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International Journal of Business and Globalisation

International Journal of Business and Globalisation (IJBG)

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International Journal of Business and Globalisation (220 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • The Future of Education: A Disruptive Framework that bridges Policies and Quality Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Stephen Oluwatobi, Adedeji Afolabi, Patience Tunji-Olayeni, Afolashade Oluwatobi, Onyeka Emebo 
    Abstract: The world as we used to know it, is not on the same level again. Consequently, the level and type of education dished out to students need to be reviewed from time to time. The level of innovation and skill required in industries need to be disruptive to serve the students of the future. The study examined the future of education using disruptive frameworks that bridges policies and quality education. The study utilized an in-depth content analysis of existing literature on the future of education. Using the review, the data was presented using frameworks to depict solutions for bridging policies and the future of quality education. There is need for intentional reviews of institutional policies and technical frameworks in the educational sector that meets the demand of the fast-paced world of work. The study presented headings on what Educators need to know, the classroom of the future, gaming as a tool for education and the role of policy makers in the future of education. In conclusion, the Nigerian educational sector needs disruptive frameworks and technologies that guarantees the future of education.
    Keywords: Disruptive Framework; Future of Education; Industry; Policies; Universities.

  • Statistical modelling of self-employment intentions in higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Josipa Mijo?, Jasna Horvat, Suzana Markovi? 
    Abstract: Self-employment is a fundamental indicator of the proactiveness of individuals, groups or society as a whole, while the measure of success of higher education is the number of participants educated and trained in higher education programs for future proactive inclusion in society. The aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of the proposed model (i.e., the SCC model), which is applied to data collected at a higher education institution and used for modelling self-employment intentions. The SCC model tests the predictive ability of different constructs (motivation for achievement, higher education, theory of planned behaviour, and control variables) related to self-employment intentions. The sample (n = 426) consists of graduate students faced with two future career choices either self-employment or employment in a company (working for someone else). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyse the proposed Model and it was found that the academic context the students are exposed to affects the process of modelling self-employment intentions.
    Keywords: hierarchical regression analysis; measuring intentions; higher education; self-employment intentions; theory of planned behaviour; TPB.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035446
  • Cultural Intelligence as Mediator of Adversity Quotient and Occupational Stress of Indian Managers   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Singh, Tanu Sharma, Anil Sehrawat 
    Abstract: Mangers with adequate knowledge of cultural diversities can handle adversities in a better way, and are able to cope up with occupational stress. They are in a better position to lead their culturally diverse team members through tough and difficult situations arising out of amalgamation of different cultures by setting examples of tolerant and accommodating behaviour towards individuals from alien cultures. This study is an attempt to exemplify the mediating role of cultural intelligence in adversity quotient and occupational stress of managers working in the service sector of India. Data were collected from 670 middle level managers working in the top five service sector industries of India using purposive sampling.
    Keywords: Cultural Intelligence; Adversity Quotient; Occupational Stress; Indian Service sector.

  • Visualising Russian Mafiya Gravestones as iconoclastic representations of an idealised, masculine enterprise culture   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Smith 
    Abstract: Since the 1990s, the Russian Mafiya as a criminal elite has developed a unique masculine enterprise culture, complete with its own customs including conspicuous burial rites. Semiotic appreciation of the phenomenon of Russian \'Mafiya Gravestones\' is not a new consideration having been subject to press and academic scrutiny. This netnographic study, using photo elicitation techniques examines images of the gravestones to help us visualise the phenomenon as a specific cultural phenomenon representing an idealised enterprise culture infused with hyper-masculine values and imagery. From the analysis, common gendered themes emerge which correspond to extant stereotypical representations of both post-Soviet Russian and Western enterprise culture. Russian Enterprise culture in the 1990s projected an idealised scenario whereby the masculine persona of the new entrepreneurs created an iconography in which \'conspicuous consumption\' and \'myopic capitalist imagery\' are celebrated and eulogised via iconic and gendered representation of \'machismo\' and acquired wealth. These are expressed via universal symbols of entrepreneurial success and in particular via the depiction of marque cars, designer suits juxtaposed against religious and cultural symbols. This study develops and furthers our understanding of this vibrant enterprise culture bounded in time and space and exemplifies a study of criminal entrepreneurship in a hard to reach societal context.
    Keywords: Criminal Entrepreneurship; Enterprise Culture; Masculine Entrepreneurial Identity; Conspicuous Consumption; Semiotics.

  • Rethinking the Transfer of the Organisational Culture Model as a Process of Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Salvador Barragan, Elizabeth Salamanca, Murat S. Erogul 
    Abstract: This study adopts a comprehensive approach of organisational culture, through the use of Scheins (2004) cultural model, to understand the complexities and nuances of the process of transferring both the most and the least visible aspects of culture from a multinational corporation (MNC) to its foreign subsidiaries. A single case study of a Mexican MNC is analysed through interviews with human resources executives and company documents. The findings show that the least visible aspects of organisational culture do shed light on the cultural model transfer and that the flexibility to change and/or adapt this model from headquarters (HQ) to the foreign subsidiaries is desirable to accomplish some level of cultural integration. MNCs need to involve managers and employees from HQ and foreign subsidiaries in the change and sense-making processes during the organisational culture transfer. Rigid attempts at imposing cultural mechanisms of control can increase the cost in terms of dealing with resistance.
    Keywords: organisational culture; change; transfer; global; local; glocal; globalisation; multinational.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035449
  • Fiscal Policy and Economic Development: Regional Analysis for India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashwani Bishnoi 
    Abstract: The role of fiscal policy has been heightened in the recent past in stabilising the economic system from adverse shocks. India has been constantly launching the reforms towards fiscal side long back from 1991. Also, India has practiced the federal structure where centre government as well state governments have their domains regarding fiscal components. In this background present study assesses the impacts of fiscal reforms on financial accounts of respective governments. Study also endeavours to link the role of fiscal policy towards economic development of various regions of India using GMM estimation of panel data. For the state-wise analysis Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and West Bengal are observed for higher deficit whereas Maharashtra, Orissa, Gujarat, Goa and Rajasthan could maintain the fiscal deficit well below 2 percent of GSDP. In empirical estimation for role of fiscal policy on economic development, the study finds the positive contribution.
    Keywords: reforms; fiscal deficit; Indian regions; economic development; health; education.

  • Lending to SMEs: Indian Bankers Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Akanksha Goel, Shailesh Rastogi 
    Abstract: Credit officers act as a pivot in the loan decision-making process, which is greatly affected by their assessment. The objective of this research is to examine the lending decision criteria of bankers. To attain this objective, qualitative methodology has been adopted for this research. In-depth interviews of 12 credit officers were undertaken. For the analysis, thematic approach was adopted. Three main themes emerged from the thematic analysis. The first theme relates the complimentary existence of transactional and relationship lending. The second theme discloses the information sought by lenders under transactional lending approach. The third and major theme of this research (which emerged from this study) is the identification of data affecting the subjective decisions of credit officers. Investigation revealed that, while taking loan decisions, credit officers place emphasis on borrowers certain characteristics such as his/her political background, egotism, business skills, age, experience and previous defaults. The findings of this study provide a new understanding of the factors that are perceived by lenders while evaluating a loan applicant. This is the first study reporting the factors that affect the subjective judgements of credit officers.
    Keywords: transactional lending; relationship lending; SME borrowers; Indian bankers; lending decision.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10035451
  • Women Entrepreneurship in Africa: the case of Otjozondjupa Market in Otjiwarongo, Central Namibia.   Order a copy of this article
    by WILFRED ISAK APRIL, Daniel Ileni Itenge 
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of women entrepreneurship in Africa, with specific reference to the Otjozondjupa market in central Namibia: Otjiwarongo. It is evident from this study that women play a number of critical roles in the Namibian communities. These are not only that of being entrepreneurs at the market, but they also have the responsibility that of sole bread winners, mothers and role models in their families. The paper first gave an overview of the Otjozondjupa market, its origin and structure. An extensive review of related literature was conducted by looking at women entrepreneurship best practices in Latin America, Asia and Africa. These lessons enabled the author to contextualised the study in a Namibian context. Our paper clearly demonstrated that African women have the inherent potential to be entrepreneurs and they can manage their businesses and take risk. The research was qualitative in nature, and in-depth interviews were conducted with nineteen (19) entrepreneurs at the Otjozondjupa Market. The results indicated that women are confronted with numerous challenges such as funding, discrimination and succession planning to name a few. This paper can indeed act as a springboard for many studies to be conducted in Namibia with reference to women entrepreneurship, Africa and beyond.
    Keywords: Women entrepreneurship; barter; market; role models; Otjozondjupa and Otjiwarongo.

  • Tenderpreneurship in Namibia: Is it Productive, Unproductive or Destructive?   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The Republic of Namibia is faced with numerous pressing problems. These are youth unemployment (currently standing at 34%), inadequate professional education and the lack of training in entrepreneurship to name a few. As if these challenges are not enough on its own, Namibia is faced with a new phenomenon which is tenderpreneurship. Through tenderpreneurship an individual (or citizens) in a particular country or nation is making huge sums of money through a contract or tender. These tenders are usually from the national government, regional government or at times from the municipality of a city. The major challenge of tenders to developing nations such as Namibia, with a very high level of inequality is that the rich get richer and the poorer get worse off. Furthermore, the idea of a tender has been misconstrued, its purpose and also how the awarding of tenders originated. This paper explores whether tenderpreneurship is productive, unproductive or destructive to a nation. Regardless of whether the latter mentioned three variables apply, this paper endeavors to explore how Namibians can still be empowered regardless of the challenges tenderpreneurship brings about. In addition, how can these tenderpreneurial tendencies be turned into an effective entrepreneurial strategy. Tenderpreneurship has been cited as some of the reasons why businesses collapsed in some provinces in South Africa and this situation is also today evident in an independent Namibia. This study is qualitative in nature and will make use of in-depth interviews and storytelling with twenty (20) tenderpreneurs and entrepreneurs in Namibia.
    Keywords: Tenderpreneurship; Namibia; Productive; Contract; Tender; Unproductive & Destructive and COVID-19.

  • Liberalisation and Cashew Industry: Evidence from India (1965 to 2018)   Order a copy of this article
    by Parashram Patil, Muhammadriyaj Faniband 
    Abstract: We examine the impact of liberalisation on production, import, export and area under cultivation of cashew industry in India during 1965 to 2018 period using regression method. We divide data into two sub-periods. The liberalization and pre-liberalization period is from 1965 to 1991 and the post-liberalization period covers the period from 1992 to 2018. We find that cashew production is not influenced post trade liberalization. This study also finds trade liberalization has a significant and positive impact on export. Further, we reveal an insignificant impact of liberalization on import. This study show that the area under cultivation is not changed after the trade liberalization.
    Keywords: Liberalisation; Cashew Industry; Regression; India.

  • How to Motivate Digital Natives to Write Online Reviews   Order a copy of this article
    by Katherine Smith 
    Abstract: Online reviews have become a key source of information that consumers use in their decision making process. Research shows that people consider the opinions of fellow consumers to be more credible than traditional marketing. The upcoming generation, Digital Natives, are known for their ability to create and manipulate content in the digital arena. They frequently write online reviews and endorse products. Thus, Digital Natives can help promote or demote a product. The purpose of this paper is to discover what motivates this generation to write online reviews and tell their friends about a product. These motivators can help marketers design effective content that will draw Digital Natives into dialogues about their products. This study found several effective motivators and provides specific recommendations to marketers.
    Keywords: Online reviews; Consumer decision making; Consumer reviews; Word-of-mouth; Digital Natives; Generation Z.

  • Dynamics of failure of a company group: a case study from the recent italian experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Pietro Pavone 
    Abstract: Given the frequent organisational form of Italian entrepreneurship in groups of multinational companies, this paper aims to contribute to the debate on the business crisis by declining the theme of bankruptcy in the context of groups. A qualitative methodological approach has been used to explore the research questions. The case-study of the decline of an important Italian business group (Sopaf Spa) has been presented. This group, after experiencing a phase of great international development, collapsed in a profound crisis before the definitive bankruptcy, inappropriately managing financial resources and investment strategies. The case is particularly relevant for the profiles of serious social irresponsibility demonstrated by the parent holding company which not only triggered the crisis but also propagated its effects within the group, in order to compromise the performance of the other subsidiaries. This study could offer useful reflections to prevent new corporate crises.
    Keywords: crisis; mismanagement; corporate groups; bankruptcy; international entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10056211
  • Relationship between Tea Industry Specific Factors and Tea Companies Share Prices: Empirical Evidence from an Emerging Economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammadriyaj Faniband, Parashram Patil, Toufik Naykawade 
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of tea industry specific macroeconomic factors on tea companies share prices listed in Bombay Stock Exchange, India using quantile regression approach. We consider monthly period from January 2003 to December 2017. We find evidence to support the relationship between tea industry and tea companies share prices. Our results reveal that the change in area of cultivation has both negative and positive impact on the share prices of tea companies. This study indicates that production of tea has a significant and only positive influence. Further, we observe a minimal impact of tea import only on three companies share prices. This paper also notes that tea companies share prices react most significantly to tea export.
    Keywords: Tea Industry; Tea Companies; Macroeconomic Factors; Share Prices; Quantile Regression; Bombay Stock Exchange; India.

    by Esha Jain 
    Abstract: The study focused on finding out the dynamics for entrepreneurial education in India by taking into consideration the issues which upset the acuity of Indian teachers on the relationship among inspiring businesspersons, the advancement of nurturing setups, modules on business enterprise, and business enterprise instruction in advanced education organisations and to discover the relationship between the impression of instructors on pioneering mentality, subsidising offices, and business training in advanced education foundations. It was discovered that there is a critical connection among sexual orientations and age bunches towards the view of teachers on business training for the modules on enterprise, innovative disposition, and subsidising offices. It was additionally discovered that the impression of instructors teaching in advanced education foundations was emphatically influenced by teaching businesspeople. Additionally, a huge affiliation was found between the view of teachers on business enterprise instruction and the demeanour of the understudies towards the business enterprise, and impression of instructors saw as fundamentally connected with that of the subsidising organisations. A new model, namely EJ Business Enterprise Setup Model has been created based on analysis and findings and was found to be effective if applied wisely.
    Keywords: Business Training; Innovative Disposition; Entrepreneurial Education; Nurturing Setups; Pioneering Mentality; Start-Ups; Subsidising Offices; Teaching Modules.

    by Esha Jain, Priyanka Banerji, Jahanvi Bansal 
    Abstract: Green consumption is witnessing an exceptional escalating trend among the millennials the educated lot who are more conscious or progressively aware of their natural and social responsibility. This study attempts to understand green purchase intentions of young educated millennials on theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the two additional constructs i.e., eco-consciousness and Socially responsible consumption. Alongside that we will aim to ponder the significant issues in green consumer behaviour identified with green needs and segmentation. As how green products are designed to upgrade consumers utility. Using cross-sectional descriptive research design, data were collected from 250 millennials from Delhi/NCR. The factors were identified through exploratory factor analysis and then validated through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The model was finally tested with structural equation modelling (AMOS-SEM). Thus, the study saliently validates and extends TPB framework in a unique way linking three constructs eco-consciousness, attitude for green purchase and most importantly, socially responsible consumption that has been untouched in extant studies.
    Keywords: eco-consciousness; theory of planned behaviour; TPB; theory of planned behaviour framework; green consumer needs; socially responsible consumption; green purchase; attitude; green segmentation; consumer behaviour; millennials; collectivism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10054100
  • Investigating the past to prepare for the future directions of women entrepreneurship: review and research motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sucheta Agarwal 
    Abstract: Women entrepreneurship is an area of growth in which scholars, policy-makers and researchers give fair attention to investigating this division. This analysis considers 113 studies sorted according to the publishing pattern, method of research (qualitative, quantitative and conceptual), publisher wise, journal wise and giving future analysts the vital encounters. By a broad analysis, it found that few studies examine the motivational factors influenced by social and environmental all the while and more analyses address the individual/personal based factors that encourage women to take part in the enterprise. It is the leading research that performs literature review to analyse the personal, social and environmental driven motivational factors for women entrepreneurship support and examine different potential viewpoints to investigate this field more thoroughly.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurs; personal factors’ social factors; environmental factors; economic growth.

    by Moema Pereira Nunes, Fernanda Kalil Steinbruch, Greici Ramone Dapper Ranft 
    Abstract: The internationalisation process of a company may influence its business model turning into a driver to business model innovation. Entry modes represent different internationalisation approaches that may impact the elements of a business model content, structure and governance. This study investigates which innovations may occur in each BMI element as a consequence of the internationalisation process. A qualitative case-based research was developed. It was possible to identify that there is a relation between business model innovation and the internationalisation process, according to the adopted entry mode. While exports have a lower impact on the elements of business model, foreign direct investments leads to a higher demand for innovation at the elements of the companys business model. More innovation was required at content, comparing with structure and governance. Innovations in content include changes in the flow of communication and products, and in resources and capabilities.
    Keywords: business model innovation; BMI; internationalisation; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10037525
  • Moderating effects of gender, entrepreneurship education, and parents profession on startup intentions: A theory of planned behaviour based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarika Sharma, Shreya Virani 
    Abstract: Start-up intention is the cognitive state prior to decision to launch a start-up company or business. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and to empirically test this proposed model in explaining the entrepreneurial intentions of individuals towards start-ups. Three constructs from TPB namely attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behaviour control are included in model. The paper also explores the moderating role of gender, entrepreneurship education, and parents profession on these three constructs. The empirical data is collected from students pursuing their higher education at leading universities in India. The conceptual model is tested with first order confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modelling (SEM) approach is used for regression and path analysis. Some of the findings of the study were consistent with TPB, while others were not. The moderating effects were also presented in the paper.
    Keywords: Start-up intention; Theory of Planned Behaviour; Gender; Parent’s Profession; Entrepreneurship Education; Structural Equation Modelling.

  • Analysis of Barriers for green marketing using Interpretive Structure Modeling   Order a copy of this article
    by Karishma Chaudhary, Alpana Agarwal 
    Abstract: Green marketing comprises of activities involved in making and marketing products, which are environmentally safe (AMA, 1975). Such products could be energy efficient, durable, low in hazardous emission, less water consuming, reusable/recyclable, biodegradable, or organic. For around two decades, lot of awareness has been created on global warming and sustainable development. Manufacturers and marketers are aiming on manufacturing environment friendly products but there is a varied gap among their awareness, acceptance and execution. The study intends to identify, analyze and categorize the challenges for Green Marketing in India. It also outlines various strategies to overcome those barriers. Barriers are explored by a rigorous literature review and adept interviews. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) procedure is followed to discover the interdependence of barriers on each other.
    Keywords: Green Marketing; ISM; Green washing; Green products; Eco-friendly; Sustainability.

  • Bestination: an Approach to Sustainable Networking for Buddhist Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Navarat Sachayansrisakul, Nattawat Ponnara 
    Abstract: Bestination studies offer a moral and an ethical approach to achieving the best destination for businesses. Networking is an essential element for entrepreneurs to excel in their businesses. This study identifies problems and provides a way to positively network without compromising the ethical and moral standards of the businesses. This research interviewed 20 entrepreneurs who have sustained their businesses beyond their first few years of operation. The questions addressed are: 1) How have Buddhist teaching taught the concepts of networking?; 2) How do entrepreneurs view other people involving in their businesses?; 3) How important an entrepreneur view networking as part of his/her business and to what extent that the networking makes their businesses successful?; 4) Where does an entrepreneur set an ethical or moral standard? Is she/he able to achieve that? According to Buddhist principles and some findings, a model called The bestination networking style, was developed for entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: sustainability; entrepreneurs; networking; Buddhist; moral/ethics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10033223
  • Eastern Philosophies and Employee Retention in Emerging Southeast Asian Economies - The Case of Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Nhi Nguyen, Dieu Hack-Polay 
    Abstract: The study investigated five factors impacting employees intention to stay: organisational commitment, employee-manager relationship, motivation and rewards, work environment, and Vietnamese family values. We sought to examine how Eastern philosophies such as Confucianism and Taoism moderate these factors in Vietnam. We surveyed all the employees in a large Vietnamese furniture-making organisation. The findings indicate that affective commitment had a stronger influence on employee retention than normative and continuance commitment. The research found strong impact of motivation and rewards on intention to stay. The results confirmed that positive work environment with fair treatment, open communication, career growth opportunity, and work-life balance strongly affect retention. We found a significant influence of Eastern family values on employees intention to stay, thus denoting the pertinence of Eastern philosophies on retention in Vietnam. Collectivism in Eastern culture entails that intention to stay in a company is a collective decision involving family and managers. This study is the first to specifically examine the weight of Eastern philosophies (Taoism and Confucianism) on employee retention in Vietnam.
    Keywords: Employee retention; organisational commitment; Eastern philosophies; Vietnamese family values; Confucianism; Taoism.

