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International Journal of Business and Globalisation

International Journal of Business and Globalisation (IJBG)

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International Journal of Business and Globalisation (320 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessStakeholder legitimacy and efficiency: The case of innovation at the Port of Tema, Ghana
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by George Acheampong, Jonas Aryee, Torben Andersen, Annette S. Hansen 
    Abstract: Our study set out to explore the relationship between legitimacy in the form of social license that stakeholders grant the National Single Window Project (NSWP) and port efficiency at the Tema port, as well as bounding conditions on this relationship. We collected stakeholder legitimacy data in line with the Social License to Operate (SLO) framework on the National Single Window Project that is being implemented at the Tema port and stakeholder-perceived port efficiency in Tema. We found that there is an ?-shaped relationship between legitimacy and port efficiency. We also found that port cooperation and relational intensity dampens the relationship between legitimacy and port efficiency. Our study offers an alternative to perspectives of port management that view ports as isolated units which provides a partial understanding of their functioning. We opine that viewing ports as networks of stakeholders provides an improved understanding.
    Keywords: Port efficiency; Africa; Legitimacy; Social license; Stakeholders; Innovation.

  • A Comparative Study of Men and Women Entrepreneurship- with Special Reference to T20 Cricket Premier Leagues Worldwide   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja Sharma, Deepika Kapoor 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship lies more in the ability to minimise the cost of the factors of production and to explore them to maximum advantage. Therefore, entrepreneurs tend to be more creative and innovative than the average person. The present study is an attempt to analyse the performance of T20 cricket teams worldwide under the leadership of men entrepreneur and women entrepreneur. The sample size of the study consisted of total 17 teams out of top five T20 cricket premier leagues worldwide. Further, independent sample T-test was applied to compare the performance of the teams. It was found that there is no significant difference in the mean scores of teams under the leadership of male entrepreneurs and female entrepreneurs. The performance of the male entrepreneurs team is almost similar to the performance of female entrepreneurs team.
    Keywords: men entrepreneurs; women entrepreneurs; cricket teams; cricket premier leagues; cricket team performance; T20 matches; leadership qualities; IPL; international cricket council; comparative analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10034738
  • Examining Indian Working Professionals Perspective of taking a MOOC: Identifying the Motives and Perceived Effectiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepika Jhamb, Amit Mittal, Pawan Chand 
    Abstract: Purpose In India, as in other parts of the world, the competitive environment is tightening and working professionals are looking at radical approaches to stay abreast with developments in their respective domain. Working professionals display a great affinity towards modern e-learning platforms to educate themselves and develop better understanding on areas of interest based on their work profiles, career progression and other aspirations. Amongst various e-learning platforms, MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have attracted a greater percentage of working professionals across the globe, including India which is considered to be amongst the fastest growing markets form MOOCs worldwide. In spite of the large practitioner-driven market for MOOCs and its existence for such a long time, a majority of the studies focus on MOOCs from a purely academic standpoint. Additionally, India-centric studies are very few. This study seeks to contribute to the existing body of research by seeking to explore the motives and perceived effectiveness of MOOCs amongst working professionals working in the Indian information technology sector. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-method approach is followed to reveal the dimensions of motives and effectiveness while pursuing MOOCs. Data were collected using self-administered survey questionnaire from 352 working professional working with information technology sector at Bengaluru, India. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 20.0. Findings The results of the study indicate that job enrichment and competition are the important motives for working professionals to pursue MOOCs because these motives work as a skill building platform for them. On the other side, organizational recognition and learning discipline have emerged as the most important factors that lead to overall MOOCs perceived effectiveness. Practical Implications MOOCs providers have golden opportunity to monetize their courses by partnering with premier universities and institutions and create a unique demand for MOOCs. Originality/value The study establishes the role of MOOCs in the enhancement of executive skill development.
    Keywords: E-learning; MOOCs; Working Professionals; Motives; Perceived Effectiveness.

    by Sandeep Singh 
    Abstract: Being a service industry, banking sector generates and distributes services for the realisation of consumers economic needs. In the present era of vicious competition, wherever an enormous alternative is accessible to the patrons, each banking organisation has an onus to magnetize the new patrons and retaining the existing ones, by providing them with innovative and classy services. The study validated the factors of internet adoption from a customer's perspective. The sample of the investigation was 391 bank customers. On the basis of previous literature and expert advice, a questionnaire was designed. Finally, seven factors were confirmed. The research has validated a scale for future research.
    Keywords: banking industry; digitalisation; globalisation; internet banking; emerging economy; service; operation; convenience; loyalty; dilemma; security; skill.

  • Cointegration and causality testing for Capital Productivity, Labour Cost and Export Competitiveness of Indian textile industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahul Dhiman 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between export competitiveness (EC), capital productivity (CP) and unit labour cost (ULC) for the Indian textile industry in the post-reform period i.e. from 1991 to 2017. The present study uses Johansen and Juselius test for examining cointegration between select variables and reveals the long-run relationship between the select variables. The study uses Granger causality test to explain the direction of causation between the select variables and results reveal the absence of feedback effects among the variables and only unidirectional causality is found from CP and ULC to EC. The results of the vector error correction model (VECM) reveals absence of long-run and presence of short-run causality running from CP and ULC to EC. The findings of the study will encourage the various textile firms to ensure technological upgradation; this will further motivate them to achieve the desired level of CP and hence achieve EC. The firms are also suggested to minimize the labour costs to gain competitiveness in the world markets.
    Keywords: Capital productivity; Co-integration and Granger Causality; Export Competitiveness; Textile industry; Unit Labour Cost.

  • Traditional Jebena*coffee and women livelihood; Ambo town in focus   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Tadesse Tulu 
    Abstract: This paper primarily finds out the contribution of traditional Ethiopian coffee (Jebena coffee) to the change in livelihood of family in general and women in particular in Ambo town. For this purpose women who sit on the corner of the main road and inside the town are taken arbitrarily. The study uses convenience sampling and accordingly 104 women have taken as a sample. Simple linear regression is employed to find out the relationship between livelihood of women and Jebena coffee business. The result of the study shows that trading Jebena coffee has a positive impact on improving housing, health, income, education and boosting bargaining power of women. It is recommended that the concerned government and non-government bodies have to organise women engaging in small businesses in a better way so that return from the business is improved and women and family livelihood is supported for better living standard.
    Keywords: Jebena; coffee; Oromia; livelihood; Ambo; bargaining power.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10032806
  • A study on Organisational Image, Indirect Compensation and Job Satisfaction in Indian IT Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonali Singh, Richa Misra, Swati Bhatia 
    Abstract: Indian IT industry is one of the worlds largest providers of IT and IT enabled services and making revenue overseas. It represents around 55% market share of US$185190 billion global services sourcing business. Due to the restrictions on VISA policy put by the USA, Indian IT industry has faced serious concerns. The Indian IT industry has also experienced high turnover rate. Some of the reasons for high attrition rate were job satisfaction, image of the organisation, job security and better compensation options. The mantra for success in todays competitive environment for an organisation is to retain its employees which includes proposing modest compensation (both direct and indirect). This will encourage employees to perform as per the expectation of the organisation. The study made an attempt to understand the relationship between variable compensation, company image and job satisfaction with respect to the Indian IT sector.
    Keywords: IT and ITES; job satisfaction; company image; variable compensation; Indian IT industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10033376
  • A Study of Selective Macroeconomic Determinants Affecting Remittances to India from USA and GCC Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Banerji, Anand Chandravanshi 
    Abstract: This study attempts to examine long run and short run dependence of personal transfers to India from macroeconomic conditions at host countries of Indian emigrants and Indian macroeconomic conditions. Remittances to India seem to be affected by macroeconomic conditions prevailing in United States of America (USA), Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and India. Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) is applied to study the relationship between the Remittances received in India and macroeconomic variables of countries involved in study. Yearly data from 1980 to 2016 of GDP, unemployment rate of GCC, USA and remittances received in India are used. Results from estimates suggest unidirectional causality from GDP growth of GCC and USA towards remittances to India. Unemployment rates in India and GCC are also found affecting the remittances to India.
    Keywords: Remittances; Emigration; VECM; Impulse Response Function; GDP; Unemployment Rate.

  • An Overview of Fijis Retail Franchising Climate   Order a copy of this article
    by Samantha Naidu, Gurmeet Singh, Jashwini Narayan 
    Abstract: The paper examines the retail franchising climate in Fiji, a small Island country of South Pacific Region This paper in particular discusses the various arrangements in which franchises operate in Fiji and will set the scene for Fijis retail franchise system. There is a lot of potential for franchises to prosper in Fiji if they do it right. Fiji is a growing market with opportunities that many businesses can take advantage of and exploit. The present government has also made positive changes to some of its laws so that businesses can operate better. This study has found that despite the Fiji government encourages the growth of franchise industry, there is absence of an entity or a franchise association that could collect, store and maintain proper records of franchise industry in Fiji
    Keywords: Retail Franchising; Traditional and business format franchising; Multi unit franchising; retail; Fiji.

  • Corporate governance and its effects on perceived performance in Morocco: The mediating role of venture capitalists' strategic and managerial involvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Slimane Ed-Dafali, Brahim Bouzahir, Amina Omrane 
    Abstract: The current research investigates the effects of the governance relationship between capital-investors and entrepreneurs of financed companies on their perceived performance. For this purpose, two variables related to trust and frequency interaction are taken into consideration. Besides, the mediating role of venture capitalists strategic and managerial involvement is assessed. The conceptual proposed model is tested in the Moroccan context, via the structural equations method under the approach of partial least squares (PLS) regression. Results indicate that interaction frequency and trust between stakeholders enhance the performance of the venture capital (hereafter VC)-backed firms. Moreover, interaction frequency and trust are significantly related to the managerial and strategic roles of venture capital firms. Findings highlight also the importance of these strategic roles in improving business performance. However, they do not reveal a direct relationship between managerial VCs roles and the perceived performance of portfolio companies.
    Keywords: corporate governance; frequency interaction; venture capitalists; VCs; VCs’ involvement; trust; perceived performance; venture capital; VC; VC-backed firms; Morocco.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10034365
  • The Implementation of Integrated Marketing Communication On Retail Business: Moslem Consumers Perceptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Harmon Chaniago, Yen Efawati 
    Abstract: Some studies on integrated marketing communication have been done by researchers in large firms and SMEs. However, there have been only a few researchers who have concern on IMC, specifically on retail business. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of IMC on retail business based on perception of Moslem consumers. The research used explanatory survey method with exploratory analysis. Total sample involved were 189 respondents and snowball sampling was used as sampling technique. The findings show that there were five determinants of IMC success from Moslem consumers perception: communication program, advertisement, reinforced notions of consistency, goods price and product completeness. It has been proved that IMCs success in retail business was determined in the design and implementation processes, which should be in accordance with the most religion of the consumers. IMC implementation for Moslem consumers requires the application of Sharia principles such as: benefit, honesty, openness, friendship and mutual assistance in doing business.
    Keywords: integrated marketing communication; IMC; retail business; beneficial; honesty; openness; helping each other.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10040871
  • The Impact of Customers Training of Digital Banking Services on its acceptability by customers in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nitin Bansal, Nishtha Pareek, Abhinav Nigam 
    Abstract: Training programme to customers is a highly crucial component whilst enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of the customers to adopt a new technology or upgrade the existing one. This study has focused on the analysis of impact of training programme of digital banking services to customers on the acceptability of digital banking services by customers in India. This study has administered the factor analysis to analyse the applicability and reliability of scale, i.e., training programme of digital banking services to customers, before the stepwise method (forward selection) of multiple linear regression was used. Primary data on 5-point Likert scale has collected from the Delhi region with the help of questionnaires through a self administered approach. Stratified sampling technique was used and total 402 useful schedules were considered for analysis of data using SPSS version 23. The results of the study show that there is a positive impact of training programme to customers on the usability and acceptance of digital banking services by the customers which leads to the reduction in the banking cost of the customers.
    Keywords: digital banking services; training to customers; customer’s acceptability; risk; trust; cost reduction; frequency of training; internet.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10033766
  • Factors Influencing Employee Engagement towards the Organisation: A Case of Thai University Personnel   Order a copy of this article
    by Dusadee Ayuwat, Jongrak Hong-ngam, Wanichcha Narongchai, Supee Samorna, Kriangkrai Pasuta, Krongkaew Kingsawat, Somphot Thinpru, Kwannakorn Sonman, Nattawat Auraiampai 
    Abstract: This article examine factors that influence employee engagement towards the organisation of Thai University, a case of Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The quantitative approach was used in research design. The sample group consisted of 2,878 staff members of the university. The data was collected using the questionnaire in January to February 2018, and analysed by descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The results demonstrated that job satisfaction, attitudes towards job and organisation significantly influenced organisational engagement at the level of 0.01, whereas the length of employment with the university significantly affected employee engagement at the level of 0.05. However, type of personnel and perception of organisational cultures did not show any significant correlation with employee engagement at the level of 0.05. All the independent variables analysed were able to significantly explain the variation of the universitys employee engagement at 45.7 (R2= 0.457) at the level of 0.01.
    Keywords: employee engagement; job satisfaction; attitude toward the job;rnrelationship with colleagues; Thai University.

  • The illusions of entrepreneurs: the problems in here I stand strategies during the service design processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Samuel Ahola, Katja Lindholm, Rauno Rusko 
    Abstract: Relentlessness is known to be one of the sources of entrepreneurship. A service design case study from Finland shows the problems beyond the relentlessness of entrepreneurship in small and micro enterprises. To be robust, the relentlessness Here I stand strategy also demands selective flexibility. Entrepreneurship school, for example, is based on the entrepreneurs vision and intuition. These visions and intuitions, however, might be part of the illusions of entrepreneurship, where relentlessness is only Here I stand strategy without willingness to take reactive or proactive steps in the firms strategies. The case study, which emphasises service design methods, reveals this kind of entrepreneurial design fixation to be among the main problems entrepreneurs face in strategy work.
    Keywords: Service design process; small business; enterprises: entrepreneurs; here I stand -strategy.

  • Understanding impact of Microcredit on Socio-economic status of Women Micro-entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Nivedita Tewari Dwivedi, Amit Kumar Dwivedi 
    Abstract: Microcredit is small ticket loan provided by microfinance institutions for starting enterprise to the poor people. The study is conducted on those women beneficiaries who are the member of self-help groups (SHGs) and had taken microcredit and took entrepreneurial ways of livelihood and run a micro-enterprise in their localities. The findings of the study conclude that: 1) after becoming economically empowered, womens socio-economic status in the society as well as in her family have improved substantially and there is positive change observed in her personality also; 2) significant number of women micropreneurs fall in the age group of 31 to 40 participate in decision-making regarding family; 3) the women microcredit beneficiaries contribute too appropriately in their familys income; 4) women become responsible for microcredit, for repayments, for maintaining saving accounts and after bearing these responsibilities, women gain confidence to take charge of their lives and the lives around them; 5) microcredit is an empowerment tool for women who take-up entrepreneurial career.
    Keywords: women micro-entrepreneurs; empowerment; microcredit; self-help groups; SHGs; socio-economic status.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10037084
  • Indias Handknotted Carpet Industry in Reforms Era: Export Performances and Challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit K. Giri, S.P. Singh 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the export performances of Indias hand-knotted carpet industry and explores the challenges the industry is facing in the post-reforms era beginning early 1990s. The macroeconomic study shows that despite witnessing many short run economic upheavals from 1990 through 2013, there has been a steady increase in the exports value of hand-knotted carpets from India. Among the major carpet exporting countries, India has been the only country which has witnessed increase in exports value after 1990. But there has been very small increase in exports quantity in the post-reforms period. What ails the industry? Fieldworks undertaken in the carpet weaving cluster of India reveals that this industry is facing acute shortage of weavers especially after 2005; in addition declining governments support, lack of better infrastructural facilities, unsustainable increase in weaving cost and other operational diseconomies has also added to the woes of the carpet exporters. But the most important cause is the acute shortage of weavers. Because of the acute shortage of weavers, the industry lobby has already started labelling this industry as a sunset industry as they feel that this industry would remain in a state of permanent crisis. The paper concludes by suggesting various measures to tackle weavers shortage issue and increase the carpet production and its exports from India.
    Keywords: India; hand-knotted carpets; exports; carpet workers; global value chains; child labour.

  • Factors Influencing Entrepreneurial Intentions of Zimbabweans during Economic Recessions: A Case of Hardware Small Businesses in Harare, Zimbabwe.   Order a copy of this article
    by Charles Zhuwau 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to establish factors that influence entrepreneurship intention (EI) in Zimbabwe during economic crisis. Relationships between these factors and EI were also established. A survey-based methodology was employed in which data were collected using self-administered questionnaires from a sample of 124 hardware Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) owners. Further, the research employed Spearmans Coefficient of Rank Correlation method to test hypotheses. Results indicated that EI in Zimbabwe is influenced by opportunity recognition, job loss, social pressure, sector expected positive potential, perceived easiness to run a business, and resource availability. Perfect positive relationship between EI and these factors was discovered. Therefore, government should consider ways of harnessing these EI factors to enhance new venture creation and reduce unemployment. New knowledge of EI in developing countries and economic downturn periods has been produced.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship Intention; Economic Recession; Developing Countries; Hardware; Small Businesses.

  • Institutional changes in the tobacco sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Ingridi Bortolaso, Ingridi Bortolaso, Felipe Zarpelon, Felipe Zarpelon, Rejane Alievi, Rejane Alievi 
    Abstract: The reference base the theoretical aspect of the institutional work, contemporaneously used in analysis of interorganizational relations. From this perspective, the proposal is to analyze the capacity of external agents to provoke changes in the institutional context of controversial industries. Thus, the object of analysis used was the Brazilian tobacco sector. The Zietsma and Lawrence Cyclic Model was used in the research to identify how external pressures have led to measures to eradicate child labor in tobacco cultivation. The results of the survey demonstrate the actions that were taken by tobacco companies and the difficulties faced to eliminate the use of child labor by farmers who grow tobacco.
    Keywords: Institutional Work; Capacity of external agents; Brazilian Tobacco Sector.

  • CONQUERING TALENT CHALLENGES The Troikaa Way   Order a copy of this article
    by Anuroopa Mahajan, Bhumi Trivedi 
    Abstract: Talent Management (TM) became a concern for organisations since last two decades when McKinsey consultants created the catchphrase War of Talent (Chambers et al, 1998). Organisations were panic stricken as getting the right talent and retaining them was challenging. This case study explores how an Indian pharmaceutical organisation managed talent to overcome TM challenges. Dr. Ketan Patel CMD, Troikaa Pharmaceuticals Ltd. considered talent as the backbone of a learning organisation to grow. In order to develop a closer understanding of the subject, Qualitative research methodology [refer Exhibit -1 (iv)] was adopted to carryout research study that allowed direct learning from research subject (Dana & Dana, 2005) The findings of the case study reveal well established and learning aligned TM practices institutionalised in Troikaa. TM played a key role in achieving strategic objectives of the organisation. Expert scientists carried out innovation and developed the drugs for which Troikaa holds patent globally. Key words Talent management, talent acquisition, talent development, talent deployment, talent retention, pharmaceutical industry, India.
    Keywords: Talent management; talent acquisition; talent development; talent deployment; talent retention; pharmaceutical industry; India.

  • Impact of Social Media Conversations on Consumers Online Purchase Intention   Order a copy of this article
    by NEHA KATIYAR, Abhinav Tripathi, K.R. Chaturvedi 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to explain how social media has impacted the consumer decision process as heavy use of social media has created a new landscape which lays out a new avenue for personal connections. The paper also explores how individuals are seeking information on social media and how they are processing and selecting the information before making the final purchase. The empirical data for the study has been gathered using a structured questionnaire. The descriptive statistics were performed for the select parameters of the survey instrument. The study indicated that individuals are playing an active role in information search on social media comparing to mass media. The findings confirm that there is significant variance between age, income, occupation, and gender with online purchase intention of consumers. Also, the results confirm that social conversation is a significant predictor of online purchase intentions. The research findings suggest that consumers in India are actively utilizing social media platforms as a key tool in validating their purchase decision. The research also explains various indicators that can be utilized by potential companies to analyze the decision-making process via social media sites.
    Keywords: Social Media; Online purchase; Consumer Behaviour; Decision-making process rnrn.

  • Impact of Demand Side Factors on Adoption of Islamic Finance by SMEs: A Way Forward for Sustainable Financial Markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Rabia Rasheed, Sulaman Hafeez Siddiqui 
    Abstract: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) constitute bulk of Industrial and economic populace around the world. Despite major contributor towards economic growth SMEs are facing various challenges across the world and access to finance is one of the major issue. Therefore, to achieve sustainable/inclusive finance for small and medium business sector both Islamic and conventional financial institutions have to take initiatives and required strategic focus on this segment. This research paper highlights the behavioural factors affecting SMEs owner-managers intentions to adopt Islamic financial products from a consumer behaviour perspective. The research model of this study is based on theory of planned behaviour postulates that SME owner-manager intentions are determined by financial knowledge or literacy, perceived risk, attitude, religious beliefs, subjective norms, self-efficacy and perceived behavioural control. The study uses quantitative (survey and factor analysis) methods. The results revealed that SMEs intention to adopt Islamic financial product is low which shows negative attitude of owner-managers towards Islamic finance in Pakistan. Moreover, the study highlights that financial knowledge has strong impact on owner-managers attitude towards intention to adopt Islamic finance. Furthermore, SMEs owner-managers prefer financial products which are according to Islamic rules and principles, thus, religious beliefs also have strong influence on SMEs owner-manager behaviour. The results imply that achieving sustainable/inclusive finance for SMEs sector requires financial sector firms and policy makers in the area of Islamic finance to work out factors such as religiosity and financial awareness and literacy related to Islamic financial products in order to motivate them towards Islamic financial products for SMEs.
    Keywords: Islamic Finance; Access to Finance by SMEs; Sustainable Finance; Pakistan.

  • Financial Literacy and Its Effect on Financial Decisions of Households in Punjab and Haryana State   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravisha Chutani 
    Abstract: This study attempts to assess the financial literacy level of the respondents, impact of financial literacy level on the respondents financial decision and to study the significant difference between financial literacy level and demographic variables of the respondents in Punjab and Haryana state. Data collection was done through a structured questionnaire which was divided into two parts: first part comprises of demographic variables and second part contains 33 variables affecting financial decision of the respondents. Regression Analysis was performed to measure the significant impact of financial literacy level on financial decision of the respondents and found the statistically significant impact on the financial decision of the respondents. A statistically significant difference was found in the financial literacy level based on respondents age, marital status, educational qualification, area they belong, occupation and monthly income.
    Keywords: demographics; financial literacy; financial decision; analysis of variance; ANOVA; factor analysis; Indian households; regression analysis; Haryana; Punjab; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10033943
    by Sarvenaz Kiani, Elsadig Musa Ahmed 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of E-commerce (EC) on Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of Iranian manufacturing SMEs through analyzing and calculating interrelated issues. The model is based on both econometrics and growth accounting approach to fill the gaps of previous studies. On the first step, this research fulfills the gap of growth accounting approach by transforming the model to parametric model and providing statistical analysis. And on the second step, it closes the gap of econometric estimation of the Cobb-Douglas production function by calculating productivity indicators. Model has six EC measurements: number of employees using computer, number of employees using internet, using internet to gather and offer information, e-buying and e-selling, and uses two years panel data. According to the results of estimation among the measures of EC two best, most accurate and reliable measures, namely, e-selling and using Internet to offer information, and number of employees using Internet have positive impacts on TFP indicated by highly significant coefficients of EC .So SMEs using Internet for selling electronically, using Internet to offer information and number of employees using Internet have higher TFP in average with significant technological progress experienced by SMEs and EC can raise their TFP.
    Keywords: E-commerce; SMEs; TFP; Panel data.

  • Convergence of Growth Rate of Profitability in Maharatna and Selected Navratna Companies in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishna Singh, Debasish Sur 
    Abstract: The present paper attempts to analyse the process of convergence of profitability measured in terms of return on capital employed in Maharatna and selected Navratna central public sector enterprises in India during the period 2002 to 2014. While analysing the absolute and conditional beta convergence as well as modified sigma convergence, fixed effect regression model was used. The net outcome derived from the analysis of the absolute and conditional beta convergence indicates a significant convergence with respect to overall profitability in both the Maharatna and Navratna companies. The modified sigma convergence reflects that the differences in achievements of return on capital employed in different companies within the group stepped up over time. The study also reveals that the central public sector enterprises with lower initial earning capability grew faster as compared to the companies with higher initial overall profitability.
    Keywords: Profitability; Convergence; ROCE; Maharatna and Navratna companies.

  • The Future of Education: A Disruptive Framework that bridges Policies and Quality Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Stephen Oluwatobi, Adedeji Afolabi, Patience Tunji-Olayeni, Afolashade Oluwatobi, Onyeka Emebo 
    Abstract: The world as we used to know it, is not on the same level again. Consequently, the level and type of education dished out to students need to be reviewed from time to time. The level of innovation and skill required in industries need to be disruptive to serve the students of the future. The study examined the future of education using disruptive frameworks that bridges policies and quality education. The study utilized an in-depth content analysis of existing literature on the future of education. Using the review, the data was presented using frameworks to depict solutions for bridging policies and the future of quality education. There is need for intentional reviews of institutional policies and technical frameworks in the educational sector that meets the demand of the fast-paced world of work. The study presented headings on what Educators need to know, the classroom of the future, gaming as a tool for education and the role of policy makers in the future of education. In conclusion, the Nigerian educational sector needs disruptive frameworks and technologies that guarantees the future of education.
    Keywords: Disruptive Framework; Future of Education; Industry; Policies; Universities.

  • The Effect of Internal Marketing on Employee Job Satisfaction Evidence from a Jordanian Tourism and Hospitality Setting   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Ashour, Hameed Al-debi 
    Abstract: The main aim of this study is to achieve an in-depth understanding of the mechanism by which internal marketing affects job satisfaction. A theoretical framework was developed basing on related marketing literature. The study model was intended to determine the influence of internal marketing dimensions (IMD) represented by service culture, human resources management, marketing information, and motivation, on job satisfaction in tourism and hospitality industry, particularly in Dead Sea Region in Jordan. The target population of this study is employees of hotels, resorts, travel agencies in the Dead Sea Region. A convenience sample was selected from this population. Three hundred and seventy-eight (378) valid questionnaires were retrieved from respondents representing different departments in targeted hotels and resorts. SPSS statistical package and its related module Amos were used to test the relationship between the independent variables of the internal marketing dimensions (IMD) and dependent variables related to employees satisfaction (ES). The findings of the study have indicated the existence of significant positive correlations between three main dimensions of internal marketing (service culture, human resources management, and marketing information) on employees job satisfaction. However, results have shown a less motivation effect on employees satisfaction (ES). Finally, tourism and hospitality services represent one of the most dynamic sectors in Jordan, where the economy is seen as a service-oriented one. Accordingly, the study suggested a number of recommendations to decision makers in the tourism industry in order to improve their employees satisfaction levels.
    Keywords: Internal Marketing; Employee Job Satisfaction; Tourism and Hospitality industry; Jordan.

  • Determinants of Customer Satisfaction with the Online Shopping Environment: Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Sahil Gupta, Arun Aggarwal, Amit Mittal, Pawan Chand 
    Abstract: Due to its practical importance, the relationship between customer satisfaction and the shopping environment has attracted many researchers. Various studies have established a close relationship between these two concepts and have tested them time and again. This relationship has shown to impact the traditional ways of shopping and has implications for the emerging field of online shopping in the context of an emerging market such as India. To address this, the current study aims to cover the various aspects of shopping which lead to customer satisfaction. Responses were collected from 543 online shoppers to understand their expectations and experience in the online shopping environment during the Indian festive season. A gap analysis was done to understand the difference between the experience and expectations of the shoppers. The results show that product return policy, delivery and warranty have a strong impact while the quality of interaction and mode of payment may require emphasis to deliver a positive shopping experience and to enhance retention strategies.
    Keywords: Electronic commerce; Customer satisfaction; Gap analysis; Post Purchasing Satisfaction.

  • Sustaining Indian Pharmaceutical SMEs as global players: An empirical study on role of Lean-Kaizen tools   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Lean-Kaizen tools are among the popular industrial engineering concepts that guide managers and technicians to proactively improve an organisations sustainable competitive advantage in the fast growing Pharmaceutical industry .The purpose of this paper is to highlight outcomes of empirical studies. The design of this research paper is case study research. For collecting data on process improvements by conducting empirical studies in SME sector, three pharmaceutical units which deployed/implemented Lean tools were chosen. The findings of this study revealed that the value stream mapping (VSM) a Lean tool contributed effective improvement in productivity and lead time reduction in one study. SMED tool has improved productivity by reduction in change over time. Similarly, Kaizen ideas have lead to savings in rework and reduction. This paper addresses the link between the theory and practice complimented with outcomes.
    Keywords: Lean-Kaizen tools; Indian; SMEs; pharmaceutical; empirical study; sustaining; global.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10035439
  • Enhancing innovation in organisations: the role of initiative-friendly culture, individual creativity, and knowledge sharing   Order a copy of this article
    by Noufou Ouedraogo, Tarek Salam, Mohammed Ouakouak 
    Abstract: Innovation is a central pillar of any organisations long-term prosperity and even survival. Uncovering the factors that enable innovation is therefore of paramount importance. The purpose of this article is to examine the role of individual creativity, initiative-friendly culture, and knowledge sharing on innovation. Based on a quantitative study with a sample of 125 participants from different organisations, we find that creativity has a positive direct effect on innovation, but neither initiative-friendly culture nor knowledge sharing has a direct impact on innovation. However, they both maintain an indirect impact on innovation through creativity. We also find that business ethics and organisational size strengthen the relationship between creativity and innovation. Our findings provide new insights into how innovation can be enhanced in the workplace, along with practical implications for managers.
    Keywords: Individual creativity; knowledge sharing; initiative-friendly culture; innovation; business ethics; organisational size.

  • Cultural Differences and McDonalds: A Multi-country Comparative Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahmood Khan, Abu Elnasr Sobaih, Kyuho Lee, Inhyuck Ha 
    Abstract: The current study assesses the cultural differences in the perceptions of McDonalds services in four countries, US, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Egypt. Countries were selected because there were enough variations based on the Hofstedes cultural dimensions. Using individual respondents and Hofstedes cultural dimensions, the study determined that there were statistically significant differences between the countries regarding perceptions of food quality, socialising place, and convenience. In general, the US perceived McDonalds more critically than other countries whereas Egypt and Vietnam viewed it more favourably. The most apparent application is that culture needs prime consideration before planning to enter any country for business, irrespective of how popular, standardised operations, and procedures are. It is critical to determine the service perceptions of the target market particularly for an international chain restaurant, where similarities and differences of the various countries and cultures may have a profound impact. Other implications for practitioners and academics are discussed.
    Keywords: quick service restaurants; QSRs; cultural differences; Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; McDonald’s; service perceptions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10040397
  • Starbucks Corporation in Albania: a discussion about franchising path and opportunities in global economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Agim Mamuti, Megi Ikonomi, Francesco Caputo 
    Abstract: Internationalization and globalization are challenging topics that are attracting the interest of a growing number of researchers worldwide. Unfortunately, the state of literature about these topics is mainly focused on the consequences and effects of companies internationalization and market globalization underestimating the evaluation process that is required for ensuring the success of strategy for companys internationalization. With the aim to enrich this thrilling debate, the paper proposes a brief overview about some key elements that a well-known global brand Starbucks - should evaluate for evaluating a possible penetration strategy in Albanian Market. The research path summarizes key reflections about companys profile, companys financial structure, and market perceptions and orientation for briefly depicting the complexity of internationalization strategies and globalization trends.
    Keywords: Globalisation and International Business; Starbucks; Franchising; Accounting; Licensed stores; Financial ratios.

  • Evaluating the Competitiveness using Revealed Comparative Advantage Index: The Case of Indian Textile Exports   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahul Dhiman 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the competitiveness of Indian textile products in the global market by using Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (RCA) during the period of 2014 to 2018. The present study also offers suggestions to the decision-makers so that export shares of Indian textile commodities in the world market can be enhanced. The results of the study indicate that the majority of the textile commodities have RCA greater than one which indicates comparative advantage while some of them do not. Out of total eleven products seven products are competitive. The commodities such as Silk; Cotton; Vegetable textile fibresnes, paper yarn, woven fabric; Manmade filament; Manmade staple fibers; Carpets and other textile floor coverings and Special woven or tufted fabric, lace, tapestry, etc. are found to be competitive. Impregnated, coated or laminated textile fabric and Special woven or tufted fabric, lace, tapestry are the commodities which are growing at a rapid rate. The study suggests that government support is mandatory in order to transform the labour productivity and technology upgradation to match world standards. The study also reveals that USA, UK, UAE, China, and Bangladesh are major export destinations of textile commodities and India should explore more opportunities by creating demand of these commodities specifically in China and Bangladesh which are geographically closer as compared to other nations.
    Keywords: Export Competitiveness; Revealed Comparative Advantage; Textile Industry.

  • Infrastructure Financing at Crossroads: The Case of Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services Ltd. (India)   Order a copy of this article
    by Ambuj Gupta 
    Abstract: The liquidity scare and credit crunch in the economy triggered in early September, 2018 when the saga of serial credit defaults was marked by Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services Ltd., one of the biggest group companies in India, engaged with the infrastructure financing and development in the country. In repercussion, financial markets went into panic where stock markets shed heavily, investors lost millions and various institutional investors like banks, mutual funds, pension funds and insurance companies, etc. faced severe liquidity crisis. Carrying huge debt of 20 billion USD in its balance sheet with severe shortage of liquidity and dried-up sources of refinancing, more defaults were most likely in pipeline. In order to tackle the gravity of the situation, government appointed a high-level board of experts under the leadership of Uday Kotak, the Vice-chairman & Managing Director of Kotak Mahindra Bank and an iconic banker, to take control of IL&FS group, and tread-on to a viable path of debt resolution and restructuring. The IL&FS is the classic case of crony capitalism, collusion & fraud and failure of corporate governance. The case questions the efficacy of various systemic components of the economy including the auditing practice, the functioning of credit rating agencies and their credit rating methodology, the regulatory and supervisory system of financial institutions, and also, management control from the government as well as public sector giants holding significant shareholding in the IL&FS group. The case draws important lessons for strengthening regulatory environment in the country.
    Keywords: Infrastructure Financing; IL&FS; India; NBFCs; Shadow Banking; Credit Default; Corporate Governance; Crony Capitalism; Collusion & fraud; Liquidity Crisis; Debt Resolution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2019.10030293
  • Cross-Cultural Training and Expatriates Adjustment: Evidence from Western Expatriates in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by John O. Okpara, Jean Kabongo 
    Abstract: The increase in globalization of business has led to more expatriate managers to be sent to overseas to manage multinational subsidiaries than ever before, there is every indication that the use of expatriate managers will continue to increase in the future. Researchers have indicated that between 25 to 40% of all expatriates sent on foreign assignments return home prematurely. One of the reasons for expatriates failure is the inability of expatriate managers and their families to adapt to the host-country's culture. Lack of cross-cultural training has also been cited as one of the reasons for expatriate failure. Cross-cultural training has been described as one of global human resource management's most crucial activities and the potential benefits of effective cross-cultural training have been widely recognized. Very few of studies have been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. Since there are so little studies in Nigeria, there is a knowledge gap on this topic. To fill this gap, and increase our understanding on this important topic, the purpose of this research therefore, is to examine the impact of cross-cultural training on western expatriates adjustment in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Africa; Nigeria; expatriates; cross-cultural training; expatriate adjustments,globalisation.

  • Observing legitimacy building in the reproduction and promotion of an entrepreneurial elite: The Scottish Entrepreneurial Exchange, 1995-2015.   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Smith, Lorraine Warren 
    Abstract: Seldom are entrepreneurs considered as a collective phenomenon, although they form a privileged socio-economic elite with material resources and clout. From an organisational perspective, we know little about how successful entrepreneurs organise themselves to leverage collective legitimacy, nor the societal mechanisms used to achieve this. To operationalise this we examine the Scottish Entrepreneurial Exchange, a networking organisation for high net-worth entrepreneurs. Using close reading and observational techniques we interrogate the website to uncover legitimacy building mechanisms such as alignment, association and fraternity used by Exchange members. Enacting collective mechanisms including fraternizing, legitimates both the individual and the collective. We highlight the importance of collective elements of entrepreneurial identity and legitimacy building pointing to underlying social implications in further studying fraternal aspects of collective entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial elites; social organising; identity; collectives; legitimacy.

  • Factors Impacting Banking Frauds in India: A Conceptual Framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Pallavi Sood, Puneet Bhushan 
    Abstract: The Indian banking sector has witnessed exponential growth and changes since liberalisation of economy in 19901991. Reserve Bank of India is the chief regulator of the banking sector and has done a reasonable work in close supervision. Never ending banking frauds pose a serious challenge to the government, banking sector as also the regulator. Growing challenges also fall in the realm of ethical practices, financial distress and corporate governance. This study looked at the cases of bank frauds listed by central vigilance commission, in order to understand the underlying issues in frauds in various sectors, different banking instruments used to commit frauds and the regulatory lapses in the banking sector. A detailed analysis was done by using secondary data (literature review and case approach) as well as an interview-based approach, spanning across all players involved in reporting, regulating and dealing indirectly or directly in the financial misconduct. The analysis acts as an anchor to study the components of frauds and define the role of regulators in the whole game plan. The study finally proposes some recommendations to reduce future occurrence of frauds in Indian banking sector.
    Keywords: central vigilance commission; financial distress; banking frauds; regulatory lapses; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2019.10032092
  • Popularity of Facebook Hotel Brand-page posts among consumers: A study of Top 10 international and domestic hospitality brands in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratibha Singh, Neena Sinha, Manali Gupta 
    Abstract: Marketers have recognized the unprecedented popularity of social networking sites and are prompting to invest in their social media presence to disseminate information and marketing messages. In specific, hospitality brands are establishing Facebook pages with the relevant information that contain anecdotes, photos, videos or other multimedia content. Such innovative communication mediums promote interaction among members of the brand page and facilitate their direct feedback through online engagement metrics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the content of the posts published on the official Facebook brand pages of the top 10 international and domestic hotels operating in India and investigate their impact on the online engagement of users. The authors have performed manual coding for 950 posts by following a systematic coding strategy and thereafter, have applied the multivariate analysis. The findings contribute to the theory of information dissemination through social media platform and serve as a guide to hotels brand marketers in identifying posts characteristics that would be able to generate positive online responses.
    Keywords: Facebook brand pages; online engagement; hospitality industry; content analysis; interactivity; vividness; multivariate analysis.

  • The Evolution of Asian Studies in Israel   Order a copy of this article
    by Meron Medzini 
    Abstract: There are many reasons why Asian studies got a late start in Israeli universities. Until the 1960s there was an absence of interest, there were hardly political, diplomatic and above all economic ties between fledgling Israel and the nations of South and East Asia. There were very few interested students, even fewer professors with the proper training. Universities in Israel did not see the worth of such studies compared to the Western oriented history, philosophy and politics, not to mention Jewish studies. There were very few books in Hebrew let alone in other languages available at university libraries. All this changed in the 1960s. This paper will discuss what were the reasons for the absence of Asian studies and what brought about the change that led to the flourishing of these studies that now attract hundreds of Israeli students every year.
    Keywords: Israel; East Asia; Ben-Gurion; Sharett; The Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Tel Aviv University; Haifa University; Zvi Schiffrrin.

    by Jefferson Monticelli, Renata Bernardon, Patrice Gaidzinski, Guilherme Trez 
    Abstract: The study of the internationalisation processes of family businesses has grown significantly in the last decades. However, there is no specific literature on the topic internationalisation as well as on its relationships with the transgenerational aspects of family businesses from emerging economies. Thus, this article aims to investigate the level of relevance of the internationalisation process as a factor for successful practises across generations in family businesses. To answer this question, a case study was carried out with a third-generation family business in Southern Brazil. The main results are that internationalisation can be an element of the revitalisation of the business, thus avoiding its decline. At least some of the members must take on the responsibility for continuing the founder's legacy, communicating clearly with the other family members who are not involved in the management to establish a dynamic among all shareholders.
    Keywords: family business; internationalisation; transgenerational practices; generations; emerging economies; behavioural approach; case study; focus group; industrial context; family business context; internationalisation process; family context; social context.

