporate governance; corporate social responsibility; CSR; company performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10037094
  • Impact of Government Size and Regulatory Efficiency to Microfinance Institutions Efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Nazratul Aina Mohamad Anwar, Fakarudin Kamarudin, Hafezali Iqbal Hussain, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Wong Hor Yaan 
    Abstract: The development of microfinance institutions (MFIs) contributes to providing financial services for the poor and small businesses. This research aims to examine the impact of economic freedom dimensions which are the government size and regulatory efficiency, MFIs specific characteristics, macroeconomics determinants to the social efficiency (SE) and financial efficiency (FE) of MFIs in the Philippines and Malaysia. The chosen study period is 2011 to 2017. The non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach is applied in the first stage of analysis to identify the efficiency level of MFIs while the multiple panel regression model is employed in the second stage of analysis. Apart from this the Generalised Least Squares (GLS) regression is used to identify and explain the determinants of social efficiency and financial efficiency. The robustness test results show that financial efficiency is more significant and efficient than MFIs social efficiency. This indicates MFIs in the Philippines and Malaysia focus more on sustainability rather than their primary social objective of providing financial services to low-income households. The MFIs, government, policy-makers, investors, and future researchers will obtain important insights into MIFs efficiency from this research.
    Keywords: Microfinance Institutions; economic freedom; government size and regulatory efficiency; financial efficiency; social efficiency.

  • The Moderating Effect of Good Governance on the Relationship between Family Ownership Structure and Aggressive Transfer Pricing   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Khoiru Rusydi, Lindawati Gani, Setio Anggoro Dewo, Jusuf Halim, Sharifah Norzehan Syed Yusuf 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, is to examine the relationship between family ownership structure and aggressive transfer pricing. Then this study examines the moderating effect of good governance implementation on the relationship between family ownership structure and ATP. A sample of 840 ASEAN public listed companies from year 20132016. This study shows that family ownership structure has a negative relationship with ATP. Additionally, this study also provides new evidence that the quality of good governance strengthened the negative relationship between family ownership and ATP. This indicates the importance of the synergy between family ownership and good governance in further minimising the ATP practices. This study offers a new measurement perspective on the aggressiveness of transfer pricing in ASEAN by using profit level indicator (PLI) method. This study has important implications for developing a more specific policy to reduce state losses due to abusive transfer pricing practices.
    Keywords: family ownership; aggressive transfer pricing; ATP; corporate governance; government governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10036893
  • Enhancing Financial Reporting Quality: Does the Mandatory Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards Matter in Developing Economies?   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Kyari 
    Abstract: This study explores the relationship between compulsory implementation of international Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and financial reporting quality (FRQ) using accrual and value relevance models. Guided by the agency and signaling theories, data were collected from the published accounts of commercial listed companies on the Nigerian stock exchange. The study revealed that the information disclosed in financial statements of Nigerian banks are value relevant. Equally, the study disclosed that earnings under IFRS are more persistent and have higher accrual value. The study concludes that the adoption of IFRS has improved the quality of information disclosed in financial reports of Nigerian banks. It also concludes that the monitoring and enforcement functions of relevant Nigerian authorities are satisfactory but not enough. While these conclusions have met the objectives of this study, further analyses are recommended particularly on banks that are not listed on the Nigerian stock exchange.
    Keywords: Financial; reporting; quality; standard; earnings; value; adoption; agency; signaling; mandatory.

    by Silvia Indrarini, Grahita Chandrarin, Edi Subiyantoro, Diyah Sukanti Cahyaningsih 
    Abstract: Firm value is the investors perception of a companys success rate that is often associated with stock prices. Increased stock prices indicate an increase in the shareholders wealth. This study aims to examine the direct and indirect effects of good corporate governance on earnings quality and firm value. The population is all manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2011-2016 period. The data is analyzed using SEM-PLS model. The results show that good corporate governance has a significant effect on earnings predictability as a measure of earnings quality; earnings predictability has a significant effect on firm value, and good corporate governance has a significant effect on firm value both directly and indirectly through earnings predictability.
    Keywords: good corporate governance; earnings predictability; firm value.