  • Corporate Social Innovation (CSI) in practice: People with disabilities project in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcelo Dionisio 
    Abstract: This study explores how companies engage in corporate social innovation (CSI) creating social value and competitive advantage, contributing to this literature that claims for the need to understand how social innovations are integrated with businesses strategies and the impact they generate in both business and society, and to the social inclusion field by using the case of Mundial, a Brazilian supermarket chain that successfully implemented an initiative for people with disabilities (PwD). The case was analysed based on the CSI frameworks proposed by Herrera (2015) and results demonstrate the different nature of CSI, letting us argue that this is the latest and definitive alternative for businesses to connect with society and help solve social problems while reaching economic results.
    Keywords: corporate social innovation; CSI; social innovation; social inclusion; people with disabilities; PwD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10034457
  • Creating market linkage and demand for new climate resilient rice varieties through innovative agriculture extension method   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Nayak, Ritesh Dwivedi, Manzoor Hussain Dar 
    Abstract: For impact of innovative products like climate resilient rice, there needs to be large scale adoption, strengthened market and demand. While the traditional agriculture extension approaches focusing on varietal promotion are production centric, this would require a market centric approach. The Eastern India, prone to climatic risks, could benefit through the adoption of these varieties as witnessed through the grounding of a participatory experiment as a new extension model. This paper tries to analyse the structure and effectiveness of this model, known as evidence hubs. A total 21 such hubs comprising 975 replications for several varieties were piloted in 2017. Multiple performance criteria and results were analysed through participatory score card method. The score cards generated got recommendation of government to influence institutions/policy to enhance production and supply of seeds of resilient varieties which got the highest ratings.
    Keywords: rice; seed; market; climate; agriculture; agriculture extension; production; supply; evidence hubs; demand.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10032640
  • Multivariate Analysis of Ethnic Migrants Entrepreneurial Motivation in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Jacqueline Zakpaa, LEO-PAUL DANA 
    Abstract: This study was a cross-sectional survey, and it sought to determine the multivariate structure of factors affecting the self-employment entrepreneurial motivation of internal ethnic migrant entrepreneurs in Ghana. 210 entrepreneurs were selected through simple random sampling in the four major cities in Ghana. High dimensional sets of data produced from a Likert scale with 71 indicator variables of migrant entrepreneurial motivation factors, which were incorporated into a structured questionnaire, were factor analysed, using SPSS version 21. The findings revealed that the significant influences on the entrepreneurial motivation of this group of ethnic migrant entrepreneurs, consisted of factors such as relational social capital or informal personal networks, wealth creation through human capital development, lack of fear of risks taking, impact of a previous job, the effect of the regulatory environment, labour market-based unemployment, access to start-up capital through personal savings, culture, and increase wealth motivation.
    Keywords: multivariate analysis; ethnic migrants; entrepreneurial motivation; Ghana.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10038159
    by Monica Bedi, Anuradha Thakur 
    Abstract: Emotions are integral and inseparable part of an individuals life and play significant role in human interactions and organisational performance. Emotional intelligence (EI) describes the mechanisms through which individuals recognise their own and others emotional state. EI considerably impacts work outcomes and job satisfaction. Employees with high EI are considered more resilient due to their intelligence of the underlying causes of stress and developing means to cope with them. Life satisfaction describes the quality of life for an individual. The present study examines the relationship of employee emotional intelligence to occupational role stress, job satisfaction and life satisfaction across public and private sector banks in India. Using systematic random sampling to collect data from 150 managers working at the middle level managerial positions in Indian banking sector; significant differences were found in the occupational role stress dimensions/factors of self-management, empathy, relationship management in across banks in both the sectors. However, for job satisfaction and life satisfaction, no variation of emotional intelligence dimensions was found in either of the banking sectors. This research intends to suggest how EI can be used to achieve work life balance, enhance job satisfaction and help employees effectively cope with their occupational role stress.
    Keywords: emotional intelligence; occupational role stress: job satisfaction; life satisfaction; Indian banking sector; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035739
  • Maltas gear for San Leather: An exploratory entrepreneurial experiment Three Decades after Namibian Independence   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: In the South Western corner of Africa, we find the beautiful nation of Namibia, also the last colony in Sub Saharan Africa to gain independence (21st March 1990). Namibia set a precedent in becoming the first to specifically base its sector of the economy on the small business sector, however three decades after independence some indigenous people, such as the San people in Tsumkwe (and surrounding settlements) rely mostly on the informal sector, and their cultural legacy and heritage has never been enhanced by bringing them closer to sanitation, health care and running clean drinking water.rnThe village of Tsumkwe, where formal enterprises are almost nonexistent, there is considerable amount of entrepreneurship taking place in the informal sector. In ensuring that they are able to buy basic commodities the communities engage in selling art and craft to visitors to the village and at times they come to Tsumkwe to sell their items. Numerous smaller villages in the district trade with art and craft, it can be referred to as their livelihood. This study is as a result of an ethnographic enquiry of a Maltas Club Namibia students, who went on an excursion to the San village and change their Maltas uniform for San leather. It was a form of intercultural exchange and learning experience for the students on indigenous entrepreneurship and the community also got the chance to learn from the insights of the students. On their spectacular journey the students got the once lifetime opportunity to immerse themselves in the cultural traditions and customs of the San people and vice versa. This paper is qualitative in nature and make use of in-depth interviews and participant observation, as some of the methods to the study. The author strongly reiterates that the government design policies which are inclusive and they need to understand how to better assist the people of Tsumkwe in terms of entrepreneurship. The author concludes with some research experiences and best practice lessons from the African nations of the Kingdom of Lesotho, Zambia, Botswana and Kenya as we look into research towards the future.rn
    Keywords: Maltas Club Namibia; San; Tsumkwe; Conservancy; Indigenous entrepreneurship; Self-employment; hut; n!oresi; Ju|’hoan and veldfood.

  • Comparative Study on Business Culture and Investors' Behaviour Toward Sustainable Index Change: Japan vs. the US and Europe   Order a copy of this article
    by Miho Murashima 
    Abstract: This paper examines the difference in investors attitudes toward sustainability index change between the USA, Europe and Japan based on their business culture, using the short-term event study method using the dataset of the DJSI index change and stock prices. The findings of this study indicate large differences between the USA, Europe, and Japanese markets. The comparative analysis demonstrates speculative or temporal attitudes in the US market and positive valuation in the European market, reflecting their business culture, whereas less attention and negative response to inclusion in the sustainable index was found for the Japanese market, especially for Japanese institutional investors. The difference between Japanese investors and others are due to the immaturity of the Japanese capital and product markets.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; business culture; cultural difference; investor behaviour; firm value; market reactions; event study; sustainability index; Dow Jones Sustainability Index; DJSI; Japan; the USA; Europe.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10053258
  • Entrepreneurial firms and their foresightedness in a VUCA World   Order a copy of this article
    by Niharika Jaiswal, Manoj Joshi, Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship has always been a central point of discussion amongst educators, practitioners and policy makers, besides the incumbents intending to emerge as an entrepreneur. Other than the core of venture creation, these entrepreneurs have a critical role to play in the wealth creation, resource optimisation and economic development of the region they belong to. Hence, they must reflect or possess some kind of foresightedness to be sustainable and contributory in their long-standing entrepreneurial journey, which is a turbulent one. The authors, tabled their diverse experience after reviewing the extent literature on entrepreneurship realising that there is a critical need to identify and classify these firms engaged in true sense of entrepreneurship, before embarking upon the principal research question, which is, do entrepreneurial firms possess foresightedness in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) world? We selected enterprises seeded between 20002019, examining their entrepreneurial journey, using qualitative method and interpretivism.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; enterprise; entrepreneur; entrepreneurial firm; foresightedness; VUCA; BookMyShow; BMS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10042519
  • Business Newspaper Stock Recommendations for Intraday Trading: Empirical Analysis from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Kolte, Matteo Rossi, Yogesh Mahajan, Suyog Chachad 
    Abstract: With the introduction of easy computerised trading platforms and online trading, intraday trading has been widely used by novices as well as individual investors, in addition to professional traders and investors. People are lured to intraday trading, due to quick gains (results) from it. Today, information about stock recommendations is available from various sources like newspapers, websites, search engines, social media, brokers, etc. Despite the rise in the extensive use of the Internet, there is an increase in the readership of newspapers in India. The objective of the paper was to study and critically evaluate the intraday trading stock recommendations provided by the Economics Times newspaper in India for intraday trading. The paper investigates the efficacy of possible returns from this recommendation for day traders. The methodology used was evaluating the recommendations up to a fixed return of 1% for both the buy and sell side in intraday trading. The results show that buy recommendations provide negative returns, but sell recommendations provide positive returns. But overall, it is found that trades done based on these recommendations earn no significant returns for the traders. Also, brokers recommendations provided in the newspaper show no significant returns for the traders.
    Keywords: business newspaper; buy and sell stock recommendations; intraday trading; returns; brokers; technical analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10032641
  • Macroeconomic and Microeconomic Determinants of the Profitability of Indian Manufacturing Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumit Kumar Maji, Arindam Laha, Debasish Sur 
    Abstract: The present paper seeks to identify the major microeconomic and macroeconomic determinants of profitability of the firms in different sectors of Indian manufacturing industry. This study is based on 515 companies which were selected following stratified random sampling procedure from the ten sub-groups of Indian manufacturing industry chosen by adopting purposive sampling procedure. The data for the period 1999-2000 to 2013-2014 used in this study were taken from secondary sources, i.e. Capitaline Corporate Database 2000 published by Capital Market Publishers Private Ltd. Mumbai, India and Database on Indian Economy published by the Reserve Bank of India. The study revealed that leverage, intellectual capital, sales growth, age, openness and size of the firm amongst the major microeconomic factors and economic growth, inflation and exchange rate amongst the principal macroeconomic variables played significant role in determining profitability of the Indian manufacturing firms during the period under study. Another notable outcome of the study was that the industry sub-sector wise differences in delineating the contribution of specific factors in explaining firm level profitability were noticed.
    Keywords: Manufacturing; Microeconomic factors; Macroeconomic factors; Profitability; Return on Assets.

  • The Wheel of Consumer Analysis applied to Colombian Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Santiago Garcia, Dennis Kopf 
    Abstract: This article creates a theoretical framework based on country characteristics, to test whether or not marketing theories and practices developed in advanced economies can be applied in emerging markets. The article then uses this framework to predict whether or not a commonly taught marketing theory, the wheel of consumer analysis (WCA) can be applied to Colombian entrepreneurs. A survey of 111 technology-based entrepreneurs determined their marketing rationale for three elements in the WCA: knowledge acquired from the outside (environment), specialised training (affective and cognitive), and competencies implemented and experienced (behaviour). This research finds that Colombian entrepreneurs are indeed customer focused along each element of the WCA, but that as time passes entrepreneurs appear to have less focus.
    Keywords: emerging markets; marketing and entrepreneurship education; marketing strategy; developing countries; wheel of consumer analysis; WCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10045110
  • Entrepreneurship and Poverty alleviation: A tale of black African women in Msunduzi Municipality, South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Obianuju Ebele Okeke-Uzodike 
    Abstract: This study examined the extent to which black African women benefit from the existing government strategies to support local entrepreneurs in advancing their businesses at Msunduzi local municipality, KwaZulu-Natal Province. Entrepreneurship is believed to be desirable to address the poverty and unemployment levels in societies. A qualitative research method approach was employed, and data were drawn using a focus group discussion from black African women within Msunduzi municipality and a semi-structured interview from the government officials. Key findings from this study draw attention to various aspects of concern for policy makers regarding the limited support provided by the government to emancipate African female entrepreneurs at Msunduzi municipality. The studys findings contribute to the existing knowledge of women empowerment through entrepreneurship, gender mainstreaming, and serve as a guide for policy makers and academics who are in pursuit of various developmental goals.
    Keywords: black African women; entrepreneurship; poverty; Msunduzi municipality; South Africa.

  • Businesses Beware - An Empirical Study on Buyer Behaviour on Search and Evaluation of Products Before And After Purchase   Order a copy of this article
    by Baskar Rajaraman, Ganesh Behra 
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the buyer behaviour towards the evaluation of personal care and apparel care products, before and after purchase. Consumer behaviour related to search for information about the product before the purchase is addressed first. Then the study addresses how the outcome of evaluation of products after the purchase, affects the consumers brand switching behaviour and consumer complaining behaviour (CCB). The study also explores the impact of gender on search behaviour and consumer complaining behaviour. The paper concludes with discussion on managerial implication and scope for further research.
    Keywords: consumer evaluation; search behaviour; consumer loyalty; consumer response; consumer complaining behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039497
  • Antecedents of Consumer Attitude and Purchase Intention towards Counterfeit Products   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushin Manikoth, Bradley Olson, Mothilal Lakavath, Satyanarayana Parayitam 
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effect of information reliability, risk, and value consciousness on hedonic behavior, attitude towards counterfeit products, and genuine store trustworthiness. A conceptual model is developed and tested where (a) materialism moderates the relationship between hedonic behavior and purchase intention, (b) value consciousness moderates the relationship between attitude towards counterfeit products and purchase intention, and (c) social status moderates the relationship between genuine store trustworthiness and purchase intention.rnUsing a structured survey instrument, this paper gathered data from 449 respondents from three cities (Kochi, Chennai, and Bangalore) in southern part of India. The hierarchical regression render support that (i) information reliability is positively related to hedonic behavior and attitude towards counterfeit products, (ii) risk is negatively related to hedonic behavior and attitude towards counterfeit products, (iii) value consciousness is positively related to hedonic behavior and genuine store trustworthiness, and (iv) hedonic behavior and attitude towards products are related to purchase intention. In addition, the results also support the moderation hypotheses of materialism, value consciousness and social status. The study suggests that marketers need to understand the importance of non-deceptive counterfeiting is useful and consumers have tendency to prefer to use these products once they are satisfied with their utility. The conceptual model developed and tested in this research enables the marketing managers to understand the antecedents of consumers purchase intention of counterfeit products. rn
    Keywords: hedonic behavior; risk; counterfeit products; purchase intention; genuine store trustworthiness; value consciousness.

  • Addressing Global Environmental Crisis through Sustainable and Spiritual Intervention: A case of Jainism   Order a copy of this article
    by Prerna Jain, Pragati Jain 
    Abstract: Environmental crisis is the greatest challenge humanity is facing in the present times. Climate change, green-house gas emissions, air pollution and extreme temperatures have become a major cause of disease and death. The future seems bleak in the absence of proper implementation of policies. The accomplishment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) seems impossible, seeing the increasing demand for resources. The earths required to sustain the current consumption patterns reveals a very scary future. The ideology presented in the paper is where science, technology, politics and economics fail, spirituality provides solutions as it is all encompassing, having integrated and harmonious approach. The paper argues for practicing the philosophy of sustainable economics of Jainism and adoption of spiritual lifestyle to address the global environmental crisis.
    Keywords: Environmental Crisis; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); Sustainable Development; sustainable economics; Jainism; Spirituality.

  • The effects of exchange rate on public debt: An empirical analysis for Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Huyen Le Thi Dieu, Bui Duy Hung, Anh Duc Pham 
    Abstract: To the best of our knowledge, the impact of the exchange rate on public debt has not been widely studied in developing Asian economies. In this paper, we take a closer look at the role of exchange rate public debt management in Vietnam. For this purpose, we develop a simple econometric model which is then tested for the impact of the exchange rate on Vietnams public debt. The results indicate that, besides the exchange rate, other macroeconomic factors, including the multilateral nominal exchange rate, the budget deficit and current account deficit, also exert an influence on Vietnams public debt. From the empirical findings, this study draws unique policy implications for Vietnam to fortify its debt safety and sustainability.
    Keywords: nominal effective exchange rate; public debt; budget deficit; external debt; monetary policy; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10041662
  • The Effectiveness of the IpOp Model Decision Tree to Calibrate Projects at the Pre-Project Stage   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadina Muller, Mark Moses, Raphaël H. Cohen 
    Abstract: Literature supports the idea that projects delivering the target objective on time and within the anticipated budget represent less than 30% of all projects. Even though failure advances the learning curve, this low success rate equals a vast waste of resources. Based on practical experience, the authors hypothesise that: 1) low project success rates are linked to inadequate project selection methodologies or their inconsistent application; 2) the IpOp model decision tree could improve the selection of worthy projects. An online survey was carried out to determine: 1) project success rate; 2) links between project performance and selection parameters. Results show the importance of rigour in project selection in order to reduce waste of resources, while no clear correlation between the number of selection criteria could be proven. Further, the results indicate that practitioners consider the IpOp model decision tree to evaluate projects at pre-project stage an improvement over current practice.
    Keywords: pre-project calibration; project success; project selection criteria; decision tree; target objectives; resource savings; online survey; IpOp model; allocation of resources; project governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10038787
  • Developing Technical Innovation Model to Study Customer Efficiency, System Effectiveness and Service Efficacy in E-Banking   Order a copy of this article
    by Anubha Srivastava, Suman Yadav, A.K. Saxena 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to build up a technology adoption model for ebanking services from the viewpoint of a customer. The paper also highlights the presence of significant relationship amongst the selected variables. The findings of the study reveal that system effectiveness, service efficacy and customer efficiency completely impact perceived trust and which later on impacts behavioural intentions. In addition, efficiency of a customer, effectiveness of system and service effectiveness impact perceived risk negatively and which later on also impact behavioural intentions negatively towards e-banking. The findings of this study show that customer perceived trust and perceived risk is linked with adaptation of e-banking. This paper presents statistically technical innovation model of adoption; that seems to be beneficial for forecasting consumers acceptance towards technological innovations.
    Keywords: adoption intentions; e-banking services; perceived trust; perceived risk.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039723
  • The Experiences of Work-Life Balance, Job Performance and Stress among Married Working Women in Private Academic Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Farzana Khan, D.B. Singh 
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to examine the relationship and the effect of work-life balance (WLB) and stress on the job performance of the married women employees working in the private academic institutions of the National Capital Region (NCR). Descriptive analysis, correlation and regression analysis techniques are used to analyse the collected data in this research study. Purposive and convenience sampling techniques have been used for data collection. It is found that WLB and stress has a significant effect on the job performance of married women employees of private academic institutions in NCR. The Pearson correlation reveals that the higher the stress and/or work-life imbalance lower will be the job performance. All three scales are having Chronbach alpha values 0.70 which indicate that the scales used are highly reliable. In our Indian culture, women face more challenges to maintain a proper balance between domestic and work life. But it is found that in every walk of life women had achieved extreme progress and made a different mark wherever they are.
    Keywords: stress; work-life balance; WLB; job performance; domestic life; work-life.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10053493
  • Foreign direct investments and the role ofgovernance and institutional quality in Albania   Order a copy of this article
    by Mario Curcija 
    Abstract: Foreign direct investments in transition economies represent a small part of the total global inflows, but they show interesting dynamics, often in contrast to the global trend as is the case of Albania. Observation on specific features of each country suggests that a proper study of the phenomenon of FDI must not rely merely on macroeconomic models and thus ignore the peculiarities of each country. The aim of this paper is to assess the existence of the relationship between the quality of the institutions/policy and FDI inflows in Albania. In order to achieve this objective we performed the Johansen co-integration test, the VAR and Grangers causality tests on a time-series dataset. The results show a substantial independence of the decisions taken by foreign investors from the countrys internal policies. A possible explanation for these findings could be that investment decisions are mainly attributed to strategic decisions and exogenous determinants.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment; Albania; transition economy; foreign investors; institutional quality; governance quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10057858
  • Features of Development of Foreign Economic Activity of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Era of Globalisation (on the Example of the Almaty region) and Resumption of the Great Silk Road   Order a copy of this article
    by Barkhudar Gussenov, Zaure Abdirassilova, Zagira Tokbergenova, Saule Alimbayeva, Gaukhar Sanay, Raushan Ordabayeva 
    Abstract: The article considers the economic background of historical and geographical description of the world; historical facts of the Great Silk Road; describes main problems of the formation and development of the Great Silk Road at the present stage, considers the directions of the impact of the Great Silk Road on the economy of the participating countries; proposes main ways to eliminate the problems of the development of modern directions of the Great Silk Road.
    Keywords: economy; region; politics; trade; management; development; globalisation; Republic of Kazakhstan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10044739
  • Workplace Spirituality and Organisation Citizenship Behaviour: Exploring Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Alka Swami, Rajni Khari, Pragati Hemrajani 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediated mechanism for enhancing organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) through job satisfaction (JS) using workplace spirituality (WPS) model in the selected Indian universities/institutes. A conceptual framework and associated hypotheses were proposed and tested using total of 98 useable survey data from faculty members working in various Indian universities. Two major dimensions of WPS were undertaken for the study namely; meaningful work and inner life. The findings showed a positive significant influence between inner life-organisation citizenship behaviour, meaningful work-organisation citizenship behaviour, meaningful work-job satisfaction, job satisfaction-organisation citizenship behaviour, except for inner life-job satisfaction. This study will be an add-on in the WPS studies and will offer a new direction for future studies. This study can be implied in the education sector as well as other sectors to get a highly satisfied and motivated workforce.
    Keywords: job satisfaction; workplace spirituality; meaningful work; inner life; organisation citizenship behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10052269
  • Effect of Demonetisation and GST on the Economy of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.   Order a copy of this article
    by Roshani Goel 
    Abstract: In 2016 and 2017 India faced two major policy implications- demonetisation and GST (Goods service tax). The reason for this was to stop inflation, remove counterfeit currency and to promote plastic money. But it is undeniable that different sectors have been negatively affected by these two policies especially the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). The study explores how demonetisation and GST impacted businesses and small enterprises by leading to a complete change in their working structure. This paper tries to look at mostly the negative effect of the policy without overlooking the positive effect on the MSMEs. The study emphasizes that the business of small enterprises became stagnant as they were mostly dependent on cash, in exchange of services; as after note ban, payments became constrained from clients. With the implementation of these policies, The Government of India should have worked to protect the interest of this group and also incentivized their participation in the new policy.
    Keywords: Demonetisation; Goods and Service Tax; MSME's; digitalisation; positive impact; negative impact,.