  • How and why do the Poor Save? Determinants of Saving Behaviour of Rural Poor   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonal Purohit 
    Abstract: This study examined the savings behaviour of rural poor with a focus on the motives of saving and preferred savings mechanisms. One of the major causes of financial distress in lower income groups especially in developing countries has been lack of sustainable saving. The existing literature has mainly focused on the saving capacities of rural poor which is inadequate in explaining the saving behaviour. Building on the existing theories a more systematic view on savings motives and mechanisms preferred by this segment is presented in this research. The results revealed that the poor do not save for a goal and the only motive which significantly increases the likelihood of saving is to reduce the need for credit. Creating a corpus for medical exigencies was a major motive for informal saving. Providing a basic sustenance financial foundation for children was found to be a major motive for saving and this probably is a new finding which needs further research. This research has important implications for policymakers and financial professionals in formulating recommendations or developing financial, business plans.
    Keywords: Rural Savings; Saving motives; financial inclusion; Low income; Asia; India.

  • Female Education and Economic Growth: An empirical investigation for Egypt.   Order a copy of this article
    by Yasmina Hamouda, Noha Farrag 
    Abstract: Since the seventies, Egypt has been pursuing policies to boost female education . However, no empirical study has attempted to quantify the impact of female education on the Egyptian economy. This paper examines the effect of female education on economic growth in Egypt between 1971-2014, using time-series analysis. Cointegration test and error correction model are utilised to examine long-run relationship and short-run granger causality between female verses male education and economic growth. Results suggest that the expansion of female education does not granger cause economic growth in the short-run. The remarkable finding of the study is that female education has a significant positive impact on economic growth in the long-run even more pronounced than that of male education, labour, and capital. The paper recommends a number of policy interventions to maximize womens education impact on sustainable economic growth in Egypt.
    Keywords: economic growth; gender equality; female education; women empowerment; average years of schooling; human capital; time-series analysis; cointegration; error correction model; granger causality; Egypt.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2019.10029493
  • Globalisation and HR Practices in Africa: When culture refuses to make way for so-called universalistic perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Dieu Hack-Polay, John Opute, Mahfuzur Rahman 
    Abstract: The paper examines how some factors that are embedded in the cultural and institutional framework in Sub-Saharan African organisations interact with global perspectives and the degree of resistance they present to changes in human resource management (HRM) processes. The paper considers aspects of the universalistic perspectives that have resonance for human resource practices in Africa. Furthermore, it evaluates the question of the tensions between the contributions derived from the indigenous and historical factors, and the inputs from external sources, to human resource management in Africa. rnThe research is based on a survey of 100 practicing African human resources professionals. The respondents were drawn from the major institutional actors in Nigeria. rnThe research found that, despite the impact of globalisation and the Westernisaion of training and development in Africa, HRM practices remain largely culture-bound. Many aspects of Sub-Saharan African cultures pervade organisational processes, e.g. collectivism and paternalism, that refuse to make way for change. However, the paper concludes that some of these temerarious cultural aspects that are often described as counter-productive in much of the literature, could actually be utilised for community and employee engagement. rnThe paper makes a significant contribution to the literature on HRM practices in Africa, an area under-researched. It provides an opportunity to African HR managers to be more pragmatic in identifying the contextual issues and for beginning to identify aspects of African culture that could be value-adding in a fast changing management landscape. The paper demonstrates that HRM policies have specific cultural orientations and reflect on both the societal predispositions of the region; this exemplifies how cultural paradigms, the political sphere and organisational life are intertwined in an African context.rn
    Keywords: Culture; normative social influence; HR practices; globalisation; Sub-Saharan Africa; universalistic perspectives.

  • Entrepreneurial Grit: A Reflective Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Alex Lawrence, Norris Krueger 
    Abstract: To the popular mind, for entrepreneurs, could there be a more relevant construct than grit? This much-ballyhooed personal characteristic of determined, intentional perseverance should be a potent predictor of entrepreneurial behavior and success (e.g., Conner 2013). Why is it then that we see such mixed results of the impact of grit on entrepreneurial phenomena? In this review, we explore various aspects of how the psychological variable grit is applied to our understanding of entrepreneurial thinking, behavior, and performance and closely related domains.
    Keywords: Entrepreneur; Grit; Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Success.

  • Socio Economic Relations between India and China: Understanding and Examining the Significance of Trade   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Kolte, Balkrishan Sangvikar, Avinash Pawar, Qu Lirong 
    Abstract: In recent years, two giant countries China and India, are taking attention from the world due to fast economic developments. China is the firstlargest economy and India is the third-largest economy in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) on purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. China has a dominating position in international trade, whereas Indias trade has shown sluggish growth. In this research, we analysed socio-economic relations between India and China and deliberated to understand socio-economic relations between both the countries, mainly emphasising on trade. We used data such as GDP trends, bilateral trade trends, relative competitive advantage index, the complementarity index to explain the trade complementary of bilateral trade and reasons for trade confliction between India and China. It is found that cooperation, competition, and confliction coexist in the socioeconomic relations potential economic collaborations are possible between India and China to bring a bright future for both countries.
    Keywords: bilateral trade; trade cooperation; competition; confliction; India; China; socio-economic relations; economic integration; trade management; common currency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10031474
  • Assessing the barriers and positive impacts due to good Corporate Social Responsibility implementation: An Exploration of policymakers perceptions of select public and private entities   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Srivastava, Raj Laxmi Srivastava 
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to assess the barriers and positive impacts due to good Corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation by selected private and public sector companies of Uttar Pradesh. The findings of the study indicate that most of the policymakers belonging to private and public sector entities disagree to a large extent regards to the barriers faced by them while implementing CSR activities. The policymakers believe to a great extent that good implementation of CSR activities bring a good positive response as it changes the perception of people towards the companys activities. It is recommended that in order to maximize the positive impact of CSR on the social and environmental systems in which they operate companies must develop coherent CSR strategies. This should be an essential part of the job of every CEO and board.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; stakeholder; perception.

  • Commercial Bank Employees Job Burnout: Hope or Hype?   Order a copy of this article
    by Saidur Rahaman, Mohammad Jamal Uddin, Mohammad Mizanur Rahman, Adedeji Babatunji Samuel 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to find out the hopes in dealing with bank employees job burnout. The study was based on a sample of 225 bank employees in Bangladesh. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used as the survey instrument. Descriptive Statistics, Zero Order Correlation and Linear Regression Equation Model were used and revealed that 45.3% employees have little sign, 38.7% at risk, 10.2% no sign, 5.3% in the way and only 0.4% severe risk of burnout. Empirical results also showed that work stressors positively and work centered support variables negatively correlate with employees burnout. Work pressure and work overload have been found as burnout creating variables and good employer-employee relation reduces burnout. So, working towards preventing job burnout should not be the hype, rather, helping employees to have a hope of overcoming the job burnout need be emphasized by the management.
    Keywords: Depersonalization; De-accomplishment; Emotional Exhaustion; Industrial Relations; Job Burnout; Private Commercial Bank; Role Overload and Work Time Pressure.

  • An Impact Assessment of Official Development Assistance: Empirical Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashwani Bishnoi 
    Abstract: The roles of foreign aid in economic growth through enhanced investment, technology transfer, human resource development, etc. have been well attested by existing economics literature. But the extent to which foreign aid contributes to economic and social infrastructure has been overlooked in the literature. In this context present study intends to capture the impact of Official Development Assistance (ODA) on economic and social infrastructure of India. The study considers the specific case of UK and Japanese ODA being active supporters of both the forms of infrastructure in India. The results suggest that these two countries ODA play significant role in shaping the economic infrastructure of India. Intensity of impact is more tuned to the UKs ODA compared to Japanese ODA. The study also evidences that the less effectiveness of governance and poor regulations hamper the pace of infrastructure development in the country. The study also provides evidence of strong impact of UK's ODA in social infrastructure development of India.
    Keywords: Official development assistance; Economic & social Infrastructure; Japan; India.

  • Effect of Trade Shock on Inequality, Unemployment and Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Chinwe Okoyeuzu, Ebere Ume Kalu, Angela Ukemenam, Augustine Ujunwa 
    Abstract: We studied the impact of trade shocks on inequality, unemployment and inflation in 35-Sub-Saharan African countries from 1997 to 2018. Using the VECM framework, we confirm a strong correlation among trade, inequality, unemployment and inflation, and find that adverse shock from trade promotes inequality, unemployment and inflation in Sub-Saharan African countries. This implies that the gains from trade are elusive in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the channels of the negative shocks could be imports surge relative to exports, job loss by workers in sectors with greater initial exposure to export surge, imported inflation and labour immobility between trade partners. Based on the findings, the study recommends that Sub-Saharan African countries need to rethink their trade engagement, in terms of restructuring their economies and strategic engagement with trade partners to optimise the gains of trade.
    Keywords: trade shocks; inequality; competitiveness problem; VECM; cointegration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10038178
    by Rajesh R 
    Abstract: Corporate Diversification is one of the most sought-after approaches to strengthen a firms global presence, improve shareholders wealth, provide economies of scale, secure competitive advantage, align corporate culture and ultimately provide higher revenues. It also sometimes, forms a part of firms corporate restructuring activity. The IT sector is one such industry in India having high exports with a GDP contribution of 7.7 percent. The aim of this research paper is to provide empirical evidence on the effect of Geographic and Segment diversification on the financial performance of the Indian IT sector. The study was done on 12 listed IT firms representing 93% market share on BSE/NSE. This study has relied on historical accounting data generated from annual reports and CMIE Prowess database collected between the period 2014 and 2018. Using the Entropy measure for segment diversification and the ratio of foreign sales to total sales for product diversification, with performance indicators such as the ROA and ROI, this paper relates firm performance and diversification for the Indian IT sector. Standard econometric regression analysis on panel data was carried out to find the stated relationship. The results of the regression analysis revealed that international/geographic diversification impacted strongly on IT firms profitability whereas product/segment diversification had no significant impact on the firms profitability. Conclusively, firms tend to improve their profitability and performance by encouraging export of services and products to foreign countries and by undertaking international diversification strategies. This study also proves the existence of demand for Indian IT sector in other countries. These results could be useful in decision making for top managers of IT companies as they advocate the need for diversification (specialization) and growth in size and also provide encouragement to small-scale Indian IT companies to undertake international diversification activities with confidence.
    Keywords: Corporate restructuring; Entropy index; Geographic diversification; Product diversification; Financial performance.

  • I saw it, I bought It! The irrational buying behaviour in retail sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Komal Malik, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: Consumers across the world have been creating a whirlpool around non-rationality, which has immersed the retail industry into volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA). This study has attempted to capture the non-rational behaviour of Indian consumers with reference to the apparel retail sector through experiential design of research. The review of the literature brings about various situations or conditions; wherein non-rational decisions were undertaken by a buyer. The Indian retail industry holds over 10% of the gross domestic product of the country. The findings reveal a genesis of rationality and non-rationality. It explores the antecedents and epistemology of non-rational purchases from the economic perspective. Parametric statistical tools were employed to test the stated hypothesis. The outcome of the study may reveal methods to marketers for pushing products. On the contrary an important research query emerges, whether the seeing and buying nature in consumerism, will burden any economy?
    Keywords: apparels; brand; retail industry; non-rationality; situational-factors; buying-behaviour; decision; economy; volatility; uncertainty; complexity and ambiguity; VUCA; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10041804
  • PUBG Addiction: The Effects on the Social Engagement, Mental Health and Academic Performance of the Millennials   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpi Gupta, Ishfaq Hussain Bhat 
    Abstract: The popularity of PUBG game has created a massive impact on Indias gaming audience by making competitive gaming accessible to casual players. Although PUBG game has a far-reaching impact and massive popularity, it has got certain addiction connotations as well. Therefore, the study examines the effects of PUBG addiction on the mental health and academic performance of the millennials. The study also investigates the mediation effect of social engagement between PUBG addiction and mental health. The moderation effect of gender of the respondents has also been investigated on the grounded model. The study has used an online standardised questionnaire on a sample of 300 students, chosen through purposive sampling technique. The findings of the study reveal that PUBG addiction has got an inverse effect on the academic performance and mental health of millennials. Partial mediation effect of social engagement has also been found. The study has also found that males are more addicted to the PUBG game as compared to their female counterparts. The study helps the academicians, parents and policymakers in gauging the addictive effects of PUBG game and thus designing policies to combat the usage of the game.
    Keywords: PUBG addiction; social engagement; mental health; academic performance gratification.

    by Ebere Ume Kalu, Augustine Arize, J. U. J. Onwumere, Elizabeth Uzoamaka Okechukwu 
    Abstract: The study is concerned with establishing whether a link exists among interest rate, credit, exchange rate and private investment with focus on the Nigerian economy. Here, our variables of interest include the natural log of private investment, bank credit and the level form of the exchange rate while controlling for interest rate. The sets of data are drawn from the statistical bulletin of the Nigerian Central Bank which is one of the most dependable data source for studies involving Nigeria. 1981 to 2016 representing a 36 year period. Following the ARDL bound test and error correction approach, the elasticity of private investment to the studied variables follows thus: 32% and 46% for its own first and second lag respectively; 141% and -131% for the contemporaneous and first lag value of credit respectively; 5% for interest rate with exchange rate showing a non-significant elasticity of 0.01%. The ECM suggests that the studied private investment adjusts to the speed and dynamics of interest rate, credit and investment. By way of policy implication, we submit that it has become more imperative than ever before for the government in collaboration with the monetary authorities to evolve an interest rate, credit creation policies and exchange rate that work to stimulate investment in particular and growth in general.
    Keywords: Investment. Credit; Interest Rate; ARDL; Nigeria.

  • "Israel's secret is its Chutzpah" : The Role of Chutzpah in Israel's entrepreneurship and innovation Scene An Interpretive Essay   Order a copy of this article
    by Eyal Inbar 
    Abstract: The paper offers a unique explanation for Israels success as the Start-up Nation and for Israelis drive for innovation. It analyses the phenomenon of chutzpah, referred to by Israels former President Shimon Peres as Israel's secret as a Jewish/Israeli trait which encourages entrepreneurship and innovation in that country. This explanation focuses on a national Jewish/Israeli culture and not on the eco-system developed by the government, the effective VC industry, Israels geo-strategic situation and other explanations offered by the literature.
    Keywords: Israel; chutzpah; national culture; innovation; entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040398
  • Examining the Psychological Strain--Affective Organisational Commitment Relationship When Jointly Moderated by Emotional Support and In-group Collectivism: A Cross-Cultural Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by David Ford, Ray Fang, Kiran Ismail, Laurie Ziegler, Hao Chen, Diane McNulty 
    Abstract: We develop a framework to study the effects of emotional support in the relationship between psychological strain and affective organisational commitment in different cultural contexts. Based on the job demands-resources model and conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that employees emotional support and in-group collectivism orientation jointly moderate the relationship between psychological strain and affective organisational commitment. We tested the hypothesis on a sample of 2702 respondents from eight different countries: Germany, India, Indonesia, Poland, South Korea, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and the United States. The results highlight the roles of emotional support and in-group collectivism in employees responses to psychological strain.
    Keywords: job demands-resources model; conservation of resources theory; emotional support; psychological strain; in-group collectivism; affective organisational commitment.

    by Vimal Srivastava, Raj Laxmi Srivastava 
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to compare the key Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices being practiced by selected private and public sector companies with special reference to education and healthcare practices. The study has made use of 200 respondents who were randomly approached. The findings of the study indicate CSR activities of the selected firms in India are primarily addressing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) relating to health; education; work and economic growth, gender equality; water and sanitation; and life on land. The most desired activity as a part of healthcare according to policymakers of public sector entities were organising health check-up camps. The organisations do not have the capability to take over the responsibility of governments in contributing to community wellbeing just as their essential job is intrinsically determined by economic requirements. However, it has also been seen that there is a slight difference as far as the activity of Health Check-up camps is concerned i.e. the percentage of involvement of the public sector is more than that of the private sector. The private sector corporates in India need to follow the example of these large public sector companies of India, and there is a need to bridge the gap in resource allocation for CSR activities between the public and the private firms. There is a call to open up new spaces and make available new frameworks for organisation and stakeholder dialogues.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; stakeholder; perception.

  • Emotional Labour, Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance: A Mixed Methods Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Binod Rajak, Punam Singh 
    Abstract: The rapid growth and development of the tourism sector has given rise to in a significant and manifold acceleration in competition. Survival and success in the industry has become synonymous with ensuring the happiness and satisfaction of external as well as internal customers. Thus, in order to stay in-business, it has become imperative to please both customers and employees alike. The study presents a conceptual model and examines the mediating role of job satisfaction (JS) between emotional labour (EL) and Employee Performance (EP). With the help of an explanatory mixed methods approach in which quantitative analysis was followed by a qualitative. Qualitative study consisting of a semi-structured interview which elaborated on the initial findings to understand EL, JS and EP from an employee perspective. Our investigation found that JS has a significant effect and partially mediate the relationship among EL and EP.
    Keywords: emotional labour; employee performance; job satisfaction; mediation; mixed methods approach.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10032882
  • Understanding Workplace Culture in Malaysia: Cultural Characteristics of Chinese-Malaysian Ethnic Society   Order a copy of this article
    by Ling Suan Choo, Hassan Abu Bakar, Stacey L. Connaughton 
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to unearth the cultural characteristics of the Chinese-Malaysian ethnic society. Data collected from in-depth, one-on-one interviews with 25 participants revealed three themes that help us understand the between-group and within-group characteristics of Chinese ethnic group members in Malaysia: community affiliation and embeddedness, survival culture, and respect culture. These categories of meanings point to some unique ways in which cultural norms and values are conceptualised, valued, and constructed by Chinese-Malaysian ethnic group members. Findings suggest that Chinese Confucianism and native norms and values materialise in the Chinese-Malaysian context when members of the society are able to communicate constructively with each other through their own community affiliation, a feature that is itself part of their ethnic identity. The findings of this study have important theoretical and practical implications for managing cross-cultural and multi-ethnic relationships in the workplace.
    Keywords: cross-cultural relationships; norms; values; workplace diversity; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10037289
  • The effect of tribalism, Islam and nationalism in the Family capital- family firm resilience relationship in Arab countries: evidence from Western Sahara   Order a copy of this article
    by Saikat Gochhait 
    Abstract: Regarded as the resource stock that composes the family firms resilience capacity, family capital is dependent on family values as well as on organisational, social, and national factors. Some of the studies undertaken on family firms resilience have mainly focused on western contexts, overlooking some other relevant settings such as Arab countries where western values yet to be adopted. To address the gaps, this study examines how two influential factors of Arab family firms management impact on the relationship between family capital and family firms resilience: the tribal-oriented values and Islamic values. Moreover, by focusing on a set of five Arab family firms located on a unique Arab territory where a minority community (Sahrawi) has developed an own necessary idiosyncrasy to survive among the powerful dominant (Moroccan) social capital, this research also shed light on how nationalism affects the impact of family capital on organisational resilience. The findings of this study show that tribalism, Islamic values and nationalism are critical determinants of family firms survival in Arab settings.
    Keywords: family firms; family capital; organisational resilience; Arab setting; tribalism; Islam; nationalism; Western Sahara.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10041043
  • The Determinants of Export Performance of Jordanian SMEs: A Comparative Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Khalil Al-Hyari 
    Abstract: This study aims to explore the current export determinants for SMEs in Jordan and how these determinants influence the export performance by focusing on firms mainly exporting to the Middle East and Europe. The study is based on the qualitative multi-case study research approach. The case study data were collected from 30 SMEs managers/owners. The findings have identified that export performance is negatively influenced by political environment, technological environment, economic environment, firm capabilities, and export marketing, whereas it is positively influenced by firm size, and the firms previous experience. The study will help policy makers in putting the policies for SMEs to be able to remove the exports obstacles while enhancing SMEs owners and managers awareness of the internationalisation barriers, thus aiding them to find appropriate export assistance from the government. Furthermore, the originality of this study lies in the new context in which it was conducted.
    Keywords: export performance; Jordanian SMEs; Europe; Middle East; international business; export barriers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10038129
  • Entrepreneurial Activity for Discontinuous Innovation in Established Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Masamichi Ishii 
    Abstract: Previous research has discussed how to create discontinuous innovation (DI), which produces a breakthrough product, in established companies. A few studies have shown that the entrepreneurial activity is conducted to develop DI in established companies. However, these studies provided significantly different explanations of how the entrepreneurial activity is conducted. In other words, the understanding of the entrepreneurial activity remains insufficient. Previous research has discussed how to produce DI without sufficient understanding of the entrepreneurial activity. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting a multiple-case study on five DI projects. The results contribute to the literature in two ways. First, they enhance the understanding of the entrepreneurial activity to identify opportunities for DI in established companies. Second, they figure out the active role of top management to promote the entrepreneurial activity to develop DI.
    Keywords: discontinous innovation; radical innovation; disruptive innovation; entrepreneurship; corporate entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial opportunity; prior knowledge; idea generation; Japan; manufacturing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035811
  • Do Business-Friendly Regulations Foster Corporate Social Performance? Evidence from 20 Emerging Market Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Namporn Thanetsunthorn, Rattaphon Wuthisatian 
    Abstract: The present study sheds light on businesses socially responsible behaviour under a growing trend of ease of doing business deregulation in emerging markets. The study performs a wide range of statistical methods (e.g., Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, ordinary least squares regression, generalised least squares, censored regression) to empirically examine the impact of ease of doing business deregulation on emerging market firms socially responsible behaviour using a sample of 1,465 firms from 20 emerging market countries Brazil, Chile, China, Columbia, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates. The findings suggest the positive impact of ease of doing business deregulation on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance, especially in the community dimension. More specifically, under a more business-friendly regulatory environment in emerging markets, firms are likely to demonstrate socially responsible behaviour through greater CSR efforts by making substantial positive contributions toward the communities within which their business operations are embedded. The findings further provide meaningful implications for business firms and policy makers regarding the role of community-related CSR initiatives as a strategic instrument in promoting community development and addressing socio-economic challenges in emerging markets.
    Keywords: deregulation; corporate social responsibility; ease of doing business; emerging markets; community development; government regulations.

    by Jaime De Pablo, Juan Uribe-Toril, Jose Luis Ruiz-Real 
    Abstract: Tourism is one of the most important sectors in the global economy and has been gaining momentum in the last several years, both in developed countries as well as emerging economies. The aim of this article is, by means of a bibliometric analysis and using a fractional counting method, to identify articles related to global tourism and economics in the indexed articles within the WoS and Scopus databases. In terms of the number of documents, 1,720 articles were found on WoS and 2,724 on Scopus. The research also shows the evolution in the number of articles published on this theme, the most influential countries in terms of published articles, the most relevant organisations, the most prolific authors and journals. It also analyses the most recent research trends, including methodologies of growing interest related to tourist motivation, improved management, pricing policy or the planning of large events.
    Keywords: tourism; worldwide research; bibliometric; state-of-art; tourism trends.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10041710
  • Formulating and Redesigning Retention Policies for Millennial at Manufacturing Industries of Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by M.D. Mahamudul Hassan, Sabrina Nushrat Islam, Manimekalai Jambulingam, Mohammad Nurul Alam, Sharif Hosen 
    Abstract: The manufacturing industries of the private sector plays a significant role in the overall development of any country. Despite its phenomenal success, private sectors are facing enormous challenges due to the frequent turnover of millennial all over the world. These enormous turnovers took place due to the absence of Job satisfaction. Whereas turnover causes massive overt and covert losses. Moreover, the study reveals that this emerging problem is likely to continue in the future also. Despite some related studies carried out in the western context, the issue of frequent millennial turnover remains unresolved. Therefore, the primary objective of the study was to observe the mediating role of job satisfaction on integrated retention strategy for retaining the Millennial employees in private sectors. Herzberg's two factors theory was used as the foundations of the study. A simple probability sampling technique was used to identify 500 samples from the target population of Bangladeshi manufacturing industries. SPSS and SEM (AMOS) were used to analyse the data, to create the model and to reveal the mediating effects of job satisfaction. The results show a significant positive relationship with retention, Job satisfaction, and millennial retention factors (servant leadership, management initiative, soft HRM, Work-life balance). But the ethical climate did not have any significant relationship with retention mediating through Job satisfaction. The findings and recommendations of the study can be considered by all the stakeholders of the manufacturing sectors to overcome the massive millennial turnover losses. Moreover, the study concluded by highlighting the contributions, various limitations and research directives for future researchers.
    Keywords: Retention ,Policy; Millennial ,Generation Y; Mediation ,Job Satisfaction,HRM,Turn Over,Generation Y.

  • Small and Medium Enterprises and Low-Income Workers in the Global Value Chain: Evidence from Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Miguel Angel Esquivias, Lilik Sugiharti, Rossanto Dwi Handoyo, Muryani Muryani 
    Abstract: This paper looks at changes experienced by Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) as well as by workers in Indonesia as a result of fragmentation in production networks. Indonesian value-added exports expanded 285% from 1995 to 2011, changing patterns of trade as it re-directed focus towards Asia, towards specific sectors (mining and manufacturing), and became more specialised in intermediate goods. However, it remains to assess to which extent liberalisation supported inclusive growth in Indonesia for SMEs, and to lower-skilled workers. Through an Inter-Country Input-Output dataset, this study measures the participation of Indonesia in the Global Value Chain (GVC) and deconstructs gross exports into value-added indicators that differentiate between intermediate or final goods; direct and indirect value exports; domestic and foreign value-added. By integrating two additional datasets (industrial survey and labour), this study links gains at firm size and jobs. This paper discusses how the GVC integrates the less skilful workers and smaller firms, and how deep is the change in exports as a result of deeper integration in Indonesia comparing the years 1995 and 2011. Although nearly 83% of exports are reported through large firms, SME participates by providing services, parts and components to exporters. Direct exports of SMEs are concentrated in a few sectors; however, the indirect content reaches more than 30% of total domestic value exported (forward role).
    Keywords: Production Networks; jobs in exports; Indonesia; Global Value Chain; Value-added trade.

  • Challenges of Work Life and Coping Modalities: A Study of Work Life Balance of Married Working Women with Special Reference to Public and Private Sector Banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Farzana Khan, D.B. Singh 
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to examine the relationship and the effect of Work Life Balance (WLB) on the married women employees personal life, primary responsibilities, work life-job satisfaction and retention working in the selected public sector banks. Descriptive analysis, correlation and regression analysis techniques are used to analyse the collected data in this research study. Purposive and convenience sampling technique has been used for data collection. It is found that there is a positive relationship and effect of WLB on married women employees personal, primary responsibilities and work life i.e. job satisfaction and retention. The study shows that the married women employees working in the public and private sector banks of have medium level of WLB. It is expected that a person cannot fully live the life he/she desires unless they manage a perfect work-life balance.
    Keywords: Personal life; Work life; Work life Balance; Primary career; Job satisfaction; Retention.

  • Employee Affection Strategies through Employer Branding: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Sathyanarayana , Veena Shenoy, Nivedita Jha 
    Abstract: Employer branding has taken substantial consideration in recent times. Employer brand has developed an actual and a vital instrument to achieve competitive advantage in current corporate world over its rivals. The current study helped us to understand the employee affection in Indian manufacturing sector based on employer branding, employee retention strategies, organisation culture, organisational identification and employee welfare activities as attributes. The 250 responses from Peenya industrial area in Bangalore city, India, are collected to prove the regression model proposed in this study. Regression results show Employer Branding (X1), Organisation culture (X3), Organisational Identification (X4) and Employee Welfare (X5) were the significant determinants of employee affection. A strong employer branding strategy both internal and external can positively contribute to enhanced recruitment of talents to the organisation, retention of the existing workforce and also assists to differentiate the company from the competitors.
    Keywords: Employee Affection; Employer branding; employer attractiveness; employee engagement; brand management.

  • Male preference in television advertisements for financial services: a content analysis (2011 vs. 2018)   Order a copy of this article
    by Namrata Sandhu 
    Abstract: This study utilises the expectancy theory framework to examine the distribution of gender roles in Indian television advertisements for financial services. The study also uses a short-term longitudinal framework (2011 vs. 2018) to assess changes in gender role portrayals in television advertisements for financial services. Content analysis of taped television commercials for financial services across four content analytic measures: gender of voice-over, gender of dominant product user, gender of dominant character, and gender of decision-maker revealed male preference in advertisements for financial services. The study also revealed that the incidence of male gender roles in advertisements for financial services has declined from 2011 to 2018. Implications are discussed. This study is one of the few studies that examine gender stereotypy in advertisements for financial services in a country that is culturally distant from other countries in which most of the studies on advertising/marketing of financial services have been previously conducted.
    Keywords: gender; gender role; gender portrayal; stereotype; advertisements; commercials; financial services; expectancy theory; content analysis; television.

  • Consumer Purchase Intention towards Traditional Chinese Medicine   Order a copy of this article
    by S. M. Ferdous Azam, Abdullah Sarwar 
    Abstract: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is not scientifically proven and standardised. Hence, the customer depends highly on the credibility of the provider. However, there is a lack of research in respect to consumers purchase intention towards traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to model the relative effects of trust, knowledge, perceived price and attitude on the intention of consumers to purchase TCM in a market setting outside China. Data were collected over an eight-week period, using a close-ended questionnaire from 329 respondents in Malaysia. The proposed model of this study was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). Findings showed that trust, attitude and knowledge were significant factors in determining consumer purchase intention towards TCM. This study suggests that marketers should focus more on trust building and on reducing consumer mistrust in order to establish long-term acceptance of and commitment to purchase TCM. Besides, marketers are encouraged to focus more on enhancing consumer knowledge about TCM treatment through education and confidence building experience. Entrepreneurs who want to penetrate into the healthcare industry with TCM treatment need to emphasise the influence of consumer trust and knowledge to foster and expand market share.
    Keywords: consumer preference; traditional Chinese medicine; TCM; trust; perceived price; attitude; purchase intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10038746
  • Statistical modelling of self-employment intentions in higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Josipa Mijo?, Jasna Horvat, Suzana Markovi? 
    Abstract: Self-employment is a fundamental indicator of the proactiveness of individuals, groups or society as a whole, while the measure of success of higher education is the number of participants educated and trained in higher education programs for future proactive inclusion in society. The aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of the proposed model (i.e., the SCC model), which is applied to data collected at a higher education institution and used for modelling self-employment intentions. The SCC model tests the predictive ability of different constructs (motivation for achievement, higher education, theory of planned behaviour, and control variables) related to self-employment intentions. The sample (n = 426) consists of graduate students faced with two future career choices either self-employment or employment in a company (working for someone else). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyse the proposed Model and it was found that the academic context the students are exposed to affects the process of modelling self-employment intentions.
    Keywords: hierarchical regression analysis; measuring intentions; higher education; self-employment intentions; theory of planned behaviour; TPB.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035446
  • Cultural Intelligence as Mediator of Adversity Quotient and Occupational Stress of Indian Managers   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Singh, Tanu Sharma, Anil Sehrawat 
    Abstract: Mangers with adequate knowledge of cultural diversities can handle adversities in a better way, and are able to cope up with occupational stress. They are in a better position to lead their culturally diverse team members through tough and difficult situations arising out of amalgamation of different cultures by setting examples of tolerant and accommodating behaviour towards individuals from alien cultures. This study is an attempt to exemplify the mediating role of cultural intelligence in adversity quotient and occupational stress of managers working in the service sector of India. Data were collected from 670 middle level managers working in the top five service sector industries of India using purposive sampling.
    Keywords: Cultural Intelligence; Adversity Quotient; Occupational Stress; Indian Service sector.

  • Visualising Russian Mafiya Gravestones as iconoclastic representations of an idealised, masculine enterprise culture   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Smith 
    Abstract: Since the 1990s, the Russian Mafiya as a criminal elite has developed a unique masculine enterprise culture, complete with its own customs including conspicuous burial rites. Semiotic appreciation of the phenomenon of Russian \'Mafiya Gravestones\' is not a new consideration having been subject to press and academic scrutiny. This netnographic study, using photo elicitation techniques examines images of the gravestones to help us visualise the phenomenon as a specific cultural phenomenon representing an idealised enterprise culture infused with hyper-masculine values and imagery. From the analysis, common gendered themes emerge which correspond to extant stereotypical representations of both post-Soviet Russian and Western enterprise culture. Russian Enterprise culture in the 1990s projected an idealised scenario whereby the masculine persona of the new entrepreneurs created an iconography in which \'conspicuous consumption\' and \'myopic capitalist imagery\' are celebrated and eulogised via iconic and gendered representation of \'machismo\' and acquired wealth. These are expressed via universal symbols of entrepreneurial success and in particular via the depiction of marque cars, designer suits juxtaposed against religious and cultural symbols. This study develops and furthers our understanding of this vibrant enterprise culture bounded in time and space and exemplifies a study of criminal entrepreneurship in a hard to reach societal context.
    Keywords: Criminal Entrepreneurship; Enterprise Culture; Masculine Entrepreneurial Identity; Conspicuous Consumption; Semiotics.

  • Rethinking the Transfer of the Organisational Culture Model as a Process of Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Salvador Barragan, Elizabeth Salamanca, Murat S. Erogul 
    Abstract: This study adopts a comprehensive approach of organisational culture, through the use of Scheins (2004) cultural model, to understand the complexities and nuances of the process of transferring both the most and the least visible aspects of culture from a multinational corporation (MNC) to its foreign subsidiaries. A single case study of a Mexican MNC is analysed through interviews with human resources executives and company documents. The findings show that the least visible aspects of organisational culture do shed light on the cultural model transfer and that the flexibility to change and/or adapt this model from headquarters (HQ) to the foreign subsidiaries is desirable to accomplish some level of cultural integration. MNCs need to involve managers and employees from HQ and foreign subsidiaries in the change and sense-making processes during the organisational culture transfer. Rigid attempts at imposing cultural mechanisms of control can increase the cost in terms of dealing with resistance.
    Keywords: organisational culture; change; transfer; global; local; glocal; globalisation; multinational.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035449
  • Fiscal Policy and Economic Development: Regional Analysis for India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashwani Bishnoi 
    Abstract: The role of fiscal policy has been heightened in the recent past in stabilising the economic system from adverse shocks. India has been constantly launching the reforms towards fiscal side long back from 1991. Also, India has practiced the federal structure where centre government as well state governments have their domains regarding fiscal components. In this background present study assesses the impacts of fiscal reforms on financial accounts of respective governments. Study also endeavours to link the role of fiscal policy towards economic development of various regions of India using GMM estimation of panel data. For the state-wise analysis Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and West Bengal are observed for higher deficit whereas Maharashtra, Orissa, Gujarat, Goa and Rajasthan could maintain the fiscal deficit well below 2 percent of GSDP. In empirical estimation for role of fiscal policy on economic development, the study finds the positive contribution.
    Keywords: reforms; fiscal deficit; Indian regions; economic development; health; education.

  • Lending to SMEs: Indian Bankers Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Akanksha Goel, Shailesh Rastogi 
    Abstract: Credit officers act as a pivot in the loan decision-making process, which is greatly affected by their assessment. The objective of this research is to examine the lending decision criteria of bankers. To attain this objective, qualitative methodology has been adopted for this research. In-depth interviews of 12 credit officers were undertaken. For the analysis, thematic approach was adopted. Three main themes emerged from the thematic analysis. The first theme relates the complimentary existence of transactional and relationship lending. The second theme discloses the information sought by lenders under transactional lending approach. The third and major theme of this research (which emerged from this study) is the identification of data affecting the subjective decisions of credit officers. Investigation revealed that, while taking loan decisions, credit officers place emphasis on borrowers certain characteristics such as his/her political background, egotism, business skills, age, experience and previous defaults. The findings of this study provide a new understanding of the factors that are perceived by lenders while evaluating a loan applicant. This is the first study reporting the factors that affect the subjective judgements of credit officers.
    Keywords: transactional lending; relationship lending; SME borrowers; Indian bankers; lending decision.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10035451
  • Women Entrepreneurship in Africa: the case of Otjozondjupa Market in Otjiwarongo, Central Namibia.   Order a copy of this article
    by WILFRED ISAK APRIL, Daniel Ileni Itenge 
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of women entrepreneurship in Africa, with specific reference to the Otjozondjupa market in central Namibia: Otjiwarongo. It is evident from this study that women play a number of critical roles in the Namibian communities. These are not only that of being entrepreneurs at the market, but they also have the responsibility that of sole bread winners, mothers and role models in their families. The paper first gave an overview of the Otjozondjupa market, its origin and structure. An extensive review of related literature was conducted by looking at women entrepreneurship best practices in Latin America, Asia and Africa. These lessons enabled the author to contextualised the study in a Namibian context. Our paper clearly demonstrated that African women have the inherent potential to be entrepreneurs and they can manage their businesses and take risk. The research was qualitative in nature, and in-depth interviews were conducted with nineteen (19) entrepreneurs at the Otjozondjupa Market. The results indicated that women are confronted with numerous challenges such as funding, discrimination and succession planning to name a few. This paper can indeed act as a springboard for many studies to be conducted in Namibia with reference to women entrepreneurship, Africa and beyond.
    Keywords: Women entrepreneurship; barter; market; role models; Otjozondjupa and Otjiwarongo.

  • Tenderpreneurship in Namibia: Is it Productive, Unproductive or Destructive?   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The Republic of Namibia is faced with numerous pressing problems. These are youth unemployment (currently standing at 34%), inadequate professional education and the lack of training in entrepreneurship to name a few. As if these challenges are not enough on its own, Namibia is faced with a new phenomenon which is tenderpreneurship. Through tenderpreneurship an individual (or citizens) in a particular country or nation is making huge sums of money through a contract or tender. These tenders are usually from the national government, regional government or at times from the municipality of a city. The major challenge of tenders to developing nations such as Namibia, with a very high level of inequality is that the rich get richer and the poorer get worse off. Furthermore, the idea of a tender has been misconstrued, its purpose and also how the awarding of tenders originated. This paper explores whether tenderpreneurship is productive, unproductive or destructive to a nation. Regardless of whether the latter mentioned three variables apply, this paper endeavors to explore how Namibians can still be empowered regardless of the challenges tenderpreneurship brings about. In addition, how can these tenderpreneurial tendencies be turned into an effective entrepreneurial strategy. Tenderpreneurship has been cited as some of the reasons why businesses collapsed in some provinces in South Africa and this situation is also today evident in an independent Namibia. This study is qualitative in nature and will make use of in-depth interviews and storytelling with twenty (20) tenderpreneurs and entrepreneurs in Namibia.
    Keywords: Tenderpreneurship; Namibia; Productive; Contract; Tender; Unproductive & Destructive and COVID-19.

  • Liberalisation and Cashew Industry: Evidence from India (1965 to 2018)   Order a copy of this article
    by Parashram Patil, Muhammadriyaj Faniband 
    Abstract: We examine the impact of liberalisation on production, import, export and area under cultivation of cashew industry in India during 1965 to 2018 period using regression method. We divide data into two sub-periods. The liberalization and pre-liberalization period is from 1965 to 1991 and the post-liberalization period covers the period from 1992 to 2018. We find that cashew production is not influenced post trade liberalization. This study also finds trade liberalization has a significant and positive impact on export. Further, we reveal an insignificant impact of liberalization on import. This study show that the area under cultivation is not changed after the trade liberalization.
    Keywords: Liberalisation; Cashew Industry; Regression; India.

  • How to Motivate Digital Natives to Write Online Reviews   Order a copy of this article
    by Katherine Smith 
    Abstract: Online reviews have become a key source of information that consumers use in their decision making process. Research shows that people consider the opinions of fellow consumers to be more credible than traditional marketing. The upcoming generation, Digital Natives, are known for their ability to create and manipulate content in the digital arena. They frequently write online reviews and endorse products. Thus, Digital Natives can help promote or demote a product. The purpose of this paper is to discover what motivates this generation to write online reviews and tell their friends about a product. These motivators can help marketers design effective content that will draw Digital Natives into dialogues about their products. This study found several effective motivators and provides specific recommendations to marketers.
    Keywords: Online reviews; Consumer decision making; Consumer reviews; Word-of-mouth; Digital Natives; Generation Z.

  • Dynamics of failure of a company group: a case study from the recent italian experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Pietro Pavone 
    Abstract: Given the frequent organisational form of Italian entrepreneurship in groups of multinational companies, this paper aims to contribute to the debate on the business crisis by declining the theme of bankruptcy in the context of groups. A qualitative methodological approach has been used to explore the research questions. The case-study of the decline of an important Italian business group (Sopaf Spa) has been presented. This group, after experiencing a phase of great international development, collapsed in a profound crisis before the definitive bankruptcy, inappropriately managing financial resources and investment strategies. The case is particularly relevant for the profiles of serious social irresponsibility demonstrated by the parent holding company which not only triggered the crisis but also propagated its effects within the group, in order to compromise the performance of the other subsidiaries. This study could offer useful reflections to prevent new corporate crises.
    Keywords: crisis; mismanagement; corporate groups; bankruptcy; international entrepreneurship.