  • Entrepreneurial characteristics in third generation small businesses in a VUCA world   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Yadav, Manoj Joshi, Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: Sweet houses as micro, small and medium-sized businesses are a flourishing business. The period between the 1980s and 1990s witnessed their genesis exhibiting entrepreneurial characteristics with few being family businesses. Some siblings went on to acquire professional education honing their characteristics, additionally. Hence, the entrepreneurial characteristics and higher education became the foundation of third generation small businesses. These firms are currently undergoing the challenges posited by volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous business situation. How entrepreneurial characteristics were harnessed by generations in the small businesses to counter the VUCA challenges is the centre of this study! Few published papers on the subject theme between 2009 and 2019 were examined. The authors explored in Kanpur City (North India) and randomly identified 40 sweet shops in their third generation, reflecting continuity in their entrepreneurial characteristics, via qualitative case method of research, demonstrating our posit via the incumbent firm Thaggu Ke Laddu (TKL).
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneur; small business; entrepreneurial characteristics; third generation family business; VUCA; Thaggu Ke Laddu; TKL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10042520
  • Imparting industry relevant skills through skill development initiatives in the apparel industry: a literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Roopali Shukla, Anuradha Thakur 
    Abstract: The global apparel market is positioned at US $1.7 trillion, approximately 2% of the worlds GDP and is expected to reach US $2.6 trillion by 2025. In India, this sector contributes 11% to exports and 4% to the gross domestic product. It is the second largest employment generating sector and to remain globally competitive, it requires a huge skilled human resource. The training programs provide industry relevant skill trainings. The current paper conducts a systematic review of literature covering publications and studies on global skill development initiatives. It also aims to identify the directions for further research after studying 90 publications during the period of 19912020. It identifies the skill gaps in the job role of sewing machine operator (SMO) in the apparel sector in India. Through the content analysis, this paper identifies three skill constructs that impact the employability of the candidates after completion of such training programs.
    Keywords: apparel industry; sewing machine operator; SMO; basic literacy skills; soft skills; technical skills; skill development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040375
  • Private funding, profitability and growth opportunities of immigrant SMMEs: A Resource Based View   Order a copy of this article
    by Pateint Rambe, Takawira Munyaradzi Ndofirepi, Nosiphiwe Mpiti 
    Abstract: Although studies examining the relationships among private funding, profitability and growth of immigrant SMMEs have emphasised high growth ventures, research on these concepts covering nascent ventures is yet to emerge. Given the constrained access to productive resources of SMMEs, this study explored the constitution and effects of private funding on the profitability and growth of SMMEs in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 110 Afro hair salon SMMEs in the Free State province. The findings suggest that while debt funding constituted 36.4% of total funding of Afro hair salons, Matshonisas, group savings and bank loans combined accounted for most of the funding. Moreover, findings revealed a negative relationship between private financing and business growth. Results also revealed a negative relationship between the accessibility of private equity financing and business profitability. The study recommends the diversification of funding sources to ensure sustainable profitability and growth of SMMEs.
    Keywords: immigrant SMMEs; debt financing; equity financing; business growth; profitability; funding agencies; business sustainability; resource based view; funding choices; interest rate attractiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10042222
  • Blockchain Technology Business in Healthcare System: Benefits, Challenges and Health Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Barkha Kakkar, Prashant Johri, Yogesh Kumar, Avneesh Kumar 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to cover an extensive analysis of Blockchain technology (BT) in the healthcare system and interrelated applications. The ease of access of e-health data is required for efficacious therapy, policy resolutions, and exchange of healthcare data. Due to the mysterious nature of digital data, healthcare data is as well liable to security, confidentiality, and data breaches. The study discussed the benefits of the BT in healthcare in respective fields and acknowledged the work of various researchers in this field, which definitely helps the novice researchers in getting a better understanding of the technology. The finding of the study reveals that intense growth in BT has delivered various new usage chances, comprising healthcare applications. Also, to improve the healthcare system, it is required to make new revolutions in the system by implementing BT.
    Keywords: Blockchain; healthcare; e-health; electronic-health; clinical trial; disease detection; electronic health record; EHR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039061
  • Impact of Global Recession on Carbon Credits with special reference to India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aarugonda Kotishwar 
    Abstract: The present study emphasised the effect of the global recession on carbon credits. The study considered Indian carbon credits from NSE India for the full stop 20082009 to 20182019 years. The study looked at economic factors and sectors. The bivariate correlation was used to assess the relationship between carbon credits and the selected economic variables under the Kendal tau. The normal least square approach has been used to know the impact on carbon credits of the global financial crisis and the outcome has been shown to have a significant impact. The vector auto-regression was applied for future movements and the result showed that carbon credits are expected to move forward.
    Keywords: carbon credits; gross domestic product; global recession; index of industrial production; Kyoto protocol; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10043752
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Technopreneurship Innovation (TIN) as key enablers for lean start-ups growth.   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepak Singh, Balvinder Shukla, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a process of initiating a small business termed as a start-up, undergoing different stages of business lifecycle. Hence, success and failure depend upon how start-ups affect the ecosystem, adding value towards economic growth. Start-ups are redefining ecosystems with technopreneurship innovation (TIN), an innovative use of technologies in designing systems. Thus, it is necessary to inspect lean start-ups that are using TIN aided with artificial intelligence (AI). The ontology has led us to conduct a qualitative profiling of shortlisted 75 AI-based start-ups identified across pan India, followed by epistemological assumptions, as to why the lean start-ups need to focus on the TIN. The authors delved into how these technologies can act as a key enabler for sustainable growth (SD) of start-ups. The results are in the form of AI-start-ups working in the TIN with new-age technologies like data science (DS), machine learning algorithm (MLA) and graphical processing units (GPUs).
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; entrepreneurship; technopreneurship innovation; TIN; technologies; start-up; machine learning algorithm; MLA; graphical processing units; GPUs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042521
  • Impact of globalization on global and national supply chains   Order a copy of this article
    by Larisa Orlanyuk-Malitskaya, Tatiana Plakhova, Tatyana Sakulyeva, Irina Glazkova 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to examine the impact of globalization on supply chain management. For this, the study focused on data from international rankings, reports, and surveys. The supply chain risks were found to be ground transportation and civil unrest incidents. A comprehensive risk management system could minimize the negative consequences of those incidents. The business cannot minimize the impact of globalization on supply chain management, but it can protect itself from losses by identify risks and making an emergency action plan to deal with force majeure events, such as the COVID-19. Consequently, each party in the supply chain must take precautions to ensure the integrity of the supply chain in the case of logistics disruptions.
    Keywords: capital flows; chain management; economic growth; globalisation processes; industry; information technology; market; risk management; supply; transportation.

  • Environmental management decisions under risk and uncertainty: a systematic literature review of prospect theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Asma Zeeshan, Tariq Aziz, Muhammad Abbas, Satish Kumar 
    Abstract: This study explores the applicability of prospect theory in environmental management decisions and how much it is effective in achieving sustainability. We aim to investigate the already available literature about the given issue and show the limitations of the existing research to make way for future researchers. Further, it explores how the theory applies to different industries and how this fact is acknowledged or ignored in environmental management.
    Keywords: Prospect theory; Environmental management; Systematic review; thematic analysis; Decision analysis.

  • Endorsing Organisations Towards International Business: Insights from Finland   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaakko Sauvola, Jarkko Hyysalo, Matti Kinnunen, Paavo Kosonen, Pekka Jokitalo, Marko Jurmu, Jukka Riekki 
    Abstract: Growth and internationalisation are challenges for SMEs that may lack the necessary resources and networks. For example, in Finland the scope of the companies is often too limited, or the companies are too small to compete for large business with international clients. We propose a solution to this challenge: a systematic way to build research to business networks and agile working models to endorse growth and internationalisation. We present a case study on how Allied ICT Finland (AIF) helps Finnish companies in building projects and capabilities towards internationalisation. AIF supports companies in creating new solutions by combining usually separate areas of special knowledge and expertise, R&D platforms and resources, and using these to create globally attractive products and services. AIF increases Finnish competitive edge by combining business development, shared RDI environments, funding expertise, research and ecosystems. We believe that the experiences can also be adapted and utilised elsewhere.
    Keywords: regional development; internationalisation; business; networking; research to business; value co-creation; commercialisation; scaling up; growth.

  • Investigating the Influence of Cultural Factors in the Disclosure of Corporate Strategies in Annual Reports by 100 European Firms: Does Context Matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jan Ulijn, Aidin Salamzadeh 
    Abstract: Since Geert Hofstedes path-breaking studies, quantitative methods of intercultural research are very popular. This article presents quantitative intercultural research in this domain that appeared to need badly to call upon the prolific qualitative anthropological studies of American and European cultures by Hall to give conclusive results. As businesses become more international, corporate strategy disclosure must often be done across cultural groups. This has implications for the globalising business rhetoric to be used by technical and business communicators who often help develop a corporate strategy. They do this by effective annual report writing by both text and visuals. We summarise research on the influence of cultural factors in disclosing corporate strategies in annual reports by 100 European firms equally distributed over five countries. Hall's high-low context distinction appears to offer a better perspective for international communicators to help them globalise annual reports for a better corporate strategy to benefit all stakeholders.
    Keywords: Cultural factors; Disclosure; Corporate strategy; Annual report; European firms; Context.

    by Andrii Martyn, Oleksandr Shevchenko, Ivan Openko, Oleksandr Krasnolutsky, Taras Ievsiukov, Ruslan Tykhenko, Oleg Tsvyakh 
    Abstract: It has been established that the issues of agricultural land use in the post-socialist countries of Europe are becoming more acute, as land reforms there have either completed or almost completed that have resulted in large-scale privatisation or redistribution of agricultural land. Indeed, in recent years, small and medium-sized enterprises have been rapidly losing their viability, especially in non-EU countries. It has been studied that large areas of agricultural land are under control of large agricultural holdings and non-agricultural investors. In addition, the agricultural land market is being transformed into the corporate rights market of land-controlling companies, so that traditional methods of regulating land market turnover are rapidly losing their inefficiency. There is considerable interest in investing in agricultural land acquisition from 'portfolio investors', leading to a sharp rise in prices and the displacement of small and medium-sized farmers from the market.
    Keywords: agricultural land market; agroholding; agricultural lands; corporate enterprises; economic concentration.

  • An exploration of pull and push motivational factors among the transgender entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Preethi Sarah, Karthigai Prakasam Chellaswamy 
    Abstract: To date, studies have focused on the men and women entrepreneurs and the gender difference in motivations among cisgender entrepreneurs. The study aims to determine whether a transgender individual entrepreneur is motivated through a push motivational factor or a pull motivational factor. This study employs a qualitative approach uses face-to-face interviews and a semi-structured interview with a sample size of 16 transgender entrepreneurs in India. It was found that the participants in this study were motivated by both push and pull factors. The motivational factors which add to the knowledge of already existing push and pull factors were to forego begging and commercial sex work, to break stereotypes, to create a business opportunity for other transgender individuals, to earn respect from society, to prove entrepreneurship is non-binary, to be a role model for other transgender individuals and to the society. In contrast, the push motivational factors were the limited opportunities, support received from society, the hijra guru, media, government support, family, friends, landlords, NGOs and another push motivational factor was the exhibitions conducted exclusively for the transgender individual entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Transgender Individual Entrepreneur; Motivation; Self-employment; India.

  • Conflict Barometer: An investigation into cross-cultural conflict and its effect on performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Vic Benuyenah 
    Abstract: This study seeks to present new ways of exploring and understanding organisational conflict whilst introducing a modern conflict measurement tool. Conflict can arise in every social situation and is commonly demonstrable in a number of ways, including personality clashes, insults, non-cooperation, mistreatment, anger and other types of stressful miscommunication. The research was conducted to explore the critical antecedents of cross-cultural conflict among international business employees and to indicate whether organisational conflict is framed as functional or dysfunctional. Using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques, the findings support the hypothesis that cross-cultural conflict negatively impacts employee emotions and performance. Finally, the paper proposes the conflict barometer tool to help managers gauge the levels of conflict among employees working in complex cross-cultural environments.
    Keywords: cross-cultural conflict; conflict barometer; negative emotions; Vietnamese culture; cross-cultural management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10041071
  • Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Malaysia: The Case of Mainland Chinese-Owned SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Mengdie Ruan, Angathevar Baskaran, Shanshan Zhou 
    Abstract: Using data obtained from 15 Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs, this paper investigates the personal characteristics of mainland Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs, their contributions to the Malaysian economy and the major constraints experienced by them. The findings are: 1) most Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs are aged 30 to 40, married, and hold minimum educational qualification of a bachelors degree; 2) innovativeness is regarded as the most important personal trait, followed by sociability and decisiveness; 3) their contribution to the economy is significant in areas of employment and wealth creation, as well as the production of diverse goods and services for local and export markets; 4) while they experience some general constraints which are similarly encountered by native entrepreneurs, they also experience specific constraints such as language barriers, lack of policy assistance, and tax and visa problems. The study recommends the creation of a dedicated government department and the formulation of specific policies to support immigrant-owned SMEs.
    Keywords: entrepreneur characteristics; Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs; immigrant entrepreneurship; ethnic minority entrepreneurship; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10044060
  • India and Bangladesh: An analysis of bilateral trade between two emerging economies of SAFTA   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The paper analyses India-Bangladesh bilateral trade with reference to South Asian Free Trade Area. For the purpose of analysis, the data period ranges from 1995 to 2019. The primary analysis reveals that bilateral trade has been weak, lackadaisical and the SAFTA agreement has not brought about any perceptible change in bilateral trade performance of these two countries. The causes of poor trade performance have been checked by applying Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) as suggested by Balassa (1965) and Trade Complementarity Index (TCI) as suggested by the International Trade Department of World Bank (ITD, World Bank, 2010). The prospect of intra-industry increment was also examined by using GrubelLloyd index introduced by Herb Grubel and Peter Lloyd (1971). The analysis reveals that India and Bangladesh suffer from lack of export specialisation in a majority of product groups and weak trade complementarities exist between them.
    Keywords: India-Bangladesh trade; Revealed Comparative Advantage; Trade Complementarity; Grubel–Lloyd index; SAARC; SAFTA.

  • Phenomenon of leaving money on the Indonesians IPO Table   Order a copy of this article
    by Fajri Adrianto 
    Abstract: This research aims to study leaving money on the table phenomenon in emerging market IPO. This phenomenon exists in the emerging market, including the Indonesian stock market. During 2010-2018, there is more than 80 percent of Indonesian IPOs are underpriced. Therefore, this study is essential to examine the relationship between fundamental information/ underwriters and the amount of money left on the Indonesian IPO table. We test our non-financial institutional IPO using the cross-sectional regression model. We find that firms with experienced underwriters and good governance are more likely to leave lower money on the Indonesia IPO table.
    Keywords: Initial Public Offering; Underwriter; Governance; Underpricing.

  • Are Robo Advisors robbing Financial Advisors? A Systematic Literature Review Paper   Order a copy of this article
    by Arti Chandani, Ankita Bhatia 
    Abstract: Financial technology (FinTech) has been playing a crucial role presently in the area of behavioural finance. Robo advisory is being adapted on a larger scale by investor(s) to supplement the financial advisory services. This paper is intended to study the emerging role of robo advisory services in investment decision making and wealth management practices. The objective of this paper is to provide available literature on robo advisory services. A systematic literature review (SLR) technique has been adopted as the methodology for the current research. An effective review is necessary to lay a strong foundation for advancing knowledge (Webster and Watson, 2002). This review is limited to the keywords used which are related to the topic, the journals included and time period of papers published. The study included robo-advisory in the context of investment decisions and behavioural finance, along with artificial intelligence (AI), FinTech and regulation of robo-advisory. This work will help researchers in understanding the digital investment advice landscape with special focus on robo advisory services in the Indian context thereby enabling then recognising a right direction for future work.
    Keywords: robo-advisory; artificial intelligence; behavioural finance; systematic literature review; SLR; financial technology; FinTech; wealth management; digital investment advice.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10049939
  • Comparative Analysis of Macro-performance of Indian States: Meaningful Lessons   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashwani Bishnoi, Satbir Singh 
    Abstract: Indian economy has shifted to higher growth trajectory since the beginning of 21st century, largely credited to the economic reforms of 1990s and followed by second generation reforms of public finances. The country has practiced the federal system of governance, wherein state or province governments are empowered to manage the economic system. In the due process, majority of Indian states have experienced relatively market-enabling economic environment. This phenomenon motivates the researchers to investigate that how Indian states have performed on macro-economic front in this new changed environment. Present study uses the Wroclaw Taxonomic Method to make the comparative assessment of economic activities at regional level in India so as to draw the meaningful lessons for the poor performing regions. It is found that the states namely Gujarat, Goa and Maharashtra are classified as resilient states. Over the period of time Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh had shown more catch-up effect as compared to other states. The low ranked states include WB, Bihar, Kerala and Punjab. Based on the findings and from the experiences of other states, it can be argued that there is enough space for Haryana, Punjab and WB to align the fiscal resources towards capital expenditure especially for innovation and technology up gradation as these states are already well equipped with infra facilities.
    Keywords: India; states or regions; economic performance; fiscal; Wroclaw Taxonomic.

  • Arab identity crisis and consumer ethnocentric tendencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeb Al Ganideh, Saad Yassen 
    Abstract: This study examines the extent to which possible identity facets, namely, patriotic feelings, ethnic identification, and religious commitment affect consumers ethnocentric tendencies towards home country, co-ethnic countries, countries share the same predominant religion with their home country. Using Jordanians as proxy for Arab Muslim consumers, data were collected from 312 subjects living in three main Jordanian cities. Structural equation modeling was used to test our model and hypotheses. Our results reveal that patriotic feelings and ethnic identification motivate Jordanian consumers to express strong ethnocentric tendencies towards home country (Jordan) and co-ethnic (Arab) countries respectively. In addition, Islamic religious commitment was found to impact significantly on individuals ethnocentric tendencies towards Muslim countries. Our results confirm the recent rise of ethnic and religious identities for Arabs as a result of the Arab Spring events. Further, the study presents practical implications of these findings for international marketers.
    Keywords: Consumer ethnocentrism; ethnicity; religiously; patriotism; identity facets; Arabs; Muslims.

    by Preethi Sarah, Karthigai Prakasam Chellaswamy 
    Abstract: Social exclusion has impeded transgender individuals to enter mainstream society and curbing them to start a business venture. Sporadic transgender individuals have paved their way to start the business venture. This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial challenges faced by transgender entrepreneurs. Twenty transgender entrepreneurs who have relinquished begging and commercial sex work were interviewed. The grounded theory analysis has revealed six significant categories: financial resources, competitors, human resources, marketing issues, natural calamities, and transphobia. The participants expressed that transphobia and financial resources were highly challenging to start a business venture. These findings extend our understanding of their challenges beyond the current knowledge of cisgender entrepreneurs. Finally, the limitation of the study is enunciated.
    Keywords: Transgender; Transgender Entrepreneurs; Challenges; Entrepreneurship; India.

  • Assessment of Barriers for Small Scale Contractors in Adopting Sustainable Construction Practices: The Perspective of Indian Construction Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Kolte, Deepak Patil, Avinash Pawar, Anushree Patil 
    Abstract: This paper assesses the barriers faced by small contractors in India from the building sector while adopting sustainable construction strategies and proposing suitable solutions. Small contractors face numerous barriers in the segments of financial, political, management, operational, human resource, and material and equipment. Additionally, high initial investment cost for acquiring advanced technologies and equipment, the long payback period for the investments done for sustainable construction, lack of forceful implementation of sustainable building codes and regulations, uncertainty of getting continuous business in sustainable construction, lack of framework for implementation is endorsed by the respondents as the topmost barriers. The outcome proposes the key solutions that include higher subsidies on sustainable technologies and materials along with the mandatory implementation of sustainable building codes and regulations by the government, use of integrated project delivery for effective collaboration, conducting site training to adopt modernised methods of sustainability, and government support for new start-ups.
    Keywords: sustainable construction; small construction contractors; barriers; small business; Indian construction industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10039856
  • Impact of Information Technology Adoption and Internal Financing Sources on Firm Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Harvinder Mand, Gaganpreet Kaur 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Indian economy very hard and negatively impacted the firm performance. This study investigated the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. We employed a survey research design (a non-experimental research design). The owners of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) were surveyed to test the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. Empirical analysis shows that IT adoption and internal financing sources enhance MSMEs performance in India. Information technology adoption and internal financing sources increase the chances of MSMEs' performance enhancement by 26.24% and 64.05%, respectively. This study may help scholars develop further studies on the impact of IT adoption and internal financing sources on firm performance. MSME owners may also find the study's results helpful to enhance their firm performance to survive and prosper in the future.
    Keywords: IT adoption; internal financing sources; firm performance; MSMEs; India.

  • Challenges and factors affecting purchase intention in emerging market of Afghanistan: a global perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Hakimeh Sajjadi, Mohsen Alvandi, Mahyar Shahpouri Arani 
    Abstract: Various factors affect the formation of peoples purchase intention, yet no research has been found on reviewing consumer behaviour and factors affecting the purchase intention in Afghanistan by the researchers. Due to the increasing amount of importing goods and changing customers behaviour in Afghanistan, predicting and explaining consumer attitudes and behavioural intentions to buy foreign versus domestic products plays a critical role in designing marketing strategies for this emerging market. This research aimed to study the factors affecting the purchase intention of Iranian goods by customers in Herat, Afghanistan, and the conceptual framework of this paper could be a basis for future research in this field. It has also been attempted to simultaneously consider several variables affecting the purchase intention and examine a comprehensive conceptual model. The present study was a survey type, and a questionnaire was used to collect the research data. The research hypotheses were tested using path analysis methods, ANOVA, single-sample T and simple and multivariate regression. This research can be considered as the first researches related to consumer behaviour in Afghanistan.
    Keywords: purchase intention; consumer attitude; subjective norms; perceived behavioural control; demographic factors; global businesses; Afghanistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10057860
  • Augmenting the Taguchi Loss Function with AHP to perform Economic Evaluation of Reducing Variations in Processes and Products   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Zainal 
    Abstract: This study combines the Taguchi Loss Function (TLF) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to develop an asymmetric function to measure the loss associated with deviations from a target level for a particular quality characteristic (QC). To this end, initially, the domain of the permissible values for a QC is divided into two significant intervalsnamely, the customer- and manufacturer tolerances. AHP is then applied for obtaining weights for (1) the quality characteristics and (2) various intervals within the two tolerance domains. An analysis of the cost savings accrued from the process improvement, using the proposed AHP-based asymmetric loss function, is presented to help decision-makers evaluate the viability and economic feasibility of improving a process. An illustrative example demonstrates the application of the suggested methodology and its ease of use and extent of applicability
    Keywords: Taguchi Loss Function (TLF); Asymmetric Loss Function; Quality Characteristics; weighted loss function; Economic Analysis.