  • Relationship between Tea Industry Specific Factors and Tea Companies Share Prices: Empirical Evidence from an Emerging Economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammadriyaj Faniband, Parashram Patil, Toufik Naykawade 
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of tea industry specific macroeconomic factors on tea companies share prices listed in Bombay Stock Exchange, India using quantile regression approach. We consider monthly period from January 2003 to December 2017. We find evidence to support the relationship between tea industry and tea companies share prices. Our results reveal that the change in area of cultivation has both negative and positive impact on the share prices of tea companies. This study indicates that production of tea has a significant and only positive influence. Further, we observe a minimal impact of tea import only on three companies share prices. This paper also notes that tea companies share prices react most significantly to tea export.
    Keywords: Tea Industry; Tea Companies; Macroeconomic Factors; Share Prices; Quantile Regression; Bombay Stock Exchange; India.

    by Esha Jain 
    Abstract: The study focused on finding out the dynamics for entrepreneurial education in India by taking into consideration the issues which upset the acuity of Indian teachers on the relationship among inspiring businesspersons, the advancement of nurturing setups, modules on business enterprise, and business enterprise instruction in advanced education organisations and to discover the relationship between the impression of instructors on pioneering mentality, subsidising offices, and business training in advanced education foundations. It was discovered that there is a critical connection among sexual orientations and age bunches towards the view of teachers on business training for the modules on enterprise, innovative disposition, and subsidising offices. It was additionally discovered that the impression of instructors teaching in advanced education foundations was emphatically influenced by teaching businesspeople. Additionally, a huge affiliation was found between the view of teachers on business enterprise instruction and the demeanour of the understudies towards the business enterprise, and impression of instructors saw as fundamentally connected with that of the subsidising organisations. A new model, namely EJ Business Enterprise Setup Model has been created based on analysis and findings and was found to be effective if applied wisely.
    Keywords: Business Training; Innovative Disposition; Entrepreneurial Education; Nurturing Setups; Pioneering Mentality; Start-Ups; Subsidising Offices; Teaching Modules.

    by Esha Jain, Priyanka Banerji, Jahanvi Bansal 
    Abstract: The study was designed to analyse the volatility of FDI in Indian manufacturing sector along with forecasting the future investments by applying GARCH and ARIMA model. Descriptive and exploratory research design were followed by analysing last eleven years secondary data (from 2008-09 to 2018-19) from the published annual reports of RBI. The conditional and unconditional volatility of FDI showed a vigorous result, suggesting a proper classification of conditional variance. The GARCH model analysis showed that the volatility of FDI was very high in manufacturing sector and showed huge variations in the given time period. With the help of ARIMA model using p, q, d values from ACF and PACF, the forecasted values of FDI in manufacturing sector is calculated for the next three years with 80% and 95% confidence levels which turned out to be approximate 7919 million USD in all 3 years but with different upper and bottom level limits. Box-Ljung test was applied to check the stationarity and accuracy of the model and because the p-value is less than 0.05, it can be said that the model is accurate to forecast the future values of FDI in manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: FDI; manufacturing sector; volatility; India.

  • Investigating the past to prepare for the future directions of women entrepreneurship: review and research motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sucheta Agarwal 
    Abstract: Women entrepreneurship is an area of growth in which scholars, policy-makers and researchers give fair attention to investigating this division. This analysis considers 113 studies sorted according to the publishing pattern, method of research (qualitative, quantitative and conceptual), publisher wise, journal wise and giving future analysts the vital encounters. By a broad analysis, it found that few studies examine the motivational factors influenced by social and environmental all the while and more analyses address the individual/personal based factors that encourage women to take part in the enterprise. It is the leading research that performs literature review to analyse the personal, social and environmental driven motivational factors for women entrepreneurship support and examine different potential viewpoints to investigate this field more thoroughly.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurs; personal factors’ social factors; environmental factors; economic growth.

    by Moema Pereira Nunes, Fernanda Kalil Steinbruch, Greici Ramone Dapper Ranft 
    Abstract: The internationalisation process of a company may influence its business model turning into a driver to business model innovation. Entry modes represent different internationalisation approaches that may impact the elements of a business model content, structure and governance. This study investigates which innovations may occur in each BMI element as a consequence of the internationalisation process. A qualitative case-based research was developed. It was possible to identify that there is a relation between business model innovation and the internationalisation process, according to the adopted entry mode. While exports have a lower impact on the elements of business model, foreign direct investments leads to a higher demand for innovation at the elements of the companys business model. More innovation was required at content, comparing with structure and governance. Innovations in content include changes in the flow of communication and products, and in resources and capabilities.
    Keywords: business model innovation; BMI; internationalisation; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10037525
  • Moderating effects of gender, entrepreneurship education, and parents profession on startup intentions: A theory of planned behaviour based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarika Sharma, Shreya Virani 
    Abstract: Start-up intention is the cognitive state prior to decision to launch a start-up company or business. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and to empirically test this proposed model in explaining the entrepreneurial intentions of individuals towards start-ups. Three constructs from TPB namely attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behaviour control are included in model. The paper also explores the moderating role of gender, entrepreneurship education, and parents profession on these three constructs. The empirical data is collected from students pursuing their higher education at leading universities in India. The conceptual model is tested with first order confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modelling (SEM) approach is used for regression and path analysis. Some of the findings of the study were consistent with TPB, while others were not. The moderating effects were also presented in the paper.
    Keywords: Start-up intention; Theory of Planned Behaviour; Gender; Parent’s Profession; Entrepreneurship Education; Structural Equation Modelling.

  • Analysis of Barriers for green marketing using Interpretive Structure Modeling   Order a copy of this article
    by Karishma Chaudhary, Alpana Agarwal 
    Abstract: Green marketing comprises of activities involved in making and marketing products, which are environmentally safe (AMA, 1975). Such products could be energy efficient, durable, low in hazardous emission, less water consuming, reusable/recyclable, biodegradable, or organic. For around two decades, lot of awareness has been created on global warming and sustainable development. Manufacturers and marketers are aiming on manufacturing environment friendly products but there is a varied gap among their awareness, acceptance and execution. The study intends to identify, analyze and categorize the challenges for Green Marketing in India. It also outlines various strategies to overcome those barriers. Barriers are explored by a rigorous literature review and adept interviews. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) procedure is followed to discover the interdependence of barriers on each other.
    Keywords: Green Marketing; ISM; Green washing; Green products; Eco-friendly; Sustainability.

  • Bestination: an Approach to Sustainable Networking for Buddhist Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Navarat Sachayansrisakul, Nattawat Ponnara 
    Abstract: Bestination studies offer a moral and an ethical approach to achieving the best destination for businesses. Networking is an essential element for entrepreneurs to excel in their businesses. This study identifies problems and provides a way to positively network without compromising the ethical and moral standards of the businesses. This research interviewed 20 entrepreneurs who have sustained their businesses beyond their first few years of operation. The questions addressed are: 1) How have Buddhist teaching taught the concepts of networking?; 2) How do entrepreneurs view other people involving in their businesses?; 3) How important an entrepreneur view networking as part of his/her business and to what extent that the networking makes their businesses successful?; 4) Where does an entrepreneur set an ethical or moral standard? Is she/he able to achieve that? According to Buddhist principles and some findings, a model called The bestination networking style, was developed for entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: sustainability; entrepreneurs; networking; Buddhist; moral/ethics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10033223
  • Eastern Philosophies and Employee Retention in Emerging Southeast Asian Economies - The Case of Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Nhi Nguyen, Dieu Hack-Polay 
    Abstract: The study investigated five factors impacting employees intention to stay: organisational commitment, employee-manager relationship, motivation and rewards, work environment, and Vietnamese family values. We sought to examine how Eastern philosophies such as Confucianism and Taoism moderate these factors in Vietnam. We surveyed all the employees in a large Vietnamese furniture-making organisation. The findings indicate that affective commitment had a stronger influence on employee retention than normative and continuance commitment. The research found strong impact of motivation and rewards on intention to stay. The results confirmed that positive work environment with fair treatment, open communication, career growth opportunity, and work-life balance strongly affect retention. We found a significant influence of Eastern family values on employees intention to stay, thus denoting the pertinence of Eastern philosophies on retention in Vietnam. Collectivism in Eastern culture entails that intention to stay in a company is a collective decision involving family and managers. This study is the first to specifically examine the weight of Eastern philosophies (Taoism and Confucianism) on employee retention in Vietnam.
    Keywords: Employee retention; organisational commitment; Eastern philosophies; Vietnamese family values; Confucianism; Taoism.

  • Corporate Social Innovation (CSI) in practice: People with disabilities project in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcelo Dionisio 
    Abstract: This study explores how companies engage in corporate social innovation (CSI) creating social value and competitive advantage, contributing to this literature that claims for the need to understand how social innovations are integrated with businesses strategies and the impact they generate in both business and society, and to the social inclusion field by using the case of Mundial, a Brazilian supermarket chain that successfully implemented an initiative for people with disabilities (PwD). The case was analysed based on the CSI frameworks proposed by Herrera (2015) and results demonstrate the different nature of CSI, letting us argue that this is the latest and definitive alternative for businesses to connect with society and help solve social problems while reaching economic results.
    Keywords: corporate social innovation; CSI; social innovation; social inclusion; people with disabilities; PwD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10034457
  • Creating market linkage and demand for new climate resilient rice varieties through innovative agriculture extension method   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Nayak, Ritesh Dwivedi, Manzoor Hussain Dar 
    Abstract: For impact of innovative products like climate resilient rice, there needs to be large scale adoption, strengthened market and demand. While the traditional agriculture extension approaches focusing on varietal promotion are production centric, this would require a market centric approach. The Eastern India, prone to climatic risks, could benefit through the adoption of these varieties as witnessed through the grounding of a participatory experiment as a new extension model. This paper tries to analyse the structure and effectiveness of this model, known as evidence hubs. A total 21 such hubs comprising 975 replications for several varieties were piloted in 2017. Multiple performance criteria and results were analysed through participatory score card method. The score cards generated got recommendation of government to influence institutions/policy to enhance production and supply of seeds of resilient varieties which got the highest ratings.
    Keywords: rice; seed; market; climate; agriculture; agriculture extension; production; supply; evidence hubs; demand.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10032640
  • Multivariate Analysis of Ethnic Migrants Entrepreneurial Motivation in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Jacqueline Zakpaa, LEO-PAUL DANA 
    Abstract: This study was a cross-sectional survey, and it sought to determine the multivariate structure of factors affecting the self-employment entrepreneurial motivation of internal ethnic migrant entrepreneurs in Ghana. 210 entrepreneurs were selected through simple random sampling in the four major cities in Ghana. High dimensional sets of data produced from a Likert scale with 71 indicator variables of migrant entrepreneurial motivation factors, which were incorporated into a structured questionnaire, were factor analysed, using SPSS version 21. The findings revealed that the significant influences on the entrepreneurial motivation of this group of ethnic migrant entrepreneurs, consisted of factors such as relational social capital or informal personal networks, wealth creation through human capital development, lack of fear of risks taking, impact of a previous job, the effect of the regulatory environment, labour market-based unemployment, access to start-up capital through personal savings, culture, and increase wealth motivation.
    Keywords: multivariate analysis; ethnic migrants; entrepreneurial motivation; Ghana.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10038159
    by Monica Bedi, Anuradha Thakur 
    Abstract: Emotions are integral and inseparable part of an individuals life and play significant role in human interactions and organisational performance. Emotional intelligence (EI) describes the mechanisms through which individuals recognise their own and others emotional state. EI considerably impacts work outcomes and job satisfaction. Employees with high EI are considered more resilient due to their intelligence of the underlying causes of stress and developing means to cope with them. Life satisfaction describes the quality of life for an individual. The present study examines the relationship of employee emotional intelligence to occupational role stress, job satisfaction and life satisfaction across public and private sector banks in India. Using systematic random sampling to collect data from 150 managers working at the middle level managerial positions in Indian banking sector; significant differences were found in the occupational role stress dimensions/factors of self-management, empathy, relationship management in across banks in both the sectors. However, for job satisfaction and life satisfaction, no variation of emotional intelligence dimensions was found in either of the banking sectors. This research intends to suggest how EI can be used to achieve work life balance, enhance job satisfaction and help employees effectively cope with their occupational role stress.
    Keywords: emotional intelligence; occupational role stress: job satisfaction; life satisfaction; Indian banking sector; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035739
  • Maltas gear for San Leather: An exploratory entrepreneurial experiment Three Decades after Namibian Independence   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: In the South Western corner of Africa, we find the beautiful nation of Namibia, also the last colony in Sub Saharan Africa to gain independence (21st March 1990). Namibia set a precedent in becoming the first to specifically base its sector of the economy on the small business sector, however three decades after independence some indigenous people, such as the San people in Tsumkwe (and surrounding settlements) rely mostly on the informal sector, and their cultural legacy and heritage has never been enhanced by bringing them closer to sanitation, health care and running clean drinking water.rnThe village of Tsumkwe, where formal enterprises are almost nonexistent, there is considerable amount of entrepreneurship taking place in the informal sector. In ensuring that they are able to buy basic commodities the communities engage in selling art and craft to visitors to the village and at times they come to Tsumkwe to sell their items. Numerous smaller villages in the district trade with art and craft, it can be referred to as their livelihood. This study is as a result of an ethnographic enquiry of a Maltas Club Namibia students, who went on an excursion to the San village and change their Maltas uniform for San leather. It was a form of intercultural exchange and learning experience for the students on indigenous entrepreneurship and the community also got the chance to learn from the insights of the students. On their spectacular journey the students got the once lifetime opportunity to immerse themselves in the cultural traditions and customs of the San people and vice versa. This paper is qualitative in nature and make use of in-depth interviews and participant observation, as some of the methods to the study. The author strongly reiterates that the government design policies which are inclusive and they need to understand how to better assist the people of Tsumkwe in terms of entrepreneurship. The author concludes with some research experiences and best practice lessons from the African nations of the Kingdom of Lesotho, Zambia, Botswana and Kenya as we look into research towards the future.rn
    Keywords: Maltas Club Namibia; San; Tsumkwe; Conservancy; Indigenous entrepreneurship; Self-employment; hut; n!oresi; Ju|’hoan and veldfood.

  • Comparative Study on Business Culture and Investors' Behaviour Toward Sustainable Index Change: Japan vs. the US and Europe   Order a copy of this article
    by Miho Murashima 
    Abstract: This paper examines the difference in investors attitudes toward sustainability index change between the US, Europe and Japan based on their business culture, using the short-term event study method using the dataset of the DJSI index change and stock prices. The findings of this study indicate large differences between the US, Europe, and Japanese markets. The comparative analysis demonstrates speculative or temporal attitudes in the U.S. market and positive valuation in the European market, reflecting their business culture, whereas less attention and negative response to inclusion in the sustainable index was found for the Japanese market, especially for Japanese institutional investors. The difference between Japanese investors and others are due to the immaturity of the Japanese capital and product markets.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; business culture; cultural difference; investor behaviour; firm value; market reactions; event study; sustainability index; Dow Jones Sustainability Index; Japan; the US; Europe.

  • Entrepreneurial firms and their foresightedness in a VUCA World   Order a copy of this article
    by Niharika Jaiswal, Manoj Joshi, Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship has always been a central point of discussion amongst educators, practitioners and policy makers, besides the incumbents intending to emerge as an entrepreneur. Other than the core of venture creation, these entrepreneurs have a critical role to play in the wealth creation, resource optimisation and economic development of the region they belong to. Hence, they must reflect or possess some kind of foresightedness to be sustainable and contributory in their long-standing entrepreneurial journey, which is a turbulent one. The authors, tabled their diverse experience after reviewing the extent literature on entrepreneurship realising that there is a critical need to identify and classify these firms engaged in true sense of entrepreneurship, before embarking upon the principal research question, which is, do entrepreneurial firms possess foresightedness in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) world? We selected enterprises seeded between 20002019, examining their entrepreneurial journey, using qualitative method and interpretivism.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; enterprise; entrepreneur; entrepreneurial firm; foresightedness; VUCA; BookMyShow; BMS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10042519
  • Business Newspaper Stock Recommendations for Intraday Trading: Empirical Analysis from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Kolte, Matteo Rossi, Yogesh Mahajan, Suyog Chachad 
    Abstract: With the introduction of easy computerised trading platforms and online trading, intraday trading has been widely used by novices as well as individual investors, in addition to professional traders and investors. People are lured to intraday trading, due to quick gains (results) from it. Today, information about stock recommendations is available from various sources like newspapers, websites, search engines, social media, brokers, etc. Despite the rise in the extensive use of the Internet, there is an increase in the readership of newspapers in India. The objective of the paper was to study and critically evaluate the intraday trading stock recommendations provided by the Economics Times newspaper in India for intraday trading. The paper investigates the efficacy of possible returns from this recommendation for day traders. The methodology used was evaluating the recommendations up to a fixed return of 1% for both the buy and sell side in intraday trading. The results show that buy recommendations provide negative returns, but sell recommendations provide positive returns. But overall, it is found that trades done based on these recommendations earn no significant returns for the traders. Also, brokers recommendations provided in the newspaper show no significant returns for the traders.
    Keywords: business newspaper; buy and sell stock recommendations; intraday trading; returns; brokers; technical analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10032641
  • Macroeconomic and Microeconomic Determinants of the Profitability of Indian Manufacturing Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumit Kumar Maji, Arindam Laha, Debasish Sur 
    Abstract: The present paper seeks to identify the major microeconomic and macroeconomic determinants of profitability of the firms in different sectors of Indian manufacturing industry. This study is based on 515 companies which were selected following stratified random sampling procedure from the ten sub-groups of Indian manufacturing industry chosen by adopting purposive sampling procedure. The data for the period 1999-2000 to 2013-2014 used in this study were taken from secondary sources, i.e. Capitaline Corporate Database 2000 published by Capital Market Publishers Private Ltd. Mumbai, India and Database on Indian Economy published by the Reserve Bank of India. The study revealed that leverage, intellectual capital, sales growth, age, openness and size of the firm amongst the major microeconomic factors and economic growth, inflation and exchange rate amongst the principal macroeconomic variables played significant role in determining profitability of the Indian manufacturing firms during the period under study. Another notable outcome of the study was that the industry sub-sector wise differences in delineating the contribution of specific factors in explaining firm level profitability were noticed.
    Keywords: Manufacturing; Microeconomic factors; Macroeconomic factors; Profitability; Return on Assets.

  • The Wheel of Consumer Analysis applied to Colombian Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Santiago Garcia, Dennis Kopf 
    Abstract: This article creates a theoretical framework based on country characteristics, to test whether or not marketing theories and practices developed in advanced economies can be applied in emerging markets. The article then uses this framework to predict whether or not a commonly taught marketing theory, the Wheel of Consumer Analysis (WCA) can be applied to Colombian entrepreneurs. A survey of 111 technology-based entrepreneurs determined their marketing rationale for three elements in the WCA; knowledge acquired from the outside (Environment), specialized training (Affective and Cognitive), and competencies implemented and experienced (Behavior). This research finds that Colombian entrepreneurs are indeed customer focused along each element of the WCA, but that as time passes entrepreneurs appear to have les focus.
    Keywords: emerging markets; marketing and entrepreneurship education; marketing strategy; developing countries; wheel of consumer analysis.

  • Entrepreneurship and Poverty alleviation: A tale of black African women in Msunduzi Municipality, South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Obianuju Ebele Okeke-Uzodike 
    Abstract: This study examined the extent to which black African women benefit from the existing government strategies to support local entrepreneurs in advancing their businesses at Msunduzi local municipality, KwaZulu-Natal Province. Entrepreneurship is believed to be desirable to address the poverty and unemployment levels in societies. A qualitative research method approach was employed, and data were drawn using a focus group discussion from black African women within Msunduzi municipality and a semi-structured interview from the government officials. Key findings from this study draw attention to various aspects of concern for policy makers regarding the limited support provided by the government to emancipate African female entrepreneurs at Msunduzi municipality. The studys findings contribute to the existing knowledge of women empowerment through entrepreneurship, gender mainstreaming, and serve as a guide for policy makers and academics who are in pursuit of various developmental goals.
    Keywords: black African women; entrepreneurship; poverty; Msunduzi municipality; South Africa.

  • Businesses Beware - An Empirical Study on Buyer Behaviour on Search and Evaluation of Products Before And After Purchase   Order a copy of this article
    by Baskar Rajaraman, Ganesh Behra 
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the buyer behaviour towards the evaluation of personal care and apparel care products, before and after purchase. Consumer behaviour related to search for information about the product before the purchase is addressed first. Then the study addresses how the outcome of evaluation of products after the purchase, affects the consumers brand switching behaviour and consumer complaining behaviour (CCB). The study also explores the impact of gender on search behaviour and consumer complaining behaviour. The paper concludes with discussion on managerial implication and scope for further research.
    Keywords: consumer evaluation; search behaviour; consumer loyalty; consumer response; consumer complaining behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039497
  • Antecedents of Consumer Attitude and Purchase Intention towards Counterfeit Products   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushin Manikoth, Bradley Olson, Mothilal Lakavath, Satyanarayana Parayitam 
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effect of information reliability, risk, and value consciousness on hedonic behavior, attitude towards counterfeit products, and genuine store trustworthiness. A conceptual model is developed and tested where (a) materialism moderates the relationship between hedonic behavior and purchase intention, (b) value consciousness moderates the relationship between attitude towards counterfeit products and purchase intention, and (c) social status moderates the relationship between genuine store trustworthiness and purchase intention.rnUsing a structured survey instrument, this paper gathered data from 449 respondents from three cities (Kochi, Chennai, and Bangalore) in southern part of India. The hierarchical regression render support that (i) information reliability is positively related to hedonic behavior and attitude towards counterfeit products, (ii) risk is negatively related to hedonic behavior and attitude towards counterfeit products, (iii) value consciousness is positively related to hedonic behavior and genuine store trustworthiness, and (iv) hedonic behavior and attitude towards products are related to purchase intention. In addition, the results also support the moderation hypotheses of materialism, value consciousness and social status. The study suggests that marketers need to understand the importance of non-deceptive counterfeiting is useful and consumers have tendency to prefer to use these products once they are satisfied with their utility. The conceptual model developed and tested in this research enables the marketing managers to understand the antecedents of consumers purchase intention of counterfeit products. rn
    Keywords: hedonic behavior; risk; counterfeit products; purchase intention; genuine store trustworthiness; value consciousness.

  • Addressing Global Environmental Crisis through Sustainable and Spiritual Intervention: A case of Jainism   Order a copy of this article
    by Prerna Jain, Pragati Jain 
    Abstract: Environmental crisis is the greatest challenge humanity is facing in the present times. Climate change, green-house gas emissions, air pollution and extreme temperatures have become a major cause of disease and death. The future seems bleak in the absence of proper implementation of policies. The accomplishment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) seems impossible, seeing the increasing demand for resources. The earths required to sustain the current consumption patterns reveals a very scary future. The ideology presented in the paper is where science, technology, politics and economics fail, spirituality provides solutions as it is all encompassing, having integrated and harmonious approach. The paper argues for practicing the philosophy of sustainable economics of Jainism and adoption of spiritual lifestyle to address the global environmental crisis.
    Keywords: Environmental Crisis; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); Sustainable Development; sustainable economics; Jainism; Spirituality.

  • The effects of exchange rate on public debt: An empirical analysis for Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Huyen Le Thi Dieu, Bui Duy Hung, Anh Duc Pham 
    Abstract: To the best of our knowledge, the impact of the exchange rate on public debt has not been widely studied in developing Asian economies. In this paper, we take a closer look at the role of exchange rate public debt management in Vietnam. For this purpose, we develop a simple econometric model which is then tested for the impact of the exchange rate on Vietnams public debt. The results indicate that, besides the exchange rate, other macroeconomic factors, including the multilateral nominal exchange rate, the budget deficit and current account deficit, also exert an influence on Vietnams public debt. From the empirical findings, this study draws unique policy implications for Vietnam to fortify its debt safety and sustainability.
    Keywords: nominal effective exchange rate; public debt; budget deficit; external debt; monetary policy; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10041662
  • The Effectiveness of the IpOp Model Decision Tree to Calibrate Projects at the Pre-Project Stage   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadina Muller, Mark Moses, Raphaël H. Cohen 
    Abstract: Literature supports the idea that projects delivering the target objective on time and within the anticipated budget represent less than 30% of all projects. Even though failure advances the learning curve, this low success rate equals a vast waste of resources. Based on practical experience, the authors hypothesise that: 1) low project success rates are linked to inadequate project selection methodologies or their inconsistent application; 2) the IpOp model decision tree could improve the selection of worthy projects. An online survey was carried out to determine: 1) project success rate; 2) links between project performance and selection parameters. Results show the importance of rigour in project selection in order to reduce waste of resources, while no clear correlation between the number of selection criteria could be proven. Further, the results indicate that practitioners consider the IpOp model decision tree to evaluate projects at pre-project stage an improvement over current practice.
    Keywords: pre-project calibration; project success; project selection criteria; decision tree; target objectives; resource savings; online survey; IpOp model; allocation of resources; project governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10038787
  • Developing Technical Innovation Model to Study Customer Efficiency, System Effectiveness and Service Efficacy in E-Banking   Order a copy of this article
    by Anubha Srivastava, Suman Yadav, A.K. Saxena 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to build up a technology adoption model for ebanking services from the viewpoint of a customer. The paper also highlights the presence of significant relationship amongst the selected variables. The findings of the study reveal that system effectiveness, service efficacy and customer efficiency completely impact perceived trust and which later on impacts behavioural intentions. In addition, efficiency of a customer, effectiveness of system and service effectiveness impact perceived risk negatively and which later on also impact behavioural intentions negatively towards e-banking. The findings of this study show that customer perceived trust and perceived risk is linked with adaptation of e-banking. This paper presents statistically technical innovation model of adoption; that seems to be beneficial for forecasting consumers acceptance towards technological innovations.
    Keywords: adoption intentions; e-banking services; perceived trust; perceived risk.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039723
  • The Experiences of Work-Life Balance, Job Performance and Stress among Married Working Women in Private Academic Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Farzana Khan, D.B. Singh 
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to examine the relationship and the effect of Work-Life Balance (WLB) and stress on the job performance of the married women employees working in the private academic institutions of the National Capital Region (NCR). Descriptive Analysis, Correlation and regression analysis techniques are used to analyse the collected data in this research study. Purposive and convenience sampling techniques have been used for data collection. It is found that WLB and stress has a significant effect on the job performance of married women employees of private academic institutions in NCR. The Pearson correlation reveals that the higher the stress and/or work-life imbalance lower will be the job performance. All three scales are having Chronbach Alpha values 0.70 which indicate that the scales used are highly reliable. In our Indian culture, women face more challenges to maintain a proper balance between domestic and work life. But it is found that in every walk of life women had achieved extreme progress and made a different mark wherever they are.
    Keywords: Work-life Balance; Job performance; Domestic life; Work-life.

  • Foreign Direct Investments and the role of governance and institutional quality in Albania   Order a copy of this article
    by Mario Curcija 
    Abstract: Foreign direct investments in transition economies represent a small part of the total global inflows, but they show interesting dynamics, often in contrast to the global trend as is the case of Albania. Observation on specific features of each country suggests that a proper study of the phenomenon of FDI must not rely merely on macroeconomic models from a top view perspective and thus ignore the peculiarities of each country. The research topics of this paper are the decisions of foreign investors that can be measured by FDI flows. The aim is to assess the existence of the relationship between the quality of the institutions/policy and FDI inflows in Albania. In order to achieve this objective, there are implemented the Johansen co-integration test, the VECM, the VAR and Grangers causality tests based on a time-series dataset for Albania for the time period 1996-2018. The results show a substantial independence of the decisions taken by foreign investors from the country's internal policies. A possible explanation for these findings could be that investment decisions are mainly attributed to strategic decisions and exogenous determinants. A possible explanation for these results may be that the decisions to invest are mainly attributed to strategic decisions and exogenous determinants.
    Keywords: Foreign direct investment; Albania; transition economy; foreign investors; institutional quality; governance quality.

  • Features of Development of Foreign Economic Activity of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Era of Globalisation (on the Example of the Almaty region) and Resumption of the Great Silk Road   Order a copy of this article
    by Barkhudar Gussenov, Zaure Abdirassilova, Zagira Tokbergenova, Saule Alimbayeva, Gaukhar Sanay, Raushan Ordabayeva 
    Abstract: The article considers the economic background of historical and geographical description of the world; historical facts of the Great Silk Road; describes main problems of the formation and development of the Great Silk Road at the present stage; considers the directions of the Impact of the Great Silk Road on the economy of the participating countries; proposes main ways to eliminate the problems of the development of modern directions of the Great Silk Road.
    Keywords: economy; region; politics; trade; management; development; globalization.

  • Workplace Spirituality and Organisation Citizenship Behaviour: Exploring Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Alka Swami, Rajni Khari, Pragati Hemrajani 
    Abstract: There is a resurgence of interest in workplace spirituality studies from the past two decades. Following the trend line, the current study examines the mediated mechanism for enhancing Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) through Job Satisfaction (JS) using Workplace Spirituality (WPS) model in the selected Indian universities/institutes. A conceptual framework and associated hypotheses were proposed and tested using total of 98 useable survey data from faculty members working in various Indian Universities. Two major dimensions of WPS were undertaken for the study namely; meaningful work and inner life. The findings showed a positive significant influence between Inner Life-Organisation Citizenship Behaviour, Meaningful Work-Organisation Citizenship Behaviour, Meaningful Work-Job Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction-Organisation Citizenship Behaviour, except for Inner Life- Job Satisfaction. This study will be an add on in the WPS studies and will offer new direction for the future studies. This study can be implied in the education sector as well as other sectors to get a highly satisfied and motivated workforce.
    Keywords: Job Satisfaction; Workplace Spirituality; Meaningful Work; Inner Life; Organisation Citizenship Behaviour.

  • Effect of Demonetisation and GST on the Economy of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.   Order a copy of this article
    by Roshani Goel 
    Abstract: In 2016 and 2017 India faced two major policy implications- demonetisation and GST (Goods service tax). The reason for this was to stop inflation, remove counterfeit currency and to promote plastic money. But it is undeniable that different sectors have been negatively affected by these two policies especially the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). The study explores how demonetisation and GST impacted businesses and small enterprises by leading to a complete change in their working structure. This paper tries to look at mostly the negative effect of the policy without overlooking the positive effect on the MSMEs. The study emphasizes that the business of small enterprises became stagnant as they were mostly dependent on cash, in exchange of services; as after note ban, payments became constrained from clients. With the implementation of these policies, The Government of India should have worked to protect the interest of this group and also incentivized their participation in the new policy.
    Keywords: Demonetisation; Goods and Service Tax; MSME's; digitalisation; positive impact; negative impact,.

  • Entrepreneurial characteristics in third generation small businesses in a VUCA world   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Yadav, Manoj Joshi, Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: Sweet houses as micro, small and medium-sized businesses are a flourishing business. The period between the 1980s and 1990s witnessed their genesis exhibiting entrepreneurial characteristics with few being family businesses. Some siblings went on to acquire professional education honing their characteristics, additionally. Hence, the entrepreneurial characteristics and higher education became the foundation of third generation small businesses. These firms are currently undergoing the challenges posited by volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous business situation. How entrepreneurial characteristics were harnessed by generations in the small businesses to counter the VUCA challenges is the centre of this study! Few published papers on the subject theme between 2009 and 2019 were examined. The authors explored in Kanpur City (North India) and randomly identified 40 sweet shops in their third generation, reflecting continuity in their entrepreneurial characteristics, via qualitative case method of research, demonstrating our posit via the incumbent firm Thaggu Ke Laddu (TKL).
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneur; small business; entrepreneurial characteristics; third generation family business; VUCA; Thaggu Ke Laddu; TKL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10042520
  • Imparting industry relevant skills through skill development initiatives in the apparel industry: a literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Roopali Shukla, Anuradha Thakur 
    Abstract: The global apparel market is positioned at US $1.7 trillion, approximately 2% of the worlds GDP and is expected to reach US $2.6 trillion by 2025. In India, this sector contributes 11% to exports and 4% to the gross domestic product. It is the second largest employment generating sector and to remain globally competitive, it requires a huge skilled human resource. The training programs provide industry relevant skill trainings. The current paper conducts a systematic review of literature covering publications and studies on global skill development initiatives. It also aims to identify the directions for further research after studying 90 publications during the period of 19912020. It identifies the skill gaps in the job role of sewing machine operator (SMO) in the apparel sector in India. Through the content analysis, this paper identifies three skill constructs that impact the employability of the candidates after completion of such training programs.
    Keywords: apparel industry; sewing machine operator; SMO; basic literacy skills; soft skills; technical skills; skill development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040375
  • Private funding, profitability and growth opportunities of immigrant SMMEs: A Resource Based View   Order a copy of this article
    by Pateint Rambe, Takawira Munyaradzi Ndofirepi, Nosiphiwe Mpiti 
    Abstract: Although studies examining the relationships among private funding, profitability and growth of immigrant SMMEs have emphasised high growth ventures, research on these concepts covering nascent ventures is yet to emerge. Given the constrained access to productive resources of SMMEs, this study explored the constitution and effects of private funding on the profitability and growth of SMMEs in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 110 Afro hair salon SMMEs in the Free State province. The findings suggest that while debt funding constituted 36.4% of total funding of Afro hair salons, Matshonisas, group savings and bank loans combined accounted for most of the funding. Moreover, findings revealed a negative relationship between private financing and business growth. Results also revealed a negative relationship between the accessibility of private equity financing and business profitability. The study recommends the diversification of funding sources to ensure sustainable profitability and growth of SMMEs.
    Keywords: immigrant SMMEs; debt financing; equity financing; business growth; profitability; funding agencies; business sustainability; resource based view; funding choices; interest rate attractiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10042222
  • Blockchain Technology Business in Healthcare System: Benefits, Challenges and Health Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Barkha Kakkar, Prashant Johri, Yogesh Kumar, Avneesh Kumar 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to cover an extensive analysis of Blockchain technology (BT) in the healthcare system and interrelated applications. The ease of access of e-health data is required for efficacious therapy, policy resolutions, and exchange of healthcare data. Due to the mysterious nature of digital data, healthcare data is as well liable to security, confidentiality, and data breaches. The study discussed the benefits of the BT in healthcare in respective fields and acknowledged the work of various researchers in this field, which definitely helps the novice researchers in getting a better understanding of the technology. The finding of the study reveals that intense growth in BT has delivered various new usage chances, comprising healthcare applications. Also, to improve the healthcare system, it is required to make new revolutions in the system by implementing BT.
    Keywords: Blockchain; healthcare; e-health; electronic-health; clinical trial; disease detection; electronic health record; EHR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039061
  • Impact of Global Recession on Carbon Credits with special reference to India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aarugonda Kotishwar 
    Abstract: The present study emphasized the effect of the global recession on carbon credits. The study considered Indian carbon credits from NSE India for the period 2008-09 to 2018-19 years. The study looked at economic factors and sectors. The bivariate correlation was used to assess the relationship between carbon credits and the selected economic variables under the Kendal tau. The normal least square approach has been used to know the impact on carbon credits of the global financial crisis and the outcome has been shown to have a significant impact. The vector auto-regression was applied for future movements and the result showed that carbon credits are expected to move forward.
    Keywords: Carbon Credits; Gross Domestic Product; Global recession; Index of Industrial production; Kyoto Protocol.

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Technopreneurship Innovation (TIN) as key enablers for lean start-ups growth.   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepak Singh, Balvinder Shukla, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a process of initiating a small business termed as a start-up, undergoing different stages of business lifecycle. Hence, success and failure depend upon how start-ups affect the ecosystem, adding value towards economic growth. Start-ups are redefining ecosystems with technopreneurship innovation (TIN), an innovative use of technologies in designing systems. Thus, it is necessary to inspect lean start-ups that are using TIN aided with artificial intelligence (AI). The ontology has led us to conduct a qualitative profiling of shortlisted 75 AI-based start-ups identified across pan India, followed by epistemological assumptions, as to why the lean start-ups need to focus on the TIN. The authors delved into how these technologies can act as a key enabler for sustainable growth (SD) of start-ups. The results are in the form of AI-start-ups working in the TIN with new-age technologies like data science (DS), machine learning algorithm (MLA) and graphical processing units (GPUs).
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; entrepreneurship; technopreneurship innovation; TIN; technologies; start-up; machine learning algorithm; MLA; graphical processing units; GPUs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042521
  • Global Halal Business: A Sectoral Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The global Halal business with a cluster of 1.8 billion Muslims and an estimated 2.2 $ trillion annual spend has lately started getting mind and literature positioning. During the previous decade, though a fairly perceptible amount of work was done, still there is a dearth of literature on the state of global Halal business and how it is being tapped globally. The gradual expansion of Halal business on account of the rising customer base of Halal products not only captivates the attention but also sets in disquietude in mind to analyse the poorly-tapped burgeoning segments. The present study attempts to analyse the global Halal business sector-wise with an emphasis on how much they have been catered. The study finds that the global Halal business across the board is unsatisfactorily-tapped. It is incumbent on multinationals to attend to as it heralds a roaring business in no time.
    Keywords: Halal Business; Global Halal business; Shariah based business; Halal segments; Halal food; Halal tourism; Halal Cosmetics; Halal media; Halal finance; Halal Pharmaceuticals.

  • Impact of globalization on global and national supply chains   Order a copy of this article
    by Larisa Orlanyuk-Malitskaya, Tatiana Plakhova, Tatyana Sakulyeva, Irina Glazkova 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to examine the impact of globalization on supply chain management. For this, the study focused on data from international rankings, reports, and surveys. The supply chain risks were found to be ground transportation and civil unrest incidents. A comprehensive risk management system could minimize the negative consequences of those incidents. The business cannot minimize the impact of globalization on supply chain management, but it can protect itself from losses by identify risks and making an emergency action plan to deal with force majeure events, such as the COVID-19. Consequently, each party in the supply chain must take precautions to ensure the integrity of the supply chain in the case of logistics disruptions.
    Keywords: capital flows; chain management; economic growth; globalisation processes; industry; information technology; market; risk management; supply; transportation.

  • Environmental management decisions under risk and uncertainty: a systematic literature review of prospect theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Asma Zeeshan, Tariq Aziz, Muhammad Abbas, Satish Kumar 
    Abstract: This study explores the applicability of prospect theory in environmental management decisions and how much it is effective in achieving sustainability. We aim to investigate the already available literature about the given issue and show the limitations of the existing research to make way for future researchers. Further, it explores how the theory applies to different industries and how this fact is acknowledged or ignored in environmental management.
    Keywords: Prospect theory; Environmental management; Systematic review; thematic analysis; Decision analysis.

  • Endorsing Organisations Towards International Business: Insights from Finland   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaakko Sauvola, Jarkko Hyysalo, Matti Kinnunen, Paavo Kosonen, Pekka Jokitalo, Marko Jurmu, Jukka Riekki 
    Abstract: Growth and internationalisation are challenges for SMEs that may lack the necessary resources and networks. For example, in Finland the scope of the companies is often too limited, or the companies are too small to compete for large business with international clients. We propose a solution to this challenge: a systematic way to build research to business networks and agile working models to endorse growth and internationalisation. We present a case study on how Allied ICT Finland (AIF) helps Finnish companies in building projects and capabilities towards internationalisation. AIF supports companies in creating new solutions by combining usually separate areas of special knowledge and expertise, R&D platforms and resources, and using these to create globally attractive products and services. AIF increases Finnish competitive edge by combining business development, shared RDI environments, funding expertise, research and ecosystems. We believe that the experiences can also be adapted and utilised elsewhere.
    Keywords: regional development; internationalisation; business; networking; research to business; value co-creation; commercialisation; scaling up; growth.

  • Investigating the Influence of Cultural Factors in the Disclosure of Corporate Strategies in Annual Reports by 100 European Firms: Does Context Matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jan Ulijn, Aidin Salamzadeh 
    Abstract: Since Geert Hofstedes path-breaking studies, quantitative methods of intercultural research are very popular. This article presents quantitative intercultural research in this domain that appeared to need badly to call upon the prolific qualitative anthropological studies of American and European cultures by Hall to give conclusive results. As businesses become more international, corporate strategy disclosure must often be done across cultural groups. This has implications for the globalising business rhetoric to be used by technical and business communicators who often help develop a corporate strategy. They do this by effective annual report writing by both text and visuals. We summarise research on the influence of cultural factors in disclosing corporate strategies in annual reports by 100 European firms equally distributed over five countries. Hall's high-low context distinction appears to offer a better perspective for international communicators to help them globalise annual reports for a better corporate strategy to benefit all stakeholders.
    Keywords: Cultural factors; Disclosure; Corporate strategy; Annual report; European firms; Context.

    by Andrii Martyn, Oleksandr Shevchenko, Ivan Openko, Oleksandr Krasnolutsky, Taras Ievsiukov, Ruslan Tykhenko, Oleg Tsvyakh 
    Abstract: It has been established that the issues of agricultural land use in the post-socialist countries of Europe are becoming more acute, as land reforms there have either completed or almost completed that have resulted in large-scale privatisation or redistribution of agricultural land. Indeed, in recent years, small and medium-sized enterprises have been rapidly losing their viability, especially in non-EU countries. It has been studied that large areas of agricultural land are under control of large agricultural holdings and non-agricultural investors. In addition, the agricultural land market is being transformed into the corporate rights market of land-controlling companies, so that traditional methods of regulating land market turnover are rapidly losing their inefficiency. There is considerable interest in investing in agricultural land acquisition from 'portfolio investors', leading to a sharp rise in prices and the displacement of small and medium-sized farmers from the market.
    Keywords: agricultural land market; agroholding; agricultural lands; corporate enterprises; economic concentration.

  • An exploration of pull and push motivational factors among the transgender entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Preethi Sarah, Karthigai Prakasam Chellaswamy 
    Abstract: To date, studies have focused on the men and women entrepreneurs and the gender difference in motivations among cisgender entrepreneurs. The study aims to determine whether a transgender individual entrepreneur is motivated through a push motivational factor or a pull motivational factor. This study employs a qualitative approach uses face-to-face interviews and a semi-structured interview with a sample size of 16 transgender entrepreneurs in India. It was found that the participants in this study were motivated by both push and pull factors. The motivational factors which add to the knowledge of already existing push and pull factors were to forego begging and commercial sex work, to break stereotypes, to create a business opportunity for other transgender individuals, to earn respect from society, to prove entrepreneurship is non-binary, to be a role model for other transgender individuals and to the society. In contrast, the push motivational factors were the limited opportunities, support received from society, the hijra guru, media, government support, family, friends, landlords, NGOs and another push motivational factor was the exhibitions conducted exclusively for the transgender individual entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Transgender Individual Entrepreneur; Motivation; Self-employment; India.

  • Conflict Barometer: An investigation into cross-cultural conflict and its effect on performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Vic Benuyenah 
    Abstract: This study seeks to present new ways of exploring and understanding organisational conflict whilst introducing a modern conflict measurement tool. Conflict can arise in every social situation and is commonly demonstrable in a number of ways, including personality clashes, insults, non-cooperation, mistreatment, anger and other types of stressful miscommunication. The research was conducted to explore the critical antecedents of cross-cultural conflict among international business employees and to indicate whether organisational conflict is framed as functional or dysfunctional. Using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques, the findings support the hypothesis that cross-cultural conflict negatively impacts employee emotions and performance. Finally, the paper proposes the conflict barometer tool to help managers gauge the levels of conflict among employees working in complex cross-cultural environments.
    Keywords: cross-cultural conflict; conflict barometer; negative emotions; Vietnamese culture; cross-cultural management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10041071
  • Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Malaysia: The Case of Mainland Chinese-Owned SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Mengdie Ruan, Angathevar Baskaran, Shanshan Zhou 
    Abstract: Using data obtained from 15 Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs, this paper investigates the personal characteristics of mainland Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs, their contributions to the Malaysian economy and the major constraints experienced by them. The findings are: (i) Most Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs are aged 30 to 40, married, and hold minimum educational qualification of a bachelors degree; (ii) innovativeness is regarded as the most important personal trait, followed by sociability and decisiveness; (iii) their contribution to the economy is significant in areas of employment and wealth creation, as well as the production of diverse goods and services for local and export markets; and (iv) while they experience some general constraints which are similarly encountered by native entrepreneurs, they also experience specific constraints such as language barriers, lack of policy assistance, and tax and visa problems. The study recommends the creation of a dedicated government department and the formulation of specific policies to support immigrant-owned SMEs.
    Keywords: entrepreneur characteristics; Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs; immigrant entrepreneurship; ethnic minority entrepreneurship; SMEs; Malaysia.

  • India and Bangladesh: An analysis of bilateral trade between two emerging economies of SAFTA   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The paper analyses India-Bangladesh bilateral trade with reference to South Asian Free Trade Area. For the purpose of analysis, the data period ranges from 1995 to 2019. The primary analysis reveals that bilateral trade has been weak, lackadaisical and the SAFTA agreement has not brought about any perceptible change in bilateral trade performance of these two countries. The causes of poor trade performance have been checked by applying Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) as suggested by Balassa (1965) and Trade Complementarity Index (TCI) as suggested by the International Trade Department of World Bank (ITD, World Bank, 2010). The prospect of intra-industry increment was also examined by using GrubelLloyd index introduced by Herb Grubel and Peter Lloyd (1971). The analysis reveals that India and Bangladesh suffer from lack of export specialisation in a majority of product groups and weak trade complementarities exist between them.
    Keywords: India-Bangladesh trade; Revealed Comparative Advantage; Trade Complementarity; Grubel–Lloyd index; SAARC; SAFTA.

  • Phenomenon of leaving money on the Indonesians IPO Table   Order a copy of this article
    by Fajri Adrianto 
    Abstract: This research aims to study leaving money on the table phenomenon in emerging market IPO. This phenomenon exists in the emerging market, including the Indonesian stock market. During 2010-2018, there is more than 80 percent of Indonesian IPOs are underpriced. Therefore, this study is essential to examine the relationship between fundamental information/ underwriters and the amount of money left on the Indonesian IPO table. We test our non-financial institutional IPO using the cross-sectional regression model. We find that firms with experienced underwriters and good governance are more likely to leave lower money on the Indonesia IPO table.
    Keywords: Initial Public Offering; Underwriter; Governance; Underpricing.

  • Are Robo Advisors robbing Financial Advisors? A Systematic Literature Review Paper   Order a copy of this article
    by Arti Chandani, Ankita Bhatia 
    Abstract: Financial Technology (FinTech) has been playing a crucial role presently in the area of behavioural finance. Robo advisory is being adapted on a larger scale by investor(s) to supplement the financial advisory services. This paper is intended to study the emerging role of robo advisory services in investment decision making and wealth management practices. The objective of this paper is to provide available literature on robo advisory services. A systematic literature review (SLR) technique has been adopted as the methodology for the current research. An effective review is necessary to lay a strong foundation for advancing knowledge (Webster, 2002). This review is limited to the keywords used which are related to the topic, the journals included and time period of papers published. The study included Robo-advisory in the context of investment decisions and behavioural finance, along with artificial intelligence (AI), FinTech and regulation of Robo-advisory. This work will help researchers in understanding the digital investment advice landscape with special focus on robo advisory services in the Indian context thereby enabling then recognizing a right direction for future work.
    Keywords: Robo-advisory; Artificial Intelligence; Behavioural Finance; Systematic Literature Review; FinTech; wealth management; digital investment advice.

  • Comparative Analysis of Macro-performance of Indian States: Meaningful Lessons   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashwani Bishnoi, Satbir Singh 
    Abstract: Indian economy has shifted to higher growth trajectory since the beginning of 21st century, largely credited to the economic reforms of 1990s and followed by second generation reforms of public finances. The country has practiced the federal system of governance, wherein state or province governments are empowered to manage the economic system. In the due process, majority of Indian states have experienced relatively market-enabling economic environment. This phenomenon motivates the researchers to investigate that how Indian states have performed on macro-economic front in this new changed environment. Present study uses the Wroclaw Taxonomic Method to make the comparative assessment of economic activities at regional level in India so as to draw the meaningful lessons for the poor performing regions. It is found that the states namely Gujarat, Goa and Maharashtra are classified as resilient states. Over the period of time Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh had shown more catch-up effect as compared to other states. The low ranked states include WB, Bihar, Kerala and Punjab. Based on the findings and from the experiences of other states, it can be argued that there is enough space for Haryana, Punjab and WB to align the fiscal resources towards capital expenditure especially for innovation and technology up gradation as these states are already well equipped with infra facilities.
    Keywords: India; states or regions; economic performance; fiscal; Wroclaw Taxonomic.

  • Arab identity crisis and consumer ethnocentric tendencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeb Al Ganideh, Saad Yassen 
    Abstract: This study examines the extent to which possible identity facets, namely, patriotic feelings, ethnic identification, and religious commitment affect consumers ethnocentric tendencies towards home country, co-ethnic countries, countries share the same predominant religion with their home country. Using Jordanians as proxy for Arab Muslim consumers, data were collected from 312 subjects living in three main Jordanian cities. Structural equation modeling was used to test our model and hypotheses. Our results reveal that patriotic feelings and ethnic identification motivate Jordanian consumers to express strong ethnocentric tendencies towards home country (Jordan) and co-ethnic (Arab) countries respectively. In addition, Islamic religious commitment was found to impact significantly on individuals ethnocentric tendencies towards Muslim countries. Our results confirm the recent rise of ethnic and religious identities for Arabs as a result of the Arab Spring events. Further, the study presents practical implications of these findings for international marketers.
    Keywords: Consumer ethnocentrism; ethnicity; religiously; patriotism; identity facets; Arabs; Muslims.

    by Preethi Sarah, Karthigai Prakasam Chellaswamy 
    Abstract: Social exclusion has impeded transgender individuals to enter mainstream society and curbing them to start a business venture. Sporadic transgender individuals have paved their way to start the business venture. This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial challenges faced by transgender entrepreneurs. Twenty transgender entrepreneurs who have relinquished begging and commercial sex work were interviewed. The grounded theory analysis has revealed six significant categories: financial resources, competitors, human resources, marketing issues, natural calamities, and transphobia. The participants expressed that transphobia and financial resources were highly challenging to start a business venture. These findings extend our understanding of their challenges beyond the current knowledge of cisgender entrepreneurs. Finally, the limitation of the study is enunciated.
    Keywords: Transgender; Transgender Entrepreneurs; Challenges; Entrepreneurship; India.

  • Assessment of Barriers for Small Scale Contractors in Adopting Sustainable Construction Practices: The Perspective of Indian Construction Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Kolte, Deepak Patil, Avinash Pawar, Anushree Patil 
    Abstract: This paper assesses the barriers faced by small contractors in India from the building sector while adopting sustainable construction strategies and proposing suitable solutions. Small contractors face numerous barriers in the segments of financial, political, management, operational, human resource, and material and equipment. Additionally, high initial investment cost for acquiring advanced technologies and equipment, the long payback period for the investments done for sustainable construction, lack of forceful implementation of sustainable building codes and regulations, uncertainty of getting continuous business in sustainable construction, lack of framework for implementation is endorsed by the respondents as the topmost barriers. The outcome proposes the key solutions that include higher subsidies on sustainable technologies and materials along with the mandatory implementation of sustainable building codes and regulations by the government, use of integrated project delivery for effective collaboration, conducting site training to adopt modernised methods of sustainability, and government support for new start-ups.
    Keywords: sustainable construction; small construction contractors; barriers; small business; Indian construction industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10039856
  • Impact of Information Technology Adoption and Internal Financing Sources on Firm Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Harvinder Mand, Gaganpreet Kaur 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Indian economy very hard and negatively impacted the firm performance. This study investigated the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. We employed a survey research design (a non-experimental research design). The owners of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) were surveyed to test the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. Empirical analysis shows that IT adoption and internal financing sources enhance MSMEs performance in India. Information technology adoption and internal financing sources increase the chances of MSMEs' performance enhancement by 26.24% and 64.05%, respectively. This study may help scholars develop further studies on the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. MSME owners may also find the study's results helpful to enhance their firm performance to survive and prosper in the future.
    Keywords: IT adoption; internal financing sources; firm performance; MSMEs; India.

  • Challenges and Factors Affecting Purchase Intention in Emerging Market of Afghanistan; A Global Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Hakimeh Sajjadi, Mohsen Alvandi, Mahyar Shahpouri Arani 
    Abstract: Various factors affect the formation of people's purchase intention, yet no research has been found on reviewing consumer behavior and factors affecting the purchase intention in Afghanistan by the researchers. Due to the increasing amount of importing goods and changing customers' behavior in Afghanistan, predicting and explaining consumer attitudes and behavioral intentions to buy foreign versus domestic products plays a critical role in designing marketing strategies for this emerging market. This research aimed to study the factors affecting the purchase intention of Iranian goods by customers in Herat, Afghanistan, and the conceptual framework of this paper could be a basis for future research in this field. It has also been attempted to simultaneously consider several variables affecting the purchase intention and examine a comprehensive conceptual model. The present study was a survey type, and a questionnaire was used to collect the research data. The research hypotheses were tested using path analysis methods, Anova, single sample t, and simple and multivariate regression. This research can be considered as the first researches related to consumer behavior in Afghanistan.
    Keywords: Purchase Intention; Consumer Attitude; Demographic Factors; Subjective Norms; Perceived Behavioral Control; Global Businesses.

  • Augmenting the Taguchi Loss Function with AHP to perform Economic Evaluation of Reducing Variations in Processes and Products   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Zainal 
    Abstract: This study combines the Taguchi Loss Function (TLF) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to develop an asymmetric function to measure the loss associated with deviations from a target level for a particular quality characteristic (QC). To this end, initially, the domain of the permissible values for a QC is divided into two significant intervalsnamely, the customer- and manufacturer tolerances. AHP is then applied for obtaining weights for (1) the quality characteristics and (2) various intervals within the two tolerance domains. An analysis of the cost savings accrued from the process improvement, using the proposed AHP-based asymmetric loss function, is presented to help decision-makers evaluate the viability and economic feasibility of improving a process. An illustrative example demonstrates the application of the suggested methodology and its ease of use and extent of applicability
    Keywords: Taguchi Loss Function (TLF); Asymmetric Loss Function; Quality Characteristics; weighted loss function; Economic Analysis.

  • Volatility of Oil price and Exchange rate in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Banerji, Mohammed Shettima 
    Abstract: The most demanding sector in today's era is the energy sector. India is now the third highest consumer of crude oil in the world, after USA and China, with 4.6% share of world total according to worldometer. For the same reason, adversely, India is importing majority of its oil obligation, and when there is increase in the oil prices; Indian Economy suffers from the relentless. And as crude oil pricing globally is said to be done in USD, the fluctuations in the oil price however has a direct impact on the exchange rate of those countries involved. This paper seeks to carry out a study on the volatility of oil price and the real exchange rate and its effects on Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar. Generally, it is a point of fact that a rise in the oil price influences the exchange rate to appreciate in countries that export the oil products and as well depreciate in oil-importing countries. The study will make use of the Garch Analyis Model to analyse and also predict the volatility of the two variables as our expectation will be that there is an asymmetrical relationship between oil price and exchange rate, especially during the study of time series data. Findings in the study however gave a general conclusion that there is no much difference with the conclusion stated by the literature on the relationship between exchange rate and price of oil in India. Recommendations are made to the Indian government to provide effective energy security source by establishing strategic crude oil storage facilities so as to reduce importation of crude oil which directly affects the foreign exchange rate and also some measures on how to strengthen the local currency (rupee).
    Keywords: energy; exchange rate; garch analysis; India; Oil price; volatility.

  • Perceived gender discrimination and work engagement: An insight from IT sector in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Hung Pham Manh, Vy Nguyen Khanh 
    Abstract: The presence of discrimination has become more pressing than ever along with the civilisation of the work, especially in work context. This study is designed to study the relationship between perceived gender discrimination in the workplace (in three dimensions: Workload and Participation; Resource access and Personal communication) and work engagement in technology companies in Vietnam. Besides, the study also examined the moderating role of gender in the above relationships. Results indicate that there exist negative relationships between perceived gender discrimination behaviours and work engagement in two aspects: Workload & Participation and Resource access, and no meaningful relationship between gender discrimination behaviours in Personal communication and the employees work engagement. Second, data also shows that these relationships can be moderated by gender, where the relationship becomes weaker for men than for women.
    Keywords: gender discrimination; perceived discrimination; technology companies; work engagement; Vietnam.

  • Exploring E-commerce potential in Rural India: Opportunities in Northern India   Order a copy of this article
    by Hemanti Richa, Alpana Srivastava, Madhu Pandey 
    Abstract: E-commerce facilitated online shopping is well established and populated in urban areas facilitating the buyers with lower price and delivery at their convenience. However, the type and nature of demand in rural areas is different. The supply chain is less developed along with product portfolio. Using primary data from rural areas, the study aims to gauze the penetration of online shopping in rural areas and their specific considerations and barriers to it. Applying basic descriptive statistics, the findings reveal that there is serious problem in logistics and rural people desire more agricultural products than fashion and entertainment. It has been recommended, if seeds, fertilizers and equipment are sold to the rural people, there would be a huge market to tap which is untapped till now.
    Keywords: E-Commerce; rural e-commerce; online shopping; Agriculture; Rural Supply Chain.

  • Cognitive biases in innovation ecosystems: global luxury fashion on the eve of post COVID-19 recovery   Order a copy of this article
    by Manel Arribas-Ibar, Nuria Arimany-Serrat, Petra A. Nylund 
    Abstract: Luxury fashion is an innovation ecosystem experiencing great change, and the COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated some of these dynamics. With roots in a traditional industry, certain cognitive barriers impede interaction within the luxury fashion ecosystem. We therefore analyse the factors that drive innovation and technological change through an inductive case study of this specific ecosystem. We identify and analyse six biases within the luxury fashion ecosystem that are affecting the cognitive barriers of the ecosystem. Consequentially, we propose that consumer bias impedes a transition from the traditional luxury customer to a more differentiated consumer. Market-segmentation bias can hinder necessary micro-segmentation to reflect new needs. Product bias obscures possible product innovation due to excessive brand focus. Sourcing bias toward traditional partners slows the move towards sustainability. Second-hand market bias stops fashion brands from fully exploiting circular business models. Finally, ambidexterity bias may block the exploration of new markets necessary following a crisis. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including the need to develop more adaptive and flexible strategies through open innovation that adapts to the phases of recovery from the pandemic.
    Keywords: Innovation; innovation ecosystem; product development; cognitive bias; luxury fashion.

    by Megha Sharma, Prachi Sahai, Vinod Singh, Naman Sharma 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of social media food & fashion influencers on brand credibility and consumer behavioural intention while analysing the moderation effect of e-wom on social media influencers credibility (SMIC) and brand credibility (BC). To accomplish this objective, the authors collected data from 208 respondents residing in India and data was analysed using EFA, CFA & SEM. Further, this study exemplified a favourable impact on the brand credibility of social media food and fashion influencers and further on consumer behavioural intention. Moreover, e-wom failed to have a moderating relationship between SMIC & BC. Further, conclusions and implications have been discussed.
    Keywords: Social media influencers; Credibility; Brand credibility; e-wom; Consumer Behavioural Intention.

  • Favourableness of Reverse Mentoring across Generation X, Y and Z in the Automobile Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Mlalhotra 
    Abstract: Purpose In the present era the work place has been profusely changed. Multigenerational workforce has been working together with their diverse working styles. Therefore, technological and operational efficiency, high coordination and social engagement become necessity for all generations employees. This has also necessitated the need of reverse mentoring. Reverse mentoring is the knowledge sharing platform where multi-generational workforce can learn from one anothers expertise. Organisations are using it as a social exchange tool. The purpose of the study was to explore whether all the generations of present business scenario (Generations X, Y and Z) are favourable towards reverse mentoring practices of organisation. Design/Methodology A survey of 236 white collar employees from the automobile industry in North central region of India was conducted. Findings The present study concludes that all the three generations (Generations X, Y and Z) show pragmatic response towards reverse mentoring. In fact, the research done till date also suggests that organisations should implement reverse mentoring programs following proper planning and execution methods. Empirical Significance the study is significant for the automotive industry to design reverse mentoring programs through which organisations can provide opportunity Mentee and mentor can learn from each other on aspects such as technical know-how, content expertise and generational perspectives. Originality/ Value the main finding of the study is that three generations are getting benefits from reverse mentoring as they like to share their knowledge and experience among one another. Thus by implementing reverse mentoring, the organisations persuade all the employees irrespective of their generational group to share goals, be supportive and have mutual understanding with one another and together get strength to cope up with any uncertainty.
    Keywords: Generation X; Generation Y; Generation Z; Reverse Mentoring; Automobile Industry.

Special Issue on: Circle Conference Creating and delivering value in a contemporary world

  • Eco Fashion Brands and Consumption: Is the Attitude- Behaviour Gap Narrowing for the Millennial Generation?   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniella Ryding, Myriam Caratù, Gianpaolo Vignali, Qiang Jiang 
    Abstract: This research examines the impact of eco-fashion branding on consumer decision making for millennial consumer to disclose the relationships between eco-fashion strategies and customers purchase intentions. The central aim is to present arguments that is a reverse trend of the attitude behavior gap within the UK and China markets, as a result of the use of technological developments especially in the web 2.0. The research design adopts a quantitative online survey conducted among 216-targeted respondents from four age groups and two different countries (China UK). The findings reveal that eco-fashion strategies are playing an increasingly important role in fast-fashion decision making and consumption. The value and originality of this study resides on the newness of the thematic, since few studies to date focus on the current relationships between Eco-fashion and fast-fashion consumers perspectives of brands.
    Keywords: fast-fashion; eco-fashion; eco-fabrics; recycling; brand perceptions; consumer attitudes; sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10036179

Special Issue on: MSBFC 2018 Financial Sector Reforms, Financial Openness and Financial Integration

    by Rahul Sharma, Rajesh Verma, Megha Mehta 
    Abstract: For citizens of India, it came with the sudden move of the Indian Government to demonetise 500 and 1,000-rupee currency bills during the fourth quarter of 2016. Every class in society felt the effect of demonetisation. As demonetisation took the Indian economy through a liquidity slide, so it is important to study the sentiments of the citizens towards the economic move of demonetisation by their government. In particularly an economy like India with citizens having high cash-in-hand volumes, it is also required to study the prominent challenges that the citizens faced during the process of demonetisation. Four major challenges were identified using the technique of exploratory factor analysis that were faced by the public because of demonetisation, for which the data was collected from 300 respondents.
    Keywords: demonetisation; sentiment analysis; challenges of demonetisation; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10041099
  • Performance of Commercial Banks in India: A non-parametric Malmquist Index based DEA Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanika Sachdeva, Sivakumar Palaniswamy 
    Abstract: The present study evaluates productivity and efficiency of Indian commercial banks in terms of TFP growth, technological change and technical efficiency performances. Efficiency have been computed using data envelopment analysis-based Malmquist productivity index for the balanced panel data set of 70 commercial banks operating in India from 20052017. The analysis has been carried out in two stages, all banks as a single group and three bank categories individually. The results of all banks analysis revealed that, 44% banks have recorded positive change in TFPG and category wise analysis revealed that, technological change is found to be the primary reason for positive change in TFPG of 68% private banks. Also, 15% public sector banks and 32% foreign banks recorded positive TFPG. The study concludes that there is enough scope for improvement in the performance of Indian public sector banks in comparison of its counterparts in terms of productivity and efficiency.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; DEA; commercial banks; Malmquist index; technical efficiency; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10039194
  • Before-After effect of GST on the Sales and Profitability A study of top BSE companies in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Pawan Kumar, Jasdeep Singh Walia, Gagandeep Singh 
    Abstract: With the rollout of goods and service tax (GST) in India w.e.f. 1 July 2017, the hope of Indias most significant fiscal reform one nation, one market, one tax has regained the momentum. The purpose of this paper is to check the immediate impact of this historic tax reform on the sales and profitability of top 80 BSE listed companies with highest market capitalisation. Using secondary data as a base, the Q1 (ended 30 June) and Q2 (ended 30 September) financial results, i.e., before GST and after GST have been examined using paired sample t-test and comparative analysis. The results of the study show that GST has not significantly affected the revenue but has significantly affected the after tax profits of these corporations.
    Keywords: goods and services tax; GST; Bombay Stock Exchange; BSE; market capitalisation; sales; profitability; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10032607
  • Effect of Decisional Factors on Mutual Funds Actual Purchase Behaviour among Indian Investors   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepak Pandey, Amit Kakkar, Mohd Farhan 
    Abstract: Indian investors have always shown interest towards savings and investment. Indian economy has shown a shift of preference of investment avenues from traditional avenues like gold and other precious metals to mutual funds. Financial sector is helping Indian economy and mutual fund has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors. Mutual funds make saving and investment simple, accessible, and affordable. Thus, it has become imperative to study mutual funds from a different angle, which is to focus on investors perception, expectations, subjective norms and buying behaviour. This research paper is focused on number of factors that highlights investors actual purchase behaviour towards mutual funds. This study has included seasoned mutual fund investors as respondents from across India using survey method for collecting data. SPSS Amos 20 was used to analyse data using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results have shown that investors subjective norms and perceived purchase risk affects purchase decision involvement. It was also found that role of information search and information processing of mutual funds has a major impact on actual purchase behaviour of an investor.
    Keywords: Asset under management; Investment avenues; Mutual fund investors; Systematic investment plan; Actual purchase behaviour; Purchase decision involvement.

  • Factors affecting behavioural intentions to use e-banking services: An extension of TAM in Indian Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Balpreet Kaur, Rishi Raj Sharma 
    Abstract: Using technology acceptance model (TAM) as theoretical base, an extended TAM incorporating perceived security and perceived privacy as issues of perceived risk for adoption and promotion of e-banking services is conceptualised. Structural equation modelling (SEM) technique was applied to analyse the causal relationship among the constructs. Results of the model indicate that in comparison to perceived privacy, perceived security is the most important determinant which helps in reducing the risk perceived by the customers in adoption of online banking services. Further, the perception of low risk affects customers behavioural intentions to accept internet banking technology as well as their intentions to spread positive word-of-mouth (WOM) about the service provider. Perceived usefulness and ease of use of the website is equally important but the perception of high risk and insecurity suppress the effectiveness of website usability. Henceforth, to promote the website, the financial institutions offering online services to their customers have to develop the mechanism that would ensure the security and privacy of financial data as well as the personal information provided by the customers.
    Keywords: e-banking; e-WOM; technology acceptance model; TAM; perceived security; perceived privacy; perceived risk.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2019.10030639

Special Issue on: 6th International Research Conference on Emerging Trends and Challenges in Globalised Digital Era Emerging Trends and Challenges in the Globalised Digital Era

  • Understanding the Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Innovation Capability and Differentiation strategy on Firm Performance: A Study on Small and Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepak Kaushal, Sanjeev Kumar, Rahul Raj, Abhishek Negi 
    Abstract: The current study strives to analyse the relationship amongst entrepreneurial orientation (EO), innovation capability (IC) and SMEs performance (FP). This study further tries to explore the impact of differentiation strategy (DS) as a mediating variable between the two. The researchers distributed 500 questionnaires to SMEs from various industries. Out of 500, 234 respondents completed the survey, hence, the study recorded response rate of 46.8%. The findings demonstrate a noteworthy and positive impact of EO and IC on DS and FP. Furthermore, the DS and IC affect SMEs performance positively and found to be noteworthy. The mediation analysis validates a case of partial mediation of DS and IC amongst EO and FP. It was found that SMEs with elevated EO will be more willing to implement DS. The analysis displays that DS playing the mediating role among EO and FP by positively affecting the performance. The study advocates that so as to improve SMEs performance, the companies should pay serious attention to EO. The study also offers a holistic view on the importance of DS in enhancing the SMEs performance.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; innovation capability; differentiation strategy; SMEs performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10035436
  • Determinants of Customer Experience Management and Its Impact on Experience Quality in Tourism Industry in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Bhatt, Bhuvanesh Kumar Sharma 
    Abstract: The tourism sector is witnessing a growing trend and with an increase in demand for consumers desire for highest levels of customer service and a full range of travel experiences that combine first class conveyance, excellent accommodation, and location, gourmet dining, outstanding entertainment and superior relaxation. Increased share of tourism in consumer spending is leading marketing practitioners to the recognition of influence on the customer experiences and its impact on service quality. Because of rapidly evolving customer demand for overall travel services in an intensely competitive environment, it has become very important to understand, analyze and construct customer experience to provide and improve the service quality, which in turn will improve the overall customer satisfaction leading to loyalty. This research initially employs explanatory research to investigate the customer experience management in tourism industry. Later, a conceptual framework was constructed based on the existing body of knowledge available and was tested using a survey of a judgmental sample of 600 consumers especially those who have travelled recently. Structural Equation Modelling was employed to test the proposed model. This paper tries to critically evaluate the relationship between customer experience management practices and Experience Quality.
    Keywords: Customer Experience; Experience Quality; Tourism Industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10021993
    by Debarun Chakraborty, Adrinil Santra, Soumya Kanti Dhara 
    Abstract: In both the therapeutic and academics quarters, the study of stress in human being has always been a thought provoking concern for discourse and analysis. The phrase stress development is inescapably intertwined with our everyday life but the exact nature of such mounting of stress on human beings is not universal in its nature. There are assortments of somato-psychological changes which are evident on the stress object. This study attempts to investigate the various behavioural, socio-cultural and economic grounds which are conducive in the process of acute stress development among the management students. For the specific purpose of the research convenience sampling method is used. The researchers used confirmatory factor analysis to analyse the data collected from the management students. The major findings of the study are that the personal psycho-demographic factors are the most important among all the factors which are conducive of stress development among the students.
    Keywords: stress development; somato-psychological changes; performance; social adjustment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10034267
    by Wendrila Biswas, Debarun Chakraborty 
    Abstract: This study empirically specifies that the prevailing situation of suspicion, distrust, and fire fights in industries can be impaired to a greater extent through organisational trust, team orientation and ingraining a sense of fidelity, synergism among employees. Such an organisational culture makes the employees more congruous keeping a compatible aura in organisations, building a culture of collectivism thereby reducing confrontations. The prime findings of the study highlights that the aspects of organisational culture is having a positive and consequential impact on industrial disputes. Organisational commitment is one the most influencing determinant which influences organisational culture. The study has a considerable importance because of its impact on employees as it facilitates goal alignment, motivation, conflict tolerance and serves as a control mechanism. The study provides a forward glance in the working of functional managers who face challenges in curbing industrial unrest and fall into the stigma of organisational uproar.
    Keywords: organisational trust; team orientation; commitment; synergism; conflict tolerance; congruous; culture; collectivism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10034268
  • Story-telling in the Digital Space- A Ploy to communicate with Millennials   Order a copy of this article
    by Yukti Ahuja, Indu Loura 
    Abstract: Millennials are the most popular consumer set of the times. They are considered to be an on the go generation. Marketers have a hard time targeting them. While their interests are varied and extravagant, they are circumspect in shifting any marketing communication made to them. Unlike the other generations, Millennials frequently visit all digital platforms for searching, evaluating and deciding products and services. Hence, new techniques of enticing them emerged on these platforms; one of them being storytelling. The purpose of this study is to explore storytelling as a digital marketing strategy with special reference to Millennials. The study has been conducted in two phases; firstly with the help of a questionnaire and then by taking in-depth interviews. The work has takeaways for researchers, academicians and most importantly corporate professionals who have been deliberating on using this ploy in their communication campaigns. Findings indicate the strengths of storytelling as a communication tool on social media but also reflect upon the Millennials perception pertaining to its emotive power as well the underlying marketing intent.
    Keywords: Storytelling; Millennials; brands; Digital Marketing.

Special Issue on: ICABM 2018 Modern Management Practices for Sustainability

  • Articulating Business Model Innovation, Digital Transformation and Managed Services: Case of Digital Transformation as a Service   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramamurthy Venkatesh, Tarun Kumar Singhal 
    Abstract: Business model innovation, digital transformation and challenges in service business model settings are very highly debated, yet the linkages between these contexts are not well articulated by the current literature. This study is a qualitative investigation of academic and industry insights as an attempt to articulate the relations between these three contexts. Based on comprehensive literature review and qualitative arguments, we deduce five propositions as an overlay of business model canvas components. Extending these propositions, digital transformation as a service is examined as an opportunity for managed services providers. We further argue with the support of publicly available industry reports from select communication services provider in Middle East region that are actively pursuing digital transformation as a service. Contribution of this study is twofold first, it is an articulated perspective of business model innovation, digital transformation and managed service as a whole and it is first of its kind. This holistic viewpoint shall serve as a tactical tool to understand and manage critical business innovation and digital transformation challenges. Secondly, this study reaffirms the fact how digital services required for digital transformation can be made as revenue generating value proposition, especially by communication services and digital services providers.
    Keywords: business model innovation; business transformation; digital transformation; digital services; managed services.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10040365
  • Role of Citizens Engagement in Sustaining Citizens Participation in Governance   Order a copy of this article
    by Shubhanshu Naik, Poornima Tapas 
    Abstract: As per literature citizens engagement and participation are key constituents of citizens satisfaction and trust. In order to ensure sustainable citizens participation in governance, both political parties and government make multiple efforts. Study was conducted to investigate the relevance of citizens (civic) engagement in shaping citizens participation in governance in India. Based on literature review, authors found that there is a dearth of research which studies citizens participation with consumer centric approach. Study findings recommend that in order to remain sustainable for both, campaign and political parties, they should raise citizens engagement. This would help not only to create a loyal pool of citizens (voters) but will also stimulate citizens participation and turnout. Findings also propose that political players should design innovative ways of political engagement using tools of integrated marketing communication. Findings of this study may act as a feedback mechanism for raising maximum citizens participation.
    Keywords: citizens’ engagement’ citizens’ participation; sustainable governance; political parties; government; civic engagement; political knowledge; citizens satisfaction; citizens trust.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10042781
  • Determinants of Sustainable Financial and Innovation Performance: A Panel Data Analysis of Indian Manufacturing SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek Kumar Sinha, Aswini Kumar Mishra, Manogna R L, Rohit Prabhudesai 
    Abstract: The contribution of Indian manufacturing small and medium enterprises to the gross domestic product has been consistently falling across the last few years as they have been struggling to survive and scale up due to a host of factors. This study aims to provide important implications to improve their competitive position by trying to identify the determinants which influence the two critical indicators of sustainable firm performance-sustainable financial performance and sustainable innovation performance. To do so, we empirically analyse 486 R&D conducting SME manufacturing firms from the firm-level data for the period of 20062017. Our results indicate that the determinants have a disparate impact on both types of sustainable firm performance. The study reveals important theoretical as well as practical insights for the long-term sustainability and competitiveness of manufacturing SMEs.
    Keywords: SMEs; manufacturing firms; manufacturing SMEs; sustainable firm performance; sustainable financial performance; sustainable innovation performance; R&D; export intensity; fixed and random effects; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10041291
  • Sustainable Restoration Strategies for Rivers Mula-Mutha, Pune, India Adaptive Learnings from Global River Restoration Experiences and Thematic Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Urvashi G Dhingra, Madhura Bedarkar, Prakash Rao 
    Abstract: This study explores the causal link between the drivers and impacts of pollution in Mula-Mutha rivers and further recommends sustainable restoration strategies for these rivers based on the driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework. It also draws learnings from 20 degraded rivers across the globe with respect to their drivers, corresponding pressures, and restoration strategies and identifies a pool of thirteen best practices to guide Mula-Mutha restoration efforts. To understand specific issues associated with Mula-Mutha rivers, the study organised 18 semi-structured interviews, and performed thematic analysis to explore themes for each component of the DPSIR framework. Finally, the study recommends suitable response strategies for sustainable restoration of Mula-Mutha rivers. The paper strengthens understanding of river restoration practices and supports policy-making by providing a set of sustainable river restoration strategies for urban, degraded rivers.
    Keywords: river restoration; DPSIR framework; Mula-Mutha river; global best restoration practices; sustainable restoration; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10038827
  • Sustainable Careers: Creating a framework of talent acquisition practices   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepika Pandita, Ritesh Khatwani 
    Abstract: Human resources have been identified as one of the most important factors in creating sustainable and successful organisations. The focus of researchers in this regard has, by and large, been strategic and towards enduring change and competition in the long run. With such a focus there emerges a visible gap in terms of sustainability at an operational level in terms of day to day issues. The present research is exploratory in nature. It tries to address this gap by providing a model to bring sustainability to human resource practices like talent acquisition and its impact on sustainable careers. Organisations, practitioners, and academia may apply the model. The paper identifies few sustainable talent acquisition practices, some of which have the potential to improve existing processes greatly and may be implemented by contemporary organisations to make sustainable careers as a vital HR practice.
    Keywords: talent acquisition; sustainability; green interviews; competencies; human resources.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10040016
  • A study on the Impact of Demonetisation on Cryptocurrency in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishna Iyer, Ravikumar VV 
    Abstract: Unaccounted wealth (UW) is a large unsolved problem in India. The demonetisation exercise in November 2016 was an attempt to address it. As regulatory measures are taken to tackle UW, criminals identify newer ways to avoid detection, e.g., cryptocurrency usage for illicit activities, as it bypasses formal banking channels. This article examines evidence of change in cryptocurrency usage in the context of demonetisation. This is done by examining four datasets viz. keyword search for bitcoin (BTC), volume of BTC traded in India, price variation between USD/BTC/INR and BTC blockchain transaction dataset. The data indicates heightened awareness of cryptocurrency, increase in volume traded and increase in price spread between BTC/USD/INR, though unable to discern deviation in blockchain dataset due to India led transactions. Increasing BTC usage, given inability to regulate these transactions, supports move by Government of India to ban its usage till the technology and its implications are understood better.
    Keywords: blockchain; black money; parallel economy; unaccounted wealth; demonetisation; bitcoin; analytics; cryptocurrency; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10038826
  • Literature review of service quality concepts, models and scales.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Prabhu 
    Abstract: This research is a literature review of service quality concepts, models, and their organisation based on service quality measurement scales and operationalization techniques. Services marketing literature is reviewed from 1938 to 2018; important service quality concepts & models are classified into major groups for better understanding of service quality measurement scales and operationalization techniques. The study identified five important developments in the service quality literature as; disconfirmation theory, gaps model of service quality, normative expectations-differential scale, ideal expectations-differential scale, and performance-only scale. Subsequently based on measurement scales and operationalization techniques the literature is classified into six distinctive groups as; industry/ function specific scales, multiple gaps scales, hierarchical scales, internal & external scales, conceptual differentiation, and other approaches to service quality. These six groups are recommended to be used for classifying any research involving measurement and operationalization of service quality. The study contributes to better understanding of service quality conceptualization centered around measurement scales and operationalization techniques.
    Keywords: service quality; service gaps; internal service quality; external service quality; service quality measurement; service quality operationalization.

  • Realising Holistic Creative Thinking through Seven Principles: A 21st Century Paradigm Leading to Sustainable Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Nishant Khandelwal, Anil Mehta 
    Abstract: The current business world and the academic fraternity agree on the need for creative thinking and innovation in every sphere of life to ensure global sustainability. Today, we are forced to provide those innovative solutions which are sustainable, i.e., one which caters to the social and environmental needs of both the current and future generations, besides aiming at profitability. To meet such a challenge, one needs a different paradigm. This paper, proposes a holistic set of seven principles for practice of management for problem solving and innovating through creative thinking. Together, these principles provide holistic creative thinking resulting into sustainable business and social innovations if taken up to their conclusions, given any target or challenge. Since these are principles, they are fundamental, enduring and universally applicable. The purpose of this paper is to help both individuals and organisations in setting and achieving their goals pertaining to creative thinking and sustainable innovation.
    Keywords: principles of creativity; sustainable innovation; holistic creative thinking; creativity paradigm; entrepreneurial sustainability; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10036748
  • Towards Globalisation of B-Schools: Best Practices for Sustainable Higher Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Preetha Menon, Kaushik Samaddar, Aparna K H 
    Abstract: Higher education today contributes to economic, social and human development. The quality and focus of higher education decide the quality of the workforce in businesses. Prominent frameworks in higher education like Humboldtian model of higher education, responsible research and innovation (RRI) framework and Wals and Jickling model have been synthesised to find newer meaning in this space. This paper content analyses 18 interviews of leaders from top-ranking B-schools that were published in a leading business magazine. Focus on international collaboration, industry exposure and encouraging entrepreneurship, emphasis on innovative and quality learning atmosphere, focus on research, nurturing socially responsible global leaders, women in higher education and leadership, and shaping young managers who are conversant with digital transformation were the seven best practices identified by this study for sustainable higher education. Corroborating with existing frameworks, this study provides direction to B-schools, policymakers and scholars in the area of sustainable higher education.
    Keywords: sustainable higher education; content analysis; B-school; best practices; India; globalisation; responsible research and innovation; higher education; internationalisation; sustainable practices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10034688
  • Demystifying Collaborative Consumption: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by K.G.Sofi Dinesh, Rejikumar G 
    Abstract: Collaborative Consumption (CC) is slowly and steadily becoming part and parcel of our economy. People are becoming aware of the benefits of CC and they are also becoming active participants in CC but research is only a decade old in this area although the concept of sharing existed prior to digital era. This study attempts to give clarity to the concept of collaborative consumption in the light of recent studies and look at its different types as discussed in literature. It looks into the major motivating factors and impediments from the consumers end to engage in collaborative behavior. There are a lot of areas from the consumer behavior lens that are open to research in future which include quality and value perception in CC, consumer expectation from CC. The review expose dearth in literature on conservative geographies where conflict from prevailing social norms and value systems create complexities among customers to engage in active participation to CC.
    Keywords: Collaborative Consumption; Sharing Economy; Systematic Literature Review; Consumer Behavior; Prosumer; Exclusivity; Rivalry; Customer Experience; Environmental Sustainability; Marketplace.