  • Volatility of Oil price and Exchange rate in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Banerji, Mohammed Shettima 
    Abstract: The most demanding sector in today's era is the energy sector. India is now the third highest consumer of crude oil in the world, after USA and China, with 4.6% share of world total according to worldometer. For the same reason, adversely, India is importing majority of its oil obligation, and when there is increase in the oil prices; Indian Economy suffers from the relentless. And as crude oil pricing globally is said to be done in USD, the fluctuations in the oil price however has a direct impact on the exchange rate of those countries involved. This paper seeks to carry out a study on the volatility of oil price and the real exchange rate and its effects on Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar. Generally, it is a point of fact that a rise in the oil price influences the exchange rate to appreciate in countries that export the oil products and as well depreciate in oil-importing countries. The study will make use of the Garch Analyis Model to analyse and also predict the volatility of the two variables as our expectation will be that there is an asymmetrical relationship between oil price and exchange rate, especially during the study of time series data. Findings in the study however gave a general conclusion that there is no much difference with the conclusion stated by the literature on the relationship between exchange rate and price of oil in India. Recommendations are made to the Indian government to provide effective energy security source by establishing strategic crude oil storage facilities so as to reduce importation of crude oil which directly affects the foreign exchange rate and also some measures on how to strengthen the local currency (rupee).
    Keywords: energy; exchange rate; garch analysis; India; Oil price; volatility.

  • Perceived gender discrimination and work engagement: An insight from IT sector in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Hung Pham Manh, Vy Nguyen Khanh 
    Abstract: The presence of discrimination has become more pressing than ever along with the civilisation of the work, especially in work context. This study is designed to study the relationship between perceived gender discrimination in the workplace (in three dimensions: Workload and Participation; Resource access and Personal communication) and work engagement in technology companies in Vietnam. Besides, the study also examined the moderating role of gender in the above relationships. Results indicate that there exist negative relationships between perceived gender discrimination behaviours and work engagement in two aspects: Workload & Participation and Resource access, and no meaningful relationship between gender discrimination behaviours in Personal communication and the employees work engagement. Second, data also shows that these relationships can be moderated by gender, where the relationship becomes weaker for men than for women.
    Keywords: gender discrimination; perceived discrimination; technology companies; work engagement; Vietnam.

  • Exploring E-commerce potential in Rural India: Opportunities in Northern India   Order a copy of this article
    by Hemanti Richa, Alpana Srivastava, Madhu Pandey 
    Abstract: E-commerce facilitated online shopping is well established and populated in urban areas facilitating the buyers with lower price and delivery at their convenience. However, the type and nature of demand in rural areas is different. The supply chain is less developed along with product portfolio. Using primary data from rural areas, the study aims to gauze the penetration of online shopping in rural areas and their specific considerations and barriers to it. Applying basic descriptive statistics, the findings reveal that there is serious problem in logistics and rural people desire more agricultural products than fashion and entertainment. It has been recommended, if seeds, fertilisers and equipment are sold to the rural people, there would be a huge market to tap which is untapped till now.
    Keywords: e-commerce; electronic commerce; rural e-commerce; agriculture; online shopping; rural supply chain; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10044591
  • Cognitive biases in innovation ecosystems: global luxury fashion on the eve of post COVID-19 recovery   Order a copy of this article
    by Manel Arribas-Ibar, Nuria Arimany-Serrat, Petra A. Nylund 
    Abstract: Luxury fashion is an innovation ecosystem experiencing great change, and the COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated some of these dynamics. With roots in a traditional industry, certain cognitive barriers impede interaction within the luxury fashion ecosystem. We therefore analyse the factors that drive innovation and technological change through an inductive case study of this specific ecosystem. We identify and analyse six biases within the luxury fashion ecosystem that are affecting the cognitive barriers of the ecosystem. Consequentially, we propose that consumer bias impedes a transition from the traditional luxury customer to a more differentiated consumer. Market-segmentation bias can hinder necessary micro-segmentation to reflect new needs. Product bias obscures possible product innovation due to excessive brand focus. Sourcing bias toward traditional partners slows the move towards sustainability. Second-hand market bias stops fashion brands from fully exploiting circular business models. Finally, ambidexterity bias may block the exploration of new markets necessary following a crisis. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including the need to develop more adaptive and flexible strategies through open innovation that adapts to the phases of recovery from the pandemic.
    Keywords: innovation; innovation ecosystem; product development; cognitive bias; luxury fashion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10045435
    by Megha Sharma, Prachi Sahai, Vinod Singh, Naman Sharma 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of social media food & fashion influencers on brand credibility and consumer behavioural intention while analysing the moderation effect of e-wom on social media influencers credibility (SMIC) and brand credibility (BC). To accomplish this objective, the authors collected data from 208 respondents residing in India and data was analysed using EFA, CFA & SEM. Further, this study exemplified a favourable impact on the brand credibility of social media food and fashion influencers and further on consumer behavioural intention. Moreover, e-wom failed to have a moderating relationship between SMIC & BC. Further, conclusions and implications have been discussed.
    Keywords: Social media influencers; Credibility; Brand credibility; e-wom; Consumer Behavioural Intention.

  • Favourableness of Reverse Mentoring across Generation X, Y and Z in the Automobile Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Mlalhotra 
    Abstract: Purpose In the present era the work place has been profusely changed. Multigenerational workforce has been working together with their diverse working styles. Therefore, technological and operational efficiency, high coordination and social engagement become necessity for all generations employees. This has also necessitated the need of reverse mentoring. Reverse mentoring is the knowledge sharing platform where multi-generational workforce can learn from one anothers expertise. Organisations are using it as a social exchange tool. The purpose of the study was to explore whether all the generations of present business scenario (Generations X, Y and Z) are favourable towards reverse mentoring practices of organisation. Design/Methodology A survey of 236 white collar employees from the automobile industry in North central region of India was conducted. Findings The present study concludes that all the three generations (Generations X, Y and Z) show pragmatic response towards reverse mentoring. In fact, the research done till date also suggests that organisations should implement reverse mentoring programs following proper planning and execution methods. Empirical Significance the study is significant for the automotive industry to design reverse mentoring programs through which organisations can provide opportunity Mentee and mentor can learn from each other on aspects such as technical know-how, content expertise and generational perspectives. Originality/ Value the main finding of the study is that three generations are getting benefits from reverse mentoring as they like to share their knowledge and experience among one another. Thus by implementing reverse mentoring, the organisations persuade all the employees irrespective of their generational group to share goals, be supportive and have mutual understanding with one another and together get strength to cope up with any uncertainty.
    Keywords: Generation X; Generation Y; Generation Z; Reverse Mentoring; Automobile Industry.

  • Ethical Leadership and Organisational Commitment: Some Insights from Kuwait   Order a copy of this article
    by Dina Youssef, Halil Zaim, Shqipe Gerguri-Rashiti, Mohaned Hassanin 
    Abstract: Leadership is one of the essential indicators that determine the organisational commitment of employees. This paper aims at examining the impact of ethical leadership on organisational commitment in the Kuwaiti organisations. A conceptual model of ethical leadership and its impact on organisational commitment is proposed. It is hypothesised that wisdom, justice, and temperance as indicators of ethical leadership are positively associated with organisational commitment. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to employees and managers working in different organisations in the service sector in Kuwait. 255 useful questionnaires were analysed. Results show that there is a significant positive relationship between the three dimensions of ethical leadership (i.e., wisdom, justice, and temperance) and organisational commitment. Hence, ethical leadership should be applied and practiced by leaders in Kuwaiti organisations to foster the organisational commitment, thus improving its performance. Based on the paper findings, the implications of the study are presented.
    Keywords: Ethical leadership; Organisational commitment; Wisdom; Justice; Temperance; Service sector; Kuwait.

  • Business Naming Practice in the Provincial Town of Jengka: The Foreign Language Influence   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This study examined the foreign language elements in business naming practice in the provincial town of Jengka in Malaysia. It looked into the foreign languages found in the shop names and the factors that influenced the inclusion of the languages. Data were collected by capturing still images of the shop signs from the research area and interviews with owners who were willing to disclose the motivation behind their choice in the business naming. The analysis shows that foreign languages had exerted their influence in the business naming practice in this Malay-dominated, remote town. English language elements were pervasively found in the shop signs. Other elements included those of French, Arabic, Chinese, and Spanish. The findings exhibit the language trends and the language situation in this town and indicate how the owners dealt with the commercial drive to attract customers by prioritising certain languages and the increasing multilingualism in the society.
    Keywords: business naming; shop names; foreign languages; Jengka.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10049991
  • A machine learning decision tree model to predict consumer purchase behaviour: A microeconomics view from online social platforms in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Pejman Ebrahimi, Mohammad Naeim Hassani, Aidin Salamzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Khansari, Maria Fekete-Farkas 
    Abstract: This study proposes a map to predict consumer purchase behaviour using a decision tree algorithm using machine learning. Python programming language (Jupyter and visual studio code IDEs) is used accordingly. The study's statistical population involved Iranian online social platform users who made at least one online purchasing. Instagram, Facebook, Telegram, YouTube, and WhatsApp platforms were used for data gathering. According to the map results presented based on data of demographic variables of 376 respondents, Instagram is the most popular platform in Iran with a high difference in terms of advertising and online shopping. It has more popularity in almost all age and education groups; however, other platforms also have their users according to their demographic attributes. The proposed model is also practically capable of prediction with an accuracy of > 96%. This research contributes to the extant literature by using machine learning and its practical libraries to predict consumer behaviour.
    Keywords: Media brand; Co-creation; Value proposition; Customer loyalty; Social media.

  • A Genetic Programming Based Credit Risk Assessment Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashutosh Vashishtha, Shivankit Andotra, Amit Kant Pandit, Shubham Mahajan 
    Abstract: The acute necessity for evolving an effective and accurate credit default prediction model was felt post Global Financial Crisis of 2008. Financial institutions significantly revised and reformulated their risk management practices and gradually shifted towards machine learning-based credit risk management approach. Numerous machine learning-based models like logistic regression, artificial neural networks, decision trees, etc. are being employed by financial institutions for predicting the probability of default by the borrowers. In this paper, we introduce a genetic program (GP)-based model for predicting the probability of default and compare this model with other existing models in the domain of credit default and risk assessment. We used two different evaluation metrics for performance analysis: accuracy and negative log predictive density (NLPD) loss. Our results indicate that the proposed GP-based model has higher accuracy of prediction of credit default as compared to other risk assessment models.
    Keywords: credit risk management; machine learning; artificial neural network; decision tree; credit risk GP-based model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10055248
  • Is Psychological Capital the Silver Bullet of Business Firms in Globalised World? Examining the Impact of Meaningful Work on Affective Commitment: Mediating Role of Psychological Capital   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Dhir, Vandna Sharma 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to understand the mediating role of psychological capital in the association between meaningful work and affective commitment. The purpose is achieved by collecting the data from 224 employees from Information Technology sector. The sample employees are from five IT organisations in Delhi-NCR. The results support our hypotheses and it was found that structural analysis presented a full mediation, with psychological capital as a mediator between meaningful work (independent variable) and affective commitment (outcome variable). Moreover, the findings also suggest that organisations should understand the role of meaningful work in creating affective commitment and must encourage positive psychology practices that facilitate the same. The uniqueness of this paper lies in the fact that meaningful work was found as an antecedent to psychological capital, a much- emphasised domain in psychological capital research.
    Keywords: Psychological Capital; Meaningful Work; Affective Commitment; SEM; Mediation; IT employees.

  • The impact of the human capital of women on the economic development of Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Verena Habrich, Vito Bobek, Gorazd Justinek, Tatjana Horvat 
    Abstract: Women have long been a new source of talent. They are an untapped resource with an enormous labor market and economic potential. In most emerging markets, female labor force participation (FLFP) is lower than in developed countries. The act of fostering female human capital is one of the highest-return investments a developing economy can generate. Thus, the paper aims to determine the main obstacles for women in the job market and identify the impact of female participation on national development. This was executed by conducting a case study analysis for Malaysias emerging market. The authors applied a data triangulation approach and chose a mixture of three data sources: documents, archival records, and interviews. Malaysia holds an unfavorable rank in the Global Gender Gap Index. The findings demonstrate that the rate of women in the workforce is increasing but still severely lower than the men's rate. In Malaysia, the high number of women in tertiary education does not translate into higher female workforce participation. The main issues are cultural stereotypes, limited access to the job market, and difficulties with combining work and childcare. The main implications are that increasing female human capital and raising women's participation in the workforce leads to a rise in economic growth and overall development in Malaysia. To achieve that, the country must overcome gender inequalities, properly enforce female-related regulations, and invest in human development. This points out the relevance of a country's level of development, culture, education, female-related laws, and their influence on women's decisions or ability to work.
    Keywords: female labor force participation; women's workforce participation; impact on economic growth; economic development; human development; human capital; gender gap; gender equality.

  • Variables affecting the internationalisation of small and medium-size companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramon Ortiz 
    Abstract: Within the context of global integration and intense increase in international transactions, more small and medium-sized companies are trying to enter foreign markets. In this scenario, the aim of this study is to identify variables that affect the internationalisation of small and medium-sized companies through a literature review and meta-analysis with content analysis. Results of the study propose two dimensions of variables affecting the internationalisation of small and medium-sized companies, namely: the Intra dimension and the Extra dimension, each of which comprise two sub-dimensions: Capabilities and Performance for the former, and Environment out and Environment in for the latter.
    Keywords: business internationalisation; small and medium-size companies; variables affecting internationalisation.

  • Enhancing efficiency of real estate brokerage activities in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Tien Nguyen Hoang, Duc Le Doan Minh, Hieu Vu Minh 
    Abstract: Real estate brokerage is one of the important economic activities, contributing to the stabilisation and sustainable development of the real estate market and the whole real estate-oriented economy of Vietnam. This article seeks to find out solutions to improve the efficiency of this brokerage business in the current context of Vietnam with real estate industry regarded as the main pillar of the economy being developed rapidly with many wide opened opportunities together with lots of uncertainties and low market transparency. The article has identified factors affecting the efficiency of real estate brokerage activities considered as a part of the real estate business activities, emphasising the need to enhance professionalism of these activities so that the real estate business can achieve profits and operational efficiency higher than at the current situation.
    Keywords: real estate market; brokerage; Vietnam.

  • Factors affecting the selling price of luxury apartments in Vietnam. A quantitative analysis.   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Tien Nguyen Hoang, Duc Le Doan Minh, Hieu Vu Minh 
    Abstract: The article analyses factors affecting the selling price of high-end apartments in Vietnam. The foreign and domestic literature review shows that the theoretical framework indicates four main factors impacting selling price in the real estate market: physical features, location and position, surrounding environment, and quality of management and maintenance services. Empirical research conducted in this paper pointed to the need to consider two additional factors: characteristics of the customer segment and characteristics of the real estate investor. The results of analysis led to a conclusion that all the six above mentioned factors have a different but positive relationship with the selling price of a high-end apartment. Finally, the article proposed some suggestions for managers on how to optimise the selling price to gain maximal profit in this very lucrative segment of the market.
    Keywords: high-end apartment; property market; real estate valuation; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10056377
  • The effect of COVID-19 induced work stressors on life satisfaction of university teachers in India: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Pardeep Bawa Sharma, Gagandeep Kaur, Rasna Pathak 
    Abstract: This paper explores the effect of COVID19-induced work stressors on life satisfaction. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the results. The results show that a) Covid19-induced stressors, namely role overload and psychological distress, negatively relate to life satisfaction, whereas family distractions do not. b) The indirect effect of all Covid-19 induced stressors on life satisfaction is significant, and gender moderates the relationship between job performance and life satisfaction. Human resource practitioners must not see work-from-home as another tool to manage a situation. There is a need to relook at work-from-home from the perspective of facilitating employees to manage work without affecting their homes to improve their life satisfaction. The issue should be openly discussed with employees on board to explore how the adverse effect of stressors on employees' life satisfaction in work-from-home situations can be minimized.
    Keywords: Role overload; psychological distress; family distractions; job performance; life satisfaction; work-life balance; occupational stress; work-life domains.

  • The role of triangulated narratives of sport, music and film festival in building Kosovos Nation Branding   Order a copy of this article
    by Emira Limani, Blerim Limani 
    Abstract: The aim of the present study is to illustrate the role of music, sports and film festival in building countrys nation branding. Sunny Hill festival founded and supported by Dua Lipa and Dukagjin Lipa together with Doku Fest a 20 plus years annual film festival, and tremendous successes in the sport of Judo started with golden medallist Marlinda Kelmendi are considered to be main sources of promoting Kosovo to the foreign public. Interviews are conducted and content analyses is applied to identify main themes deriving from the stakeholder narratives. A Nation Branding model is offered for practitioners and public institutions in order to design nation branding strategies and measure their results.
    Keywords: nation branding; Kosovo; music; film; sport.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10051060
  • Factors affecting Green Purchase Intention, Case of Lebanon   Order a copy of this article
    by Yahya Skaf, Sam El Nemar, Demetris Vrontis, Hassan Dennaoui 
    Abstract: Building effective strategies to promote green purchase intention GPI as required by the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the UN for 2030 depends on understanding the factors influencing this behaviour. The objective of this research work is to identify how nine factors as concluded from literature influence the green purchase intention through a structural equation model. To do this, a survey is constructed to measure the GPI and the nine factors and distributed to 400 respondents in Lebanon. The data analysis was executed using the PLS-PM method from SmartPLS3 software. The results revealed that the environmental awareness, environmental concern, knowledge about green consumption, perceived effectiveness, altruism, selfimage, and the level of religious commitment have significant positive impact on the green purchase intention. In contrast, the results showed that increased believes in government role have significant negative impact on green purchase intention. On the other hand, the social references have no significant influence on green purchase intention. This study is important as it add evidences to this topics literature in developing countries such as Lebanon and is beneficial for firms marketing themselves as socially responsible to develop their marketing strategies
    Keywords: personal factors; consumer; green purchase intention; GPI; green products; corporate social responsibility; CSR; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10053007
  • Analysis of factors affecting job satisfaction of manual workers: A case study from a garment factory in northern Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Hanh Vu Thi, Huong Pham Thu, Lan Anh Nguyen Thi, Tra Ly Thu 
    Abstract: Numerical studies have been performed to investigate determinants of employees' job satisfaction in recent years. However, little is known about how blue-collar workers are satisfied with their job. Because manual workers are primary stakeholders who contribute to the success of a company, comprehending employee interest may help answer the question about the high or low levels of employee engagement in the workplace. Using a classical formal measurement of explanatory factor analysis (EFA), this study contributes to the literature by addressing the factors affecting the job satisfaction of manual workers at a garment manufacturing company in a developing country like Vietnam. The research result shows that superior-subordinate work relationships, benefits, and occupational safety encourage the job satisfaction of manual workers. However, work conditions are not as significant to keep them satisfied as other factors. The insignificance of compensation in this research could be explained by the low educational levels. More importantly, the study indicates that superiors should use their power constructively when interacting with workers and offer a benefits package, which includes reward, recognition, travel expense support and paid time-off to drive employee loyalty.
    Keywords: job satisfaction; garment factory; exploratory factor analysis; Vietnam.

  • The relevance of factors affecting real estate investment decisions for post pandemic time   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Duc Le Doan Minh, Tien Nguyen Hoang, Hieu Vu Minh 
    Abstract: Real estate is always one of the most important markets and investment channels of many ordinary people and organisations. In recent years, when the pandemic affected negatively all the aspects of socio-economic life, paradoxically Vietnams real estate market was still growing. Why do people and organisations decide to invest in real estate assets during the pandemic, what factors have influenced their investment decisions are very critical questions needed to be addressed to understand the economy and some of its specific sectors. The article used a mix of qualitative and quantitive methods to answer these questions. Specifically, the research results show that the main factors include: institutions and laws, economic factors, cultural and community, other markets, and investment opportunity. Finally, the authors propose reasonable policies to make the real estate market develop sustainably in the future, questioning at the same time the relevance of those factors also for the post pandemic time.
    Keywords: investment decision; personal investment; real estate; pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10056378
  • Impact of Business Incubation Support on Startups Performance in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjali Dubey, Archana Shrivastava 
    Abstract: Startups, like other businesses, had a greater failure rate owing to a reputation, networks, lack of resources, credibility, inventiveness, or marketing expertise needed to produce and sell goods. As a result, the study focuses on quantifying the influence of business incubation on startup performance and determining if business incubation is advantageous to startup performance. We made use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), and a conceptual model had been proposed that focus on the impact of the incubation support on startup performance. The findings revealed that the significance and success of business incubation programmes influence a startup's motivation to participate in them. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the quality of the business incubator's services and facilities to promote startup participation in business incubator programmes. This study, similar to other research on company incubation, can be utilised to confirm the beneficial effects of incubation programmes on startup performance.
    Keywords: Business Incubation Support; Startup Performance; Structural Equation Modelling (SEM).

  • Determinants of Online Consumer Buying Behaviour: An Empirical Study on Apparel Retail   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Katiyar, Abhinav P. Tripathi 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the customer attitude towards apparel segment available online. A questionnaire is framed on the basis of extensive literature review & through which 654 valid responses were received from the online survey. The objective of the study has been fulfilled with the help of internal consistency reliability analysis, validity analysis (Cronbach Alpha and CFA) of the factors identified. Based on the data collected through the primary survey, it has been identified that overall convenience, price attribute, website quality, product brand image and perceived risk are the major determinants of customer online purchase intention. The study has many implications for online retailers, strategists, internet marketers and online shoppers in India. The majority of the shoppers in India seek offers and discounts instead of brand or high quality. The study reveals that online retailers may target the appropriate socio-economic background for the success.
    Keywords: Online purchase intention; buying behaviour; SEM modeling.