  • Systematic Literature Review of Voluntary Disclosures   Order a copy of this article
    by Arpita Sharma, Shailesh Rastogi 
    Abstract: With the changing facets in the reporting of information, voluntary information disclosure becomes the centre of all types of information disclosure. The purpose of the study is to derive various motives and the factors of the voluntary disclosures. The authors collect the published papers from the Google Scholar database by using Harzings Publish or Perish software. The papers for the review are selected on the bases of citation per year. The current study finds the pattern of the quality papers published in the area of voluntary disclosures. The paper discovers the major research journals and the publishers in the said area. The study presents the results of citations analysis and establishes various relationships among the sources, patterns, and the total cites and citations per year. It also presents multiple theories, types, motives, and factors associated with the concept. A conceptual framework of the voluntary disclosure is established.
    Keywords: citation analysis; corporate governance; asymmetric information; voluntary disclosure; signalling theory; agency theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035445
  • Investigating Entrepreneurial Competency In Emerging Markets: A Thematic Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahima Mishra, Abhijit Deshpande 
    Abstract: Small and medium enterprises are critical for the growth of the economy and entrepreneurs play an important role in success of these firms. The study aimed to identify the competencies required for Indian SMEs entrepreneurs in the evolving Indian market and presents insights from SMEs owner pertaining to Entrepreneur Competencies which are important from the sustainability point of view. A thematic analysis was done using case-based approach to identify and explore key insights into the Entrepreneur Competencies. This was supported by a comprehensive literature review. The survey was conducted based on convenience sampling of SMEs owners engaged in manufacturing. Face to face semi-structured interviews was conducted. The narratives were used to develop EC competencies. The demographic profile of the firms was surveyed. For data collection purposes various aspects of competencies related opportunity, strategic, conceptual, relationship, commitment were used. It was revealed that both generic EC and specific competencies are necessary to conduct the business and also take into consideration the firms resource based view to have an edge in the market and also ensure sustainability in the competitive emerging market. The study concludes that exploring EC competencies in emerging markets is important and certain competencies are critical in the changing environment of the Indian market. The finding will have implications for SMEs owners in terms of being aware of acquiring relevant competencies to sustain and grow their businesses in the emerging and competitive market.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial competencies; small; medium and micro enterprises; SMEs; sustainability; emerging markets; Indian markets; entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10040369

Special Issue on: Business and Globalisation in Emerging Markets

  • Juxtaposition of Favourable and Deterrent Antecedents on WhatsApp Usage Optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Sayee Manohar, Siva Muthaly, Navin K. VEERAPA 
    Abstract: This paper ascertains the tenets of usage optimisation UO of WhatsApp as a social media communication platform and the influence of selected aspects on individuals level of positivity or negativity in context of WhatsApps usage optimisation (UO). A questionnaire was administered to an audience in South India. The applicability of the conceptual model was first validated and a partial least squares (PLS) SEM based methodology to analyse and interpret the overall findings. Path analysis has also shown the catalytic role of intermediation by favourable elements and aspects of deterrents. The findings in this study are contradictory to the norm with WhatsApps phenomenal acceptance and its impulsive adoption. Businesses could benefit by incorporating aspects of the antecedents, in designing niche promotional strategies for their targeted segments and will therefore have a renewed opportunity to incorporate strategies to filter repeated messages and irrelevant chats in new value-added WhatsApp platforms.
    Keywords: WhatsApp; social media; usage optimisation; favourable; deterrent; antecedents; socialising; partial least squares; juxtaposition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10037252
  • Dimensions and Drivers of Medical Tourism Industry: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Malhotra, Kartik Dave 
    Abstract: The 21st century has seen an upsurge in the demand for global healthcare services. And one such niche sector of this rapidly growing market is medical tourism. The rising disparity in healthcare costs is fulling the growth of medical tourists to emerging markets, especially those with advance healthcare facilities and a proximity to developed countries. The interesting pace of this industry has received a growing curiosity from both researchers and practitioners. But most extant research still ignores the factors of competitiveness of a medical tourism destination. Against this backdrop, the present study seeks to identify and analyse the dimensions and drivers of the medical tourism industry. It does so by systematically synthesising qualitative studies that elicit views of various stakeholders practitioners, management, government, industry associations, facilitators and the academia.
    Keywords: medical tourism; health tourism; destination competitiveness; drivers; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10042738
  • Determinants of long term orientation in seller e-retailer relationship: a seller perspective in the Indian E-commerce   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Bhatnagar, Rajan Yadav 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose- The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents of long term orientation of the online sellers with the e-retailer, and its impact on the satisfaction of online sellers in the nascent but booming Indian E-commerce industry.Research Design & Methodology- A conceptual framework is proposed to empirically examine the effect of dependence, trust, role performance, collaboration & policies on the long term orientation in context of the E-commerce dyad comprising e-retailer and the connecting sellers. The responses were collected from 250 active online sellers across India. The conceptual framework is validated through structural equation modelling.Findings- The results suggest that the framework proposed had a good fit with four out of seven hypothesized relationships found to be significant for the online channel structure. The study establishes that dependence, collaboration, working policies and satisfaction are related to the long term orientation of online sellers.Originality/ Value- In spite of the sweeping effects of distribution channel management on the sales performance of a firm it is regrettable that there is hardly any research investigating the nature of relationship and satisfaction level prevailing between firms and its distributors in India. To the best of authors knowledge this study is the first of its kind in contributing to the understanding of e--retailers and seller relationships in the Indian E-commerce industry.
    Keywords: Distribution channel; channel relationship; dependence; channel structure; e-retailer; seller; long term orientation; satisfaction; reintermediation; E- commerce.

  • Study of Stock Returns through P/E, PEG and PERG: Evidences from Nifty-100   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Srivastava, Prashant Gupta 
    Abstract: In this study the concept of value investing strategies is employed for stock screening, where by Low-PE, Low-PEG, and Low-PERG ratios have been used. The concepts are based on the hypotheses that the stocks screened out with the help of these ratios could generate better returns than the market returns. This study has also examined that which risk alternative, the standard deviation of returns (σ) or the beta coefficient (β), could improve the performance while adjusting with PEG. On the bases of these alternative strategies 30 stocks have been selected out of Nifty 100 stocks to construct different portfolios and held through the investment period from 2008 to 2018. Portfolios constructed by using Low-PE ratio, Low-PEG ratio and Low-PERG ratio as screening strategies resulted in higher returns than the market average during investment period. Holding-period returns (HPR) for low-PERG-β strategy have outperformed the market returns as well as other alternative strategies during April 2008 to March 2018 investment period. Beta (β) appeared to be a better alternative for risk factor than the standard deviation of returns when adjusted risk factor with PEG ratio.
    Keywords: P/E ratio; PEG ratio; PERG ratio; Stock Return; Portfolio Return; Nifty-100; Indian Stock Market; Holding-period return (HPR).

  • The impact of online shopping convenience on Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Word-of-mouth in Indian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Deshwal, Shantanu Prakash, Isha Agrawal 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine the impact of online shopping convenience dimensions (Access, Search, Evaluation, Transaction, Post Purchase convenience) on customer satisfaction, loyalty and word of mouth (WOM) publicity in the Indian context. A questionnaire was used to collect the responses from online shoppers. Finally, linear regression analysis was performed on 202 responses revealing that online shopping convenience dimensions positively impact customer satisfaction, loyalty and WOM publicity in the Indian Context.
    Keywords: Online; shopping; convenience; retail; satisfaction; loyalty; word-of-mouth; Indian.

Special Issue on: CUDC - 2019 Emerging Research Issues in Management, Commerce and Economics

  • Learning Preferences and Attitude towards Change Acceptance of Diverse Generational Workforce in Digital Era   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Mlalhotra, Dr Kim Menezes 
    Abstract: In the digital era, where technology is integrated with all areas of business and new models are developed, it is essential for organisations to prepare their workforce to compete in the new world of work. Hence, it is imperative to investigate learning style preferences and attitude towards change acceptance of their diverse generational workforce, to equip and develop them in an appropriate manner, so that it can flow with the tsunami of digitalisation. Todays workforce can be divided into three distinct generational groups of employees Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z and research has concluded that generational differences exist in the workplace. This paper proposes to examine learning preferences style of each generation and attitude towards accepting change of the three generations in the automobile industry.
    Keywords: Generation X; Generation Y; Generation Z; digitalisation; learning preferences; change acceptance; automobile industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10042516
  • Seasonal Anomalies in Emerging Markets: An Empirical Analysis for Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinesh Jaisinghani, Mahesh Ramalingam, Muskan Kaur 
    Abstract: The prime objective of the current study is to test prominent seasonal anomalies for Indonesian securities markets, which are mostly reported for advanced markets. The closing values of nine different indices of the Indonesia Stock Exchange have been considered for the analyses. The time frame of 2005 to 2017 has been utilized to estimate the results. Four major calendar anomalies, including the day of the week effect, the month of the year effect, the Halloween effect, and the trading month effect, have been tested. The study also tests the incidence of volatility clustering and whether this clustering differs across positive and negative news. This has been achieved by deploying the threshold generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (T-GARCH) model. The results of calendar anomalies tests indicate the presence of strong day-of-the-week effect. The results also lend weak support to the Halloween effect. However, the results do not support the presence of the month-of-the-year effect and the trading-month effect. The results of volatility clustering are highly significant and it is also observed that volatility clustering varies across positive and negative news.
    Keywords: T-GARCH; Indonesia Stock Exchange; Day of week effect; Halloween effect; Mid-year effect; Trading-month effect; Weekend effect.

    by Sunil Kumar R, Harold Andrew Patrick 
    Abstract: Positive behaviour brings in a positive orientation. Business leaders today need to demonstrate effective leadership by developing, recognizing and providing quality of work-life to their employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of positive leadership behaviour on work engagement among employees in Indian information technology organisations. Mixed-method research was adopted, using two standardised, reliable and valid scales administered to 203 software employees, with a minimum of two years experience. Judgmental sampling technique was adopted to select the companies and respondents. Employees agreed that they experienced positive leadership behaviours from their supervisors and it increased their work engagement. The study found that positive leadership behaviours significantly influence the work engagement. Strength-based leadership behaviour dimension significantly predicted and influenced work engagement. Implications of the study are discussed, as to how organisations should encourage their immediate supervisors to practice positive leadership and develop strategies to enhance positive leadership approaches.
    Keywords: positive leadership behaviour; employee strengths; recognition; positive perspective; work engagement; information technology organisation; organisational behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10033455
  • An Evaluation of the Scales Adapted for Examining the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model in an Indian Policing Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Anil Kumar, Sarang Narula 
    Abstract: The paper aims at documenting an evaluation of Hindi adaption of measurement scales for examining the job demands-resources (JD-R) model a framework for observing the two facets of work-related well-being (i.e., burnout and work engagement) along with their correlates. Using a cross-sectional design, the study presented the measurement items to 1,600 police officers in an Indian state, Haryana. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis assessed the measurement items and scales in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and construct validity. This study findings suggest reliable and valid scales to examine the two (health impairment, and motivational) processes of the JD-R model, with an integration of personal resources in Indian policing context. For the policy-makers and particularly for police organisations, the study, a novel one in Indian context, is likely to have important practical implications by offering suitable scales to monitor the work-related well-being along with their correlates.
    Keywords: job demands; job resources; burnout; work engagement; personal resources; JD-R model; dimensionality; reliability; construct validity; police officer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2019.10030640
  • Need of Measuring Service Quality in Hospitality Education: A Conceptual Framework   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Abstract: This paper explores the need of measuring the service quality in hospitality education and proposes the association between service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioural intentions from the perspective of key stakeholders. Expert views were solicited from academicians and industry recruiters. The available literature was also referred and past placement records of IHMs were analysed to support the study. The findings suggest that in a competitive scenario, besides service quality in hospitality education, there is a need to simultaneously measure value and satisfaction leading to behavioural intentions. Accordingly, a framework is conceptualized for the stakeholders by adopting the research model (Cronin, Brady and Hult, 2000). The outcome in the form of behavioural intentions of stakeholders would then provide the direction to IHMs to better utilise their resources towards facilitating improved service quality, enhanced satisfaction or superior value.
    Keywords: service quality; customer satisfaction; perceived value; perceived sacrifice; behavioural intentions; hospitality education.

  • Quality Management Practices and Organisational Performance A Study of Indian Manufacturing Organisations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanjiv Gupta 
    Abstract: Competition in the present business environment increases everyday. To sustain and grow, each organisation needs to improve its performance continuously. One method adopted by most of them is to implement Quality Management (QM) practices; especially the manufacturing organisations. In India, these organisations have adopted these systems so that their performance in various business parameters improves on a regular basis. This paper makes an attempt to establish a positive relationship among the QM Practices - the Role of Leadership, Development of New Products and Organisational Performance. Similarly, a relationship has been established among other practices - improvement in product quality, process management and Organisational Performance. The findings are in line with the studies carried out in other countries on various manufacturing and service organisations. The author has drawn the implications at the macro level with regard to the organisations that propose to improve their performance on a continuous basis.
    Keywords: QMP; Quality Management Practices; Organisational Performance; Quality; Leadership; Process; Product; Manufacturing; TQM; Total Quality Management.

    by R. Sunil Kumar, Harold Andrew Patrick 
    Abstract: Globally, organisations are aware of the importance of psychological empowerment and employee well-being. Both positive leadership behaviou and flourishing have been seen from a strategic viewpoint within the human resource function, especially in the information technology sector. Today, organisations are focusing more on employee flourishing, incorporating thereby two dimensions of happiness; namely, feeling good and functioning well. This study aims at investigating the mediating effect of psychological empowerment on positive leadership behaviour and flourishing. Three standardised, valid and reliable scales were used for collecting responses from 203 employees who participated in this study from the top 10 information technology (IT) organisations in India. The results indicate that employees moderately experienced positive leadership behaviours from their supervisors, resulting in their psychological empowerment at the workplace, which in turn help them flourish. Psychological empowerment mediated the relationship between positive leadership behaviour and flourishing. A model was developed and tested, and it was found to be a good fit. Implications of the study are discussed in the context of employees working in IT organisations. There is a need to develop specific strategies for leaders to engage in positive leadership approaches at the workplace, and enhance psychological empowerment of employees for organisational success.
    Keywords: positive leadership behaviour; PLB; psychological empowerment; flourishing; information technology organisation; organisational behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10033458
  • Decoding Unethical Youth Buying Behaviour: Fair Trade with Unfair Means   Order a copy of this article
    by Archana Shrivastava, Sancheeta Pugalia, Kanchan Tolani, Geetika Jain 
    Abstract: In recent years, a lot of incidents of unethical consumer behaviour have been reported affecting sellers adversely worldwide. The study has attempted to understand the unethical behavior of young adults in an emerging economy such as India. Because of the globalization of markets and production processes, an ever-growing number of marketers and business establishments have to manage ethical issues in cross-cultural sceneries. This paper examines the unethical behavior of young working women in the Indian context. Researchers have proposed a theoretical model to decode the consumer mind and understand the reasons for unethical practices. An Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) was used. IQA begins with a focus group study followed by interviews with the participants. The model reveals 12 factors that are responsible for unethical buyer behavior. The Pareto analysis identifies a value system as a primary driver for unethical consumer practices whereas lack of awareness emerged as the primary outcome of the model. The findings of our study are important for marketers, sellers, producers, policymakers and society at large to mitigate the damages caused by unethical consumer practices. The study will help policymakers to understand the reasons for unethical buying decisions. The study re-emphasizes the importance of social education program to create social awareness on unethical consumer behavior. This study is one of a few that proposes a theoretical model to present the hierarchy of factors related to unethical consumer decisions.
    Keywords: Unethical consumer behaviour; Consumer ethics; unethical buying decisions; Ethics; Consumer behaviour; Decision making; Interactive Qualitative Analysis.

  • Human Resource Accounting Disclosure Practices of Indian IT Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Liaqat Ali, Anuradha Barda 
    Abstract: The present study has investigated the human resource accounting disclosure (HRAD) practices of the Indian information technology (IT) companies. In this research work, we have studied a sample of 17 IT companies from the S&P BSE-500 index. The extent of HRAD in annual reports of the companies have been analysed with content analysis technique. The firms were ranked on the basis of their HRAD score. The study found a moderate level of HRAD across IT companies in India. The results of this study revealed that selected IT firms are providing a certain amount of HR information in their annual reports though it is only on a voluntary basis. The analysis of the results has further revealed that most of the HR information disclosed is of a descriptive nature. Unexpectedly, none of the companies values HR in monetary terms.
    Keywords: human resource; human capital; disclosure practices; accounting; HRAD index; content analysis; IT companies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035364
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance in selected Companies of India: An Event Study Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Miklesh Prasad Yadav, Neena Sinha, Timcy Sachdeva 
    Abstract: The present study examines the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on Financial Performance of Indian companies. The proxies for the CSR and financial performance are Sustainability award announced by CII-ITC and stock price. The study is based on the 32 companies awarded by CII-ITC Sustainability award during 2010-11 to 2016-17. After collecting the data of stock price of entire sample companies, an event study methodology has been applied to observe the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on abnormal return in window period -40 days to +40 days considering window estimation period 200 days. The results reveal insignificant relationship between CSR and financial performance during pre and post announcement of sustainability award.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Financial Performance; Sustainability Awards; Event study; Shareholders wealth; Sustainability award.

  • Logit Model for Predicting Financial Distress in Indian Corporate Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurmeet Singh, Ravi Singla 
    Abstract: Financial distress prediction is the interest area for many academicians andrnresearchers as it adversely affect every economy and have important consequences forrnshareholders, creditors, investors, managers, employees and even government. Thernpurpose of the study is to develop a model to predict the likelihood of financialrndistress based on financial ratios by employing logistic regression. To validate thernaccuracy of the newly developed model two diagnostic tests viz. testing sample andrnReceiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve are used. Both diagnostic testsrnvalidate that the newly developed financial distress prediction model achieved higherrnpredictive power on testing sample and area under the ROC curve of the developedrnmodel for testing sample is found to be 0.884 which indicates that model is good andrnhas higher predictive power.
    Keywords: Financial distress prediction; Financial ratios; Logistic Regression,rnReceiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve; Non Performing Assets (NPA’s).

Special Issue on: SAC-MESS 2019 Entrepreneurship’s Role in Wealth Creation in Emerging Markets Business Excellence Models

  • Empowering Education Transformation Through IR 4.0: Efforts in Improving the Quality of Arabic Language Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Siti Nur Hadis A Rahman, Zaihan Ramli, Nor Afizah Bujang, Muhammad Talhah Ajmain Jima’ain, Asma Nurul 'Aqilah Mahpuz, Nur Razan Izzati Mohd Roslan, Ahmad Marzuki Mohamad, Aminudin Hehsan 
    Abstract: Education is one of the important aspects and it is becoming the most influential social institution in the society. The impacts of Industrial Revolution 4.0 are not only on industrial and the electronic sector, but the education sector is also affected by it. The main objective of this article is to identify the elements of Arabic language learning implementation amongst teachers and to oversee the challenges faced by the teachers in incorporating technology with Arabic Language teaching. This study used a qualitative methodology by collecting and assessing the information from previous studies such as journals, articles and books. This study found that there were four basic elements related to the implementation of Arabic language learning in teaching and facilitating process include teachers perception, preparation, practice and challenges in implementing and practicing this learning technique. Teachers are required to implement a new approach in PdPc process especially in Arabic language subject.
    Keywords: education; Arabic language; industrial revolution 4.0; efforts.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10039393
    by Mansur Juned, Arry Bainus, Mohamad Hery Saripudin, Nugraha Pratama 
    Abstract: Cyberspace as a virtual space which connects diverse actors across national borders has changed the shape of contemporary international relations and become a challenge for both decision makers and international relations scholars. Nevertheless, cyberspace also becomes a pivotal point for both US and China as two leading actors in contemporary global politics. We highlight the relations between those two countries in cyberspace as an arena to increase their power both through cooperation and competition especially during 20102015 and 20152018 based on the perspective of realism in international relations with the concept of cyberpolitics. The findings suggest that the complex dynamics of relations between US and China are determined the structure of global politics, high degree of non-state actors participation from both sides as well as different perspectives and interests on perceiving cyberspace. However, both countries are trying to use the virtual space as well as its complexity to increase their power. The intensifying of the dynamics between the two countries lead to power struggle in building the global cyber regimes regarding to their own values.
    Keywords: US; China; cyberspace; cyberpolitics; international relations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10042517
  • Examining the antecedents of social entrepreneurship intention: An empirical evidence from Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Siti Daleela Mohd Wahid, Abu Hanifah Ayob, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan Hussain 
    Abstract: Social entrepreneurship (SE) are pinned to be in a position of combating various socio-economic tattered issues. Following the initiative by the government to promote SE among graduates, research on how far students are willing to become social entrepreneur is relevant to be conducted. Thus, this paper aims at to examine the antecedents of a students intention to become social entrepreneurs. This quantitative research has employed stratified random sampling in a survey among 480 undergraduate students from public and private universities. From the multiple regression analyses, the results provide strong support that attitude towards behaviour, moral obligation, personality traits, perceived social support and perceived behavioural control are positively related to SE intention. This study contributes to the literature by formulating a comprehensive model of SE intention; whilst offering several important practical implications for Malaysia Higher Learning Institutions, SE educators and students. Limitations and future directions are also discussed in the study.
    Keywords: social entrepreneurship intention; personality traits; theory of planned behaviour; higher learning institution; HLI; attitude toward behaviour; subjective norm; perceived behavioural control; empathy; moral obligation; perceived social support; self-efficacy; prior experience.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10040877
    by Misra Hartati, Ismu Kusumanto, Ekie Gilang, Melfa Yola, Zarnelly Zarnelly, Puja Heryanti 
    Abstract: Case study of this research was done at a industry which has a core business in the field of petroleum drilling. To fulfill the needs of the industry, the Supply Chain Management Department was responsible for the procurement of goods in form of the rig tools. In addition, this tools were the main component in the drilling process. Procurement activity focused on managing the procurement of goods to its suppliers. The problem in this research was the Procurement Division only determines the supplier based on the lowest price and then does not prioritize the quality. Consequently, the industry faced problem in form of the late orders for daily which it result in loss of the industry. The purpose of this study is to determine the criteria used in evaluating supplier performance and selecting the best performance suppliers. This study adopted the Fuzzy AHP method and selected 23 criteria to evaluate supplier performance. The finding this study showed that there was a ranking of supplier performance. Moreover, this study found 7 criteria involving quality, price, shipping, company organization, behavior, service, and geographical location. Further study is suggested to evaluate the supplier in annual period. rnrn
    Keywords: Fuzzy AHP; Performance; Supplier; Supply Chain Management.

    Abstract: This study is aimed to analyze the impact of wage and motivation on the tappers loyalty as the determinant of pine resin production performance at Perum Perhutani. Based on relevant literatures, this study developed structural model of those four variables, which are wage, motivation, loyalty, and performance. This model then was analyzed by SEM and SmartPLS v3. Data collection was conducted by applying survey methods that was spreading questionnaires to 60 tappers who taken proportionally in KPH Lawu. The result of analysis shows that wage influences loyalty positively & significantly, and loyalty influence pine resin production performance positively & significantly. Interestingly, wage does not influence motivation significantly, and motivation does not influence loyalty and pine resin production performance significantly. Therefore, this article provides the information for Perhutani related to how increase the tappers performance in producing the pine resin.
    Keywords: Pine Resin; Production Performance; Performance; Motivation; Loyalty; Wage.

  • Research on Application of Computer Aided Translation to Translation Teaching   Order a copy of this article
    by Juan Lu, Noraffandy Yahaya 
    Abstract: This research aims to do contribution for the application of computer-aided translation technology in the traditional translation teaching in universities. Compared with the arduous manual translation, computer-aided translation can increase translation efficiency. The application of computer-aided translation to translation teaching can improve the teaching quality and meet the massive demand of translation job market. Based on the development of CAT technology and its experiment in modern translation industry, the necessity of applying CAT technology in translation teaching is convincingly proven, which is followed by the elaboration on the design of CAT teaching modules and the construction of CAT teaching system in this research. This research investigated the application of CAT to translation teaching, including designing teaching mode, using software and hardware, managing teaching files, storing teaching resources, establishing the translation corpus and so on, which have great significances to translation teaching and translation practice. Finally, a conclusion is made that only when translation education combining with CAT Technology, can translation education meet the demand of increasing translation market, and only by applying CAT technology in translation teaching in universities, can the translation education catch up with the development of the translation industry in this information age.
    Keywords: computer-aided translation technology; translation teaching; machine-readable corpus.

  • Mediation and Online Mediation in Family Disputes in Malaysia: A Comparative Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Nur Farahiyah Mohd Nasir, Zinatul Ashiqin Zainol, Shamsuddin Suhor, Muhamad Helmi Md. Said 
    Abstract: Both mediation and online mediation are mechanisms in resolving family disputes. The significant element to ensure successfulness in resolving family disputes is the attendance of the disputing parties. This article reviews the similarities and differences between mediation and online mediation in resolving family disputes. This paper highlights the aspects relevant to mediation, and online mediation such as the mediator, relevant legislation, advantages and disadvantages. This paper is doctrinal in its approach, whereby library research and comparative analysis had been used. The significance of this paper is to differentiate mediation and online mediation in family disputes in Malaysia and may add literature. This paper then, concludes by proposing online mediation as another solution to the disputing parties who do not want to meet each other face-to-face to resolve the disputes.
    Keywords: mediation; online mediation; family disputes; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035900
  • Management Control Systems as approach to improve the Quality Performance in Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayman Al Armouti 
    Abstract: This research outlines the management control systems as approach to improve the quality performance, when implemented in the Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority, a government organisation, operating in Abu Dhabi. The problem statement has been discussed and a questionnaire has been prepared accordingly to identify the cause and the potential impact of the MCS inorganisations such as ADFCA. Fifteen employees from ADFCA have been selected as the sample size for the quantitative analysis conducted for this research. In addition to that, recommendations have been made for the future developments of ADFCA. As finding the survey has provided a comprehensive idea of the operations and the impact of the MCS implementation in the ADFCA. The survey provided an outline of the challenge that the employees had faced upon the implementation of the MCS in the ADFCA.
    Keywords: management; control systems; quality performance; control authority; developments.

    by Md. Aminul Islam 
    Abstract: This research tried to find factors that influence customers buying decision in digital market platform. To do this research, with demographic analysis we followed regression analysis where 230 respondents responded who were acquainted with the digital market and media as well as buy often from the digital market. Among various variables, Shorter Delivery Channel, Available Compared Information, Return Policy of Defective Goods, Popularity of the website, Content of Websites, Products Diversification, Privacy, and Secured Payment Gateway are found to be foremost determinants of customer buying decision. For digital marketers, founded list of factors will work as key hub while planning their target market especially on those areas where most of the online purchase is made.
    Keywords: Determinants; Customer; Digital Market; Buying Decision; influence.

  • Online Mediation in Resolving Divorce Matter: A Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Nur Farahiyah Mohd Nasir, Zinatul Ashiqin Zainol, Shamsuddin Suhor, Muhamad Helmi Md. Said 
    Abstract: Online mediation was previously aimed to resolve online disputes. Nevertheless, it does not mean that online mediation could not resolve offline disputes, especially in cases that involve divorce matters. This article reviews the implementation of online mediation in resolving divorce matters in Maryland, Canada, and Netherlands. The purpose is of the study is for Malaysia to learn from the experiences of the following states in utilising online mediation to resolve divorce matters. The methodologies used in this paper are doctrinal and comparative approaches. The finding of this research reveals that the adaptability of online mediation in resolving divorce matters in Malaysia. Thus, this paper is concluded by suggesting that online mediation is a possible alternative that can be used to resolve divorce disputes amicably.
    Keywords: Maryland; Canada; Netherlands; divorce; Malaysia; online mediation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035905
  • Risk Assessment and Management Tools for Manual Handling Proactively in Making Paving Blocks   Order a copy of this article
    by Merry Siska, Afdhal Helmansyah Bakar, Vera Devani, Rika Taslim, M. Ihsan Hamdy 
    Abstract: This study conducted on a business unit which engaged in making paving blocks. Material handling in this case was still done manually. In the detail, there were several activities in less ergonomic work postures because the workers lift a heavy burden and do it repeatedly. This activity caused injury to workers involving musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Based on the Nordic Body Map from 4 workers, it showed that 14.81% did not get sick, 40.74% were somewhat ill, 36.3% were sick and 3.7 were very sick. In addition, complaints of pain occur in the neck, shoulders, back and waist. This study proposed the RAMP (Risk Assessment and Management Tools) method to identify and analyze work activities in order to know and assess the level of ergonomic risks. After the improvement was done, there was a reduction in duration in the moderate bending posture from 34.8 minutes to 25 minutes, very bending from 131.55 minutes to 95.8 minutes and also a reduction in frequency of lifting activities from 1000 times to 500 times. The reduction made the total score of the assessment change to 74.20.
    Keywords: nordic body map; manual material handling; musculoskeletal disorders;risk assessment and management tools;RAMP.

  • The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy Affecting the Purchase of Goods and Services by the Elderly in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Kwunkamol Donkwa 
    Abstract: Abstract: In The 12th National Economic and Social Development Plan (2017-2021) of Thailand, The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economyis applied for the public benefits and can be adapted for sustainable development. The sample group consisted of 228 elderly people aged between 61 and 80. The research was set and conducted in Nakhon Ratchasima because it is the centre of economic prosperity in the lower northeastern part of Thailand. The study indicated that the influence of the variables in the The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy, the decision to purchase goods and services was 0.789. The elderly group had a high level of importance in making decision to buy or use Food and Beverage, Travel and Recreation, Fashion, Information Technology and Communications services, respectively. There should be relevant government agencies as a mechanism for creating knowledge and understanding of the application of the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy among the people to apply the philosophy effectively.
    Keywords: Keywords: elderly; goods and services; purchasing decision; Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy.

  • Factors Affecting Consumers Intention to Purchase Smart Condominiums in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area   Order a copy of this article
    by Chavich Nilavan, Kittinun Boonyapruk, Patrapa Tangwongthawornkit, Siwanad Wongwasin, Siwat Intaput, Wasita Aroonyingmongkol, Wuttipong Rochanametakul, Guntalee Ruenrom, Apichart Kanarattanavong 
    Abstract: Demand for condominiums in Bangkok, one of the most populated cities in Southeast Asia, is high and continuing to rise. To differentiate between condominiums, developers have been adding smart devices. However, it is uncertain whether these devices can influence consumers purchase intention towards smart condominiums. Therefore, this study aims to understand the consumers purchase intention and to identify the factors that might affect their purchase intention to buy a smart condominium in Bangkok by using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) and consumer perceived value theory as the research framework. Purposive sampling was used, and data was collected from a sample of 405 residents in Bangkok. The results show that gender, occupation, performance expectancy, value for money, technological innovativeness, and family/friends influence significantly and positively affect purchase intention. Accordingly, property developers should communicate with their prospective customers by focusing on the expected performance and value for money of smart condominiums. Notably, family members and friends who own smart condominiums also have great potential to influence new buyers. Finally, it should be mentioned that the data was collected from those residing in Bangkok only and subsequently this may not be representative of the Thai population.
    Keywords: Building; Residential; Thailand; Smart Condominium; Purchase Intention; Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2); Consumer Perceived Value Theory.

  • Entrepreneurial Behaviours of Final Year Students at Vocational College toward Interest in Entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Hanifah Jambari, Siti Hajar Nur Atiesa Mohd Saupi, Ishak Taman, Nur Hazirah Noh@Seth, Mohamad Rasidi Pairin, Nurul Aini Mohd. Ahyan, Norulhuda Ismail 
    Abstract: The research was conducted to study the relationship between entrepreneurial behaviours with the interest in entrepreneurship among final year students at Vocational College. The objectives are focusing to identify the dominant entrepreneurial behaviours, a correlation between the behaviours with the interest showed among the students, analyses the students entrepreneurial behaviours based on the demography factors and identify the behaviours that lead to their interest toward entrepreneurship. The importance of this research also to facilitate students to choose the career that they are interested and enhance their interest in the entrepreneur field as their source of income. This study was a quantitative method where questionnaires were used as a research instrument. The total of 100 respondents were selected to answer the questionnaires. The sampling method used was purposive sampling. Analysing data was using SPSS software 18.0 to produce descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, min score, and standard deviation. Inference statistics involved was ANOVA one way and Pearson correlation. The finding of the research shows that the most dominant entrepreneurial behaviours are career function. The finding also found that there are no correlation and significance differences between entrepreneurial behaviours with gender, interest and study course among the final year students of Vocational College. The behaviours that contribute toward the interest in the entrepreneur field is the behaviour of goal formation. With this research, it was provided an input to the Ministry of Education Malaysia to formulate a curriculum which enables the student entrepreneurial skills as well as grow up the economy of the country over a longer period of time. In conclusion, the students of Vocational College have the potential to become entrepreneurs if their potential is nurtured and being polished.
    Keywords: behaviours; entrepreneur; interest; Vocational College.

  • A Study on Influence Factors of Patchouli Oil Industry Development in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Dina Rahmayanti, Rika Ampuh Hadiguna, Santosa Santosa, Novizar Nazir 
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the primary factors and subfactors that affect the development of the patchouli oil industry in Indonesia. Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) is used to compile and classify the primary factors and subfactors of patchouli oil development in Indonesia based on seven expert evaluations, five experts from practitioners, and two experts from academicians. There are 13 main factors identified from a total of 16 primary factors and 37 subfactors identified from a total of 41 subfactors. From the result of the study, there are some critical factors in patchouli oil industry development in Indonesia. There are quality, total revenue, and markets as the main factor, as well as the distillation method, global patchouli standard price, and production cost, as a subfactor. From all of these factors, the quality of patchouli oil, which is influenced by the refining method, is a very significant factor in determining the development of Indonesia's patchouli oil industry.
    Keywords: fuzzy delphi; patchouli oil industry; agroindustry development.

  • The Moderating Role of Internal Control System on the Impact of Tax Revenue on Economic Growth in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Mansur Lubabah Kwanbo, Augustine Ayuba, Muhammad Tanko 
    Abstract: This study examines the moderating role of internal control system on the impact of tax revenue (Oil tax and non-oil tax) on economic growth (Gross domestic product) of Nigerian, for the period 1994-2016. The studys approach is exploratory post positivism within a design that is ex-post facto in nature. Regression was employed as technique to analyse data extracted for the study. Findings revealed that internal control system mechanism ICS (control environment CE and Monitoring MO) moderates tax revenue for better economic growth. This implies tax revenues positive impact on economic growth. However, the effect of ICS on such impact is subject to prompt responses in the grey areas of tax revenue management which can be addressed by prompt submission of financial statements by the accountant general to the auditor general for audit.
    Keywords: Tax Revenue; Economic Growth; Internal Control System.

  • Validation Construct items for the measurement model of Permit to Work using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)   Order a copy of this article
    by Nizar Jusoh, Mohamad Wijayanuddin Ali, Tuan Amran Tuan Abdullah, Alias Husain 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) is utilised to validate Permit to Work constructs. The data for the study was obtained from the questionnaire survey distributed to 260 word leader and workers at Petrochemical Plant Kerteh, Terengganu. The EFA is the method to validate the items at respective construct of the measured variable. The items of the construct were developed prudently and carefully so that the items are measurable for the purpose of obtaining value of this measurement model. There are five constructs under Permit to Work (PTW), namely Work Description, Worksite Inspection, Hazardous Activity, Supporting Document and Close Out, was developed for the purpose of this study. After the EFA has been performed, it was found that all PTWs construct i.e. Work Description, Worksite Inspection, Hazardous Activity, Supporting Document and Close Out construct has satisfied the validity and reliability requirement and applicable for the study.
    Keywords: Permit To Work; Occupational Accident; Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA).

  • A review of the empirical literature on the determinants of insurers financial performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashwag Alsofiani 
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide a literature review in the field of the determinants of insurers' financial performance. The paper purposed to fill the gap in empirical literature concerning determinants of an insurer's financial performance. This paper took a qualitative approach to examine thirty scholarly articles from eighteen countries in four geographic regions. The results provided a list of seventeen common financial performance determinants found out of various studies. These determinants included fourteen firm-specific determinants (company size, leverage, liquidity, company age, premium growth, underwriting risk, tangibility, risk ratio, retention ratio, loss ratio, expense ratio, growth rate, claim ratio, and solvency margin) and contained three macroeconomic determinants (inflation rate, economic growth rate GDP and interest rate). Also, the results indicated that the return on asset (ROA) is the most financial measurements used as dependent variables. Furthermore, the results revealed that many of the empirical studies employed multiple regressions and it was discovered that the fixed effects model was an appropriate model. The paper is limited to published articles on financial performance determinants of the insurance sector only. The papers significance is in the provision of information for the researchers who are interested in understanding the determinants of financial performance and possible areas of future study. Further research can explore the impact of macroeconomic factors on a firm's profitability, such as inflation rate and gross domestic product. Adding more relevant variables as well as a larger sample that employ more sophisticated research methodologies.
    Keywords: Financial performance; firm-specific; macroeconomic; determinants; insurers; literature review.

  • Why Organisational Commitment Matters: Review from the Perspective of Leadership Style, Organisational Politics and Role Stressor   Order a copy of this article
    by Norusliza Ramli, Mohd Saiful Izwaan Saadon, Mohd Nasir Saludin, Abdul Hafaz Ngah, Dina Azleema Mohamed Nor 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a review to understand the relationship between organisational commitment dimension and several outcome variables such as leadership styles, organisational politics and role of stressor. Content analysis was employed as the methodology in this study. This review briefly discussed the three component models of organisational commitment and the dimension of three component models. The review also provided literature review on leadership styles, organisational politics and role of stressor. This study was limited to features over which researchers have a reasonable amount of control.
    Keywords: Organisational commitment; Transformational Leadership Styles; Organisational Politics; Role Stressor.

  • A Review on Vocational Education Teaching and Learning Practices for ASD Children   Order a copy of this article
    by NURUL AMALIN MOHAMAD RAZALI, Hanifah Jambari, Mohd Rashidi Ali 
    Abstract: Spectrum Autism Disorders (ASD) is a mental disorder that arises from a child's level that causes a person to act abnormal and difficult to interact or communicate with the community but this does not mean they need to be marginalized by society. It is very important for these children to have appropriate education so that they can continue their survival and thus can live like other normal societies. The purpose of this study was to identify the practice of teaching and learning of vocational education for ASD children by reviewing previous studies. Information was searched from journals via the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia's (UTM) library website and Google Scholar. The findings revealed the methods and approaches to teaching and learning vocational education in the form of use of technology, effective communication, and facility conformity. Therefore, this study can help children ASD not only focus on one form, but also apply various approaches and other means.
    Keywords: ASD; vocational education; teaching and learning; practice.

    Abstract: Introduction: Fintech developments in Malaysia are contributing to the formation of know-how, experience and technology expertise that can be of significant fundamental growth towards other technology or internet related industries in Malaysia. Purpose: The objective of this literature revision is to systematically review the number of studies on the phenomenon of Fintech in the Malaysian Financial Services Sector from 2014 to 2019 to identify the primary subject studied, journals involved, method employed and discover the gap in the current body of knowledge which justifies future research directions. The works of literature on Fintech in the Malaysian Financial Services Sector will provide an extensive knowledge contribution to researchers and economists. This implies a necessity of a comprehensive foundation on the current Fintech phenomenon in Malaysia that is attentively concurrent to the fourth industrial revolution. Design/methodology /approach: This paper consists of an analysis of studies dedicated to different types of articles on Malaysian Fintech. It is with the basis of certain aspects, namely, journal, author, year of publication, research design, type of respondent, primary subject studied, Fintech segmentation, the models and theories through systematic literature review approach. Findings: This has ultimately become a well-known topic for academic research in the future suggesting that the Fintech phenomenon is globally overwhelming but studies on Fintech within the Malaysian context are limited. Research limitations: Merely by using Scopus and Web of Science databases, this study may not have allowed an extensive coverage of all various types of articles in the field of Fintech in the Malaysian Financial Services Sector. Yet, it is believed that these systematic reviews had brought a valuable understanding on the current situation in this research field. The study proposes a future research direction, which may stimulate more intensive research in this phenomenons field. Originality/value: To the best of authors knowledge, there is no systematic literature review on this topic that has been published in academic journals.
    Keywords: Fintech; Malaysian Fintech; Systematic Literature Review; Green Finance.