  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Organisational Performance in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Khuong Mai, Khoa Truong An Nguyen 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate how corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices can affect employee commitment and the financial performance of firms in Vietnam-a developing country, and to build a conceptual framework for these factors to achieve theoretical and practical contributions. The framework is tested by conducting data analysis of 869 firms in different sectors in Vietnam. The empirical results show that CSR practices have positive and direct effects on employee commitment and financial performance. In addition, employee commitment directly affects financial performance, confirming the mediating role of employee commitment on the relationship between CSR practices and financial performance. It is suggested that for the sustainable development of firms, managers should deploy more CSR practices, especially in developing countries where corporate social responsibility practices are not sufficiently or widely fulfilled
    Keywords: CSR; employee commitment; financial performance; CSR practices in Vietnam; developing countries; public sector; private sector; foreign direct investment.

  • The Role of Incubators and Business Accelerators in India: An Entrepreneurial Viewpoint   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjali Dubey, Archana Srivastava 
    Abstract: This paper aims to put forward the Indian entrepreneurs perspective on business incubators and accelerators. The paper attempts to understand how respondents perceive both incubators and accelerators. A closed-ended survey method was deployed to reach 83 entrepreneurs and Indian students who are studying entrepreneurial courses. The findings of the survey revealed that many Indian entrepreneurs are not satisfied with the governments provision of not aiding the entrepreneurs and only focusing on low socio-economic backgrounds. The analysis revealed that the development of an entrepreneurial ecosystem is of primal importance to fostering BIA (Business Incubation and Accelerators) schemes. Further, it was found that Indian entrepreneurs are in favour of using BIAs for fostering entrepreneurial growth and development. The entrepreneurs value this program because it not only provides with necessary knowledge but also fosters the idea of networking opportunities, capital support, and a varied range of training programs.
    Keywords: Incubator; Accelerator; Entrepreneurial ecosystem; capital support; networking.

  • Is Ostracism Impeding Spiritual Leaders' Efforts to Innovate and Engage?   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Chaudhary, Patiraj Kumari 
    Abstract: This study looks into both the direct and indirect links between spiritual leadership (SL) and innovative work behaviour (IWB), as well as the mediating role of work engagement (WE). Furthermore, the role of work engagement and workplace ostracism (WO) as mediating moderators is being studied. Hypotheses are tested using data from 214 hotel employees. SL was found to be positively connected with IWB via WE. Furthermore, when WO was high, the positive relationship between SL and IWB weakened. In addition, the indirect impact of WE were reduced. Two theoretical approaches are presented in this study. The conservation of resources theory investigates how WO jeopardises a positive relationship between two critical organisational resources (SL and IWB). Using social exchange theory, the reciprocal relationship between SL and WE are also investigated. The conclusions of this study suggest that leaders take steps to eliminate WO, improve SL, and promote ties with employees.
    Keywords: Spiritual leadership (SL); Innovative work behaviour (IWB); Work engagement (WE); Workplace ostracism (WO); Conservation of resource theory (COR); Social exchange theory (SET).

  • Solutions for Development of High Quality Human Resource in Binh Duong Industrial Province of Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Le Doan Minh Duc 
    Abstract: The article is based on the practical experience of the group of authors doing research to find out solutions to develop high-quality human resources in industrialised provinces in Vietnam, typically the southern province of Binh Duong. Concretely, the article gives an overview discussion of the related issues: human resource development, high quality human resources. Secondly, the article systemises and consolidates the theoretical basis for the development of high quality human resources. Thirdly, the article comprehensively evaluates the current situation of developing high quality human resources of Binh Duong Province on two basic contents: the development in terms of quantity and quality and the shift in structure of high quality human resources; current status of human resources development. Following a strict seven-step research procedure, the study draws achieved results, limitations and their causes in the development of high-quality human resources in Binh Duong Province. Finally, based on the obtained research results and discussion, the article proposes principal directions and solutions to promote the development of high quality human resources of Binh Duong Province up to 2025.
    Keywords: high quality human resource; human resource development; industrial provinces; Industrial Revolution 4.0; IR4.0; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10056380
  • Antecedents and Consequences of Millennial Engagement: Evidence from IT Business Professionals   Order a copy of this article
    by Muskan Khan, Rajni , Pragati Hemrajani, Neha Naagar 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the antecedents, viz., meaningful work, prosocial motivation and work-life balance and the consequences, viz., organisational commitment and career commitment while keeping the millennial engagement as the intervening variable. The study intends to test the hypotheses using data from 202 employees working in the IT companies located in Delhi/NCR through a structured questionnaire using PLS-SEM. The findings from the survey of members of the IT Millennial Generation indicated that millennial engagement intervenes the relationship between meaningful work and organisational commitment and between meaningful work and career commitment. This exploratory research also highlights the significance of undertaking an enquiry on millennials in information technology organisations and, more broadly, on all the components that led them to inevitably take a job. Since the findings are based on limited millennial employees responses, there is no universal claim for generalisation.
    Keywords: millennial-gen Y; meaningful work; pro-social motivation; PSM; work-life balance; WLB; organisational commitment; career commitment; millennial engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10053315
  • Is there a relation between Corruption and Ease of Doing Business?   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramroop Sharma 
    Abstract: Corruption is a global phenomenon. It is worth investigating whether corruption (Corruption Perception Index: CPI) and ease of doing business (EODB) are correlated and their causality. Results show a high degree of correlation between CPI and EODB ranks and scores considering the database of CPI (Transparency International) and the EODB (World Bank) for 180 countries for the year 2019. Findings imply that a decrease in corruption improves the EODB and there is unidirectional causality between CPI and EODB ranks. The paper contributes to corruption and EODB literature by examining the correlation and causality between CPI and the EODB, a subject not recently examined. The economies must devise suitable policies to abate corruption and promote EODB for business competitiveness and sustainability, to promote investments for skills, start-ups, and innovations, and to support the extant business environment as well as to protect the interests of stakeholders, particularly in emerging nations.
    Keywords: Corruption Perception Index; CPI; ease of doing business; EODB; investments; emerging nations; Granger causality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10056220
  • Factors affecting the willingness to pay for management services of apartments in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Tien Nguyen Hoang, Hieu Vu Minh, Duc Le Doan Minh 
    Abstract: This article examines the impact of factors such as service quality, trust in service providers, and perceived fairness of prices on the willingness to pay for apartment management and operation services of households in Vietnam. A quantitative analysis was applied based on a survey on 400 customers (350 votes collected and 327 votes valid). Research results show that the service quality and trust in service providers are factors that have a positive impact on the residents willingness to pay. The research results serve as a foundation for further policy discussions on how to optimise the service charges and uplift the relevant service quality of different types of apartment in Vietnam.
    Keywords: apartment; property market; management services; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10056382
  • COVID-19 and Human Resource Management Research: Current Status and Future Directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Nasser Easa, Micheal Wang, Rayan Abdul-Al 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly created a complex and difficult environment for leaders and human resource management (HRM) professionals in coping with these unprecedented challenges. In this context, there are very few studies on the impact of COVID-19 on HRM. Therefore, this paper aims to review the existing literature on this topic to expand the current knowledge, detect research gaps and offer a foundation for future research in this area. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) technique was followed for this review. Different academic databases were searched, e.g. Wiley, Emerald Insight, Taylor & Francis, SpringerLink, Cambridge Core, and ScienceDirect. A total of 43 articles published in 2020 and 2021 were reviewed. Findings show that Research on COVID-19 and HRM was linked to five major themes: leadership, employee performance, employee mental health, employee well-being, and job insecurity. Scholars gave high concern to leadership, a moderate concern to employee performance and mental health, and a low concern to employee well-being and Job insecurity. The paper provides directions for future research.
    Keywords: COVID-19; human resource management; leadership; systematic review & meta-analysis.

  • Internal Migration in Haryana during the Age of COVID-19 Pandemic: Understanding the Root Causes, Impacts, and Policy Consequences   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurwinder Singh Badal, Rudhita Goel 
    Abstract: While the process of migration is one of the paramount factors which determine the socio-economic and demographic structure of every nation, at the same time internal movement of migrants, interestingly, is responsible for changing the internal pattern of the population within the country. This paper attempts to comprehend the general statistics of internal migration in the Indian state of Haryana during the phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and to find out how the outbreak has affected the states socio-economic and demographic structure. Apart from this, various reasons/factors responsible for this migration flow during this particular phase have been identified through a primary survey conducted post-lock-down period (JanuaryJuly 2022). Additionally, disproportionate impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak have been identified using a Hennery Garrett ranking technique. At last, a different public policy has been proposed to address the socio-economic issue brought on by COVID-19 medical exigency.
    Keywords: internal migration; COVID-19 pandemic; impacts; reasons; determinants; economic development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10055252
  • How far are Board Characteristics Liable for Enforcement of Corporate Governance? A Study of Indian Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Amita Rani, Monita Mago, Sandeep Singh 
    Abstract: The present study is an attempt to examine the effect of each as well as overall board characteristics on corporate governance of the companies under study. The sample of the study comprised of 1001 observations made over the year about 91 companies listed at Bombay Stock Exchange and covered a period of eleven years ranging from 2010-20. The data was analysed by using panel regression and structural equation modeling through the application of E- Views (11.0) and Smart PLS version 3.3.3.It was found that the board characteristics such as institutional investors, non-institutional investors, non-executive chairperson, promoter chairperson, board size, woman CEO, proportion of women in the board, woman chairperson, board meetings, multiple directorships of outside director had a significant effect on two or more corporate governance measures. Further, there was a significant positive effect of overall board characteristics on corporate governance of the firms under study.
    Keywords: Profitability; Ownership Structure; Board Structure; Board Busyness; Agency Theory; Resource Allocation Theory; Financial Performance.

  • Determinants of FDI and Competitive Federalism in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Prashant Vadikar, HARDIK BHADESHIYA 
    Abstract: The state's attempts to draw FDI are critical if India is to see rapid economic growth. States are working to improve governance as a result of the competitive and collaborative federalism strategy that New India has taken to attain its goals. Panel data regression has been employed in the study to objectively evaluate the influence of socio-economic and political variables on FDI. The results demonstrate that, in the short term, the economy's digitalisation is the most critical element in luring FDI inflow for States and UTs. Only e-readiness or digitalisation has an immediate impact on FDI inflow since other resources are mobile between states and are manageable. Business ease is immediately impacted by digitalisation. The states should work to improve the digital infrastructure, digital literacy and e-governance.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); Competitive Federalism; India; States.

  • Assessment of green economic growth in the current specific socio-economic context of Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Le Thi Mai Huong, Le Thi Tuyet Thanh, Le Doan Minh Duc, Nguyen Hoang Tien 
    Abstract: The article is based on secondary data collected from government agencies over the period 20102021 to assess the green economic growth facing current specific socio-economic context of Vietnam. Results show that Vietnam has achieved significant economic growth in terms of GDP and GDP per capita. The GDP structure has been changing toward gradually increasing the contribution of service sector, reducing the contribution of the heavy industry and agricultural sector. The service sector accounts for the highest proportion in GDP structure. The levels of economic openness, labour productivity, income per capita, GINI and HDI coefficient in Vietnam have all improved significantly. However, the article also shows that the economys competitiveness, education level, labour productivity and per capita income are still the lowest compared to other countries in ASEAN. Moreover, the quality of the opening up of the economy is not specifically high, the income inequality is still far above an average.
    Keywords: green economy; green growth; Vietnam; sustainability; GDP; HDI; GINI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10053579
  • Market development strategy of renewable energy industry in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Tran Thi Ngoc Lan, Le Doan Minh Duc, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Do Huu Hai, Nguyen Van Nhung, Le Ngoc Thong 
    Abstract: This article analyses the market development strategies of renewable energy enterprises in Vietnam. Using primary and secondary research data, the article pointed out the shortcomings in the strategic stages of market development of enterprises. From there, the article proposes some solutions to complete the market development strategy to improve operational efficiency of the renewable energy business. In addition, a number of macro-level policies are also proposed to improve the general situation of the industry so that enterprises thereof can implement their own development direction in accordance with their own actual situation.
    Keywords: market development; business strategy; sustainability; renewable energy; natural resource; cleaner production; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10054289
  • Leaders' Spiritual Identity and Refugee Integration in German Family Firms: An Empirical Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Eleftheria Egel 
    Abstract: In 26 qualitative interviews with family-owned SME leaders in the region of Baden-W
    Keywords: refugees; integration; family firms; spiritual identity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10055897
  • Exploring the Mediating Effect of Person-Organisation Fit between Workplace Spirituality and Organisational Commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajni Khari, Alka Swami 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of workplace spirituality on organisational commitment by investigating the mediating effect of person-organisation fit (P-O fit). The results of the study were obtained by analysing the data collected through a questionnaire from 215 employees working in the automobile service industry using structural equation modelling. The results of the bootstrapping procedure showed no direct relationship between spirituality in the workplace and organisational commitment; however, a significant relationship between workplace spirituality and person-organisation fit was reported. Furthermore, P-O fits serve as a complete mediator between workplace spirituality and organisational commitment. Also, we are the first to examine the mediating role of perceived fit between workplace spirituality and organisational commitment, thereby shedding light on the mechanism by which workplace spirituality impacts employees commitment levels, which is unique. It is fair to conclude that spirituality may be a critical element in enhancing the commitment.
    Keywords: workplace spirituality; WPS; person-organisation fit; P-O fit; organisational commitment; structural equation modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10055005
  • Global performance of Vietnamese small enterprises due to internal and external drivers   Order a copy of this article
    by Tran Thi Ngoc Lan, Phung The Vinh, Mai Thi Thuy Trang, Le Doan Minh Duc, Nguyen Hoang Tien 
    Abstract: Throughout this study, we investigate the impact of internal (staff and processes) and external drivers (market and customer service orientation) on the global business performance of the small enterprises. The paper uses a descriptive statistical method to build a scale to conduct preliminary qualitative and in-depth quantitative research to provide empirical results and practical solutions to current issues of global business performance in small enterprises in Vietnam. The studys results also show that beside the above mentioned drivers, other variables also need to be considered in terms of directly and indirectly impact on the organisations business performance globally.
    Keywords: business performance; small enterprises; external driver; internal driver; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10055965
  • Global product purchasing intention in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Le Doan Minh Duc 
    Abstract: This study is aiming to determine the impact factors on global purchase intention in Vietnam. Exploratory factor analysis and multivariate regression are used to evaluate the mediating and moderating roles of variables in the research model. The results show that product value judgment, cosmopolitanism, social influence, and perception of behavioural control positively impact on global purchase intention in contrast to the consumer ethnocentrism; product value judgment and consumer ethnocentrism play an intermediary role between cosmopolitanism and global purchase intention; national identity does not impact consumer ethnocentrism and global purchase intention. Based on that, the study puts forward several managerial and policy implications for practical use of both public and business managers along with further suggestions and recommendations for the purpose of Vietnam’s foreign trade promotion and domestic consumption of global products.
    Keywords: cosmopolitanism; national identity; social influence; product value judgment; global product purchase intention; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10055966
  • A global trend of sustainable development of agribusiness in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Tran Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Le Doan Minh Duc, Vo Xuan Duc 
    Abstract: Global common challenges currently embrace, amongst others, natural resources depletion, environmental pollution, and negative impacts of climate changes (Dana, 1994, 1994a). For the purpose of feeding the rising world population, the efficient and environmentally friendly transformation toward sustainable agriculture is essential. Literature review, research and practical experience show that the agricultural transformation process in line with a current trend of circular economy is the right direction expected by many government policy makers and agribusiness managers. In this paper, we focus on the peculiarity of this trend for agricultural sustainable development, exposing chances and threats during the process of its implementation. From that we propose several suggestive solutions for both government policy makers and agribusiness managers in Vietnam.
    Keywords: agriculture; agribusiness; global trend; sustainable development; Mekong Delta; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10055260
  • Riding Harley Davidson through brand communities: A vehicle to deidentification and self-actualization of South Korean female riders   Order a copy of this article
    by Kyuho Lee, Byung-Jin (Robert) Park, Melih Madanoglu, Dohee Kim 
    Abstract: This study explores the gender norm implications of brand community in the Asian context. Specifically, based on the tenets of social identity theory, this study examines the underlying motivations, symbolic meanings of riding Harley Davidson and its impact among Korean females. A qualitative method consisting of in-depth interviews was employed to understand the underlying motivations of riding Harley Davidsons, the relationships among brand community members, and the nature of the brand community. Findings reveal that the Harley Davidson female brand community plays a pivotal role in the respondents choice to ride Harley Davidson. The relationships among members are much stickier and more personal compared to members of identical Western brand communities.
    Keywords: Harley Davidson; brand community; brand value; female rider; social identity.

  • The influence of global climate change on economic growth in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Do Huu Hai, Vu Quang Vinh, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Le Doan Minh Duc 
    Abstract: Vietnam is one of nations suffering the highest risk of natural disasters caused by climate change and this impact is significantly different among localities. So far, few studies have investigated relationships between natural disasters and local economic growth in Vietnam. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to examine how sea level rise, storms and forest fire can damage agriculture, forestry, and houses. Secondary data were collected from both domestic and international sources. Using MATLAB 2021 we were able to quantitatively examine the impact of climate change on economic growth in Southern Vietnam. The results find that Southwest Vietnam experiences more serious houses and crop lands damage caused by sea level rise than the Southeast. However, for both regions, forest damage and destruction caused by wildfire is negligible, but housing is significantly destroyed by storms.
    Keywords: sea level; climate change; economic growth; Southwest Vietnam; Southeast Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10055974
  • Factors affecting Vietnamese agricultural commodities’ export to the EU market   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Tran Nho Quyet, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Le Doan Minh Duc 
    Abstract: A trade-based gravity model can simultaneously examine the impact of group factors, such as those affecting supply, influencing demand and hindering bilateral trade between countries. The gravity model has been implemented in various studies. We adopt this model to study factors affecting the export of Vietnamese commodities to the EU. Data in this study was collected from Vietnam and 28 EU countries during the 20092019 period. We used GMM model panel data in this analysis to address the correlative and endogenous issues. We came up with the following findings: the GDP of Vietnam and of EU countries, the exchange rate of VND/EUR, the manufacturing land of Vietnam all have significant impact and can facilitate Vietnamese commodities export to the EU. Meanwhile, the economic differences and trade openness are obstacles to Vietnamese commodities export to the EU.
    Keywords: commodities; agriculture; export; Vietnam; EU; gravity model; GMMM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2025.10055975
  • Is the export-led growth model good for an emerging economy? Evidence from Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Le Thanh Tung 
    Abstract: Economic model and economic growth are always recognized such as the most important topic in economics. This paper aims to examine the export-led growth hypothesis in Vietnam, an emerging economy in Asia. The Error correction model and Johansen cointegration test are employed for checking this hypothesis. The database is collected by a quarterly form in the period of 2000-2020 and divided into two sub-periods. The cointegration test confirms that there is an existence of long-term cointegration relationships between variables. The long-term and short-term coefficients of the export variable are significantly positive and confirm the export-led growth hypothesis in Vietnam. The coefficients of the export variable have robustly raised over the study periods, which suggest that international integration has improved the impact of exports on economic growth. Finally, some policy implications are provided for enhancing trade development and support exports as the key development strategy in Vietnam in the future.
    Keywords: export-led growth; economic growth; emerging economy; cointegration test; dynamic model; international integration.

  • Is the gender gap in entrepreneurship closing? An investigation with a technologically empowered systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohail Hassan, Meghna Chhabra, Ridhi Bhatia, Monika Agarwal, Sahil Malik 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to seek an answer to the question of whether the gender gap in entrepreneurship still persists. For this objective, the study explores the thematic landscape of the research field of Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship (GGIE) and contributes toward exploring relationships among speci?c constructs in the area of GGIE. Further, for general publication pro?ling aims to identify and analyze specific subject areas and leading contributors in the field regarding countries, research organizations, authors, and source titles. Keywords co-occurrence analysis technique categorizes and explores prominent and emerging topics. This study differentiates itself from the other studies in this field in terms of applying the bibliometric methodology and the detailed work done on the relationships amongst various topics that were categorized into different thematic clusters. The findings of the study reveal that there still exists a wide disparity in the mens and womens entrepreneurship rates with the former still predominant in entrepreneurship. This inequality is also reflected in the size and the business growth rate of existing businesses owned by men and women with the latter still lagging field. Besides womens entrepreneurial propensity is negatively affected by gender stenotypes. The majority of the studies in the field are conducted from developed countries' contexts, and there is a dearth of studies from developing countries contexts. A lack of theoretical support also marks the field. The research field of GGIE has gained significant attention in advanced economies. However, key didactical issues related to the opportunities and challenges of women entrepreneurs remain debatable worldwide. The findings of this paper will be helpful to researchers, academicians, and those working in the area of GGIE in understanding the current research in the field, and the study also recommends future research directions. To the best of the authors knowledge, this study is the first to use the systematic literature review method in the area of GGIE.
    Keywords: gender gap in entrepreneurship; bibliometric analysis; review; women entrepreneurs.

  • Talent Management Practices: A growing buzz among Millennials and Gen X   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratiksha Mishra, Sushma Rani, Sanjeev Kumar 
    Abstract: The present research aims to study the response of millennials and Gen X towards talent management practices followed by the organization. The study follows an exploratory research design while the sample has been collected through a random sampling technique. From the analysis, it has been found that among the millennials, strong talent management practices have shown a great impact as compared to Gen X. The study gives a new insight into the impact of talent management practices among the millennials and Gen X. The study reveals that there is a positive impact of talent management practices on males as compared to females in case of millennials.
    Keywords: Talent management; Millennial; Digitalization; Gen X.

  • An ARDL approach: case study of COVID-19 death and insurance stock returns   Order a copy of this article
    by Himani Gupta, Shalini Singh, Renu Bala, Bhavna Sharma 
    Abstract: The movement of investment vehicles helps investors communicate as a stock market shield via a diverse portfolio. The COVID-19 outbreak had impacted the India along with other countries across the globe. The diseases progression and economic impact are highly uncertain. The current study is a novel effort to untangle the dynamic relationship between COVID-19 death and returns of NSE-listed life insurance stocks. We look at COVID-19 death data as well as returns from SBI Life, HDFC Life, and ICICI PRU from April 2020 to July 2021, when pandemic was the leading cause of death. Using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model technique, we discover that COVID-19 death has no dynamic relationship with the returns of selected life insurance stocks. In conclusion, our findings will provide stockholders, investment advisors, and policy experts with significant foresight into guaranteeing returns on life insurance stocks free from uncertain calamities such as COVID-19.
    Keywords: insurance; economic development; financial markets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2023.10058418

Special Issue on: Business and Globalisation in Emerging Markets

  • Study of stock returns through P/E, PEG and PERG: evidences from Nifty-100   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Srivastava, Prashant Gupta 
    Abstract: In this study, the concept of value investing strategies is employed for stock screening, where by low-PE, low-PEG, and low-PERG ratios have been used. The concepts are based on the hypotheses that the stocks screened out with the help of these ratios could generate better returns than the market returns. This study has also examined that which risk alternative, the standard deviation of returns () or the beta coefficient (ß), could improve the performance while adjusting with PEG. On the bases of these alternative strategies, 30 stocks have been selected out of Nifty-100 stocks to construct different portfolios and held through the investment period from 2008 to 2018. Portfolios constructed by using low PE ratio, low-PEG ratio and low-PERG ratio as screening strategies resulted in higher returns than the market average during investment period. Holding-period returns (HPRs) for low-PERG-ß strategy have outperformed the market returns as well as other alternative strategies during April 2008 to March 2018 investment period. Beta (ß) appeared to be better alternative for risk factor than the standard deviation of returns when adjusted risk factor with PEG ratio.
    Keywords: P/E ratio; PEG ratio; PERG ratio; stock return; portfolio return; Nifty-100; Indian stock market; holding-period return; HPR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10056771
  • Dimensions and Drivers of Medical Tourism Industry: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Malhotra, Kartik Dave 
    Abstract: The 21st century has seen an upsurge in the demand for global healthcare services. And one such niche sector of this rapidly growing market is medical tourism. The rising disparity in healthcare costs is fulling the growth of medical tourists to emerging markets, especially those with advance healthcare facilities and a proximity to developed countries. The interesting pace of this industry has received a growing curiosity from both researchers and practitioners. But most extant research still ignores the factors of competitiveness of a medical tourism destination. Against this backdrop, the present study seeks to identify and analyse the dimensions and drivers of the medical tourism industry. It does so by systematically synthesising qualitative studies that elicit views of various stakeholders practitioners, management, government, industry associations, facilitators and the academia.
    Keywords: medical tourism; health tourism; destination competitiveness; drivers; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10042738
  • Determinants of long term orientation in seller e-retailer relationship: a seller perspective in the Indian E-commerce   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Bhatnagar, Rajan Yadav 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents of long term orientation and its impact on the satisfaction of online sellers in the Indian E-commerce industry. A conceptual framework is proposed to empirically examine the effect of dependence, trust, role performance, collaboration & policies on the long term orientation of the online sellers with the e-retailer. A survey of 250 active online sellers was conducted. It is validated through structural equation modelling. The results suggest that the framework proposed had a good fit. The study establishes that dependence, collaboration, working policies and satisfaction are related to the long term orientation of online sellers. To the best of authors knowledge this study is the first of its kind in contributing to the understanding of e-retailers-seller relationship in the Indian E-commerce industry.
    Keywords: distribution channel; channel relationship; dependence; reintermediation; channel structure; e-retailer; seller; long term orientation; LTO; satisfaction; e-commerce.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10043382
  • Juxtaposition of Favourable and Deterrent Antecedents on WhatsApp Usage Optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Sayee Manohar, Siva Muthaly, Navin K. VEERAPA 
    Abstract: This paper ascertains the tenets of usage optimisation UO of WhatsApp as a social media communication platform and the influence of selected aspects on individuals level of positivity or negativity in context of WhatsApps usage optimisation (UO). A questionnaire was administered to an audience in South India. The applicability of the conceptual model was first validated and a partial least squares (PLS) SEM based methodology to analyse and interpret the overall findings. Path analysis has also shown the catalytic role of intermediation by favourable elements and aspects of deterrents. The findings in this study are contradictory to the norm with WhatsApps phenomenal acceptance and its impulsive adoption. Businesses could benefit by incorporating aspects of the antecedents, in designing niche promotional strategies for their targeted segments and will therefore have a renewed opportunity to incorporate strategies to filter repeated messages and irrelevant chats in new value-added WhatsApp platforms.
    Keywords: WhatsApp; social media; usage optimisation; favourable; deterrent; antecedents; socialising; partial least squares; juxtaposition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10037252
  • The impact of online shopping convenience on Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Word-of-mouth in Indian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Deshwal, Shantanu Prakash, Isha Agrawal 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine the impact of online shopping convenience dimensions (Access, Search, Evaluation, Transaction, Post Purchase convenience) on customer satisfaction, loyalty and word of mouth (WOM) publicity in the Indian context. A questionnaire was used to collect the responses from online shoppers. Finally, linear regression analysis was performed on 202 responses revealing that online shopping convenience dimensions positively impact customer satisfaction, loyalty and WOM publicity in the Indian Context.
    Keywords: Online; shopping; convenience; retail; satisfaction; loyalty; word-of-mouth; Indian.

Special Issue on: CUDC - 2019 Emerging Research Issues in Management, Commerce and Economics

  • Logit model for predicting financial distress in Indian corporate sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurmeet Singh, Ravi Singla 
    Abstract: Financial distress prediction is the interest area for many academicians and researchers as it adversely affect every economy and have important consequences for shareholders, creditors, investors, managers, employees and even government. The purpose of the study is to develop a model based on financial ratios by employing logistic regression to predict the likelihood of financial distress in Indian corporate sector. To validate the accuracy of the newly developed model two diagnostic tests viz. testing sample and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve are used. Both diagnostic tests validate that the newly developed financial distress prediction model achieved higher predictive power on testing sample, and area under the ROC curve of the developed model for testing sample is found to be 0.884 which indicates that model is good and has higher predictive power.
    Keywords: financial distress prediction; financial ratios; logistic regression; receiver operating characteristic curve; ROC; non-performing assets; NPA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10058716

Special Issue on: IC-BBS 2019 Interacting Business and Behaviour Studies Using Interdisciplinary Approaches

    by Kirill Sablin, Elena Kagan, Alexander Sharov 
    Abstract: The article is devoted to comprehensive assessment of the Russian resource-extraction companies readiness to develop domestic markets, which is an important condition for the formation of integrated national economy. Russian economy development is mainly due to the functioning of the export and raw materials sector. This phenomenon leads to the emergence of enclaves of wealth, which do not have any impact on the development of the rest of the economy. Methodological approaches of the study are represented with the concept of dual enclave economy, the concept of global value chains and the concept of discrete structural alternatives. Apparatus of theory of fuzzy sets and algorithm of fuzzy inference of Sugeno-0 order were chosen as research methods. The fulfilled analyses show that State-owned enterprises and companies those affiliated with the State are characterised with high level of readiness to develop domestic markets. Private resource-extraction companies demonstrate medium and low levels.
    Keywords: global markets; global value chains; economic development; big business; resources extraction.

    by Adisak Suvittawatt 
    Abstract: Most people think Banana flour is the flower of the banana tree wrong. Banana flower is still relatively unknown in the western world. Banana flour (BF) is in fact the starch of green bananas (Musa spp.) and has been used as substitute for wheat flour in Africa Asia and South America as it is hard to grow wheat in those regions. Banana starch (BS) has been predicted by industry experts to reach a market value of US$ 730 million worldwide by the end of 2027. From a chemical standpoint banana flour is a type of resistant starch (RS) that can pass through the intestines undigested and therefore offers a wide range of health benefits among others for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. However banana flour needs to be introduced to world-wide consumers through the design of an appropriate marketing mix. This quantitative research project focused on the reactions of consumers to the marketing mix of banana flour in Thailand. The study was conducted with a random sample of four hundred participants among shoppers in local grocery stores in Surin Province, Nakon Ratchasima (Korat) Province and Buri Ram Province This research project concentrated on the perceptions of the banana flour shoppers. With the main points to be researched being, the consumer perspectives on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place and promotion. We also explored the consumer attitude towards the banana flour being introduced to the market place. It is hoped to replicate this banana flour marketing mix study at other retail outlets in Thailand and neighbouring countries as well as around the world.
    Keywords: banana flour; banana starch; marketing mix; musa,.

Special Issue on: GloHMT 2019 Global Trends in Health and Medical Tourism The Way Forward

  • Disruptive Customer Value Propositions in the Global Health and Medical Tourism Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Balasubrahmanyam, Kaipa Prasad 
    Abstract: Across time, corporate hospitals and pharmaceutical companies in developed nations have come up with their own customer value propositions in the form of expensive business models that made sense for those economies. By and large, these business models could not succeed in the emerging economies given their wealth barriers, resource constraints, harsh infrastructure and semi-skilled or under-skilled medical professionals operating in population-rich rural regions of these economies. Realising the growing importance of alternative customer value propositions (CVPs) that smack of affordable business models, some corporates, both national and international, have started rendering their services or contributing their products in a disruptively affordable manner in these emerging economy markets. This paper makes an earnest attempt to compare and contrast various real-time disruptive innovations that appeal to price-sensitive nay value-sensitive customers from both developing and developed economies. It blends the existing theories such as Porters framework of generic strategies and few theories of internationalisation with the literature on customer value proposition and makes few caveats to application of these theories with due justification and exemplification. It strives to capture various related managerial, organisational, social, conceptual and policy implications. Limitations of the study areindicated along with directions for future research.
    Keywords: bottom-of-the-pyramid; reverse innovation; affordable business models; disruptive innovation; customer value proposition; CVP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2024.10053643
    by Manisha Seth, Anupam Saxena, Deepa Sethi 
    Abstract: Healthcare professionals, especially nursing staff, are the backbone of any healthcare ecosystem as the connecting link between patients and doctors. Motivation levels of nursing staff can impact patients well-being. There are several studies regarding motivation of nurses; however, few studies were found relating to causes of low motivation in the context of the Northern State of Uttar Pradesh in India. Therefore, the present study was conducted to ascertain the causes of low motivation among health workers in three different hospitals in Uttar Pradesh: private, charitable, and government. The study found that there are two categories of reasons for low motivation: organisational and financial. It also found some common causes and few specific causes of low motivation in each type of hospital. The study suggests that each hospital should maintain transparency and must incorporate proper work scheduling, workload management, and also organise camps for training, de-stressing and emotional management.
    Keywords: healthcare workers; motivation; low motivation; government hospitals; private hospitals; charitable hospitals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042286

Special Issue on: CU-ICE 2019 Entrepreneurship, Disruptive Innovation and Sustainability

  • Disruptive Innovation, Fourth Industrial Revolution and Sustainable Entrepreneurship policy: Lessons for Nigeria from the experiences of EU and Australia   Order a copy of this article
    by Oyebanjo Ogunlela 
    Abstract: Disruptive innovation is used to transform business globally, with much research recently conducted in the area of disruptive innovation and sustainable entrepreneurship. However, much is still required where skills development in disruptive innovation and sustainable entrepreneurship is concerned, especially in Nigeria. Europe, Australia, America and a few Asian countries are among those countries where legislation and policies have been developed and implemented, in order that firms may embrace disruptive innovation to improve sustainability. This article examines how Europe and Australia have encouraged sustainable entrepreneurship and the manner in which this can be adopted in Nigeria, through disruptive innovation and a fourth industrial revolution (4IR) policy. Positive and negative effects of a sustainable entrepreneurship implementation approach are explored. It is debated whether, in the light of international experience, the policy on disruptive innovation and 4IR could be considered in Nigeria and plausibly be applied under the present infrastructure dispensation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Policy; Disruptive innovation; Nigeria.

  • Perceptions of Generation-Z Towards Entrepreneurial Risks Within the Maritime SMEs in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Job Dubihlela, Phyllis Chikwati 
    Abstract: Maritime SMEs play a key role in South Africas results-driven approach to economic development, involving various stakeholders, code named Operation Phakisa; whose main agenda is to address the triple challenges of poverty, unemployment and inequality. A quantitative research approach was conducted to collect data by way of a structured questionnaire. The purposive snowball sampling method was used to identify the sample of Gen-Z employees working in selected maritime SMEs in Cape Town. Participants were identified through their friends and from the alumni records at a local university from which they graduated. Gen-Z acknowledges maritime SMEs as exposed to substantial amount of entrepreneurial risks, deterring overall entrepreneurial performance especially from the technological perspective. Gen-Z perceives the risk appetite of younger employees as a solution to the development of eco-entrepreneurial sustainability of maritime SMEs. In spite of their lack of experience, they think they have information at their fingertips; and that they are increasingly aware of social issues and related environmental risks. The results also indicate that although maritime SMEs have written policies that incorporate optimum levels of training on ecological importance, poor ethical standards are still prevalent within their operational environments. Surprisingly, Gen-Z perceive social environment as an important factor to them within the business community. The findings in this study supports ongoing body of research that project Gen-Z as having potential to seize opportunities, find solutions and possibly help eradicate vulnerability issues and enhance entrepreneurial risk mitigation. This paper adds value to the domain of Gen-Z and maritime SMEs focused on the ocean economy, and also propose possible future studies.
    Keywords: Eco-entrepreneurship; Environmental risks; Generation-Z; Maritime SMEs; Oceans economy; South Africa.

    by Tolulope Atolagbe, Rowland Worlu, Anthonia Adeniji, Salau Odunayo, Mercy Ogbari, Stephen Ibidunni, Maxwell Olokundun, Hezekiah Falola 
    Abstract: The business environment is changing rapidly as a result of the digital age. Creating learning culture within the organisation empowers the employees to easily anticipate and adapt to changes within the organisation, be more responsive to the market place, be goal oriented and grow through innovation. Whilst the need for organisations to constantly adapt to change and come up with training courses and new tasks/responsibilities to enable the employees have the opportunities to develop new skills or build on existing ones have become worrisome and unabated. This has made firms, especially the professional firms to still be faced with challenges of learning culture complexities. Therefore, this study assessed the role of learning culture on innovation performance of the selected professional firms in Nigeria. This study was descriptive in nature. The study adopted a mixed method (Sequential explanatory approach) to get information from 328 employees among the professional firms that were conveniently and purposively selected. The use of questionnaire (quantitative) and structured interview (qualitative) were adopted. The quantitative data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to obtain results, while the qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis. The findings indicated that the selected professional firms applied new learning in their jobs and also support learning through their words and actions. Based on the above, the selected firms should have opportunities to apply new learning to improve workers competencies (experience, skill, and attitude) and to keep up with changes within the organisation or from an outside environment.
    Keywords: Learning Culture; Innovation; Performance.

Special Issue on: ICBF-2019 Recent Trends and Innovations in Banking and Finance

  • Examining the Relationship between Management Quality Certifications and Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings: A Study of Banking, Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI) Sector in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Balpreet Singh, Kapil Gupta 
    Abstract: In this study an attempt has been made to examine the aftermarket performance of IPOs in the banking, financial services and insurance (BFSI) sector and its relationship with management quality certifications in India. From a sample period of 11 years, mean listing day market adjusted excess returns are observed at 27.86%. Furthermore, it is observed that long-run underperformance of IPOs using buy-and-hold returns is present during the holding period of 36 months. In addition to this, regression analysis depicts professional association of board members significantly influencing IPO performance, whereas, education level of board members, presence of foreign directors and directors diversity moderately influence the long-run performance of sample public issues.
    Keywords: BFSI sector; top management team; TMT; quality; long-run performance; initial public offerings; IPOs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10045102
  • Factor influencing Leveraging Decision of Indian companies: Evidence from Panel Data Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanika Sachdeva, Abhishek Agarwal 
    Abstract: In todays competitive environment companies have to take lots of crucial financial decisions, a single wrong decision may lead to a huge cost to company. Identifying the various sources to raise funds is amongst the crucial activities and companies are free to decide an optimum capital structure in order to maximise their value. Therefore, it is essential for the companies to focus on factor influencing the leveraging decisions. Against this background, this paper examines the factors influencing the leveraging decisions of 100 Indian companies representing BSE-100 index during financial year 2008 to 2018. The analysis has been carried out using panel data analysis by dividing the companies in two groups on the basis of their age. The results revealed that, all factors except tangibility are significantly impacting the leveraging decision in all companies. Liquidity is found to be least influential for the companies existing for more than 40 years, whereas profitability and tangibility are observed to have least influence for the companies which are into existence for less than 40 years.
    Keywords: leverage; panel data; Bombay Stock Exchange; Indian companies; equity; debt; liquidity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10039198
  • The Interaction of Rate Schedule & Tax Revenue: An Evaluation of the Laffer Effect   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Sharma, Jaspal Singh 
    Abstract: Taxes have been an indispensable entity for governmental revenue. While indirect taxes help finance the resources quickly, greater reliance over them tends to be distortionary both on economic and political front. Hence, there has been an increased desire to generate the required revenue resources through direct taxes especially through personal income taxes. However, the question of enforcing compliance for personal tax law has been an Achilles heel for the governance structures around the world. The principal focus of tax reforms henceforth has been on the moderation of personal income tax rates in the anticipated belief that it is high tax rates that inhibit effective compliance. The present study is an attempt to examine the said relationship between tax rate and income tax revenue in the Indian context. The statistical results upheld the applicability of the Laffer effect in the Indian context. The findings provide suggestive responsive measures for the policy makers and practitioners.
    Keywords: Laffer curve; income tax; tax responsiveness; public finance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10039828
  • Are bitcoin prices isolated or co-integrated?   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Vyas, Kiran Mehta, Renuka Sharma 
    Abstract: The tradability of bitcoins across globe and on virtual platforms has made it acceptable as an investment avenue (Polasik et al., 2015). The bitcoin markets have shown the sign of slow adjustment of disequilibrium error which means it is significantly affected by stochastic shocks (Cheah et al., 2018). A few studies in past have tried to state relation between bitcoins and macroeconomic variables. Also, in some of the recent studies, the relevance of bitcoin to hedge against currency and equities is discovered. The study under consideration has made an attempt to obtain empirical evidences of relationship between bitcoin price series and exchange rate of four currencies in terms of US Dollar, i.e., relation between bitcoin price in terms of USD and exchange rate of EURO-USD, BRITISH POUND-USD, USD-JAPENSE YEN, and USD-KOREANWON.
    Keywords: Bitcoin; cryptocurrency; Exchange rate; cointegration; VAR; IRF; Variance Decomposition.

  • Do Central Bank Actions Curb Exchange Rate Volatility?   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul Rishad, Sanjeev Gupta 
    Abstract: Floating exchange rate regime experience in India has always been about central banks regular interventions through purchase and sale of foreign exchange assets. However, in recent years, this intervention has intensified because of lumpy capital inflow, seemingly signalling a bias in the direction of defending appreciation pressure. This study measures the effectiveness of intervention and its episodic change and its consistency by dividing the data into three sub-sample episodes. For this, it uses a GARCH (1,1) model with weekly data on exchange rate, intervention and interest rate from April 1995 to December 2018. The results suggest significant influence of purchase intervention on exchange rate level as compared to that of sale intervention. Similarly, liquidity injection operations increased volatility, while liquidity absorption activities decreased it. Overall, the study presents empirical evidence for leaning against the wind and fear of appreciation policy in RBIs intervention operation.
    Keywords: Exchange Rate; Central Bank Intervention; Foreign Exchange Market; RBI; Rupee Volatility; Fear of Appreciation; Leaning Against the Wind.

  • A Test of Weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in Indian Stock Market using Momentum and Contrarian Effect   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramandeep Kaur, Rubeena Bajwa 
    Abstract: The current study intended to analyse efficiency of Indian Stock Market. The portfolios (momentum and contrarian) were framed over the 11 years study period, i.e., from April 2006 to March 2017 using monthly returns of BSE 500 listed stocks. The mean cumulative abnormal returns (MCAR) of different winner and loser portfolios were calculated. Portfolio performance was analysed on the basis of formation and holding periods being set at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months. Weak form efficiency was tested by using serial correlation, unit root, runs test and variance ratio test etc. The findings indicated that all single sorted portfolios could generate abnormal returns. Overall results of the study verified that by focussing purely on the past price information, Indian investors were able to earn abnormal returns in the stock market The results of the study will be a potential source for portfolio managers who are utilising or endeavouring to utilise to use the momentum and contrarian investment strategy.
    Keywords: momentum; contrarian; efficient market hypothesis; EMH; Indian Stock Market.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10038021
  • Corporate Governance and Performance of Indian Companies: The Effect of Board Size and Ownership Structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Renuka Sharma, Archana Goel 
    Abstract: During the recent years, lot of scams happening in the companies has provoked the interest among the public pertaining to corporate governance issues. This requires significant changes to be made in this area so that the performance of the companies can be advanced. The current study has tried to accomplish this by scrutinising the effect of board size as well as ownership structure on the performance of 229 companies over the duration of 16 years i.e. 1st April, 2001 till 31st March, 2017. Performance is gauged via Tobins Q and Return on capital employed. Various dummy and control variables are used to develop a model. Panel data regression is applied to analyse the data. The above association is further tested via moderating variables. The study found affirmative effect of board size, promoter and institutional holdings on the performance of the companies. The study has implications for companies, institutions and regulators.
    Keywords: Board size; Ownership structure; firm performance; corporate governance; promoter holdings;.