  • Readiness in Implementation of Green Neighbourhood Initiatives in Urban Living: A Study among Subang Jaya Residents   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohana Ramli 
    Abstract: Green neighbourhood is a neighbourhood that practices a way of life to meet the needs of people's activities. Community practices in this green neighbourhood also have the potential to regulate pollution, save energy, accessibility, safeguard the environment, increase employment opportunities and reduce crime rates. Green neighbourhoods can form friendships, practice agricultural areas, use renewable energy methods, and maintain sensitive nature. This practice also makes easy access to home, workplace, infrastructure, public utilities, transit facilities and easily accessible from one neighbourhood. Conflicts between rapid development and local communities required a new paradigm to understand about the relationships between green neighbourhood initiatives from communities. The objectives of this paper are to study the readiness among residents in Subang Jaya in implementing and adopting green neighbourhood initiatives concept in their area. The respondents been limited to the residents and Residents Association only. Sample of respondents for pilot study set by 50 respondents from 400 respondents in Subang Jaya Municipal Council area, which includes Subang Jaya- USJ, Putra Heights, SS14 and Bandar Sunway. Quantitative methodology has been chosen to collect the best possible data for identifying the objectives of this study. Working with that method provides the researcher with a powerful method; answers are likely to be precise and easy to understand. The results from this research to collect data of community readiness and best opinion for creating solutions and framework for implementing green neighbourhood initiatives in urban living.
    Keywords: (Green Neighbourhood; Sustainable; Community).

    by Soffy Balgies, Suwitho  
    Abstract: A leader does not only count on good intellectuals, but also on proper emotional and spiritual capabilities. This study aims to describe how spiritual leadership is applied, as well as its impacts on the managers' performance. This study used a qualitative method of phenomenology with a case study approach at PT Telkom Indonesia. The primary data in this study were obtained by using an interview technique with two interviewees, who are the current and former area managers. The result showed that the leaders of PT Telkom Indonesia took the training of spirituality and have been implementing the spiritual principles in management function besides cultural activity in the organisation with the spirit of the Islamic context. By having a strong spiritual ability, the managers are able to manage and control the employees easily, specifically in their integrity and work ethic, which leads to high performance based on sincerity. Additionally, it can shift the work orientation, from material and transactional oriented into sincere-oriented that prioritised totality and doing the best.
    Keywords: Spiritual Leadership; Improving Peformance; Manager Performance.

Special Issue on: IC-BBS 2019 Interacting Business and Behaviour Studies Using Interdisciplinary Approaches

  • Is Information Asymmetry the Ground of Investor Sentiment in the Indonesian Capital Market?   Order a copy of this article
    by Liliana Inggrit Wijaya, I. Made Narsa, Andry Irwanto, Rahmat Setiawan 
    Abstract: Information asymmetry premium is used to get an answer to what underlies the emergence of investor sentiment on dividends on the capital market. Previous researches are only able to prove that dividend premium, which acted as investor sentiment on dividend, affected dividend policy. However, the conditions underlying the emergence of investor sentiment on dividends have not yet been answered. This research aims to prove that investors do put sentiment toward companies who pay dividend because dividend payers information asymmetry is higher than dividend non-payers, and vice versa. This research uses binary logistic regression and panel least square on unbalanced data. The results can prove that dividend premium is a subset of information asymmetry premium in confirming investor sentiment on dividends toward the propensity to pay dividends. It is proven that the basis for dividend payment is driven by investor sentiment that was formed because of high information asymmetry.
    Keywords: dividend premium; sentiment investor; information asymmetry premium; IAP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10035903
  • Why Participate in Tax Amnesty? The Case of the Indonesian Individual Taxpayer   Order a copy of this article
    by Arie Pratama 
    Abstract: Tax amnesty is a practice conducted by the government globally to raise tax revenues. This article presents several factors that affect the decision of the Indonesian taxpayer to participate in tax amnesty. These can be separated into three groups: (1) sociological; (2) psychological, and (3) demographic factors. This study employed a quantitative exploratory approach, with 109 individual taxpayers selected as a sample. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analysed using a logit regression model. The results showed that three factors affected taxpayers decisions to participate in tax amnesty: a high level of trust in government, and taxpayers behaviour and belief. Female taxpayers, new taxpayers, those with high income, and those with high knowledge tend to participate in tax amnesty. These results implied that it is important for the government to make a business-friendly policy and promote tax as an instrument for development, to enhance taxpayer behaviour and perception.
    Keywords: Indonesia; tax amnesty; sociological; psychological; demographical; tax compliance.

    by Kirill Sablin, Elena Kagan, Alexander Sharov 
    Abstract: The article is devoted to comprehensive assessment of the Russian resource-extraction companies readiness to develop domestic markets, which is an important condition for the formation of integrated national economy. Russian economy development is mainly due to the functioning of the export and raw materials sector. This phenomenon leads to the emergence of enclaves of wealth, which do not have any impact on the development of the rest of the economy. Methodological approaches of the study are represented with the concept of dual enclave economy, the concept of global value chains and the concept of discrete structural alternatives. Apparatus of theory of fuzzy sets and algorithm of fuzzy inference of Sugeno-0 order were chosen as research methods. The fulfilled analyses show that State-owned enterprises and companies those affiliated with the State are characterised with high level of readiness to develop domestic markets. Private resource-extraction companies demonstrate medium and low levels.
    Keywords: global markets; global value chains; economic development; big business; resources extraction.

    by Adisak Suvittawatt 
    Abstract: Most people think Banana flour is the flower of the banana tree wrong. Banana flower is still relatively unknown in the western world. Banana flour (BF) is in fact the starch of green bananas (Musa spp.) and has been used as substitute for wheat flour in Africa Asia and South America as it is hard to grow wheat in those regions. Banana starch (BS) has been predicted by industry experts to reach a market value of US$ 730 million worldwide by the end of 2027. From a chemical standpoint banana flour is a type of resistant starch (RS) that can pass through the intestines undigested and therefore offers a wide range of health benefits among others for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. However banana flour needs to be introduced to world-wide consumers through the design of an appropriate marketing mix. This quantitative research project focused on the reactions of consumers to the marketing mix of banana flour in Thailand. The study was conducted with a random sample of four hundred participants among shoppers in local grocery stores in Surin Province, Nakon Ratchasima (Korat) Province and Buri Ram Province This research project concentrated on the perceptions of the banana flour shoppers. With the main points to be researched being, the consumer perspectives on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place and promotion. We also explored the consumer attitude towards the banana flour being introduced to the market place. It is hoped to replicate this banana flour marketing mix study at other retail outlets in Thailand and neighbouring countries as well as around the world.
    Keywords: banana flour; banana starch; marketing mix; musa,.

Special Issue on: GloHMT 2019 Global Trends in Health and Medical Tourism The Way Forward

  • Disruptive Customer Value Propositions in the Global Health and Medical Tourism Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Balasubrahmanyam, Kaipa Prasad 
    Abstract: Across time, corporate hospitals and pharmaceutical companies in developed nations have come up with their own customer value propositions in the form of expensive business models that made sense for those economies. By and large, these business models could not succeed in the emerging economies given their wealth barriers, resource constraints, harsh infrastructure and semi-skilled or under-skilled medical professionals operating in population-rich rural regions of these economies. Realizing the growing importance of alternative customer value propositions (CVPs) that smack of affordable business models, some corporates, both national and international, have started rendering their services or contributing their products in a disruptively affordable manner. This paper makes an earnest attempt to compare and contrast various real-time disruptive innovations that appeal to price-sensitive nay value-sensitive customers from both developing and developed economies. It blends the existing theories such as Porters framework of generic strategies and few theories of internationalization with the literature on customer value proposition and makes few caveats to application of these theories with due justification and exemplification. It strives to capture various related managerial, organizational, social, conceptual and policy implications. Limitations of the study are indicated along with directions for future research.
    Keywords: Bottom-of-the-Pyramid; Reverse Innovation; Affordable Business Models; Disruptive Innovation; Customer Value Proposition.

    by Manisha Seth, Anupam Saxena, Deepa Sethi 
    Abstract: Healthcare professionals, especially nursing staff, are the backbone of any healthcare ecosystem as the connecting link between patients and doctors. Motivation levels of nursing staff can impact patients well-being. There are several studies regarding motivation of nurses; however, few studies were found relating to causes of low motivation in the context of the Northern State of Uttar Pradesh in India. Therefore, the present study was conducted to ascertain the causes of low motivation among health workers in three different hospitals in Uttar Pradesh: private, charitable, and government. The study found that there are two categories of reasons for low motivation: organisational and financial. It also found some common causes and few specific causes of low motivation in each type of hospital. The study suggests that each hospital should maintain transparency and must incorporate proper work scheduling, workload management, and also organise camps for training, de-stressing and emotional management.
    Keywords: healthcare workers; motivation; low motivation; government hospitals; private hospitals; charitable hospitals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042286

Special Issue on: CU-ICE 2019 Entrepreneurship, Disruptive Innovation and Sustainability

  • Disruptive Innovation, Fourth Industrial Revolution and Sustainable Entrepreneurship policy: Lessons for Nigeria from the experiences of EU and Australia   Order a copy of this article
    by Oyebanjo Ogunlela 
    Abstract: Disruptive innovation is used to transform business globally, with much research recently conducted in the area of disruptive innovation and sustainable entrepreneurship. However, much is still required where skills development in disruptive innovation and sustainable entrepreneurship is concerned, especially in Nigeria. Europe, Australia, America and a few Asian countries are among those countries where legislation and policies have been developed and implemented, in order that firms may embrace disruptive innovation to improve sustainability. This article examines how Europe and Australia have encouraged sustainable entrepreneurship and the manner in which this can be adopted in Nigeria, through disruptive innovation and a fourth industrial revolution (4IR) policy. Positive and negative effects of a sustainable entrepreneurship implementation approach are explored. It is debated whether, in the light of international experience, the policy on disruptive innovation and 4IR could be considered in Nigeria and plausibly be applied under the present infrastructure dispensation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Policy; Disruptive innovation; Nigeria.

  • Perceptions of Generation-Z Towards Entrepreneurial Risks Within the Maritime SMEs in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Job Dubihlela, Phyllis Chikwati 
    Abstract: Maritime SMEs play a key role in South Africas results-driven approach to economic development, involving various stakeholders, code named Operation Phakisa; whose main agenda is to address the triple challenges of poverty, unemployment and inequality. A quantitative research approach was conducted to collect data by way of a structured questionnaire. The purposive snowball sampling method was used to identify the sample of Gen-Z employees working in selected maritime SMEs in Cape Town. Participants were identified through their friends and from the alumni records at a local university from which they graduated. Gen-Z acknowledges maritime SMEs as exposed to substantial amount of entrepreneurial risks, deterring overall entrepreneurial performance especially from the technological perspective. Gen-Z perceives the risk appetite of younger employees as a solution to the development of eco-entrepreneurial sustainability of maritime SMEs. In spite of their lack of experience, they think they have information at their fingertips; and that they are increasingly aware of social issues and related environmental risks. The results also indicate that although maritime SMEs have written policies that incorporate optimum levels of training on ecological importance, poor ethical standards are still prevalent within their operational environments. Surprisingly, Gen-Z perceive social environment as an important factor to them within the business community. The findings in this study supports ongoing body of research that project Gen-Z as having potential to seize opportunities, find solutions and possibly help eradicate vulnerability issues and enhance entrepreneurial risk mitigation. This paper adds value to the domain of Gen-Z and maritime SMEs focused on the ocean economy, and also propose possible future studies.
    Keywords: Eco-entrepreneurship; Environmental risks; Generation-Z; Maritime SMEs; Oceans economy; South Africa.

    by Tolulope Atolagbe, Rowland Worlu, Anthonia Adeniji, Salau Odunayo, Mercy Ogbari, Stephen Ibidunni, Maxwell Olokundun, Hezekiah Falola 
    Abstract: The business environment is changing rapidly as a result of the digital age. Creating learning culture within the organisation empowers the employees to easily anticipate and adapt to changes within the organisation, be more responsive to the market place, be goal oriented and grow through innovation. Whilst the need for organisations to constantly adapt to change and come up with training courses and new tasks/responsibilities to enable the employees have the opportunities to develop new skills or build on existing ones have become worrisome and unabated. This has made firms, especially the professional firms to still be faced with challenges of learning culture complexities. Therefore, this study assessed the role of learning culture on innovation performance of the selected professional firms in Nigeria. This study was descriptive in nature. The study adopted a mixed method (Sequential explanatory approach) to get information from 328 employees among the professional firms that were conveniently and purposively selected. The use of questionnaire (quantitative) and structured interview (qualitative) were adopted. The quantitative data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to obtain results, while the qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis. The findings indicated that the selected professional firms applied new learning in their jobs and also support learning through their words and actions. Based on the above, the selected firms should have opportunities to apply new learning to improve workers competencies (experience, skill, and attitude) and to keep up with changes within the organisation or from an outside environment.
    Keywords: Learning Culture; Innovation; Performance.

Special Issue on: ICBF-2019 Recent Trends and Innovations in Banking and Finance

  • The Interaction of Rate Schedule & Tax Revenue: An Evaluation of the Laffer Effect   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Sharma, Jaspal Singh 
    Abstract: Taxes have been an indispensable entity for governmental revenue. While indirect taxes help finance the resources quickly, greater reliance over them tends to be distortionary both on economic and political front. Hence, there has been an increased desire to generate the required revenue resources through direct taxes especially through personal income taxes. However, the question of enforcing compliance for personal tax law has been an Achilles heel for the governance structures around the world. The principal focus of tax reforms henceforth has been on the moderation of personal income tax rates in the anticipated belief that it is high tax rates that inhibit effective compliance. The present study is an attempt to examine the said relationship between tax rate and income tax revenue in the Indian context. The statistical results upheld the applicability of the Laffer effect in the Indian context. The findings provide suggestive responsive measures for the policy makers and practitioners.
    Keywords: Laffer curve; income tax; tax responsiveness; public finance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10039828
  • A Test of Weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in Indian Stock Market using Momentum and Contrarian Effect   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramandeep Kaur, Rubeena Bajwa 
    Abstract: The current study intended to analyse efficiency of Indian Stock Market. The portfolios (momentum and contrarian) were framed over the 11 years study period, i.e., from April 2006 to March 2017 using monthly returns of BSE 500 listed stocks. The mean cumulative abnormal returns (MCAR) of different winner and loser portfolios were calculated. Portfolio performance was analysed on the basis of formation and holding periods being set at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months. Weak form efficiency was tested by using serial correlation, unit root, runs test and variance ratio test etc. The findings indicated that all single sorted portfolios could generate abnormal returns. Overall results of the study verified that by focussing purely on the past price information, Indian investors were able to earn abnormal returns in the stock market The results of the study will be a potential source for portfolio managers who are utilising or endeavouring to utilise to use the momentum and contrarian investment strategy.
    Keywords: momentum; contrarian; efficient market hypothesis; EMH; Indian Stock Market.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10038021
  • Factor influencing Leveraging Decision of Indian companies: Evidence from Panel Data Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanika Sachdeva, Abhishek Agarwal 
    Abstract: In todays competitive environment companies have to take lots of crucial financial decisions, a single wrong decision may lead to a huge cost to company. Identifying the various sources to raise funds is amongst the crucial activities and companies are free to decide an optimum capital structure in order to maximise their value. Therefore, it is essential for the companies to focus on factor influencing the leveraging decisions. Against this background, this paper examines the factors influencing the leveraging decisions of 100 Indian companies representing BSE-100 index during financial year 2008 to 2018. The analysis has been carried out using panel data analysis by dividing the companies in two groups on the basis of their age. The results revealed that, all factors except tangibility are significantly impacting the leveraging decision in all companies. Liquidity is found to be least influential for the companies existing for more than 40 years, whereas profitability and tangibility are observed to have least influence for the companies which are into existence for less than 40 years.
    Keywords: leverage; panel data; Bombay Stock Exchange; Indian companies; equity; debt; liquidity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10039198
  • Are bitcoin prices isolated or co-integrated?   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Vyas, Kiran Mehta, Renuka Sharma 
    Abstract: The tradability of bitcoins across globe and on virtual platforms has made it acceptable as an investment avenue (Polasik et al., 2015). The bitcoin markets have shown the sign of slow adjustment of disequilibrium error which means it is significantly affected by stochastic shocks (Cheah et al., 2018). A few studies in past have tried to state relation between bitcoins and macroeconomic variables. Also, in some of the recent studies, the relevance of bitcoin to hedge against currency and equities is discovered. The study under consideration has made an attempt to obtain empirical evidences of relationship between bitcoin price series and exchange rate of four currencies in terms of US Dollar, i.e., relation between bitcoin price in terms of USD and exchange rate of EURO-USD, BRITISH POUND-USD, USD-JAPENSE YEN, and USD-KOREANWON.
    Keywords: Bitcoin; cryptocurrency; Exchange rate; cointegration; VAR; IRF; Variance Decomposition.

  • Do Central Bank Actions Curb Exchange Rate Volatility?   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul Rishad, Sanjeev Gupta 
    Abstract: Floating exchange rate regime experience in India has always been about central banks regular interventions through purchase and sale of foreign exchange assets. However, in recent years, this intervention has intensified because of lumpy capital inflow, seemingly signalling a bias in the direction of defending appreciation pressure. This study measures the effectiveness of intervention and its episodic change and its consistency by dividing the data into three sub-sample episodes. For this, it uses a GARCH (1,1) model with weekly data on exchange rate, intervention and interest rate from April 1995 to December 2018. The results suggest significant influence of purchase intervention on exchange rate level as compared to that of sale intervention. Similarly, liquidity injection operations increased volatility, while liquidity absorption activities decreased it. Overall, the study presents empirical evidence for leaning against the wind and fear of appreciation policy in RBIs intervention operation.
    Keywords: Exchange Rate; Central Bank Intervention; Foreign Exchange Market; RBI; Rupee Volatility; Fear of Appreciation; Leaning Against the Wind.

  • Corporate Governance and Performance of Indian Companies: The Effect of Board Size and Ownership Structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Renuka Sharma, Archana Goel 
    Abstract: During the recent years, lot of scams happening in the companies has provoked the interest among the public pertaining to corporate governance issues. This requires significant changes to be made in this area so that the performance of the companies can be advanced. The current study has tried to accomplish this by scrutinising the effect of board size as well as ownership structure on the performance of 229 companies over the duration of 16 years i.e. 1st April, 2001 till 31st March, 2017. Performance is gauged via Tobins Q and Return on capital employed. Various dummy and control variables are used to develop a model. Panel data regression is applied to analyse the data. The above association is further tested via moderating variables. The study found affirmative effect of board size, promoter and institutional holdings on the performance of the companies. The study has implications for companies, institutions and regulators.
    Keywords: Board size; Ownership structure; firm performance; corporate governance; promoter holdings;.

  • Service innovation and delivery as antecedents of satisfaction and loyalty: A study of Indian Retail Banking   Order a copy of this article
    by Ishfaq Hussain Bhat 
    Abstract: The increase in competition, changing lifestyle, and rapid technological shift in the global business environment has led to the adoption of innovations in order to survive in the market. The aim of this study is to examine the role of innovation in the service delivery, satisfaction and loyalty of Indian customers in the banking sector. The conceptual framework grounded on theories was drawn to test the stated relations. A sample of 400 bank customers who had availed innovative services was chosen with the help of purposive sampling technique. The findings of the study reveal that service innovation has a direct impact on service delivery and satisfaction. Moreover, it was found that there exists a positive relationship between service delivery, satisfaction and loyalty in the banking sector of India. The findings of the study help to understanding the innovative management practices in financial services in emerging economies like India.
    Keywords: Innovation; Satisfaction; Loyalty; Technology; service delivery.

    by Inderjit Kaur, Kamal Vagreach 
    Abstract: The investor sentiment in an economy can be reflected through stock market performance and volatility. Retail investors usually participate in stock market through equity mutual funds. Thus, flow in equity mutual funds may be a reflection of investor sentiment for economy or in turn, may affect stock market performance and volatility. Therefore, this study examines causal relationship between equity mutual fund flows, and stock markets performance and volatility with Vector Auto Regression (VAR) methodology. We examined data on aggregate equity mutual fund flows and NIFTY-50 index of National Stock Exchange during time period of 2003-2018. We first examined causal relationship between flows, stock market return and stock market volatility as structural system. We, then, controlled the effect of market fundamentals variables such as trading volume, P/E ratio, exchange rate, and short-term interest rate. The findings provide that stock market returns Granger causes mutual fund flows. There is short-term memory for stock market returns, volatility, and mutual fund flows. The mutual fund flows react to memory of stock market returns even at lag of 5 days. Mutual funds flow though are driven by stock market returns but cause stock market volatility. The findings are robust to presence of market fundamentals. The important implication of study is explanation of confidence among Indian investors (in year 2018) for equity mutual funds. The strong fundamentals of stock market drive investor sentiment and hence equity mutual fund flows. But entry and exit from mutual funds affect stock market volatility. Thus, it is important that investors remain invested in stock market to lessen stock market volatility.
    Keywords: Mutual Funds; Stock Market; Volatility; EGARCH; VAR; Causality.

  • How mobile banking resistance behaviour affects financial inclusion in India?   Order a copy of this article
    by Kiran Mehta, Asha Rani 
    Abstract: Mobile technology revolution will contribute greatly to financially include the largely unbanked strata of Indian society. The increasing number of wireless connections and relatively low score of financial inclusion in India attract the attention towards a specific segment of potential mobile banking users who are having mobiles but not mobile banking. The mobile banking can also cover these nooks of the country, which were not covered by the manual or branch banking. The current study addresses two research questions. One, what are the factors of resistance behaviour for use of mobile banking? Two, what is the impact of mobile banking resistance behaviour on financial inclusion? The study is unique in terms of it has made an attempt to examine the impact of mobile banking resistance behaviour on the financial inclusion.
    Keywords: Mobile Banking Resistance; India; Financial Inclusion; Mobile Banking; Logistic Regression; EFA and CFA;.

    by DINESH TANDON, Nidhi Walia 
    Abstract: There have been significant changes in the economic environment due to radical reforms and increased competition has exposed investors to plethora of information and investment opportunities. One such crucial information based on which investments are made is dividend announcements. In endeavour to provide in depth knowledge about psyche of investors toward dividend announcements an attempt has been made through this paper. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of demographic determinants on the preferences of individual investors regarding dividend announcements in Punjab (India). Based on a sample of 500 individual investors, one-way ANOVA, t-test and levenes test was conducted to find out which demographic variables were associated with the individuals preferences regarding dividend announcements. The results of the research show that preferences of investors varies/differs on the basis of factors such as age, marital status, occupation, income and education. The findings of the study have implications for policy makers and financial service providers. Though, the demographic and their preferences regarding dividend announcement have been extensively researched in the literature globally as well as in India, there has been scant empirical research on the financial consumer preferences in Punjab. This study fills this gap and is the first of its kind on the preferences regarding dividend announcement of investors in Punjab
    Keywords: Dividend announcements; Investor preferences; Demographic factors; Association of variables.

    by Amandeep Singh, Jyotsna Sharma 
    Abstract: Dynamics of Internet banking has a noteworthy effect on everyone. Internet banking service has gained huge importance over the last few years. It is not limited to branches only, like old times. The progress in the field of information technology has updated and restructured the banking style to a large extent. In the present time, a customer can avail any kind of internet banking transaction online without any visiting branch at any time. Customers expect easy going facilities which can solve their purpose and save their time as well. Banks and service providers are in tough competition with each other to offer a better quality of services to customers. It becomes legitimate for banks to provide superior and improved Internet banking services to customers for a long time. This research tries to study the service quality of the Internet banking service across different regions of Punjab state. Banks and online service providers are investing a lot of money to outshine in the field of the service industry. So, it becomes important to study the potency and quality of internet banking services being offered to internet service customers. The purpose is to study whether there exists any difference in services quality offered by banks across rural and urban areas. The objective of the present research is to compare the service quality of Internet banking services in rural and urban areas of Punjab. There are numerous Internet banking services offered by Banks. It is not easy to measure and study the entire services. But the effort has been made to study the maximum available and used Internet Banking services. The random sampling is used to select the sample units from different cities of Punjab. Descriptive statistics and t-test are employed in the study. As a result, it has been found that there exists a significant difference between rural and urban areas customers for different types of transactions through Internet banking.
    Keywords: Internet; Service quality; Internet Banking services; Rural and Urban Punjab Banking.

  • Examining the Relationship between Management Quality Certifications and Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings: A Study of Banking, Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI) Sector in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Balpreet Singh, Kapil Gupta 
    Abstract: In this study an attempt has been made to examine the aftermarket performance of IPOs in the Banking, Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI) sector and its relationship with management quality certifications in India. From a sample period of 11 years, mean listing day market adjusted excess returns are observed at 27.86%. Furthermore, it is observed that long-run underperformance of IPOs using buy-and-hold returns is present during the holding period of 36 months. In addition to this, regression analysis depicts professional association of board members significantly influencing IPO performance, whereas, education level of board members, presence of foreign directors and directors diversity moderately influence the long-run performance of sample public issues.
    Keywords: Banking; Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI) sector; Long-run Performance; Initial Public Offerings (IPOs); India.

  • A Study of DuPont Model: Its Application and Identification of Key Determinants for Public Limited Companies   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: DuPont model is a very significant tool to analyse the financial evaluation of the organisation. It takes into account the three important parameters turnover, liquidity and profitability of the organisation. The foremost objective of this paper is to explore and validate the different components of the DuPont model for public limited companies for the time period 20092016 for 13,189 companies. The data has been analysed using ratio analysis, indexation, common size statement, correlation analysis and multiple regression. The results of the study show that return on capital employed(ROCE) is the most important parameter of return on equity (ROE) which is significantly influenced by margin of safety, profit volume ratio (P/V ratio) and asset turnover ratio. Out of these three, the most significant factor is margin of safety (MOS). ROE is more sensitive to profitability as compared to turnover and leverage. The analysis and validation of DuPont is useful for financing, operating and investing decisions for any organisation.
    Keywords: DuPont model; liquidity; public limited companies; return on capital employed; ROCE; return on equity; ROE; validation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10036750

Special Issue on: Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Leadership in Emerging Markets

  • A comparative study between Retail Sukuk and Retail Bonds in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Nevi Danila, Noor Azizan, Umara Noreen 
    Abstract: This research investigates the risk level of retail sukuk price fluctuation compared with conventional retail bonds and the secondary market behaviour of both investment instruments. Expected shortfall, generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model and cointegration test are used to analyse series of retail sukuk and conventional retail bonds. The evidence of clustering volatility indicates an increase in domestic investors in the Indonesian capital market. The purpose of the government in expanding domestic individual investor base of the capital market is quite successful. Moreover, both investment instruments have benefits of diversification. The finding encourages fund managers to diversify the portfolio in the retail instruments. At the same time, the individual investors can increase their wealth through capital market.
    Keywords: diversification; expected shortfall; GARCH; cointegration test; sukuk; bonds; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10037291
  • Management Innovation: Literature Review and Research Directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Shiv Shankar Kumar Yadav, Ashish Dubey 
    Abstract: Management innovation as a concept has been in inception from the times of 1960s but down the years, the emergence of this concept as an independent entity has not happened well. Concerning the strategy literature, it has been identified as an important aspect of firms performance. Moreover, in literature, its association with technical innovation can easily be witnessed. Therefore, due to this frequent overlap in various management domains the original meaning of management innovation has gone to latency. Keeping these concerns at the centre, this paper aims to discuss management innovation as a core concept, its characteristics, various affecting variables, researches done so far, and lastly some directions for research in the field of management innovation. The research methodology used is the rigorous literature review keeping organisational context at the centre. The study is of significance to policy makers for taking informed decisions and for researchers for further investigations.
    Keywords: Management innovation; drivers; roles; external environment; literature review; themes; organisational context; issues; government; characteristics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10034138
  • Managing Indian Universities-Need of Single National Regulator of Higher Education   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The research paper is based on analysing the management and regulation of higher education in India. University Grants Commission (UGC) a prime regulator has an obligation to recognize any University established and incorporated under Central or State legislature or Provincial Act under Section 2 (f) or under section 3 of the UGC Act 1956 recognized by Central Government as deemed to be University. The only penal power under its ambit is it either can impose a meagre penalty U/s 24 of UGC Act, 1956 or can prohibit financial aid from Central Government to the University U/s 12 (B) of the said Act as a result many Universities are making mockery of the system, being governed by their own Rules and Regulations these Universities are misleading the students and playing with their careers. It is evident from Supreme Court of Indias recent order in case of Orissa Irrigation Lift Corp. Ltd v. Rabi Shankar Patro & Ors1 cancelling the Engineering degrees granted by three deemed Universities JRN Rajasthan Vidhyapeeth University, Udaipur, Vinayaka Mission Research Foundation, Salem, Tamil Nadu and IASE Deemed University, Rajasthan through distance education mode between 2001 to 2005 without any approval. University Grants Commission is spineless and ineffective as national regulator of higher education so as other Regulators such as All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), Bar Council of India (BCI), Medical Council of India (MCI) etc. Recently, Ministry of Human Resource Development in late June floated the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) Bill, 2018, to repeal the seven-decade-old University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.The bill was revised as HECI Bill, 2019 in August 2019.
    Keywords: Higher Education; Students; Regulators; University Grants Commission; All India Council of Technical Education; Bar Council of India; Medical Council of India; Ministry of Human Resource Development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10030298
    by INDRANIL MUTSUDDI, Chandranshu Sinha 
    Abstract: Employee retention perspectives have become an issue of concern for most organisations keeping the plethora of changes occurring in the business landscape. Considering this, it has become imperative to understand the factors especially social factors that govern employee intention to stay in organisations. The study explores the implication of social factors like supervisor support, co-worker support, social network, and group cohesiveness on employee intention to stay in information technology firms in and around cities in North India. Earlier researches have been conducted exploring the role of contextual factors on employee retention mostly in overseas perspectives, leaving grounds for further research particularly in the Indian context. Findings of the study indicate that group cohesiveness mediated the relationship of co-worker support and social network with employee intention to stay. Supervisor support on the other hand, had significant influence on employee intention to stay, apart from influencing social network and co-worker support.
    Keywords: social factors; employee intention to stay; supervisor support; co-worker support; social network; group cohesiveness; information technology organisations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035362
    by Vanitha Chawla, Manjula Shastri 
    Abstract: The present study examines empirically the presence of day of week effect in Indian stock markets. The paper investigates the stock returns and volatility of Indian markets for the period from 2009 to 2018, using OLS regression, GARCH (1,1), EGARCH (1,1) and TGARCH (1,1) models. The results indicate presence of positive Monday effect which are not due to equity market risk. The study found weak Wednesday effect for small cap companies. The returns of Wednesday are volatile than any other day of the week.
    Keywords: day of week effect; stock market; GARCH (1,1); volatility.

  • Repositioning Industry R&D units into Tertiary Education Research Laboratories   Order a copy of this article
    by Stephen Oluwatobi, Adedeji Afolabi, Patience Tunji-Olayeni, Afolashade Oluwatobi, Onyeka Emebo 
    Abstract: Research and Development (R&D) play a crucial role in the development and sustainability of many economies. Therefore, World leaders in developed and developing countries have consciously engaged R&D activities to improve their cities, standard of living of its citizenry and installation of adequate military defence systems. Global spending on Research and Development (R&D) has reached a high of almost US $1.7 trillion dollars as at 2017. The study posits that public and private firms can reposition its R&D units into research laboratories in tertiary institutions which can result in mutual benefits for both institutions. With dearth of funding, the financial capacity of industries apportioned for R&D can be invested in educational research laboratories. The study showed how industry R&D units can be interpolated with existing tertiary education research laboratories by developing a framework for successful integration and migration. In addition, the study showed that there are drivers that can facilitate the collaborative framework between Industry and education research labs. However, there are barriers to the engagement of tertiary education research labs as a replacement to or complementary of the industry R&D units, these must be surmounted. Since research is the bedrock of most tertiary institutions, the study argued that with a well-developed framework there are mutually exclusive benefits for the industry and tertiary institutions. By repositioning tertiary education research labs to cater for industry needs, quality, capacity and funding can be increased.
    Keywords: Collaboration; Industry; Research and Development; Research Laboratories; Tertiary Education.

  • Use of Social networking sites for B school marketing: An empirical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravneet Bhandari 
    Abstract: B schools in India have grown rapidly from the past few years. Perhaps social networking sites are also considered to be a viable discourse medium between B school administrates as well as existing and prospective students; pragmatic examinations of how social networking sites are utilized by B schools for marketing is limited. In view of the "6Cs" of Social media Observing the conceptual model, this investigation analyzes how B schools circulate data, connect with social networking users, and impact the admission choices of potential students. Discoveries show that social networking sites performed well in keeping up user awareness and relationship management, in spite of the fact there is scope for social networking sites to be utilized for enhancing student association, connection, and assemble user insights. The investigation examines approaches to enhance B school marketing utilizing social networking sites.
    Keywords: B schools; Marketing; Social networking sites; Communication; Online marketing.

Special Issue on: VCBMC-2019 New Paradigms in Consumer Behaviour and Marketing

    by Parag Shukla, Parimal Vyas, Madhusudan Pandya 
    Abstract: The growth of retail sector can be attribute to colossal shopper base, rising income and financial thriving, and world class products (Technopak Report on Emerging Trends in Indian Retail and Consumer, 2011). The revenue generated from organised/modern retail was US dollar 15.5 billion in 2009, USD 41.4 billion, and is expected to continue growing at an impressive rate to a projected US dollar 94.8 billion by 2019 (Retail Report Crisil Research Estimates, 2014; KPMG Retail Report, 2014). The shopper experience is a higher priority than at any other time as retailers are endeavouring to separate themselves in a difficult and swarmed market. There are retailers who began on the web and are moving to physical stores and others are consolidating physical and digital. The purpose of this empirical examination is to study the impact of accessibility and ambiance as critical aspects of store attributes on general satisfaction of shoppers.
    Keywords: accessibility; ambiance; retail shoppers’; shoppers’ satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10040532
  • DIGITAL TELEVISION BROADCASTING IN INDIA- an insight into TRAI new regulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonal Trivedi 
    Abstract: TV viewing is revolutionised with new rules under Telecommunication services interconnection regulations 2017 and telecommunication services tariff order 2017. These new sets of rules have enabled consumers to pay for only those channels which they actually watch. The present study focuses on the impact of digitalising the broadcasting in India. It analyses the cost and benefit to consumers and broadcasters under this new regime. This study also discusses the scenario of TV broadcasting around the world and competition faced by TV industry from new platforms such as Netflix and Amazon prime.
    Keywords: Broadcasting; cable network; channels bouquets; TRAI; TV industry.

  • Awareness and willingness to pay for herbal products among young consumers in Punjab   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja Kansra, Amiya Abdul Khadar 
    Abstract: Herbal products play a major role in food supplements and personal care. Herbal products have become a promising industry with a huge growth potential. The present study examines the awareness and willingness of the young consumers towards the herbal products. A structured questionnaire based survey was performed in the state of Punjab, with a multi-stage stratified random sample of 400 respondents. It was estimated that 78 percent of the respondents were aware of the herbal products and 68 percent were willing to pay for the herbal products. Logit regression revealed that income, education, age, occupation, awareness of herbal products, price and reputation of the company were the significant determinants of willingness to pay. The present study will help the producer or suppliers of herbal products to design appropriate strategies to bring new customers and to retain the existing customers. rnrn
    Keywords: Awareness; Determinants; Health benefits; Herbal products; Logit regression; Product price; Promotion; Purchase intention; Reputation; Willingness to pay; Young.

Special Issue on: ICBM-2019 Innovation, Business and Globalisation

  • Imperatives of Creative Destruction: A relook at Globalisation-Growth-Innovation nexus for the Indian Economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Shikha Gupta, Nand Kumar 
    Abstract: Innovation has been the main driver of the capitalist process. The whole idea of creative destruction was fuelled on the process of innovation, but there have been questions on whether innovation has transformed into growth for countries. While this paradigm may hold true for developed economies, research suggests that the impact on innovation may be exacerbated in some cases and depressed in other. A major reason for this imbalance is also the measures of innovation. Research and development expenditures, patent filings, may serve as a barometer for innovation, but in places where institutions are not primary and have not attained importance, innovation is still occurring but cant be quantified. Thus, the objective of this paper is to quantify such measures and fit in a model to understand the innovation performance. To do so, the paper runs a model of innovation regressing innovation proxies like R&D expenditures, patents, human capital on GDP to understand innovation performance. More so, in keeping a special focus on India, the paper tries to fit in place such measures along with Indian productivity and trade amidst globalisation. The debate around globalisation as a cause or effect of innovation is also stressed upon. Innovation in India, may not be akin to the global version of innovation, but still, there is a need to relook what and how we measure innovation.
    Keywords: Globalisation; Innovation; Economic Growth.

  • Currency Risk Management in India through Hedging   Order a copy of this article
    by Varuna Kharbanda, Archana Singh 
    Abstract: This study attempts to understand the hedging practices of Indian companies and comprehend their hedging effectiveness methods by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 treasurers of Indian companies. The study further evaluates the effectiveness of the forwards, which is the most used derivatives contracts by these companies. The results identify the 1-month forwards as the most effective derivative instrument for managing the currency risk which the treasurers of the companies facing this risk should use. In the wake of rising importance and stress on evaluating the effectiveness of hedging, these results are useful for the treasurers of the companies and the policy makers to understand and identify better models for measuring hedging effectiveness.
    Keywords: Currency Risk; Exchange Rate Fluctuations; Derivative Hedging; Risk Management.

  • An Effectiveness Measurement Model for Knowledge Management A Balanced Scorecard Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Meenu Chopra, Vikas Gupta 
    Abstract: The industry is transforming immensely to adapt to the challenges of globalisation and deregulation coupled with fast-paced convergence of technological resources, spur innovation, achieving operational efficiency and dilution of industry boundaries. There is an increased focus on organisational excellence and KM can help play a significant role in the process. All these changes are opening a completely new terrain for organisations and converging on aggregating and processing internal and external knowledge is inevitable in this profoundly competitive market place. The purpose of conducting this research is to identify the prominent KM practices in knowledge-intensive sectors and propose an instrument for gauging their implementation and impact on the measures of organisational performance. The study endorses the previous studies and uses both qualitative and quantitative research techniques for the development of an instrument in the Indian IT sector. Thorough literature review followed by the collection of firm-level data is used to specify the domain of construct, generate scale items, purify and validate the scale. A measurement model is proposed and tested with the help of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The research proposes a 31-item scale to measure KM practices under nine heads - culture, people integration of HRM and KM, KM leadership, information and communication technology (ICT) for KM, network and alliances for KM, learning and growth, internal process perspective, customer service perspective and financial performance perspective. The scale exhibits internal consistency and unidimensionality and also clears the reliability and validity tests - construct, convergent and discriminant. The proposed scale developed in this study would be a practical management tool for measuring KM practices in organisations and assessing its impact on all the dimensions of organisation performance.
    Keywords: knowledge management (KM); knowledge management practices; balanced scorecard (BSC); scale; validity; reliability; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

  • Do Socially Responsible Funds perform better? A case study of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruchi Kansil 
    Abstract: An investment is considered socially responsible depending on the nature of the business the investee company conducts. The growing importance of socially responsible behaviour has led to the emergence of socially responsible funds which are mutual funds which invest in socially responsible companies. Existing research suggests that since the beginning of the early 20th century, these investors are a means by which significant influence can be exerted over businesses to act responsibly. The present paper attempts to explore whether or not such funds outperform the market in the Indian context. The results corroborate the fact that socially responsible funds do not underperform the market. As a consequence, the study intends to fill the existing gap in the literature on socially responsible funds as well as socially responsible investments. The results of the paper would help to promote socially responsible investment practices amongst investors and initiate financial authorities, government, regulators and other stakeholders to formulate policies and norms for the same.
    Keywords: socially responsible investment; SRI; socially responsible funds; responsible behaviour; ESG investment; ESG funds; ESG Indices; ESG Benchmark; SRI Benchmark; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10033467
  • The Emerging Role of Mobile Banking in Domestic Financial Remittance by Poor: Evidence from Urban Slums of Delhi   Order a copy of this article
    by Shruti Malik, Girish Chandra Maheshwari, Archana Singh 
    Abstract: Over the past few decades domestic financial remittance has considerably increased in India. However, migrants residing in urban areas face many issues in remitting money to far and distant places. In this respect the significance of mobile banking should be highlighted to disseminate various banking services in places of poor financial access. Considering this backdrop, the purpose of this paper is to study the impact of mobile banking in domestic remittance by poor residing in urban slums of Delhi. The empirical models were studied through probit and tobit regression. This paper suggests a significant role of mobile banking in domestic remittances of money by poor. The research findings are useful to various banks and policymakers in improving mobile banking services for financial remittance by poor in urban areas.
    Keywords: domestic remittance; financial inclusion; mobile banking; urban slums.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035548

Special Issue on: FORBS 2019 Trends in Management Science Research and Practices

    by HARITHA PH 
    Abstract: This empirical study analyses the influence of factors such as market and social dynamics on the Indian equity market of individual investors. Due to advancements in science and technology, the media and the internet make the information quickly accessible to the investors. Technology advancement plays a major role in the process of investment decision making of equity investors. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of social and market dynamics influence of investment decision making by Indian equity investors. The various social dynamics which influence investors' decision-making mainly includes media, internet and social interaction. Change in market conditions influences the stock market which consequently influences the investment decision making of equity investment. To analyze the data, factor analysis and multiple regression were used. The results from a representative sample of individual investors pointed out that their resolution in stock selection was strongly influenced by the behavioral factors of those investors. The major findings of this study are to understand the social and market dynamics influencing investment decision making of equity investors in India.
    Keywords: Behavioral Finance; Market effect; Social dynamics; Internet; Media; Stock market.