  • Service innovation and delivery as antecedents of satisfaction and loyalty: A study of Indian Retail Banking   Order a copy of this article
    by Ishfaq Hussain Bhat 
    Abstract: The increase in competition, changing lifestyle, and rapid technological shift in the global business environment has led to the adoption of innovations in order to survive in the market. The aim of this study is to examine the role of innovation in the service delivery, satisfaction and loyalty of Indian customers in the banking sector. The conceptual framework grounded on theories was drawn to test the stated relations. A sample of 400 bank customers who had availed innovative services was chosen with the help of purposive sampling technique. The findings of the study reveal that service innovation has a direct impact on service delivery and satisfaction. Moreover, it was found that there exists a positive relationship between service delivery, satisfaction and loyalty in the banking sector of India. The findings of the study help to understanding the innovative management practices in financial services in emerging economies like India.
    Keywords: Innovation; Satisfaction; Loyalty; Technology; service delivery.

    by Inderjit Kaur, Kamal Vagreach 
    Abstract: The investor sentiment in an economy can be reflected through stock market performance and volatility. Retail investors usually participate in stock market through equity mutual funds. Thus, flow in equity mutual funds may be a reflection of investor sentiment for economy or in turn, may affect stock market performance and volatility. Therefore, this study examines causal relationship between equity mutual fund flows, and stock markets performance and volatility with Vector Auto Regression (VAR) methodology. We examined data on aggregate equity mutual fund flows and NIFTY-50 index of National Stock Exchange during time period of 2003-2018. We first examined causal relationship between flows, stock market return and stock market volatility as structural system. We, then, controlled the effect of market fundamentals variables such as trading volume, P/E ratio, exchange rate, and short-term interest rate. The findings provide that stock market returns Granger causes mutual fund flows. There is short-term memory for stock market returns, volatility, and mutual fund flows. The mutual fund flows react to memory of stock market returns even at lag of 5 days. Mutual funds flow though are driven by stock market returns but cause stock market volatility. The findings are robust to presence of market fundamentals. The important implication of study is explanation of confidence among Indian investors (in year 2018) for equity mutual funds. The strong fundamentals of stock market drive investor sentiment and hence equity mutual fund flows. But entry and exit from mutual funds affect stock market volatility. Thus, it is important that investors remain invested in stock market to lessen stock market volatility.
    Keywords: Mutual Funds; Stock Market; Volatility; EGARCH; VAR; Causality.

  • How mobile banking resistance behaviour affects financial inclusion in India?   Order a copy of this article
    by Kiran Mehta, Asha Rani 
    Abstract: Mobile technology revolution will contribute greatly to financially include the largely unbanked strata of Indian society. The increasing number of wireless connections and relatively low score of financial inclusion in India attract the attention towards a specific segment of potential mobile banking users who are having mobiles but not mobile banking. The mobile banking can also cover these nooks of the country, which were not covered by the manual or branch banking. The current study addresses two research questions. One, what are the factors of resistance behaviour for use of mobile banking? Two, what is the impact of mobile banking resistance behaviour on financial inclusion? The study is unique in terms of it has made an attempt to examine the impact of mobile banking resistance behaviour on the financial inclusion.
    Keywords: Mobile Banking Resistance; India; Financial Inclusion; Mobile Banking; Logistic Regression; EFA and CFA;.

    by DINESH TANDON, Nidhi Walia 
    Abstract: There have been significant changes in the economic environment due to radical reforms and increased competition has exposed investors to plethora of information and investment opportunities. One such crucial information based on which investments are made is dividend announcements. In endeavour to provide in depth knowledge about psyche of investors toward dividend announcements an attempt has been made through this paper. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of demographic determinants on the preferences of individual investors regarding dividend announcements in Punjab (India). Based on a sample of 500 individual investors, one-way ANOVA, t-test and levenes test was conducted to find out which demographic variables were associated with the individuals preferences regarding dividend announcements. The results of the research show that preferences of investors varies/differs on the basis of factors such as age, marital status, occupation, income and education. The findings of the study have implications for policy makers and financial service providers. Though, the demographic and their preferences regarding dividend announcement have been extensively researched in the literature globally as well as in India, there has been scant empirical research on the financial consumer preferences in Punjab. This study fills this gap and is the first of its kind on the preferences regarding dividend announcement of investors in Punjab
    Keywords: Dividend announcements; Investor preferences; Demographic factors; Association of variables.

    by Amandeep Singh, Jyotsna Sharma 
    Abstract: Dynamics of Internet banking has a noteworthy effect on everyone. Internet banking service has gained huge importance over the last few years. It is not limited to branches only, like old times. The progress in the field of information technology has updated and restructured the banking style to a large extent. In the present time, a customer can avail any kind of internet banking transaction online without any visiting branch at any time. Customers expect easy going facilities which can solve their purpose and save their time as well. Banks and service providers are in tough competition with each other to offer a better quality of services to customers. It becomes legitimate for banks to provide superior and improved Internet banking services to customers for a long time. This research tries to study the service quality of the Internet banking service across different regions of Punjab state. Banks and online service providers are investing a lot of money to outshine in the field of the service industry. So, it becomes important to study the potency and quality of internet banking services being offered to internet service customers. The purpose is to study whether there exists any difference in services quality offered by banks across rural and urban areas. The objective of the present research is to compare the service quality of Internet banking services in rural and urban areas of Punjab. There are numerous Internet banking services offered by Banks. It is not easy to measure and study the entire services. But the effort has been made to study the maximum available and used Internet Banking services. The random sampling is used to select the sample units from different cities of Punjab. Descriptive statistics and t-test are employed in the study. As a result, it has been found that there exists a significant difference between rural and urban areas customers for different types of transactions through Internet banking.
    Keywords: Internet; Service quality; Internet Banking services; Rural and Urban Punjab Banking.

  • A Study of DuPont Model: Its Application and Identification of Key Determinants for Public Limited Companies   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: DuPont model is a very significant tool to analyse the financial evaluation of the organisation. It takes into account the three important parameters turnover, liquidity and profitability of the organisation. The foremost objective of this paper is to explore and validate the different components of the DuPont model for public limited companies for the time period 20092016 for 13,189 companies. The data has been analysed using ratio analysis, indexation, common size statement, correlation analysis and multiple regression. The results of the study show that return on capital employed(ROCE) is the most important parameter of return on equity (ROE) which is significantly influenced by margin of safety, profit volume ratio (P/V ratio) and asset turnover ratio. Out of these three, the most significant factor is margin of safety (MOS). ROE is more sensitive to profitability as compared to turnover and leverage. The analysis and validation of DuPont is useful for financing, operating and investing decisions for any organisation.
    Keywords: DuPont model; liquidity; public limited companies; return on capital employed; ROCE; return on equity; ROE; validation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10036750

Special Issue on: VCBMC-2019 New Paradigms in Consumer Behaviour and Marketing

    by Parag Shukla, Parimal Vyas, Madhusudan Pandya 
    Abstract: The growth of retail sector can be attribute to colossal shopper base, rising income and financial thriving, and world class products (Technopak Report on Emerging Trends in Indian Retail and Consumer, 2011). The revenue generated from organised/modern retail was US dollar 15.5 billion in 2009, USD 41.4 billion, and is expected to continue growing at an impressive rate to a projected US dollar 94.8 billion by 2019 (Retail Report Crisil Research Estimates, 2014; KPMG Retail Report, 2014). The shopper experience is a higher priority than at any other time as retailers are endeavouring to separate themselves in a difficult and swarmed market. There are retailers who began on the web and are moving to physical stores and others are consolidating physical and digital. The purpose of this empirical examination is to study the impact of accessibility and ambiance as critical aspects of store attributes on general satisfaction of shoppers.
    Keywords: accessibility; ambiance; retail shoppers’; shoppers’ satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10040532
  • DIGITAL TELEVISION BROADCASTING IN INDIA- an insight into TRAI new regulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonal Trivedi 
    Abstract: TV viewing is revolutionised with new rules under Telecommunication services interconnection regulations 2017 and telecommunication services tariff order 2017. These new sets of rules have enabled consumers to pay for only those channels which they actually watch. The present study focuses on the impact of digitalising the broadcasting in India. It analyses the cost and benefit to consumers and broadcasters under this new regime. This study also discusses the scenario of TV broadcasting around the world and competition faced by TV industry from new platforms such as Netflix and Amazon prime.
    Keywords: Broadcasting; cable network; channels bouquets; TRAI; TV industry.

  • A Study of Consumer Buying Behaviour of Healthy Confectionary Gums: Indian Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Naveen Arora 
    Abstract: Confectionary gums that are helpful in improving tooth health and oral hygiene are categorized as healthy chewing gums. This product category is in its nascent stage in India. This paper aims to identify the dimensions and factors that influence buying decision for healthy chewing gums. Paper also intends to understand consumers buying behaviour of healthy chewing gums. Exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analysis has been used to reduce and summarize different correlated variables to a manageable level and examine the whole set of interdependent relationships among variables. It is found that product experience and appearance are considered important by the respondents. A large number of respondents might consider consumption of healthy gums if it is recommended by dentists and/or clinically approved. The results and recommendations of the study can be helpful for entrepreneurs and decision-makers in confectionary and gums industry to understand consumers behaviour and formulate strategies accordingly.
    Keywords: Healthy chewing gums; Consumer behaviour; Factor analysis; Confectionary; Indian confectionary market; Buying preference; Product attributes; Impulse buying; Buying behaviour; Consumers’ perception.

Special Issue on: FORBS 2019 Trends in Management Science Research and Practices

    by HARITHA PH 
    Abstract: This empirical study analyses the influence of factors such as market and social dynamics on the Indian equity market of individual investors. Due to advancements in science and technology, the media and the internet make the information quickly accessible to the investors. Technology advancement plays a major role in the process of investment decision making of equity investors. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of social and market dynamics influence of investment decision making by Indian equity investors. The various social dynamics which influence investors' decision-making mainly includes media, internet and social interaction. Change in market conditions influences the stock market which consequently influences the investment decision making of equity investment. To analyze the data, factor analysis and multiple regression were used. The results from a representative sample of individual investors pointed out that their resolution in stock selection was strongly influenced by the behavioral factors of those investors. The major findings of this study are to understand the social and market dynamics influencing investment decision making of equity investors in India.
    Keywords: Behavioral Finance; Market effect; Social dynamics; Internet; Media; Stock market.

  • Does economic factors improves Property Liability Insurance consumption in India: an empirical assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijit Mukherjee, Amlan Ghosh 
    Abstract: Property Liability Insurance (PLI) is an important constituent of the financial system and a positive relationship with economic growth has already been established in India. This study aims at finding the economic factors that impact PLI consumption which consequently has a cascading effect on economic growth in India. Annual data series in the post reform period from 1992 to 2017 has been taken in the study. OLS regression method is used to find the strength of the relationship and for high collinearity between explanatory variables, Factor analysis is conducted to reduce the highly correlated variables to certain factor/s. Infrastructure development, registered motor vehicles, income, financial development, trade activity have positive relationship & Inflation, price and interest rate on alternative instruments have significant negative relationship with PLI consumption. Policymakers can focus on the identified economic factors and implement policies to boost the PLI consumption to have a positive impact on economic growth in India.
    Keywords: India; Property Liability insurance; Economic factors; Infrastructure development; Ordinary Least Squares regression method; Factor analysis; Economic growth.

  • A comparative analysis of greening policies and CSR efforts in a government-led sustainable supply chain across different channel powers   Order a copy of this article
    by Chirantan Mondal, Bibhas C. Giri 
    Abstract: This article considers a government-led sustainable supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer under selling price, greening level and CSR effort dependent market demand. The manufacturer and the retailer are responsible for product greening and CSR, respectively. To stimulate product greening and CSR effort, the government subsidises both of them. The optimal decisions are obtained both analytically and numerically under four game-theoretic policies viz. centralised policy (model C), manufacturer-led decentralised policy (model M), retailer-led decentralised policy (model R) and Nash game (model N). Three special cases are examined by considering that the manufacturer does not produce green products, the retailer does not give any effort in CSR, and both of them do not provide any effort. Our results show that model N provides comparatively better outcome, and each member prefers to lead the channel as it helps to gain higher profit.
    Keywords: sustainable supply chain; greening level; corporate social responsibility; CSR; government subsidy; game theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10041806

Special Issue on: SIFICO 2020 Trends in Financial Markets and Institutions

  • Extent & Determinants of Voluntary Disclosure: An Empirical Study of Indian Private Sector Banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Poonam Mahajan, Gurbinder Singh 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and determinants of voluntary disclosure practices of the Indian private sector banks for the year ending 20142015 and 20172018 respectively. The findings of the study reveal that overall disclosure level of the voluntary items has significantly increased after the amendment of Indian Companies Act, 2013. But still the level of voluntary disclosure is less than 50%. Overall, the voluntary disclosure of 35 items is constant, 64 items is improved and decreased for 30 items. Kotak Mahindra Bank and YES Bank has attained the 1st rank in the year 20142015 and 20172018 respectively. The profitability, liquidity, bank size and bank age are taken as independent variables. The results of regression analysis reveal that profitability and liquidity are significantly and positively affecting the voluntary disclosure in the year 20142015 and bank size had significant positive impact on voluntary disclosure in 20172018.
    Keywords: extent; voluntary disclosure; private banks; determinants; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10043625
  • Estimation of Default Risk through Merton's Distance to Default Model:-An Empirical Study of Four Indian Public Sector Banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Raghavendra S. Bendigeri 
    Abstract: Credit risk or default risk is one of the most significant risks faced by every organization. Inability to pay off its debts invariably leads the firm towards insolvency and bankruptcy. Management of credit risk through suitable safeguards is highly vital for any organization to survive, sustain and thrive. However comprehension and measurement of credit risk or default risk precedes its management. This research study makes an attempt to comprehend and quantify credit risk of four Indian Public Sector banks namely: Bank of Baroda, Bank of India, Canara Bank and Punjab National Bank. The research employs Mertons Distance to Default Model to measure the credit risk of above mentioned banks.
    Keywords: Credit Risk; Default Risk; Banks; Merton’s Model; Distance to Default; Probability of Default; Asset Value; Equity Value; Asset Volatility; Equity Volatility.

  • Investor Intentions of Stock Market Participation in India: An Extended TPB Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Anubhuti Dwivedi, Maroof Ahmad Mir 
    Abstract: Emerging economies like India exhibit low rates of stock market participation despite high rates of growth in income. This paper aims at analysing the attitudinal, social and behavioural control factors influencing the investor intentions of stock market participation using constructs from an extended model of theory of planned behaviour. Attitude and perceived behavioural control are found to be significantly related to motivational intention but subjective norm is not significantly related to motivational intention of investors to participate in stock market. Finally, motivational intention has a significant influence on implementation intention which in turn has positive influence on actual participation in stock market.
    Keywords: stock market participation; investor intentions; theory of planned behaviour; behavioural intention; implementation intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10041805
    by Savitha Lakkol, Srilakshminarayana G, Nalina K B 
    Abstract: Securities lending and short selling are two major instruments used by emerging markets as a tool to enhance liquidity and efficiency. This paper focuses on security lending and borrowing (SLB) and volatility interdependence considering the prices of individual stocks and the stock market data. The purpose is to explain the causality between SLB trade in individual stocks, on volatility of both stocks and the market index. NSE Nifty stocks and Nifty index were considered and data was collated for a period of three years, between January 2017 and December 2019. Applying Granger causality, study finds that there is a bilateral causality between SLB trades and stock price volatility but the SLB trades do not impact the stock market return. Even in the long run SLB trades and individual stock return steady relationship. The study also tracks the development of SLB market in its present form since its introduction in the year 2010.
    Keywords: Security Lending and Borrowing; short selling; Volatility; Causality; Panel Granger.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10043320

Special Issue on: Financial Inclusion - A Comprehensive Review

  • Tenure Security and Access to Inclusive Rural Financial Services for Smallholder Farmers: Challenges and Opportunities in Rural Development Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Giulia Barbanente, Harold Liversage, Jonathan Agwe, Michael Hamp 
    Abstract: Around the world, 500 million smallholder families only receive an estimated 29% of the financial resources that they need to invest in agricultural production and improve their livelihood. Land tenure is a key factor that can support smallholder farmers to access financial resources. This study deepens the analysis on the role of land tenure for smallholder farmers access to inclusive rural financial services, combining a review of operational documents and literature, with new insights from the field. The study mobilises the knowledge and experience of rural finance experts from across regions, to reflect on ongoing challenges and available tools. The study looks beyond the conventional supply-side-focused approach on tenure security and access to finance, offering a new perspective on a broader set of linkages, both direct and indirect, that are established at the local level between these two essential and necessary enablers of production.
    Keywords: inclusive rural financial services; land tenure; tenure security; rural development; rural finance; property rights; land rights; smallholder farmers; agricultural development; value chains;.

  • Do interest rate caps on microfinance loans result in higher microfinance institution (MFI) efficiency? A study of Indian MFIs using data envelopment analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Savita Shankar, Trishit Bandyopadhyay 
    Abstract: A regulatory cap on interest rates on micro finance loans in India in 2011, imposed subsequent to a crisis in the state of Andhra Pradesh, is studied using data envelopment analysis. The research objective is to ascertain if the regulation was followed by improvements in efficiency of micro finance institutions (MFIs) during the period 2011 to 2015. Improvements in efficiency are important because they can bolster MFIs sustainability and ability to expand outreach. It is found that in three of the four years studied, MFI efficiencies showed increases, while in one year efficiencies remained constant. Moreover, the proportion of MFIs which were of optimal size was significantly higher in 2015. The paper also examined if the regulation led to increases in average MFI loan sizes. It was found that while average loan sizes showed an increase during the period studied, the growth rate was in line with the trend observed prior to the regulation.
    Keywords: micro finance; India; interest rate caps; poverty; data envelopment analysis; DEA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035621
  • Financial Inclusion and Financial Literacy Programs for Low-Income Section in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Purushottam Bhandare, Samapti Guha 
    Abstract: Financial education is a well-received phenomenon in developing countries. Financial literacy is now envisioned as a tool for financial inclusion. This attracts the policy makers attention to the strategic actions and adequate efforts to launch financial literacy initiatives. In India, bank-led financial literacy model is implemented by setting up Financial Literacy and Counselling Centres (FLCCs) are setup at each district. Semi-formal institutions such as microfinance institutes are also involved in financial literacy training. In this context, this study primarily focuses on exploring the financial literacy models of each of such representative institute and brings out the factors that influence the participation in the financial literacy programs by both formal and semi-formal institutions. The findings are mixed, the explanatory factors have no influence on financial behaviour. Based on the field observations and study findings, the paper highlights certain policy implications that will address low level of financial inclusion and issues regarding financial literacy programs in both the models.
    Keywords: financial literacy models; financial literacy programs; low-income section.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10037535
    by Tara Nair 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to critically review the discourse around differentiated banks, especially small finance banks, as gleaned from policy pronouncements, discussion papers, and reports of various committees instituted by the Reserve Bank of India and the central government. It is argued that there has been a definite shift in the imagination of financial inclusion as a process of market expansion aided by layered, private-sector led, risk-hungry, and highly competitive banking institutions. The paper analyses the various initiatives introduced since the mid-2000s to enlarge and diversify the banking infrastructure and discusses the plausible implications of these initiatives for making the financial sector more broad-based and inclusive.
    Keywords: bank restructuring; financial markets; differentiated banks; niche banks; financial inclusion.

Special Issue on: ICSED-2k19 Business Transformation through Sustainability, Entrepreneurship and Digitalisation

  • Whistle Blowing Of Corporate Frauds In India   Order a copy of this article
    by SHEFALI SALUJA, Namrata Sandhu 
    Abstract: The paper studies the literature review in-depth about Whistleblowing in India as an ethical concept. A qualitative study with secondary based research has been carried out to understand the mechanism of whistleblowers in India. Purposive sampling has been used in terms of collecting selective episodes of corporate frauds, where whistleblowing was the key to identify the fraud and examine the role of whistleblowers in it. The analysis was done using analytical induction by the statements quoted by the Whistleblowers as evidence to media. People should consider whistleblowing an important concept for corporate governance. Whistleblowing act as an aid to many organisations or individuals in the effort to identify or reduce fraud or abuse. Recommendations of the analysis indicate that the individuals concerns shall be reported very seriously, proper action shall be taken on such cases, protection to the whistleblowers should be provided as that is the key to encourage other people to identify and report fraudulent activity in any organisation or individual role. The papers major contribution is towards understanding the nature of whistleblowing act, and what it offers for the corporates.
    Keywords: corporate frauds; whistle blowing; unethical conducts; whistleblowers; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10051148
  • Analysis of Entrepreneurial Skills among the Students of Higher Education System in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nisha Solanki, Yogesh Mehta 
    Abstract: The Government of India is offering a range of opportunities to the population for developing entrepreneurship and taking the economy to a new height. As per the 2019 report of the Ministry of Skill Development, the campaign is teaching skills among one crore annually, and the pace is increasing with the time as the system, and supportive ecosystem has been already created. Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has come with the initiative of the Institutional Innovation Council (IIC) and Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) for the ranking of Higher Education Institutions. This ranking motivates the institutions to adopt practical and experiential learning for the students. The chairman and senior managing director, Accenture also emphasised to fill the gap of skills, especially in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) to capture the 1.97 trillion in the GDP of India. This report highlights the importance of skill development.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial skills; higher education system; Skill India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10046379
  • A Study of Levels of Language of Private FM Radio Stations and Their Communication Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Garg, Ashutosh Mishra 
    Abstract: At time when management of private FM radio stations are majorly focusing to develop their own language standards to engage maximum listeners, the present study offers a way out to understand various dimensions of their language standards. The critiques of the levels of their language draw the attention of academia to understand the impact of the language on culture. The objective of the study was to decipher the changing language trends of the private radio stations. To achieve the goal three private FM radio stations situated in Delhi with wider reach were selected for the study. Their one week long programs were analyzed through content analysis .The study was designed to analyses the formats of language of the radio station. It finds out that the radio stations have majorly switched over to coded language-codes created by the radio station- as means of communication. The study further analyses their communication management to popularize their coded language among listeners through phone in programs.rnThe significance of the study is that it helps to understand the simple meaning of coded language used by the radio station. The paper argues that the study becomes more significant as it offers a frame work for future study in the area.rn
    Keywords: code switching; code mixing; private FM; radio station; language standards.