  • Does economic factors improves Property Liability Insurance consumption in India: an empirical assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijit Mukherjee, Amlan Ghosh 
    Abstract: Property Liability Insurance (PLI) is an important constituent of the financial system and a positive relationship with economic growth has already been established in India. This study aims at finding the economic factors that impact PLI consumption which consequently has a cascading effect on economic growth in India. Annual data series in the post reform period from 1992 to 2017 has been taken in the study. OLS regression method is used to find the strength of the relationship and for high collinearity between explanatory variables, Factor analysis is conducted to reduce the highly correlated variables to certain factor/s. Infrastructure development, registered motor vehicles, income, financial development, trade activity have positive relationship & Inflation, price and interest rate on alternative instruments have significant negative relationship with PLI consumption. Policymakers can focus on the identified economic factors and implement policies to boost the PLI consumption to have a positive impact on economic growth in India.
    Keywords: India; Property Liability insurance; Economic factors; Infrastructure development; Ordinary Least Squares regression method; Factor analysis; Economic growth.

  • A comparative analysis of greening policies and CSR efforts in a government-led sustainable supply chain across different channel powers   Order a copy of this article
    by Chirantan Mondal, Bibhas C. Giri 
    Abstract: This article considers a government-led sustainable supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer under selling price, greening level and CSR effort dependent market demand. The manufacturer and the retailer are responsible for product greening and CSR, respectively. To stimulate product greening and CSR effort, the government subsidises both of them. The optimal decisions are obtained both analytically and numerically under four game-theoretic policies viz. centralised policy (model C), manufacturer-led decentralised policy (model M), retailer-led decentralised policy (model R) and Nash game (model N). Three special cases are examined by considering that the manufacturer does not produce green products, the retailer does not give any effort in CSR, and both of them do not provide any effort. Our results show that model N provides comparatively better outcome, and each member prefers to lead the channel as it helps to gain higher profit.
    Keywords: sustainable supply chain; greening level; corporate social responsibility; CSR; government subsidy; game theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10041806

Special Issue on: SIFICO 2020 Trends in Financial Markets and Institutions

  • Extent & Determinants of Voluntary Disclosure: An Empirical Study of Indian Private Sector Banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurbinder Singh 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and determinants of voluntary disclosure practices of the Indian private sector banks. The voluntary disclosure index of 129 items is used to check the voluntary disclosure practices of Indian private sector banks for the year ending 2014-15 and 2017-18 respectively. Wilcoxon signed rank test, percentage disclosure and OLS regression has been used for statistical analysis.The findings of the study reveal that overall disclosure level of the voluntary items has significantly increased after the amendment of Indian Companies Act, 2013. But still the level of voluntary disclosure is less than 50%. Overall, the voluntary disclosure of 35 items is constant, 64 items is improved and decreased for 30 items.Further, 23 items in 2014-15 and 17 items in 2017-18 have not been disclosed by any of the bank. 59% banks have a voluntary score of less than 70 and 64% banks have more than 70 in the year 2014-15 and 2017-18 respectively. Kotak Mahindra Bank and YES Bank has attained the 1st rank in the year 2014-15 and 2017-18 respectively.Overall, only the one bank (Yes Bank) has more than 50% disclosure score which is quite contrary than current scenario. The profitability, liquidity, bank size and bank age are taken as independent variables. The results of regression analysis reveal that profitability and liquidity are significantly and positively affecting the voluntary disclosure in the year 2014-15 and bank size had significant positive impact (10% level of significance) on voluntary disclosure in 2017-18.
    Keywords: Voluntary Disclosure; Private Banks; Determinants; India.

  • Estimation of Default Risk through Merton's Distance to Default Model:-An Empirical Study of Four Indian Public Sector Banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Raghavendra S. Bendigeri 
    Abstract: Credit risk or default risk is one of the most significant risks faced by every organization. Inability to pay off its debts invariably leads the firm towards insolvency and bankruptcy. Management of credit risk through suitable safeguards is highly vital for any organization to survive, sustain and thrive. However comprehension and measurement of credit risk or default risk precedes its management. This research study makes an attempt to comprehend and quantify credit risk of four Indian Public Sector banks namely: Bank of Baroda, Bank of India, Canara Bank and Punjab National Bank. The research employs Mertons Distance to Default Model to measure the credit risk of above mentioned banks.
    Keywords: Credit Risk; Default Risk; Banks; Merton’s Model; Distance to Default; Probability of Default; Asset Value; Equity Value; Asset Volatility; Equity Volatility.

  • Investor Intentions of Stock Market Participation in India: An Extended TPB Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Anubhuti Dwivedi, Maroof Ahmad Mir 
    Abstract: Emerging economies like India exhibit low rates of stock market participation despite high rates of growth in income. This paper aims at analysing the attitudinal, social and behavioural control factors influencing the investor intentions of stock market participation using constructs from an extended model of theory of planned behaviour. Attitude and perceived behavioural control are found to be significantly related to motivational intention but subjective norm is not significantly related to motivational intention of investors to participate in stock market. Finally, motivational intention has a significant influence on implementation intention which in turn has positive influence on actual participation in stock market.
    Keywords: stock market participation; investor intentions; theory of planned behaviour; behavioural intention; implementation intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10041805
    by Savitha Lakkol, Srilakshminarayana G, Nalina K B 
    Abstract: Securities lending and short selling are two major instruments used by emerging markets as a tool to enhance liquidity and efficiency. This paper focuses on Stock Lending and Borrowing (SLB) and volatility interdependence using individual stocks and the market data. The purpose is to explain the causality between SLB trade in individual stocks, on volatility of both stocks and the market index. NSE Nifty stocks and Nifty index were considered and data was collated for a period of two years, between January 2017 and December 2019. Applying Granger causality, study finds that there is bilateral causality between SLB trades and stock price volatility but the trades do not impact the market return. The study also tracks the development of SLB market in its present form since its introduction in the year 2010.
    Keywords: Security Lending and Borrowing; short selling; Volatility; Causality; Panel Granger.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10043320
  • How Blockchain enables the financial transactions in the Banking sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Senthil Kumar A., Vasavi K. L., Gagana R. 
    Abstract: Blockchain technology is the most important technological revolutions of the second decade of the 21st century. The banking sector is one of the major sectors where blockchain has played a significant role in recording and processing various financial transactions, inter-bank transfers, and digital format agreements through a distributed ledger system. It harms the transactional costs, which influence the financial markets. The global financial system being the most popular sector is prone to many errors and frauds. Blockchain technology can help prevent these problems by enabling a decentralised network that permits all parties to review. The present study attempted to analyse the problems in existing banking financial transactions, understand the importance of transparency and study the usage of blockchain in the banking sector. It suggests a research model for solving financial transaction problems by applying blockchain technology. The study uplifts the security and transparency of blockchain technology throughout the paper.
    Keywords: banking; blockchain; bitcoin; decentralisation; ecosystem; finance; financial market; fintech; technology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10034286

Special Issue on: Financial Inclusion - A Comprehensive Review

  • Tenure Security and Access to Inclusive Rural Financial Services for Smallholder Farmers: Challenges and Opportunities in Rural Development Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Giulia Barbanente, Harold Liversage, Jonathan Agwe, Michael Hamp 
    Abstract: Around the world, 500 million smallholder families only receive an estimated 29% of the financial resources that they need to invest in agricultural production and improve their livelihood. Land tenure is a key factor that can support smallholder farmers to access financial resources. This study deepens the analysis on the role of land tenure for smallholder farmers access to inclusive rural financial services, combining a review of operational documents and literature, with new insights from the field. The study mobilises the knowledge and experience of rural finance experts from across regions, to reflect on ongoing challenges and available tools. The study looks beyond the conventional supply-side-focused approach on tenure security and access to finance, offering a new perspective on a broader set of linkages, both direct and indirect, that are established at the local level between these two essential and necessary enablers of production.
    Keywords: inclusive rural financial services; land tenure; tenure security; rural development; rural finance; property rights; land rights; smallholder farmers; agricultural development; value chains;.

  • Do interest rate caps on microfinance loans result in higher microfinance institution (MFI) efficiency? A study of Indian MFIs using data envelopment analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Savita Shankar, Trishit Bandyopadhyay 
    Abstract: A regulatory cap on interest rates on micro finance loans in India in 2011, imposed subsequent to a crisis in the state of Andhra Pradesh, is studied using data envelopment analysis. The research objective is to ascertain if the regulation was followed by improvements in efficiency of micro finance institutions (MFIs) during the period 2011 to 2015. Improvements in efficiency are important because they can bolster MFIs sustainability and ability to expand outreach. It is found that in three of the four years studied, MFI efficiencies showed increases, while in one year efficiencies remained constant. Moreover, the proportion of MFIs which were of optimal size was significantly higher in 2015. The paper also examined if the regulation led to increases in average MFI loan sizes. It was found that while average loan sizes showed an increase during the period studied, the growth rate was in line with the trend observed prior to the regulation.
    Keywords: micro finance; India; interest rate caps; poverty; data envelopment analysis; DEA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035621
  • Financial Inclusion and Financial Literacy Programs for Low-Income Section in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Purushottam Bhandare, Samapti Guha 
    Abstract: Financial education is a well-received phenomenon in developing countries. Financial literacy is now envisioned as a tool for financial inclusion. This attracts the policy makers attention to the strategic actions and adequate efforts to launch financial literacy initiatives. In India, bank-led financial literacy model is implemented by setting up Financial Literacy and Counselling Centres (FLCCs) are setup at each district. Semi-formal institutions such as microfinance institutes are also involved in financial literacy training. In this context, this study primarily focuses on exploring the financial literacy models of each of such representative institute and brings out the factors that influence the participation in the financial literacy programs by both formal and semi-formal institutions. The findings are mixed, the explanatory factors have no influence on financial behaviour. Based on the field observations and study findings, the paper highlights certain policy implications that will address low level of financial inclusion and issues regarding financial literacy programs in both the models.
    Keywords: financial literacy models; financial literacy programs; low-income section.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10037535
    by Tara Nair 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to critically review the discourse around differentiated banks, especially small finance banks, as gleaned from policy pronouncements, discussion papers, and reports of various committees instituted by the Reserve Bank of India and the central government. It is argued that there has been a definite shift in the imagination of financial inclusion as a process of market expansion aided by layered, private-sector led, risk-hungry, and highly competitive banking institutions. The paper analyses the various initiatives introduced since the mid-2000s to enlarge and diversify the banking infrastructure and discusses the plausible implications of these initiatives for making the financial sector more broad-based and inclusive.
    Keywords: bank restructuring; financial markets; differentiated banks; niche banks; financial inclusion.

Special Issue on: ICSED-2k19 Business Transformation through Sustainability, Entrepreneurship and Digitalisation

  • Mobile Banking Services Adoption in India: The Current Scenario   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Arora, Dhruv Sharma 
    Abstract: With the help of mobile phones whole scenario of banking and financial transactions has taken a paradigm shift from the long waiting queue in the bank, to go through rigorous channels for banking services to the customer's home desktop and laptop. The study aimed to know the impact of demonetisation on m-banking transactions and to know the current significant factors for the non-adoption of m-banking. The secondary data was taken from the official website of RBI, while primary data was collected through questionnaire from the urban area of the National Capital Region of India. The study found significant change in m-banking transactions after the demonetisation in India. The reason behind the non-adoption of m-banking found lack of trust/risk, lack of awareness/knowledge, and inconvenience/not technological friendly. The study recommended to the Banks and the Government should take the necessary steps to make m-banking transactions more secure and safer.
    Keywords: banking; financial transactions; m-banking; demonetisation; m-transactions; m-banking users.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10040523
  • A Study of Levels of Language of Private FM Radio Stations and Their Communication Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Garg, Ashutosh Mishra 
    Abstract: At time when management of private FM radio stations are majorly focusing to develop their own language standards to engage maximum listeners, the present study offers a way out to understand various dimensions of their language standards. The critiques of the levels of their language draw the attention of academia to understand the impact of the language on culture. The objective of the study was to decipher the changing language trends of the private radio stations. To achieve the goal three private FM radio stations situated in Delhi with wider reach were selected for the study. Their one week long programs were analyzed through content analysis .The study was designed to analyses the formats of language of the radio station. It finds out that the radio stations have majorly switched over to coded language-codes created by the radio station- as means of communication. The study further analyses their communication management to popularize their coded language among listeners through phone in programs.rnThe significance of the study is that it helps to understand the simple meaning of coded language used by the radio station. The paper argues that the study becomes more significant as it offers a frame work for future study in the area.rn
    Keywords: code switching; code mixing; private FM; radio station; language standards.

  • Competent edge to activate the intention of online customer   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheetal Malik, Geeti Sharma 
    Abstract: India is considered the second largest online market with over 460 million users and also one ofrnthe fastest. Every day by day most of startups are coming up with online business ideas.rnAccording to numbers of researchers the online customers are less loyal as compared to offlinerncustomers. Customers retention on online is a major problem faced by various online companies.rnToday customers who are engaged with particular brand can switched to another brand veryrneasily. In this competent edge, if we provide a superior virtual knowledge and understanding forrnthe customer, then there is a chance to activate the intention of the customer which will leadrnthem to online shop from the same site repeatedly. The research study will give the knowledgernand understanding of the virtual experience and how it will help the online companies to retainrntheir customers. This study gives a conceptual structure of satisfaction of consumer which leadsrnto online purchase intention for all online shoppers.
    Keywords: Consumer behavior; online shopping intention;India.

  • Women Performance affected by Work Life Balance Factors a Demographic Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpi Sarna, Aniruddha Ghosh, Shenki Tyagi 
    Abstract: Women performance (WP) and Work Life- Balance (WLB) are more likely to discuss the importance in current and competitive world. Many studies have identified numbers of variables which influence the WP and WLB factors. The psychological stress level and happiness of the working women on their performance importantly consider the consequences of these variables. Variables such as stress, health, family worries, quality time, job responsibility, working hours, role conflict, excessive workloads, and socialization & family obligations impact the Women performance. A total of 90 female professionals respondents were taken as sample from the age between 20 to 55 years. The respondents experience & education qualification were taken as qualifying criteria comprising of both public and private sectors. The research consisted WLB as independent variables, WP as dependent variables and demographic traits as controlled variables. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. This study also has used the multiple regression analysis to find the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The women performance in association with demographic variables was tested through ANOVA. All findings were justified using IBM SPSS 22.0. Based on the empirical evidence, the study proposes that work pressure at workplace significantly impacts the women performance positively with the results of 57%, and two other items health of women and excessive work load adversely affects a women performance with 33.9% and 34.6% respectively. However, as per ANOVA results, it is also witnessed that age; qualification and experience of the women employees also play a significant role.
    Keywords: Anova; Education Sector; Multiple Regressions; Work Life Balance; Women Performance.

  • Whistle Blowing Of Corporate Frauds In India   Order a copy of this article
    by SHEFALI SALUJA, Namrata Sandhu 
    Abstract: The paper studies the literature review in-depth about Whistleblowing in India as an ethical concept. A qualitative study with secondary based research has been carried out to understand the mechanism of whistleblowers in India. Purposive sampling has been used in terms of collecting selective episodes of corporate frauds, where whistleblowing was the key to identify the fraud and examine the role of whistleblowers in it. The analysis was done using analytical induction by the statements quoted by the Whistle-Blowers as evidence to media. People should consider whistleblowing an important concept for corporate governance. Whistleblowing act as an aid to many organisations or individuals in the effort to identify or reduce fraud or abuse. Recommendations of the analysis indicate that the individuals concerns shall be reported very seriously, proper action shall be taken on such cases, protection to the whistleblowers should be provided as that is the key to encourage other people to identify and report fraudulent activity in any organisation or individual role. The papers major contribution is towards understanding the nature of whistleblowing act, and what it offers for the corporates.
    Keywords: Corporate frauds; Whistle Blowing; Unethical conducts; Whistle Blowers; India.

  • Revisiting quality indicators of Management Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Pragya Gupta, Neeraj Kaushik 
    Abstract: Purpose: The present study aims to determine the institutional parameters that affect the choice of deciding for the students while selecting the higher education institute and the impact of various demographic variables on the parameters identified. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, the questionnaire was distributed to approximately 1500 Management students. Exploratory factor analysis has been used to extract the dimensions. ANOVA and t-test are used to find out the influence of the demographic variable. Findings: The result has revealed ten factors out of the given 52 statements. Further, the result of ANOVA indicates an influence of the demographic variables on the parameters. Practical implications: The extracted factors are well suited for all the Management Education Institutions, along with quality assessment. Originality/value: The study involved a factor selection procedure, which is a significant concern of the present and not much discussed, especially for the Management students.
    Keywords: Choice making; Higher education; Management education.

  • Examining Consumer Psychology and Marketing Professionals perception towards Neuromarketing   Order a copy of this article
    by V. Selvalakshmi, V.T. BAALAJI AMUTHAN, Srinivasan R 
    Abstract: Neuromarketing has emerged as the new place of study. Advancement in the neurosciences Helps in measuring even minute neuronal activities.Neuromarketing makes use of the state-of-the-art advances in mind scanning to show the goals, expectancies and hidden restraints of purchasers. Though the concept has created ripples in the advertising enterprise all around in the world, it's is rnyet to go miles ahead to penetrate in Indian advertising state of affairs. The significance and Attractiveness of Neuromarketing in India lies upon the truth that, corporations all over the international see a massive ability within the Indian markets. This research paper explores the influences of Neuromarketing on the consumer decision making towards product purchase and marketers perception. It discusses how companies have effectively used this technique in exploring customer mindset. The research paper is descriptive in nature.
    Keywords: Neuromarketing; Consumer Decision Making; EEG; Marketing Research.

    by Anchal Luthra, Kavita Singh, Mandhir Anchal 
    Abstract: The primary purpose of this paper to explain some hypothetical and empirical questions like "what impact does information overload have on the development of turnover intentions among software engineers working in I.T. organisations based in the North Indian Metro Cities? Does employee poor health and employee's poor performance mediate this relationship, and does this impact is gender-or marital status based. The study was a cross-sectional exploratory study to explore the concepts and associations. Data was collected from a sample of 265 employees working as software engineers in different I.T. organisations situated primarily in Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida, Gurugram, and Faridabad having a financial turnover of 50-100 Cr. and size of the Organisation (50-200) employees. Data was collected through standardised scales and analysed by using SPSS-23, with Hayes Process plugin and Amos-21 software's. The results confirmed a significant positive association between information overloading and turnover intentions. Results recommended significant mediation of poor performance and poor health between information overload and turnover intentions. Also, information adoption significantly moderated the relationship between information overload-turnover intentions, poor health, and poor performance. The study also depicted that gender and marital status have a substantial impact on the association. Especially married females are more prone to develop turnover intentions due to the overloading of information from their supervisors. I.T. organisations struggling with turnover intentions, especially when potential female employees develop such tendencies due to information overload leave, must adopt appropriate systems to manage and control the development and flow of information to avoid overflow of information. By controlling information flow performances of female employees can be raised, leading to more job satisfaction to motivates them to have long term association with organisations.
    Keywords: Turnover Intention; Knowledge; Information Overloading; Performance; Employee Health; Techno-Stress; Information Technology.

  • Analysis of Entrepreneurial Skills among the Students of Higher Education System in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nisha Solanki, Yogesh Mehta 
    Abstract: The government of India is offering a range of opportunities to the population for developing entrepreneurship and taking the economy to a new height. Ministry of skill development launched the scheme "Skill India" in 2015 intending to foster more required skills among more than four crores people in the country for making them self reliant and more prone to success in various areas. As per the 2019 report of the Ministry of Skill Development, the campaign is teaching skills among one crore annually, and the pace is increasing with the time as the system, and supportive ecosystem has been already created. The skill was found as one of the crucial aspects for starting the venture as well as to bring efficiency and effectiveness in the performance as an employee. Hence the developing economy of India is more emphasized to include skill orientation in the running curriculum of various educational courses so that the capabilities of youth can be directed in a unified direction. Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has come with the initiative of the Institutional Innovation Council (IIC) and Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) for the ranking of Higher Education Institutions. This ranking motivates the institutions to adopt practical and experiential learning for the students, and that way, skills can be practiced more and can be developed. There are specific skills for jobs and business, which needs to be there to make more profits and to generate more value. The chairman and senior managing director, Accenture also emphasized to fill the gap of skills, especially in the area of AI (Artificial Intelligence) to capture the 1.97 trillion in the GDP of India. This report highlights the importance of skill development.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Skills; Higher Education System; Skill India.

  • Level of Dissemination of Information on Adherence to Shariah Principles: A Study of Shariah Compliant Companies in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamrunnisha Nobi, Manjit Singh 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the voluntary compliance of product & service and employees related dimensions of Shariah principles. For this, a checklist was developed, adapted from various work done by the previous researchers. The sample comprised in this study covers the whole population of Shariah companies in the 500 Shariah and Nifty Shariah indices during the period of 2013 till 2018. The results of the present study demonstrated that the sampled companies and various industries is far less than the affirmations and what actually is delivering and required to roll up their sleeves concerning to compliance of Shariah principles fully so that the better accountability and transparency could be provided as recommended by Islam. In this way faith of investors can also be retained and led to the development of Islamic finance in India otherwise it may hinder the sustenance and growth of the system.
    Keywords: Shariah Principles; Voluntary Compliance; Product & Services Dimension; Employee Dimension.

Special Issue on: Development Bridging the Gaps in Emerging Economies

  • The Moderating Effect of Good Governance on the Relationship between Family Ownership Structure and Aggressive Transfer Pricing   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Khoiru Rusydi, Lindawati Gani, Setio Anggoro Dewo, Jusuf Halim, Sharifah Norzehan Syed Yusuf 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, is to examine the relationship between family ownership structure and aggressive transfer pricing. Then this study examines the moderating effect of good governance implementation on the relationship between family ownership structure and ATP. A sample of 840 ASEAN public listed companies from year 20132016. This study shows that family ownership structure has a negative relationship with ATP. Additionally, this study also provides new evidence that the quality of good governance strengthened the negative relationship between family ownership and ATP. This indicates the importance of the synergy between family ownership and good governance in further minimising the ATP practices. This study offers a new measurement perspective on the aggressiveness of transfer pricing in ASEAN by using profit level indicator (PLI) method. This study has important implications for developing a more specific policy to reduce state losses due to abusive transfer pricing practices.
    Keywords: family ownership; aggressive transfer pricing; ATP; corporate governance; government governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10036893
  • Macro-Economic Environment and Credit Risk of Islamic Banking in a Dual Banking System: Evidence from Malaysia and Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdulazeez Abdurraheem, Md. Mahmudul Alam, Ibrahim Oladapo, Ibraheem Abdurraheem 
    Abstract: Understanding the effects of the macro-economic environments dynamics on the credit risk of Islamic banking in a dual banking system could help the Islamic banking industry. This article empirically investigates this issue based on Malaysian and Indonesian data from 2007 to 2017 by using the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) cointegration modelling approach. The study finds a significant long-term relationship between the Islamic banking credit risk and macroeconomic factors such as GDP, conventional interest rates and exchange rate movements. The findings of this study will further enrich our understanding of the impact of the economic environment, particularly the movement of conventional interest rates on the operations and credit risk profile of Islamic banks in a dual banking environment. Findings of this study are expected to benefit not only Islamic bank personnel but also regulatory authorities and policy-makers operating in dual banking environments.
    Keywords: Credit risk; Islamic Banking; Macroeconomic environment; Dual banking system; DOLS; Cointegration.

  • Impact of Social Media on Marketing and Operational Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Jordan: Applying the Delphi Method in Social Media Studies   Order a copy of this article
    by Marzouq Al-Qeed 
    Abstract: Social media channels have achieved a worldwide reach and growing reputation over the last decade. Companies throughout the world now use them as part of their marketing and other business activities. This study explores the effect of social media and particularly in Jordan, how the concept of engagement impacts on Jordanian SMEs and what is the influence of word-of-mouth for those SMEs. The study also investigates the social media marketing efficacy of Jordanian SMEs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews using the Delphi method and five social media experts based in Jordan were interviewed. Result shows that social media is mostly used for promotion and brand creation in Jordan. However, the companies in Jordan have yet to apply both online and offline strategies when using social media. This study will create important insights for managers and policymakers about how they can capitalize on social media platforms in framing their marketing and operational strategies.
    Keywords: Social media; Social media marketing; Delphi method; Bidirectional communication; Operations; Jordan.

    by Nurazilah Zainal, Law Siong Hook, Mohammed Hariri Bakri, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Soheil Kazemian 
    Abstract: This study attempts to examine existence of Fisher Effect theory in Malaysias conventional and Islamic money markets. Time series data has been included for the years 2011 to 2018 and consists of two stages of data analysis. First stage analysis examines the existence of a Fisher Effect relationship by applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach as an estimation method. Second stage analysis determines the strength of the Fisher Effect relationship. The findings suggest that the Fisher Effect theory exists in Malaysias Islamic money market but there is evidence for this in the conventional one. This outcome suggests that the Islamic money market can accurately predict inflation in the future. However, it appears in a weak form of relationship. Overall, outcomes of this study provide benefits for policy-makers since the existence of the Fisher relationship reflects an effective monetary policy for economic growth and sustainable development.
    Keywords: Islamic Money Market rates; Fisher effect; Inflation rates; Monetary Policy; ARDL cointegration test.

  • Effect of Indonesian certification system and environmental sustainability practices on palm oil firm performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ria Nelly Sari, Dinda Intan Suri, Rita Anugerah, Vince Ratnawati, Erlane K Ghani 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine the effect of ISPO certificates on environmental sustainability practices and the effect of environmental sustainability practices on firm performance. This study also examines the role of environmental sustainability practices as a mediating variable that influences the relationship between ISPO certificates and firm performance. Data for this study were collected through a questionnaire submitted directly to managers of 158 SMEs in the palm oil industry in Riau Province, Indonesia. 134 responses were returned and analyzed by WarpPLS. The results showed that the ISPO certificate has a positive influence on firm performance and environmental sustainability practices. The findings suggest that palm oil companies have to obtain palm oil certificates to maintain their environmental sustainability practices and subsequently improve performance.
    Keywords: ISPO certification; environmental sustainability practices; firm performance; WarpPLS; Indonesia.

  • Corporate Governance and Earnings Management: Does Board Composition Matters?   Order a copy of this article
    by Aziatul Waznah Ghazali, D. Agus Harjito, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Jamaliah Said 
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between Board of directors composition and the practice of real earnings management of Malaysian listed firms. Malaysian corporate landscape offers an interesting platform for a study on relationship-based capitalism. The sample of this study comprise of 651 Malaysian listed firms from the period of 2010 2014. This study offers a contemporary study focusing on the relationship between the composition and diversity in the boardroom of directors and real earnings management. The findings of the study shows that boardroom with women on board, foreign directors and having directors with international experience are more inclined to engaged in real earnings management. In the wake of recent corporate failures and corporate governance reforms, this study should provide a greater contribution in understanding the relationship between board of directors attributes and financial reporting quality from the perspective of a multi-racial developing country.
    Keywords: Financial Misreporting; Corporate Governance; Real Earnings Management; Board of Directors; Earnings Quality.

  • Capital Structure, Liquidity and Firms Value: Evidence from Emerging Market in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Sholihun, Grahita Chandrarin, Prihat Assih, Diyah Sukanti Cahyaningsih 
    Abstract: This study examines the influence of liquidity on capital structure and firm value, and corporate governance is used as a variable to moderate the relationship between capital structure and firm value. This study uses a sample of companies in the manufacturing industry whose shares are actively traded on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The data used is data pooling, the cross-section data and time-series data, the period 2010 to 2014. Sampling by purposive sampling, while the analysis technique using phat analysis. First result, liquidity has a negative and significant effect on a company's capital structure. Second, liquidity has no significant effect on firm value. Third, capital structure analysis has a significant effect on firm value. Fourth, liquidity negatively affects firm value through capital structure. Fifth: analysis of the influence of corporate governance on the relationship between capital structure and firm value shows a positive and significant relationship
    Keywords: Capital Structure; Corporate Governance; Firm Value; Liquidity.

  • Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure: A Case Study of ASEAN-4 Large Non-Financial Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaratin Lily, Imbarine Bujang, Mori Kogid, Debbra Toria Anak Nipo, Normah Haji Omar 
    Abstract: Most research on exchange rate exposure concentrates on the symmetric framework, but little research has considered the asymmetric framework. For this reason the present study applies the asymmetric framework to investigate how exchange rate movements affect large non-financial firms share return in ASEAN-4 (Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand) using the Non-linear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) model. The study results provided support for asymmetric exchange rate exposure mainly in Indonesia and Malaysia. Further analysis of asymmetries indicated some firms experienced multiple asymmetric exchange rate exposure and especially in Thailand. The findings provide an alternative explanation for the exchange rate exposure puzzle. As well, stakeholders such as financial managers and policymakers should not ignore the multiple asymmetric exchange rate exposure when they are formulating an appropriate hedging strategy.
    Keywords: Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure; Orthogonal Market Return; ASEAN-4; NARDL; Non-Financial Firm.

  • The Political Economy of Saudi Arabias Vision 2030 in the era of Globalisation: The Role of Islam   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The world's current and pervasive global religious upheavals have been strongly identified with Islamic fundamentalism in several African and Middle East countries. This form of religious belief has generated much interest in its implications for the Saudi Arabian government's Vision 2030 strategy and how the Islamic religion is practised. This paper investigates the reasons why religious extremism in Saudi Arabia is very minimal, and how this state of affairs can be harnessed to achieve Vision 2030. A qualitative research method is employed here and the paper surmises that while religious extremists subject individuals and communities to distorted forms of religious beliefs and dogma, fundamentalist beliefs should be harnessed to moderate practices of religious principles. Such beliefs can serve as essential resources that could be mobilised and deployed to achieve economic development throughout an increasingly globalised world.
    Keywords: Africa; development agenda; extremists; fundamentalism; Saudi Arabia; Vision 2030.

  • Impact of human and Islamic social capital on Inclusive Economic Growth: Evidence from Malaysia and Nigeria.   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruhaini Muda, Ibrahim Abiodun Oladapo, Roshayani Arshad, Rahayu Abdul Rahman 
    Abstract: This study analyses the extent to which human capital and social capital contribute to economic growth. This study makes use of panel data for 14 states from 2005 to 2014 for Malaysia and eight states between 2009 and 2013 for Nigeria. These are two emerging economies of Muslim-dominated countries. This study uses zakat collections as social capital and enrolment rate while the poverty index serves as a proxy for human capital. Findings show that there is a positive and significant effect of social and human capital on the economic growth of both countries. Moreover, results indicate that Islamic social capital increases the potential for stimulating positive economic growth that creates opportunities for society. This study will assist policymakers to formulate a suitable policy response based on Islamic social and human capital for inclusive growth. Such a policy could form part of the solutions to many contemporary societal issues, including poverty and income inequality.
    Keywords: Islamic social capital; inclusive economic growth; Malaysia; Nigeria.

  • Do Islamic and Conventional Credit Cards Significantly Differ in Malaysia?   Order a copy of this article
    by Md Mahmudul Alam, Md. Kashedul Tuhin, Ibrahim Oladapo, Khadar Dirie 
    Abstract: This study is aimed at empirically investigating the differences between the Islamic and conventional credit cards in Malaysia. The study analyses 234 credit cards by using descriptive and one-way ANOVA. The data were collected from RinggitPlus and Imoney websites. Islamic credit cards are based on the principles of Islamic law (Shariah) while conventional credit cards as used in the West are not, but in many cases Islamic and conventional credit cards do follow the same features such as cash back, minimum annual income, annual profit/interest rate, interest/charge rate for late payment, and interest/charges for cash withdrawal. However, there are a few cases where the features of both cards significantly differ, for example: interest/profit rate, balance transfer fees, annual fees, cash withdrawal fees, and annual fees for supplementary cards. The findings of this study will generate important insights for the managers and decision-makers in Malaysias credit card market.
    Keywords: Credit card; Islamic Finance; Conventional Finance; Interest rate; Malaysia.

    by Rintan Nuzul Ainy, Jamaliah Said 
    Abstract: The information of corporate social responsibility is considered as a signal that the companies have been able to meet the interests of all stakeholders. Whereas, corporate governance function is to control the management behaviours to act in accordance to companys interest. The study investigates the direct relationship between the corporate governance quality and the company performance. Subsequently, this study examines the mediating effect of corporate social responsibility and the relationship between corporate governance and company performance. Corporate governance quality ensures companys ability to fulfil the interests of the stakeholders. The data were obtained from annual report of 100 manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results show that the companies that disclose more CSR information and having stronger corporate governance tend to perform better. This indicates that CSR information is considered as a signal that the companies have been able to meet the interests of stakeholders.
    Keywords: corporate governance; corporate social responsibility; CSR; company performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10037094
  • Impact of Government Size and Regulatory Efficiency to Microfinance Institutions Efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Nazratul Aina Mohamad Anwar, Fakarudin Kamarudin, Hafezali Iqbal Hussain, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Wong Hor Yaan 
    Abstract: The development of microfinance institutions (MFIs) contributes to providing financial services for the poor and small businesses. This research aims to examine the impact of economic freedom dimensions which are the government size and regulatory efficiency, MFIs specific characteristics, macroeconomics determinants to the social efficiency (SE) and financial efficiency (FE) of MFIs in the Philippines and Malaysia. The chosen study period is 2011 to 2017. The non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach is applied in the first stage of analysis to identify the efficiency level of MFIs while the multiple panel regression model is employed in the second stage of analysis. Apart from this the Generalised Least Squares (GLS) regression is used to identify and explain the determinants of social efficiency and financial efficiency. The robustness test results show that financial efficiency is more significant and efficient than MFIs social efficiency. This indicates MFIs in the Philippines and Malaysia focus more on sustainability rather than their primary social objective of providing financial services to low-income households. The MFIs, government, policy-makers, investors, and future researchers will obtain important insights into MIFs efficiency from this research.
    Keywords: Microfinance Institutions; economic freedom; government size and regulatory efficiency; financial efficiency; social efficiency.

  • Enhancing Financial Reporting Quality: Does the Mandatory Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards Matter in Developing Economies?   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Kyari 
    Abstract: This study explores the relationship between compulsory implementation of international Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and financial reporting quality (FRQ) using accrual and value relevance models. Guided by the agency and signaling theories, data were collected from the published accounts of commercial listed companies on the Nigerian stock exchange. The study revealed that the information disclosed in financial statements of Nigerian banks are value relevant. Equally, the study disclosed that earnings under IFRS are more persistent and have higher accrual value. The study concludes that the adoption of IFRS has improved the quality of information disclosed in financial reports of Nigerian banks. It also concludes that the monitoring and enforcement functions of relevant Nigerian authorities are satisfactory but not enough. While these conclusions have met the objectives of this study, further analyses are recommended particularly on banks that are not listed on the Nigerian stock exchange.
    Keywords: Financial; reporting; quality; standard; earnings; value; adoption; agency; signaling; mandatory.

  • Comparative Analysis of Islamic and Conventional Credit Cards in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Dwipraptono Agus Harjito, Md. Mahmudul Alam, Mohammed Shakib, Ahmad Aljumah 
    Abstract: This study aims at comparing the Islamic vs. conventional credit cards in Malaysia based on the data of 51 Islamic and 183 conventional credit cards operating in Malaysia. The findings show that despite being Shariah-based, Islamic credit cards share the same features with conventional credit cards regarding minimum income requirement, annual interest or profit rate, late payment charge rate and cash withdrawal rate. However, the features for annual and late payment fees and charges for supplementary cards differ between these two types of cards. This is a pioneer study on a comparative analysis between the financial and non-financial features of Islamic and conventional credit cards in Malaysia. This study endeavours to deliver significant insights about the two types of credit cards which assists people to take decision on gaining competitive advantage by selecting appropriate credit card.
    Keywords: Credit card; Islamic Credit card; Interest; Shariah compliant; Entrepreneurship; Malaysia.

    by Silvia Indrarini, Grahita Chandrarin, Edi Subiyantoro, Diyah Sukanti Cahyaningsih 
    Abstract: Firm value is the investors perception of a companys success rate that is often associated with stock prices. Increased stock prices indicate an increase in the shareholders wealth. This study aims to examine the direct and indirect effects of good corporate governance on earnings quality and firm value. The population is all manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2011-2016 period. The data is analyzed using SEM-PLS model. The results show that good corporate governance has a significant effect on earnings predictability as a measure of earnings quality; earnings predictability has a significant effect on firm value, and good corporate governance has a significant effect on firm value both directly and indirectly through earnings predictability.
    Keywords: good corporate governance; earnings predictability; firm value.

Special Issue on: The Big Global Trends and Future of Sustainable Business and Consumption

  • Enhancing Students learning through Trading Simulation: A Vehicle for Experiential Learning: An Action Research   Order a copy of this article
    by Umara Noreen 
    Abstract: Chalk and talk have been replaced by innovative methods of student engagement in higher education. Current research reports use of Tadawuls trading simulator, which captures the students learning experience on usage of trade simulation. Fourteen undergraduate (finance track) students participated in this game over a period of 60 days. Survey results revealed that students had positive learning experience through experiential learning. 86% of the students strongly agreed that simulation helped to understand the concepts better and they enjoyed the activity. 79% of the students were in strong agreement with their group activity for simulation. 64% students strongly agreed in terms of perception of realism and employability. Students suggested increasing the time period, replacing the traditional exam by the simulation to be used as assessment technique. Overall, simulation has built better understanding of concept of finance through concrete experience of reflective observation and ability to solve complex finance problems.
    Keywords: finance; simulation; experiential learning; action research; learning management system; LMS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042523
  • Explicating Internet Usage of Farmer Households. Evidence from Ben Tre Province, Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Phuong Van Nguyen, Tung Van Nguyen, Cuc Thi Pham 
    Abstract: In the era of the knowledge economy and information and communication technology development most prominently, the Internet people can access valuable information resources in many different fields and seek challenging opportunities to learn and apply knowledge and skills in their area. Specifically, in agricultural development, farmers have efficiently used the Internet to learn about cultivation and animal husbandry, search for markets for farm products, enjoy entertainment and acquire farming skills and knowledge. This paper explores potential factors impacting the purposes of internet usage by analysing data collected from 317 farmer households in Ben Tre Province, Vietnam. Using ordinary least squares regression, the findings revealed the significant factors in six models of internet usage among farmers: developing a career in the field of agriculture through internet usage; finding useful information; engaging in online discussions; shopping online; watching videos; and studying online. This research contributes several practical implications for governments that can support farmers in rural regions in using the Internet to build their careers especially to maximise agricultural production as the Internet gradually spreads to the entirety of Vietnam.
    Keywords: internet usage; farmer households; useful information; online shopping online study; entertainment; rural areas.

Special Issue on: ICTSD 2020 Contemporary Issues in Commerce, Technology and Sustainable Development

    by Amit Goyal, Robin Inderpal Singh, Gurcharan Singh, Sheetal Malik 
    Abstract: The study has been initiated with the purpose to investigate the relationship between various attributes of e-tailing websites/applications and selection of the best choice among them by the customers while purchasing footwear online. Researchers have examined the different attributes of e-tailing websites/applications affecting the decisions of online shoppers. Conjoint model has been implemented and it is further tested by regression for the establishment of best preference amongst the selected attributes affecting the selection of e-tailer for purchasing footwear. The data has been collected from the students of different colleges and universities situated in Punjab state of India. The results of this empirical research indicate that the students prefer e-tailing websites/applications which ensure delivery within 0-2 days, provide try and buy option, show detailed description of the product along with manufacturer/seller details, offer call me back option, allow shoppers to post and watch others reviews about the product and also give thirty days time period for returning the product to e-tailer. The paper delivers inclusive empirical evidence concerning the use of any specific e-tailer for purchasing footwear by the online customers and fills therefore a gap in the available literature of marketing which could be brought into use by e-tailers and those involved in the footwear business.
    Keywords: E-Tailing websites/applications; Footwear; Conjoint Analysis; Regression Analysis; Consumers’ preferences.

  • Building a Sustainable Relationship between Customers and Marketers   Order a copy of this article
    by Bijay Kushwaha 
    Abstract: Finding new customers is costlier than retaining the existing customers for the business. Therefore, building a strong relationship with customers helps marketers to retain their existing customers. Incorporating ethical and moral values into marketing activities offer a way to build a strong relationship. This study identifies the factors that bind customers and marketers into a sustainable relationship in the Indian context. This study constitutes a framework to understand and apply sustainable relationship marketing in the personal care industry. This study touches certain marketing disciplines such as marketing mix policy, transparency in trades, building trust, product delivery, promises delivery, and sustainable relationship. The convenience sampling technique used for the selection of respondents from the Mohali city of Punjab, and interview them. The finding suggests that promises delivery is the most important factor for a sustainable relationship. If promises are delivered effectively then the life of the relationship will be longer.
    Keywords: Sustainable Relationship; Customer Relationship Management; Ethical Marketing; Brand Building; Promises Delivery; Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

  • Value co-creation through customer engagement in virtual communities for product innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Rema V, Abhinandan Srivastav 
    Abstract: The trend of 'open innovation', a participative, decentralised approach to innovation, involving the synthesis of stakeholder ideas with the business model is likely to bring in more customisation, satisfaction and value. Technological advancement has made it possible for businesses to engage with customers, seek their inputs and implement their contributions, enabling customisation. This study understands the dimensions of customer engagement and its impact in the process of co-creation with respect to new product development for a reputed automobile company. The customer involvement happens on a range of design tasks and product prototype development. Monetary incentives to engage does not seem to be an influencing factor. The study demonstrates that customer engagement has a significant impact on value co-creation in new product development. The role of collaborative framework, a pragmatic approach can enable organisations to innovate based on customer insights and deliver value to the customers and businesses.
    Keywords: value co-creation; customer engagement; virtual communities; open innovation; new product development; NPD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039719
  • Moderating role of the 'type of hotel' on the relationship between Human resource practices (HRP) and Job Satisfaction (JS) in Hotel sector in India: A PLS based SEM approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Kumar, Vijay Jain, Praveen Dube, Vikas Tyagi 
    Abstract: The hotel industry is a major industry, which is facing a global crisis, i.e. work and lack of skill Bad HR practices have contributed to a crisis in skilled jobs and this could be due to truncated levels of wage, which in turn decreases employee satisfaction. On the contrary, effective HR practices creates healthy job satisfaction for employees. Therefore, considering research gap, this study is to investigate the relationship between Human resource practices (HRP) and job satisfaction (JS) with the moderating role of \'type of hotel. This study collected a sample size of 82 Hotels (Independent hotel = 36 and Chain hotel = 46) in Dehradun (India). The partial least squares method was used to establish the relationship between HRP and JS. The results indicate that HR practices are positively relationship with job satisfaction in a chain hotels. Research limitations and future directions are discussed.
    Keywords: Human resource practices (HRP); Job Satisfaction (JS); SEM-PLS; Hotel Sector; Independent Hotel; and Chain Hotel.

  • Group Cohesiveness and Conformity as Determinants of Choice of Promotions- An Empirical Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikas Deep, Shashi Kala, Manpreet Kaur 
    Abstract: The marketers use promotions of various kinds to enhance the sales of their products. The peer groups can be targeted by the marketers to formulate the behaviour and preferences of consumers. This paper examines the effect of group cohesiveness and group conformity on the choice of hedonic and utilitarian promotions of an individual by conducting a survey on 415 working professionals in large organisations of service sector in Punjab. The two-stage analytical PLS-SEM revealed that the group cohesiveness positively influences hedonic and utilitarian promotions both. Significant positive influence of group conformity was found on hedonic and utilitarian promotions. This paper contributes to the existing literature on peer groups, group cohesiveness, group conformity and choice of promotions. The findings suggest that marketing managers can focus on the peer groups of their prospective customers by having deep knowledge of the social influences revolving around working professionals.
    Keywords: freebies; hedonic; group cohesiveness; group conformity; sales promotions; utilitarian.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039079
  • Examining Non-Performing Assets in Financial Institutions in India   Order a copy of this article
    by VINAY KANDPAL, Veer P. Gangwar, Deep Chandra 
    Abstract: The research paper examines and analyses the reasons responsible for increased non-performing assets. It also analyses the reasons that restrict the loan's effective monitoring and gives credit risk management recommendations. The sample for this research study consists of the top banks with high NPA and response was received from the middle-level managers from the bank outlets' regional offices in Northern India through a structured questionnaire. The analysis finds a set of 16 variables identified through the literature review. Statistical analysis SPSS was used that helped to run the factor analysis test. The results indicated that the NPA level in public sector banks was much higher than the private banks. The primary reason behind the surging non-performing assets is the borrowers' creditworthiness, kind of loan, collaterals, the quality of the assets, and absence of an effective monitoring system.
    Keywords: non-performing assets; banks; credit; risk; public sector; private sector; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040529
  • The Effect of Perceived Philanthropic Activities of Corporate Organisations on Consumers Purchase Intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Kapil Kumar Aggarwal, Shashi Singhal 
    Abstract: The role of Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives in determining consumer perception towards a company has always been an enigma. Though the consumers do remain inquisitive about benevolent activities of corporate towards the society but various researches have also shown a considerable gap between the degree of interest shown by the consumer in CSR activities and the purchase behaviour reflected by them once they are aware of organisation's active role in philanthropic activities. Social initiatives taken by the companies are largely becoming a yardstick based on which a customer evaluates the performance of a company. Research indicates that companies driven by the objectives of social reforms in the society attract a more favourable opinion of customers than those which are just engaged in profiteering. A positive attitude of the consumer towards the company not only helps in enhancing its goodwill but also in increased revenues. This study aims to find out whether such initiatives by corporate organisations play any role in building a positive perception of the brand. It also seeks to find out whether such initiatives taken by the corporate organisations give an edge to the company in terms of competition. The findings show that analysing the impact of CSR initiatives is a complex and dynamic process wherein consumers carry their perspective of welfare activities performed by a company. This paper makes a detailed analysis of such factors and discusses the complex nature of the consumer's evaluation of CSR. These insights further provide the basis for drawing theoretical and managerial implications of the findings. Thus, the paper helps in developing a better understanding of the impact of CSR activities on consumer's purchase intention.
    Keywords: Brand Association; Brand Equity; Consumer Attitude; Corporate Social Responsibility; Perceived Quality; Purchase Behaviour; Social Accountability.

  • Measuring the Impact of Eco-Friendly (Green) Marketing on Buying Behaviour of Indian Consumers   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhruv Sabharwal, SUMIT NARULA 
    Abstract: In todays competitive market where companies and organisations are looking for new ways of marketing, so the current study focuses at measuring the impact of green marketing mix on green purchase behaviour of Indian consumers. In this research paper, 150 respondents were interviewed face-to-face using a self-prepared questionnaire. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from the respondents. In this research paper, structural equation modelling (SEM) is being used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis. To test the structural model, AMOS 23.0 software was used. Research analysed that four elements of green marketing mix named as green product, green price, green place and green promotion have an important and crucial impact on the green buying behaviour of Indian consumers. Moreover, the study shows that green products have the highest and green place has the lowest impact on consumers buying behaviour. Current research will help advertisers to understand the concept of green marketing mix and design the tools of green marketing mix according to the need of consumers who purchase green products. In addition, the study will show the concept of sustainable marketing, so that modern marketers can use this technique as a strategic tool to persuade consumers green purchasing behaviour.
    Keywords: marketing mix; eco-friendly products; green marketing mix; green buying behaviour; sustainable marketing; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039552
  • Is ESG disclosure related to Corporate Performance? Empirical Evidence from Indian Companies.   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Sharma, Priyanka Panday, R.C. Dangwal 
    Abstract: The purpose of this work is to inspect the impact of non-financial disclosure (ESG) on corporate governance. The study examined 80 Indian companies listed at BSE for five years (20122016) with 400 observations. ESG disclosure and performance indicators such as operational performance (ROA), financial performance (ROCE) and market performance (MBV) are taken up as dependent and independent variable respectively with type of industry and companys size as control variables. The results indicate significant and positive impact of corporate performance measures on the level ESG disclosure. This study may be facilitative for corporate and statutory bodies in forming policies related to corporate disclosures, since its negligible presence in Indian corporate is quite evident from the literature.
    Keywords: performance; Indian companies; ESG disclosures; annual reports; sustainability reports; environment; social; corporate governance; GRI framework; Clause 49 of Listing Agreement; ESGD index; return on assets; ROA; return on capital employed; ROCE; market to book value; MBV; ordinary least square; OLS.

    by Sandeep Chib, Veer. P. Gangwar 
    Abstract: In this research, we have attempted to evaluate the perception of customers involved in online purchase of products towards quality of the purchase. In order to know the relationship between rate of purchase, type of product purchased and quality perceived by the customer pertaining to the retailer selling the product online. The researchers have taken into account four stages, which every customer has to experience while doing online shopping. During statistical analysis, which includes; factor analysis, ANOVA, descriptive analysis, chi-square test and t-test, following dimensions emerged, which had maximum effect on quality; Dependability, convenience, ordering services, accessibility, product satisfaction, assurance and trustworthiness. Researchers found that customers who were more frequent in online shopping process remained more inclined towards reliability and product satisfaction as compared to less frequent customers. Those customers who order experience products, for them value process for ordering product as well as product satisfaction is of paramount import.
    Keywords: Key words: Product Types; Shopping Incidence; Perceptions; E-Tailing Quality; online; purchase.

  • Investigating effect of Social Media Advice and Corporate Information on Retail Investors Decisions in Stock Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Atul Shiva, Manjit Singh, Rishi Raj Sharma, Monica Sethi 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors influencing retail individual investors intentions to use social media platforms in search for corporate information disseminated towards investment related decisions in financial markets. Based on technology acceptance model (TAM), the cross-sectional study conducted on 376 active investors by questionnaire survey on Twitter covering Delhi-NCR and Mumbai of India. The study used Partial Least Square Structural Equational Modeling software for analyzing and interpreting the data. The study found significant relation between perceived usefulness (β=0.423), perceived enjoyment (β=0.311) and behavioral intentions. Furthermore, a significant relation was discovered between perceived attractiveness (β =0.583; β =0.785) and perceived usefulness & perceived ease of use. The paper investigates an interdisciplinary research between behavioral finance and social media which are likely to gain widespread collaboration in the future and act as guidelines for decision makers in financial markets of developing countries like India.
    Keywords: Social Media; Twitter; Individual Investor; Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling; Technology Acceptance Model.

Special Issue on: FORBS 2019 Recent Trends in Management Science Research and Practices

  • Performance Measurement of Indian Banking Sector: A Cross-Section Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Supran Kumar, Surbhi Raina 
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is to examine the performance of banks operating in India on the basis of DEA methodology and CAMEL approach. An effectual sample of 44 banks operating in India, out of which 20 are the nationalized banks, 18 are the private sector banks and 6 are the SBI and its associates, is considered for the period. Using cross-section data, the study evaluated the level of underutilisations of public goods/resources and consequent poor technical efficiency and its components along with slack and radial movements for optimal efficiency. The role of slack and radial movements is equally critical for the efficient utilization of resources. Poor performance and lower technical efficiency results into higher cost and higher price of services to the end customers. The study determines the slack and radial movements by identifying peers and targets for performance improvements with better diagnose and 360 degree review.
    Keywords: Technical Efficiency; Banking; CAMEL; Data Envelopment Analysis; Non-parametric Model; Managerial Efficiency.

  • Evaluation of Performance of the Indian Power Sector from the Lens of Ratio Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharadinu Bikask Majumdar, Susmia Chatterjee, J.K. Das, Sangita Dutta Gupta 
    Abstract: The financial ratio analysis is an analytical tool performed to verify the financial efficiency of a firm. In this study, different financial or accounting ratiohave been considered and performance evaluation of Indian power sector has been conducted. A comparative evaluation has also been carried out between the public and private power sectors associated in the generation and distribution of power in India. It was revealed from the study that in case Current Ratio (CURAT), Return on Asset (ROA), Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Return on Equity (ROE), the values of mean are higher for the public sectors compared to the private sectors. However, the private sectors also have higher mean values for the ratios, Return on Sale (ROS), Debt-Equity Ratio (DERAT) and Asset Turnover Ratio (ATRAT). The steady financial position of the private sector is supportive to well-structured privatisation of power sector to overcome the gaps in the distribution of electricity.
    Keywords: ratio analysis; financial efficiency; liquidity ratio; performance ratio; gearing ratio; turnover ratio.

Special Issue on: BSVUCA-2020 “Business and Management in Changing Times

  • Green Bond Market: A Critical Review   Order a copy of this article
    by ASHIMA VERMA, Rachna Agrawal 
    Abstract: Climate change is real, and its impact is visible throughout the world in the form of melting of ice sheets, forest wildfires, earthquakes and cyclones. The study follows a combination of qualitative and empirical analysis to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the green bonds. It also aims to provide a critical view of the working of green bonds globally. The study diagnosed various barriers like the legal and judicial system of a nation, macro-economic environment, political instability, new technology costs, greenwashing, green bond verification requirements, supply and demand of green bonds and financial attractiveness of green bonds. This study will form a great help to governments and policymakers in providing measures for improving and facilitating a transition to a greener world.
    Keywords: green bonds; greenwashing; green bond principles; GBP; initial COVID-19 period; peak COVID-19 period.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10040790
  • Identifying and Prioritising MOOC Attrition Reasons using Best Worst Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeraj Chopra, Rajiv Sindwani, Manisha Goel, Ashutosh Nigam 
    Abstract: Despite the noticeable strengths of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), the high attrition rate of learners is posing challenges in its way to successful diffusion. This created the need to know the reasons behind the high attrition rate among learners. The present work identifies nine MOOC attrition specific reasons from the literature on MOOC and resistance to innovation. The study also classifies and prioritises the attrition reasons in terms of criticality. The reasons for attrition are grouped according to their nature into three categories, referred to as general reasons. The prominence of reasons is established by using the best worst method (BWM), a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. The optimised weights determined by BWM arranged them from most critical to least critical in terms of learners attrition. The results revealed technical reasons as the most critical general reason. The most and least critical specific reasons are identified as perceived risk and no penalty or reward. The study also suggested effective measures to address the challenges posed by various attrition reasons.
    Keywords: MOOC attrition; Prioritization; BWM; General reasons; Specific reasons.

  • Impact of sensory marketing on brand loyalty and consumers purchase intention: A quantitative study in the QSR industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunaina Kothari, Meenakshi Sharma 
    Abstract: The prime purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of dimensions of sensory marketing on consumers purchase intention and brand loyalty in the quick service restaurant (QSR) industry. On the basis of in-depth literature review, a conceptual model showing the dimensions and outcomes of sensory marketing was developed and structural equation modelling was carried out to ascertain the research framework. The conceptual model shows the hypothesised relation between the seven constructs: sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, consumers purchase intention and brand loyalty. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data of a sample size of 540 respondents. The empirical results reveal that sensory marketing dimensions: sight, smell, taste and touch positively influences consumers brand loyalty whereas sound has no impact on brand loyalty in the QSR industry. Also sight, smell and taste positively influences the consumers purchase intention whereas sound and touch has no impact on consumers purchase intention in the QSR industry. The contribution of the paper lies in filling the research gaps, developing an original sensory marketing model for the QSR industry and further validating it through quantitative study. The result of the research is of significance to academicians, policy makers and marketing practitioners.
    Keywords: Sensory marketing; branding; brand loyalty; consumer purchase intention; product differentiator; quantitative study; structural equation modelling.

  • Verification of a decision support model for export opportunities in the South African hardwood industries at The company   Order a copy of this article
    by Seugnet Bronkhorst, Cecile Niewenhuizen 
    Abstract: Export opportunities, have been prioritised by South African Trade and Industry in order to promote economic growth. The company used in this study (hereafter referred to as The Company) is well-known in the hardwood industry in South Africa, and indicated its strategic intent to pursue export opportunities in European countries. A decision making model was developed with detail guiding an organisation to choose the best possible alternative/s when complex decisions regarding exportation should be made within this industry. This DSM was verified at The Company.rnA qualitative research approach, specifically a case study research design, was applied as the research focused on The Company. The findings, acquired through a document analysis, interviews with participants and observations, were used to supplement and validate the aspects identified from the literature analysis. rn
    Keywords: Decision support model; Hardwood industry; Covid-19; Export; Business environment; Economic influencesrn.

  • Twitter Based Content Analysis Unravelling Operational Performance Issues for Indian Railways: A Comparative Study on Focus of Current and Former Rail Ministers   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeraj Bhanot, Astha Sharma 
    Abstract: Indian Railways is considered as lifeline of the nation wherein government has been investing appreciable part of their GDP for its improvement. In this study, tweets from Twitter posted to and by two railway ministers has been analysed using Latent Dirichlet Allocation technique. Major issues in Indian Railways were highlighted during the tenure of above-mentioned ministers and how the issues were tackled by government (as evident from their tweets) have also been mentioned. The study is aimed at guiding policy-makers in identifying the concerns and problematic areas along with the difference between required actions and current focus of Rail Ministers.
    Keywords: Indian Railways; Twitter; Data Mining; Operational Performance; Rail Ministers; Rail Passengers.

Special Issue on: INCONSYM 2020 Global Economy Trends, Opportunities and Challenges

  • The Influence of Social Media Advertising on Indian Students' Perception Towards Online Purchase   Order a copy of this article
    by VAIBHAV MISRA, Anubha Vashisht 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the perception of students in social media advertising. The study was conducted on 126 respondents from the institutional area of Noida. The analysis was conducted using Spearmans correlation and K-independent samples test. It was found that there is a significant influence on social media advertising on students to purchase online. Further, it was also found that information, privacy, credibility, electronic word of mouth, and trust were the important factors of social media advertising that motivates students to purchase online. Practical applicability and managerial implications were discussed.
    Keywords: online shopping; social media; advertising; EWOM; privacy; information; credibility; trust; online purchase; social media factors; student perception; electronic word of mouth; EWOM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040374
  • Municipal Solid Waste Management in Smart Cities: A Survey based on Opportunities, Challenges and Future Directions   Order a copy of this article
    by SNEHA KUMARI, K.K. Tripathy, Vidya Kumbhar 
    Abstract: Waste Management involves reuse, recycle and reducing the waste, essential for sustaining the city. These wastes if left unused can lead to hazardous effect on health and environment. The aim of the study is to explore opportunities, challenges and future direction on municipal solid waste management in smart cities. The paper has undergone exploratory study identifying different challenges, opportunities and future directions in municipal solid waste management of smart city. The study is based on both primary as well as secondary data. Primary data has been collected from 92 households in a smart city, Pune and the waste wards of 76 divisions (prabhags) of four zones of Pune. The data has been collected from these divisions (prabhags) related to the challenges faced in smart cities for waste management. Data visualization and data analytical tools have been used for further analysis. The study explores the opportunities, challenges and future direction. The paper has come out with different parameters like doorstep waste collection, waste segregation and others in the smart city. The zones in the smart city comprises of urban households and slum areas. These zones are in a need of waste management practices so that they can sustain in the global economy. Data collected from the households reveal that the people of smart city are not satisfied with the solid waste management done. The study has come up with future direction and opportunities with the solid wastes. The study is beneficial for sustaining the waste management practices and developing sustainable global economy by reduce, reuse and recycle. This study can be beneficial for reducing several hazardous problems in smart cities by a better solid waste management.
    Keywords: solid waste; waste management; smart city; challenges; opportunities; waste segregation; waste collection.

  • The Effect of Social Media Advertisements on the AIDA Model for Young Consumers in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kunal Kapoor, Divyansha Kumar, Anubha Vashisht 
    Abstract: In today's world, Social Media Advertising (SMA) is used to attract potential customers and persuade them to take action (Shanahan, Tran, & Taylor, 2019). Most users using the social media handles are young; therefore, it is important to know, especially by entrepreneurs (Dana, 2000; Wright, & Dana, 2003), whether these advertisements catch young consumers' eyes. Also, once the consumer is intrigued, does the interest ever turn to buy those products or not? Therefore, this research's primary objective is to study the effectiveness of social media advertising (Poecze, Ebster, & Strauss, 2018) on the buying behaviour with the help of the existing models and theories of advertisements. This research majorly focuses on young consumers in the age group of 16 to 24 years of age. This research's theoretical model is the AIDA Model of advertising, and the product chosen is Mobile Phone. This primary data was collected by conducting a survey, with the help of a structured questionnaire, from the target population. The AIDA model's applicability has also been tested in this study (Yoo, Kim, & Stout, 2004). The primary data was assessed and analysed by Chi-Square Analysis, Cross-tab Matrix and Linear Regression using SPSS and Microsoft Excel software and graphical presentations where ever required. The result of this research shows that although major Mobile Phone brands can capture the attention and interest of the target population, it is not effectively being converted into buying (action) of the respective products. The authors also suggest testing moderating and mediating factors that might affect these consumers' buy behaviour pattern in future studies.
    Keywords: AIDA Model; Social-Media Advertising; Mobile Phones; Young Consumers; Facebook Advertisements.

  • Opportunities and Challenges ahead of Start-ups in Emerging Markets in the Era of Sharing Economy and Globalisation   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The start-ups culture is going up across the nations post year 2008-09. The birth of several institutions to support such budding entrepreneurs and start-ups are the real motivation for them. It is a known fact that such start-ups have reduced the burden of the economy and government in terms of shifting from job seeker to job creator. The purpose of the research is to study opportunities and challenges ahead of start-ups in emerging markets and analyse the possibility of globalisation. The study also includes analysing the existing business model of leading start-ups in emerging markets (India). Additionally, the study also aims to analyse the risk of over dependence of start-ups on technology in the long run. The study comes up with some interesting recommendations to start-ups for the prosperity of their business and categorically suggested that technology can be an enabler but creating value is the core of any business.
    Keywords: Commonality & Differences in Business Model of Start-ups; Internationalisation of Start-ups; Institutional Supports; Emerging markets; Organizational Development; Re-defining business Model; The Sharing boom; Covid-2019 & Start-ups; Start-ups in India.

  • A Study of Female Consumer Buying Behaviour towards Organic Personal Care Products   Order a copy of this article
    by Minakshi Sharma, Manisha Goel, Rajiv Sindwani 
    Abstract: In investigating the consumer buying behaviour towards organic personal care products (OPCP) among Indian female consumers, the current paper reports findings of a study conducted in Delhi NCR region. The aim of the study is to identify the dimensions that influence female consumer buying behaviour towards organic personal care products and to identify the influence of various OPCP dimensions on consumer satisfaction. The literature suggests that the present work is among the pioneers in the field of Indian female buying behaviour towards organic personal care segment. Five dimensions namely Health & Safety, Knowledge & Awareness, Hedonism, Social Factors, and Labelling & Certification are proposed on the basis of factor analysis. The relationship between OPCP dimensions and satisfaction was investigated using structured equation modelling. Findings revealed that all five dimensions have positive significant influence on customer satisfaction. The findings also revealed that social factors and labelling & certification showed the strongest effect on consumer satisfaction. The study provides insights for cosmetic firms and academicians.
    Keywords: Organic personal care products; Consumer buying behaviour; Customer satisfaction; Factor analysis; Structural equation modeling.

  • Emo Sapiens: A study on the enchantment of emoted language and its impact on the emoji usage behaviour of the interlocutors.   Order a copy of this article
    by Rashmi Jacob 
    Abstract: The term sapiens is commonly used in conjunction with the ancient Greek word Homo describing a species of bipedal primates to which modern human belongs. Emo Sapiens is characterized by the species of humans enchanted with the development of emoted language in the multimodal online environment. The objective of the study is to understand the factors affecting the emoji usage behaviour of interlocutors in the process of online communication on social media platforms. For this study, a survey questionnaire is used with the purpose to understand the growing emoji usage in online communication and its impact on the usage behavior of interlocutors. Based on the responses, the Structural Equation Modelling approach (SEM) is used to test four hypotheses The standardized beta of the cause and effect relationship indicates conceptual clarity and the mood are the leading influencers on the usage behavior of the interlocutors. Conceptual clarity is found to have the maximum impact on emoji usage in informal online communication on the different social media platforms.
    Keywords: Emoji; Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA); Structural Equation Model (SEM); Current Usage Behaviours; Emoted Developments.

  • Validation of buyer supplier relationship value dimensions- Qualitative study based evidence from auto component industry India   Order a copy of this article
    by Pranay More, Jaideep Jejurikar, Anil Keskar, Santosh Gopalkrishnan 
    Abstract: The paper has attempted to apprehend the validation of relationship value through its dimensions in the auto component supply chain using a qualitative approach. The emphasis of the study is to recognize the coalition of Tier-1 and its Tier-2 in auto-component in India.. The findings from the research help to define a broader framework of relationship value and ascertain some gaps in prevailing literature for subsequent work in a relationship value context. rnOnline libraries and journals were used as a source for the literature review. Inputs for the analysis of the literature were sourced from the literature of, Relationship Value, Buyer-Seller Relationship, Relationship Marketing, and Industry reports on the Automotive Industry in India. This helped in understanding the relationship value concept in context to the Indian auto component supply chain. The findings from the research create a platform for future industry-specific studies on relationship valuern
    Keywords: Auto component supply chain; Buyer-Seller Relationships; Relationship Value; Value in a relationship.

  • Impact of Microfinance on Socio-economic Status of Women Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries: A Sentiment Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruchika Bal, Kanwal Anil 
    Abstract: Microfinance has brought the ray of light in the times of darkness by financing the marginalised. Various studies have shown the evidence that microfinance has deeply influenced the economic as well as social capital of women in developing countries. The research evaluates the effect of microfinance on socio-economic status of women entrepreneurs in the developing countries. This study is based on the descriptive analysis performed through text-mining, sentiment analysis using NLP in RStudio and a systematic review of literature in the context of developing countries. The findings from the research underline that although microfinance has carved its niche in developing nations in building a positive image about itself, there are, however, certain factors that may retract this positive position. The present research can prove to be a useful reference point for micro finance institutions and policy making institutions in designing microfinancing programmes and policies more holistically, worldwide.
    Keywords: microfinance; empowerment; gender equality; socio-economic status; women entrepreneurs; global phenomenon; developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042809

Special Issue on: SIMSARC'20 The Indian Economy Transcending Barriers through Innovative Global Management Practices

  • Culture, Employee Well-Being and Engagement Relationship: An Empirical Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Sivapragasam Panneerselvam, Kavitha Balaraman 
    Abstract: The success of business organizations with positive cultures has brought the attention of business executives and academia to explore what is culture and how organizational cultures are created, maintained and improved. The study purported to identify elements of positive culture and explore the effect of positive culture on engagement, well-being and efficacy levels of knowledge professionals in Indian IT & ITES organizations. A sample of 626 knowledge professionals drawn from multiple IT companies identified through multi-stage sampling. The study finds that when the culture of an organization is positive, it is likely to create positivity in terms of engagement and efficacy levels of knowledge workers through employee well-being.
    Keywords: Employee well-being; engaged employees; IT industry; knowledge professionals; India; perceived efficacy; positive culture.

    by Amir Hafizullah Khan, Rijuta P. Joshi, Kimsy Gulhane 
    Abstract: Online video streaming services industry has experienced a radical shift among consumer choices towards entertainment content. It is not only witnessing the shift from traditional habit of content consumption to the binge-watching behaviour among viewers but also addressing the increased concern among online streaming content providers to woo buyers. From a survey administered to online streaming content subscribers, researchers in the current study have identified factors that influence consumer buying behaviour towards online streaming services, several of which are different than the ones found in the previous studies. These parameters were selected by considering social commerce and social media marketing efforts of the firms. The study sought to capture the impact of selected indicators on consumer buying behaviour towards online streaming services. A conceptual model was tested using structural equation modelling which proved the goodness of fit of the model. Theoretical implications and future development of factors influencing online streaming content adoption among consumers were also discussed.
    Keywords: Consumer Buying Behaviour; Decision Making; Social Media; Social Commerce; Online Streaming Services; OTT Platforms.

  • Influence of Advertisement's Controversial Element and Emotional Appeal on Customer Intention to Buy   Order a copy of this article
    by Prabha Kiran, Jayanta Banerjee, Vasudevan M, Krishna Kishore S V 
    Abstract: Purpose- This paper studies the influence of an advertisement's controversial element and emotional appeal on the customer intention to buy. Design/ Methodology/ Approach- The research paper is both exploratory and conclusive. S-O-R model was used for the study. Convenience sampling was used to draw a sample of 264 respondents. The data were tested for reliability, correlation and regression. Findings- The advertisement's controversial element and emotional appeal significantly influence the customer's intention to buy. The controversial element and the emotional appeal are positively correlated with the customer intention to buy. Research limitations/ Implications- The research was done within a limited time and resources. The future research paper can include more moderators in the research model. Originality Value- The research paper provides a better understanding of the emotional appeal and the controversial element of an advertisement on customer intention to buy.
    Keywords: Controversial Element; Emotional appeal; Customer intention to buy.

  • A study on adoption of mobile wallet: Moderating role of Gender   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhavna Prajapati, Arijit Goswami, Archa Agrawal, Drishti Tibrewala 
    Abstract: The cashless economy is growing with ease of usage and its applicability. Mobile wallet helps in payment electronically with the use of a device. It enables a customer to make the transactions for the goods purchased to the merchant without being physically present over there. The modes of payment have shifted from the traditional way to digital payment. The mobile wallet's innovation has brought a revolution in the payment scenario. Mobile wallets not only act as an interface in between the customer and the receiver but also provides several benefits in terms of rewards and points to the user. Several factors like Attitude, Mobility, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Security, and Social influence encourage the customers to use mobile wallets. The paper aims to find out the various factors which motivate people in the adoption of mobile wallets. To add more gender was used as moderating variable to investigate whether males and females are of the same opinion towards intention to use mobile wallets. A total of 238 respondents were administered by Partial Least Square Structural Equational Modelling (PLS SEM) in Smart PLS version 3.3.2. The paper will be beneficial for all the e-wallet companies to know about the factors which helps a customer to adopt the mobile wallet.
    Keywords: Cashless economy; digital payment; mobile wallet; social influence; gender; moderating; perceived security; intention to use; perceived usefulness.

  • A study on Managerial Capabilities (Entrepreneurial Orientation and Mindset) and respective international opportunity exploitation in North Indian SMEs of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek Misra, Arpit Khurana, Rajesh Shankar Sharma 
    Abstract: The study focuses on the middle rung managers and their perceptions of capabilities as influencing their ability to exploit international growth opportunities across developing economy. The study operationalizes the managerial capabilities with aid of two broad set of factors representing managerial perceptions of Entrepreneurial Orientation and dimensions of managerial individual global mindset. The managerial perceptions of exploiting international opportunity have been operationalized with aid of factors of internationalization drive, export engagement and export commitment. The study focuses on the traditional and new age small to medium enterprises in Northern India namely Automobile, Textile, ITES and Biopharma clusters. The study seeks to examine the influences of capabilities across managerial class on their respective firm based international opportunity exploitation.
    Keywords: Global Mindsets; Managerial Capabilities; Internationalization Drive; Export Commitment; Export Engagement; firm’s entrepreneurial orientation.

    by Uzoma Ogbonna, Collins Irem, Chioma Ibiam 
    Abstract: This study examined the impact of financial inclusion on poverty reduction in Nigeria. Financial inclusion is a multifaceted concept that has implication on several macro economics goals. It is very crucial in facilitating inclusive growth and as well reduces the poverty level in any economy. The study has the objectives of determining the impact of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults on poverty reduction in Nigeria, the impact of borrowers from commercial banks per 1000 adults on poverty reduction in Nigeria and impact of depositors with commercial bank per 1000 adults on poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study is anchored on the integrationist theory of financial inclusion. Data for this study was gotten from CBN statistical bulletin and World Bank development index. Augmented Dickey Fuller Unit Root test, the Johansen Cointegration and error correction model were used in Data analysis. The study revealed that commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults and depositors with commercial bank per 1000 adults have positive and significant impact on poverty reduction in Nigeria while borrowers from commercial banks has negative and significant impact on poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study concluded that financial inclusion is very vital in poverty reduction and thereby recommended that Commercial banks should increase their marketing strategies in order to attract much deposits, banks should be encouraged to expand branch operations to penetrate the rural economy so as to encourage the poor to have access to financial services and reduce poverty incidence and borrowers should be educated on the implication of misappropriation of borrowed fund.
    Keywords: Key Words: Financial Inclusion; Poverty Index and Poverty Alleviation.

  • Relationship between Organisational Learning and Business Architecture: An Empirical Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Debangsu SarmaChaudhuri, Partha Sarkar 
    Abstract: Abstract: In this study, the relationship between Organisational Learning (OL) and Business Architecture (BA) is objectively established by using three different approaches. Organisational Learning for this research is characterized by using aspects like employee knowledge for development of the organisation through the process of Knowledge Acquisition, Transition, Development and Synthesis whereas that of Business Architecture involves information and synergy between Environment-Strategy-Structure-Process-Output paradigm. The present research has been carried out in the Port and Shipping Industry of India. Data were collected through validated Questionnaires and analyzed by Canonical Correlation, Bivariate Correlation and Stepwise Regression. In all the three cases, it was found that the constructs are highly correlated as a whole as well as between individual variables.
    Keywords: Organisational Learning; Business Architecture; Knowledge; Learning; Canonical Correlation; Stepwise Regression.

Special Issue on: Challenges and Opportunities in the Digital Era Management and IT

  • The Effect of CBBE Constructs on Overall Brand Equity and Purchase Intention: A Cross-Sectional Study of Organised Retail Consumers in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Upasana Diwan, S.L. Gupta, D.D. Chaturvedi 
    Abstract: Acknowledging that CBBE is rarely an end goal in itself, the CBBE constructs are capable of predicting significant consumer behavioural outcomes. While most consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) models are linear, they fail to capture the complexity of the brand equity construct and its benefits. This study builds on and extends previous researches by empirically examining the configurable nature of the CBBE process and its effect on overall brand equity and purchase intention on Indian consumers in organised retail sector. A survey-based empirical study was conducted to examine the influence of CBBE constructs on overall brand equity and purchase intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied using the data collected from 650 respondents comprising of the consumers who made purchases from the store. The research established that CBBE constructs positively influence overall brand equity and purchase intention.
    Keywords: consumer-based brand equity; CCBE; overall brand equity; purchase intention; organised retail; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10033681
  • Review of Emotional Intelligence, Interpersonal Relationship and Wellness of Nurses: Scope and avenue for further research   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumit Debnath, Puja Khatri 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate available literature on emotional intelligence, interpersonal relationship at workplace and wellness and to propose a research framework. The research uses qualitative and quantitative method to find out the research trend and research gap. Qualitative review of approximately 340 article identified has resulted in 157 most relevant article. Citation analysis has been performed using SCImago Journal Ranking, Google Scholar and Research Gate. Journal citation and the author citation have been presented in a tabular form. The study highlights the highly cited article along with the journal with the possible explanation. Geographical distribution of studies along with search hits for the variables are presented using graph and table. A research framework has been proposed in order to fill the research gap. The present study tries to understand the relative importance of emotional intelligence, interpersonal relationship at workplace and wellness in healthcare industry in order to make a better workplace.
    Keywords: emotional intelligence; interpersonal relationship; wellness; nurses; health care; citation analysis; communication; stress; patient care.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10032094
  • Benchmarking global IT majors brand strength towards Global Branding of Asian IT organisations   Order a copy of this article
    by Keshab Ray, Meenakshi Sharma 
    Abstract: There is a lacuna in research work in terms of understanding how Asian information technology (IT) organisations can become global brands. Benchmarking has not received much attention in marketing literature due to lack of benchmarking framework and IT organisations are yet to progress in benchmarking. The present research examines the impact of brand strength on global branding by developing a conceptual benchmarking framework for Asian IT organisations. Survey conducted with sample size of 225 IT customers who are employees of internal IT divisions of global organisations who avail IT services from global IT organisations like IBM, Accenture, Capgemini and Asian IT organisations like TCS, Infosys and Wipro. Results show positive relationship between brand strength and global branding; between brand loyalty and competitive advantage; between global branding and competitive advantage. Asian IT organisations can benchmark global IT organisations to improve agility, positioning, innovation, awareness building and delivering the brand promise towards making Asian IT organisations future ready to address the entire breadth opportunities in the evolving world of cloud and digital. This research helps managers with a brand strength based benchmarking framework towards global branding of Asian IT organisations. IT is instrumental for rapid growth of Asians economy. Asia should optimally utilise its greatest wealth, its human potential, with the latent global demand in IT through building global IT brands. The originality of the study lies in proposing a conceptual benchmarking framework for global branding of Asian IT organisations and conducting a quantitative study. The study further validates the model using structural equation modelling (SEM).
    Keywords: Brand strength; Asian IT organisations; Global brands; Competitive Advantage; SEM.

  • Exploring the Development of Social Entrepreneurship in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Chandni Sengupta, Sunil Mishra 
    Abstract: The philosophy of social entrepreneurship is very much useful as it contributes to environmental sustainability; promotes gender equality; improves health; imparts vocational skills etc. It is connected with CSR that has come a long way in India. From approachable activities to justifiable initiatives, corporates today have exhibited their ability to make a noteworthy difference in society and improve the overall quality of life. Corporate have the expertise, strategic thinking, manpower and money to facilitate extensive social change. Effective partnerships between Corporate, NGOs and the Government will place India's social development on a faster track. Under the social responsibilities of entrepreneurship, the employees become the backbone of these initiatives and volunteer their time and contribute their skills, to implement them. The objective of this paper is to critically explore processes and initiatives taken for the growth of social entrepreneurship in India and to examine the development of the community through CSR and entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; CSR; Community; Wellbeing.

  • Investigation of Fashion Disposal Behaviour among Gen X and Gen Y in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasmandeep Kaur, Ramanjeet Singh, Surabhi Singh 
    Abstract: Fashion disposal of Gen X and Gen Y consumers is significant globally, environmental concern and willingness to contribute to sustainable consumption such as the purchase, reuse and donation of environmentally friendly products to the needy or in charity. A qualitative and quantitative approach is adopted wherein data is analysed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, correlation and regression. The study will bring positive sentiments while disposing of undesirable items. The research reveals the factors responsible for fashion disposition of Generation X and Generation Y. By examining the fashion disposal behaviour of different generations, essential catalysts for disposal is highlighted as well the necessity for education regarding sustainable product disposal practices. The results are worthwhile for distributors of fashion, marketers, environmentalists, ecological research, charities and policy makers.
    Keywords: Gen X; Gen Y; fashion disposal; socially responsible; sustainable product disposal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10031808
    by Manish Madan, Ankita Popli 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to identify the various factors enabling Digitalisation in India, to establish a relationship between various factors enabling Digitalisation in India, and to present the complex relationship among these factors in the form of an Interpretive Structural Model/ Design/Methodology/Approach: Descriptive research has been applied, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. The researchers have interviewed experts and as far as the secondary data is concerned that was obtained from web sites, journals etc. There are 37 different parameters, which are under nine dimensions were tested by ISM technique done with the help of expert opinions. Interpretative Structural Modeling is a process in which a set of interlinked elements are given a form of a comprehensive and a systematic model. In the present work only 37 variables are identified for modeling digitalisation of country. More number of variables can be identified to develop ISM. The experts' help have been sought to analyze driving and dependence power of the variables. Here the framework developed depends upon the opinion of few experts and has some element of bias. Through ISM, a relationship model among digitalisation variables has been developed. This model has not been statistically validated. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has the capability of testing the validity of the model. Therefore, it may be applied in the future research to test the validity of this model. rn
    Keywords: Digital India; Factors enabling Digitalisation and Interpretive Structural Model,.

  • A Qualitative Analysis of Experiences of Work-Life Integration of Dual Career Couples   Order a copy of this article
    by Sakshi Vashisht, Nidhi Punj, Ravi Vashisht 
    Abstract: The intent of the present study was to describe the work life balance experiences of dual career couples. The study aimed to capture the dimensions of the experiences of dual career couples in managing the demands at work and home when both the partners work together at the same workplace. Respondents of the study were faculty members who were in employment and working in the same organisation. Participants were selected using snowball sampling technique. A total of 15 couples participated in the present qualitative study. The couples were interviewed together. Age of the participants ranged from 25 to 45. 40% of respondents had dependent children, 33% had children who were adults and 27% of couples had no children. Hours worked per week ranged from 40 to 47 hours. Data collection for the study consisted of self reported data, which included in-depth interviews. The data was analysed using a thematic qualitative analysis technique. Reduced social integration, societal viewpoints, monotonous schedules, job insecurity, organisational support and spouse support were the major themes that emerged from the analysis of the study.
    Keywords: work-life integration; dual career; work family conflict; work life balance; work life interaction.