  • Mobile Banking Services Adoption in India: The Current Scenario   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Arora, Dhruv Sharma 
    Abstract: With the help of mobile phones whole scenario of banking and financial transactions has taken a paradigm shift from the long waiting queue in the bank, to go through rigorous channels for banking services to the customer's home desktop and laptop. The study aimed to know the impact of demonetisation on m-banking transactions and to know the current significant factors for the non-adoption of m-banking. The secondary data was taken from the official website of RBI, while primary data was collected through questionnaire from the urban area of the National Capital Region of India. The study found significant change in m-banking transactions after the demonetisation in India. The reason behind the non-adoption of m-banking found lack of trust/risk, lack of awareness/knowledge, and inconvenience/not technological friendly. The study recommended to the Banks and the Government should take the necessary steps to make m-banking transactions more secure and safer.
    Keywords: banking; financial transactions; m-banking; demonetisation; m-transactions; m-banking users.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10040523
  • Competent edge to activate the intention of online customer   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheetal Malik, Geeti Sharma 
    Abstract: India is considered the second largest online market with over 460 million users and also one ofrnthe fastest. Every day by day most of startups are coming up with online business ideas.rnAccording to numbers of researchers the online customers are less loyal as compared to offlinerncustomers. Customers retention on online is a major problem faced by various online companies.rnToday customers who are engaged with particular brand can switched to another brand veryrneasily. In this competent edge, if we provide a superior virtual knowledge and understanding forrnthe customer, then there is a chance to activate the intention of the customer which will leadrnthem to online shop from the same site repeatedly. The research study will give the knowledgernand understanding of the virtual experience and how it will help the online companies to retainrntheir customers. This study gives a conceptual structure of satisfaction of consumer which leadsrnto online purchase intention for all online shoppers.
    Keywords: Consumer behavior; online shopping intention;India.

  • Women Performance affected by Work Life Balance Factors a Demographic Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpi Sarna, Aniruddha Ghosh, Shenki Tyagi 
    Abstract: Women performance (WP) and Work Life- Balance (WLB) are more likely to discuss the importance in current and competitive world. Many studies have identified numbers of variables which influence the WP and WLB factors. The psychological stress level and happiness of the working women on their performance importantly consider the consequences of these variables. Variables such as stress, health, family worries, quality time, job responsibility, working hours, role conflict, excessive workloads, and socialization & family obligations impact the Women performance. A total of 90 female professionals respondents were taken as sample from the age between 20 to 55 years. The respondents experience & education qualification were taken as qualifying criteria comprising of both public and private sectors. The research consisted WLB as independent variables, WP as dependent variables and demographic traits as controlled variables. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. This study also has used the multiple regression analysis to find the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The women performance in association with demographic variables was tested through ANOVA. All findings were justified using IBM SPSS 22.0. Based on the empirical evidence, the study proposes that work pressure at workplace significantly impacts the women performance positively with the results of 57%, and two other items health of women and excessive work load adversely affects a women performance with 33.9% and 34.6% respectively. However, as per ANOVA results, it is also witnessed that age; qualification and experience of the women employees also play a significant role.
    Keywords: Anova; Education Sector; Multiple Regressions; Work Life Balance; Women Performance.

  • Revisiting quality indicators of Management Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Pragya Gupta, Neeraj Kaushik 
    Abstract: Purpose: The present study aims to determine the institutional parameters that affect the choice of deciding for the students while selecting the higher education institute and the impact of various demographic variables on the parameters identified. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, the questionnaire was distributed to approximately 1500 Management students. Exploratory factor analysis has been used to extract the dimensions. ANOVA and t-test are used to find out the influence of the demographic variable. Findings: The result has revealed ten factors out of the given 52 statements. Further, the result of ANOVA indicates an influence of the demographic variables on the parameters. Practical implications: The extracted factors are well suited for all the Management Education Institutions, along with quality assessment. Originality/value: The study involved a factor selection procedure, which is a significant concern of the present and not much discussed, especially for the Management students.
    Keywords: Choice making; Higher education; Management education.

  • Examining Consumer Psychology and Marketing Professionals perception towards Neuromarketing   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. V. Selvalakshmi, V.T. BAALAJI AMUTHAN, Srinivasan R 
    Abstract: Neuromarketing has emerged as a new place of study. Advancement in the neurosciences helps in measuring even minute neuronal activities. Neuromarketing makes use of the state-of-the-art advances in mind scanning to show the goals, expectancies and hidden restraints of purchasers. Though the concept has created ripples in the advertising enterprise all around in the world, it is yet to go miles ahead to penetrate in Indian advertising state of affairs. The significance and attractiveness of neuromarketing in India lies upon the truth that, corporations all over the international see a massive ability within the Indian markets. This research paper explores the influences of neuromarketing on the consumer decision making towards product purchase and marketers perception. It discusses how companies have effectively used this technique in exploring customer mindset. The research paper is descriptive in nature.
    Keywords: neuromarketing; electroencephalography; EEG; consumer decision making; marketing research.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10045935
    by Anchal Luthra, Kavita Singh, Mandhir Anchal 
    Abstract: The primary purpose of this paper to explain some hypothetical and empirical questions like "what impact does information overload have on the development of turnover intentions among software engineers working in I.T. organisations based in the North Indian Metro Cities? Does employee poor health and employee's poor performance mediate this relationship, and does this impact is gender-or marital status based. The study was a cross-sectional exploratory study to explore the concepts and associations. Data was collected from a sample of 265 employees working as software engineers in different I.T. organisations situated primarily in Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida, Gurugram, and Faridabad having a financial turnover of 50-100 Cr. and size of the Organisation (50-200) employees. Data was collected through standardised scales and analysed by using SPSS-23, with Hayes Process plugin and Amos-21 software's. The results confirmed a significant positive association between information overloading and turnover intentions. Results recommended significant mediation of poor performance and poor health between information overload and turnover intentions. Also, information adoption significantly moderated the relationship between information overload-turnover intentions, poor health, and poor performance. The study also depicted that gender and marital status have a substantial impact on the association. Especially married females are more prone to develop turnover intentions due to the overloading of information from their supervisors. I.T. organisations struggling with turnover intentions, especially when potential female employees develop such tendencies due to information overload leave, must adopt appropriate systems to manage and control the development and flow of information to avoid overflow of information. By controlling information flow performances of female employees can be raised, leading to more job satisfaction to motivates them to have long term association with organisations.
    Keywords: Turnover Intention; Knowledge; Information Overloading; Performance; Employee Health; Techno-Stress; Information Technology.

  • Level of Dissemination of Information on Adherence to Shariah Principles: A Study of Shariah Compliant Companies in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamrunnisha Nobi, Manjit Singh 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the voluntary compliance of product & service and employees related dimensions of Shariah principles. For this, a checklist was developed, adapted from various work done by the previous researchers. The sample comprised in this study covers the whole population of Shariah companies in the 500 Shariah and Nifty Shariah indices during the period of 2013 till 2018. The results of the present study demonstrated that the sampled companies and various industries is far less than the affirmations and what actually is delivering and required to roll up their sleeves concerning to compliance of Shariah principles fully so that the better accountability and transparency could be provided as recommended by Islam. In this way faith of investors can also be retained and led to the development of Islamic finance in India otherwise it may hinder the sustenance and growth of the system.
    Keywords: Shariah Principles; Voluntary Compliance; Product & Services Dimension; Employee Dimension.

Special Issue on: Academy of Management Annual Meeting 2019 Spirituality and Religion's Role in Creating Collaborative Advantage and a Relationship with Management

  • A Work/Life Teeter Totter: Using Demand Based Principles for Spiritual Operations Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Bumblauskas, Paul Bumblauskas 
    Abstract: Business owners and management teams are often tasked with making difficult prioritisation decisions. One difficult decision for how to balance the goals, objectives, and purpose of the organisation. This article is to detail how spirituality is a critical component to work/life balance and how individual and organisational spirituality impact operations management. Balancing key areas of work and professional life become an important part of creating happy and mutually satisfying relationships. We have identified six critical elements of life balance that lead towards optimised productivity (in no order of significance): Career, Family, Community, Spiritual, Health (includes sleep), Pleasure. Spirituality is one of the six components that must be defined, with a corresponding work and personal development plan, at an individual and organisational and operations management level.
    Keywords: Work-life balance; workplace spirituality; religion / faith; competitive advantage; demand-based approach; family / private businesses.

Special Issue on: The Big Global Trends and Future of Sustainable Business and Consumption

  • Explicating Internet Usage of Farmer Households. Evidence from Ben Tre Province, Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Phuong Van Nguyen, Tung Van Nguyen, Cuc Thi Pham 
    Abstract: In the era of the knowledge economy and information and communication technology development most prominently, the internet people can access valuable information resources in many different fields and seek challenging opportunities to learn and apply knowledge and skills in their area. Specifically, in agricultural development, farmers have efficiently used the internet to learn about cultivation and animal husbandry, search for markets for farm products, enjoy entertainment and acquire farming skills and knowledge. This paper explores potential factors impacting the purposes of internet usage by analysing data collected from 317 farmer households in Ben Tre Province, Vietnam. Using ordinary least squares regression, the findings revealed the significant factors in six models of internet usage among farmers: developing a career in the field of agriculture through internet usage; finding useful information; engaging in online discussions; shopping online; watching videos; and studying online. This research contributes several practical implications for governments that can support farmers in rural regions in using the internet to build their careers especially to maximise agricultural production as the internet gradually spreads to the entirety of Vietnam.
    Keywords: internet usage; farmer households; useful information; online shopping online study; entertainment; rural areas.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10047922

Special Issue on: ICTSD 2020 Contemporary Issues in Commerce, Technology and Sustainable Development

    by Amit Goyal, Robin Inderpal Singh, Gurcharan Singh, Sheetal Malik 
    Abstract: The study has been initiated with the purpose to investigate the relationship between various attributes of e-tailing websites/applications and selection of the best choice among them by the customers while purchasing footwear online. Researchers have examined the different attributes of e-tailing websites/applications affecting the decisions of online shoppers. Conjoint model has been implemented and it is further tested by regression for the establishment of best preference amongst the selected attributes affecting the selection of e-tailer for purchasing footwear. The data has been collected from the students of different colleges and universities situated in Punjab state of India. The results of this empirical research indicate that the students prefer e-tailing websites/applications which ensure delivery within 0-2 days, provide try and buy option, show detailed description of the product along with manufacturer/seller details, offer call me back option, allow shoppers to post and watch others reviews about the product and also give thirty days time period for returning the product to e-tailer. The paper delivers inclusive empirical evidence concerning the use of any specific e-tailer for purchasing footwear by the online customers and fills therefore a gap in the available literature of marketing which could be brought into use by e-tailers and those involved in the footwear business.
    Keywords: E-Tailing websites/applications; Footwear; Conjoint Analysis; Regression Analysis; Consumers’ preferences.

  • Building a Sustainable Relationship between Customers and Marketers   Order a copy of this article
    by Bijay Kushwaha 
    Abstract: Finding new customers is costlier than retaining the existing customers for the business. Therefore, building a strong relationship with customers helps marketers to retain their existing customers. Incorporating ethical and moral values into marketing activities offer a way to build a strong relationship. This study identifies the factors that bind customers and marketers into a sustainable relationship in the Indian context. This study constitutes a framework to understand and apply sustainable relationship marketing in the personal care industry. This study touches certain marketing disciplines such as marketing mix policy, transparency in trades, building trust, product delivery, promises delivery, and sustainable relationship. The convenience sampling technique used for the selection of respondents from the Mohali city of Punjab, and interview them. The finding suggests that promises delivery is the most important factor for a sustainable relationship. If promises are delivered effectively then the life of the relationship will be longer.
    Keywords: Sustainable Relationship; Customer Relationship Management; Ethical Marketing; Brand Building; Promises Delivery; Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

  • Value co-creation through customer engagement in virtual communities for product innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Rema V, Abhinandan Srivastav 
    Abstract: The trend of 'open innovation', a participative, decentralised approach to innovation, involving the synthesis of stakeholder ideas with the business model is likely to bring in more customisation, satisfaction and value. Technological advancement has made it possible for businesses to engage with customers, seek their inputs and implement their contributions, enabling customisation. This study understands the dimensions of customer engagement and its impact in the process of co-creation with respect to new product development for a reputed automobile company. The customer involvement happens on a range of design tasks and product prototype development. Monetary incentives to engage does not seem to be an influencing factor. The study demonstrates that customer engagement has a significant impact on value co-creation in new product development. The role of collaborative framework, a pragmatic approach can enable organisations to innovate based on customer insights and deliver value to the customers and businesses.
    Keywords: value co-creation; customer engagement; virtual communities; open innovation; new product development; NPD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039719
  • Moderating role of the 'type of hotel' on the relationship between Human resource practices (HRP) and Job Satisfaction (JS) in Hotel sector in India: A PLS based SEM approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Kumar, Vijay Jain, Praveen Dube, Vikas Tyagi 
    Abstract: The hotel industry is a major industry, which is facing a global crisis, i.e. work and lack of skill Bad HR practices have contributed to a crisis in skilled jobs and this could be due to truncated levels of wage, which in turn decreases employee satisfaction. On the contrary, effective HR practices creates healthy job satisfaction for employees. Therefore, considering research gap, this study is to investigate the relationship between Human resource practices (HRP) and job satisfaction (JS) with the moderating role of \'type of hotel. This study collected a sample size of 82 Hotels (Independent hotel = 36 and Chain hotel = 46) in Dehradun (India). The partial least squares method was used to establish the relationship between HRP and JS. The results indicate that HR practices are positively relationship with job satisfaction in a chain hotels. Research limitations and future directions are discussed.
    Keywords: Human resource practices (HRP); Job Satisfaction (JS); SEM-PLS; Hotel Sector; Independent Hotel; and Chain Hotel.

  • Group Cohesiveness and Conformity as Determinants of Choice of Promotions- An Empirical Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikas Deep, Shashi Kala, Manpreet Kaur 
    Abstract: The marketers use promotions of various kinds to enhance the sales of their products. The peer groups can be targeted by the marketers to formulate the behaviour and preferences of consumers. This paper examines the effect of group cohesiveness and group conformity on the choice of hedonic and utilitarian promotions of an individual by conducting a survey on 415 working professionals in large organisations of service sector in Punjab. The two-stage analytical PLS-SEM revealed that the group cohesiveness positively influences hedonic and utilitarian promotions both. Significant positive influence of group conformity was found on hedonic and utilitarian promotions. This paper contributes to the existing literature on peer groups, group cohesiveness, group conformity and choice of promotions. The findings suggest that marketing managers can focus on the peer groups of their prospective customers by having deep knowledge of the social influences revolving around working professionals.
    Keywords: freebies; hedonic; group cohesiveness; group conformity; sales promotions; utilitarian.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039079
  • Examining Non-Performing Assets in Financial Institutions in India   Order a copy of this article
    by VINAY KANDPAL, Veer P. Gangwar, Deep Chandra 
    Abstract: The research paper examines and analyses the reasons responsible for increased non-performing assets. It also analyses the reasons that restrict the loan's effective monitoring and gives credit risk management recommendations. The sample for this research study consists of the top banks with high NPA and response was received from the middle-level managers from the bank outlets' regional offices in Northern India through a structured questionnaire. The analysis finds a set of 16 variables identified through the literature review. Statistical analysis SPSS was used that helped to run the factor analysis test. The results indicated that the NPA level in public sector banks was much higher than the private banks. The primary reason behind the surging non-performing assets is the borrowers' creditworthiness, kind of loan, collaterals, the quality of the assets, and absence of an effective monitoring system.
    Keywords: non-performing assets; banks; credit; risk; public sector; private sector; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040529
  • The Effect of Perceived Philanthropic Activities of Corporate Organisations on Consumers Purchase Intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Kapil Kumar Aggarwal, Shashi Singhal 
    Abstract: The role of Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives in determining consumer perception towards a company has always been an enigma. Though the consumers do remain inquisitive about benevolent activities of corporate towards the society but various researches have also shown a considerable gap between the degree of interest shown by the consumer in CSR activities and the purchase behaviour reflected by them once they are aware of organisation's active role in philanthropic activities. Social initiatives taken by the companies are largely becoming a yardstick based on which a customer evaluates the performance of a company. Research indicates that companies driven by the objectives of social reforms in the society attract a more favourable opinion of customers than those which are just engaged in profiteering. A positive attitude of the consumer towards the company not only helps in enhancing its goodwill but also in increased revenues. This study aims to find out whether such initiatives by corporate organisations play any role in building a positive perception of the brand. It also seeks to find out whether such initiatives taken by the corporate organisations give an edge to the company in terms of competition. The findings show that analysing the impact of CSR initiatives is a complex and dynamic process wherein consumers carry their perspective of welfare activities performed by a company. This paper makes a detailed analysis of such factors and discusses the complex nature of the consumer's evaluation of CSR. These insights further provide the basis for drawing theoretical and managerial implications of the findings. Thus, the paper helps in developing a better understanding of the impact of CSR activities on consumer's purchase intention.
    Keywords: Brand Association; Brand Equity; Consumer Attitude; Corporate Social Responsibility; Perceived Quality; Purchase Behaviour; Social Accountability.

  • Measuring the Impact of Eco-Friendly (Green) Marketing on Buying Behaviour of Indian Consumers   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhruv Sabharwal, SUMIT NARULA 
    Abstract: In todays competitive market where companies and organisations are looking for new ways of marketing, so the current study focuses at measuring the impact of green marketing mix on green purchase behaviour of Indian consumers. In this research paper, 150 respondents were interviewed face-to-face using a self-prepared questionnaire. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from the respondents. In this research paper, structural equation modelling (SEM) is being used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis. To test the structural model, AMOS 23.0 software was used. Research analysed that four elements of green marketing mix named as green product, green price, green place and green promotion have an important and crucial impact on the green buying behaviour of Indian consumers. Moreover, the study shows that green products have the highest and green place has the lowest impact on consumers buying behaviour. Current research will help advertisers to understand the concept of green marketing mix and design the tools of green marketing mix according to the need of consumers who purchase green products. In addition, the study will show the concept of sustainable marketing, so that modern marketers can use this technique as a strategic tool to persuade consumers green purchasing behaviour.
    Keywords: marketing mix; eco-friendly products; green marketing mix; green buying behaviour; sustainable marketing; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10039552
  • Is ESG disclosure related to Corporate Performance? Empirical Evidence from Indian Companies.   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Sharma, Priyanka Panday, R.C. Dangwal 
    Abstract: The purpose of this work is to inspect the impact of non-financial disclosure (ESG) on corporate governance. The study examined 80 Indian companies listed at BSE for five years (20122016) with 400 observations. ESG disclosure and performance indicators such as operational performance (ROA), financial performance (ROCE) and market performance (MBV) are taken up as dependent and independent variable respectively with type of industry and companys size as control variables. The results indicate significant and positive impact of corporate performance measures on the level ESG disclosure. This study may be facilitative for corporate and statutory bodies in forming policies related to corporate disclosures, since its negligible presence in Indian corporate is quite evident from the literature.
    Keywords: performance; Indian companies; ESG disclosures; annual reports; sustainability reports; environment; social; corporate governance; GRI framework; Clause 49 of Listing Agreement; ESGD index; return on assets; ROA; return on capital employed; ROCE; market to book value; MBV; ordinary least square; OLS.

    by Sandeep Chib, Veer. P. Gangwar 
    Abstract: In this research, we have attempted to evaluate the perception of customers involved in online purchase of products towards quality of the purchase. In order to know the relationship between rate of purchase, type of product purchased and quality perceived by the customer pertaining to the retailer selling the product online. The researchers have taken into account four stages, which every customer has to experience while doing online shopping. During statistical analysis, which includes; factor analysis, ANOVA, descriptive analysis, chi-square test and t-test, following dimensions emerged, which had maximum effect on quality; Dependability, convenience, ordering services, accessibility, product satisfaction, assurance and trustworthiness. Researchers found that customers who were more frequent in online shopping process remained more inclined towards reliability and product satisfaction as compared to less frequent customers. Those customers who order experience products, for them value process for ordering product as well as product satisfaction is of paramount import.
    Keywords: Key words: Product Types; Shopping Incidence; Perceptions; E-Tailing Quality; online; purchase.

  • Investigating effect of Social Media Advice and Corporate Information on Retail Investors Decisions in Stock Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Atul Shiva, Manjit Singh, Rishi Raj Sharma, Monica Sethi 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors influencing retail individual investors intentions to use social media platforms in search for corporate information disseminated towards investment related decisions in financial markets. Based on technology acceptance model (TAM), the cross-sectional study conducted on 376 active investors by questionnaire survey on Twitter covering Delhi-NCR and Mumbai of India. The study used Partial Least Square Structural Equational Modeling software for analyzing and interpreting the data. The study found significant relation between perceived usefulness (β=0.423), perceived enjoyment (β=0.311) and behavioral intentions. Furthermore, a significant relation was discovered between perceived attractiveness (β =0.583; β =0.785) and perceived usefulness & perceived ease of use. The paper investigates an interdisciplinary research between behavioral finance and social media which are likely to gain widespread collaboration in the future and act as guidelines for decision makers in financial markets of developing countries like India.
    Keywords: Social Media; Twitter; Individual Investor; Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling; Technology Acceptance Model.

Special Issue on: FORBS 2019 Recent Trends in Management Science Research and Practices

  • Performance Measurement of Indian Banking Sector: A Cross-Section Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Supran Kumar, Surbhi Raina 
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is to examine the performance of banks operating in India on the basis of DEA methodology and CAMEL approach. An effectual sample of 44 banks operating in India, out of which 20 are the nationalized banks, 18 are the private sector banks and 6 are the SBI and its associates, is considered for the period. Using cross-section data, the study evaluated the level of underutilisations of public goods/resources and consequent poor technical efficiency and its components along with slack and radial movements for optimal efficiency. The role of slack and radial movements is equally critical for the efficient utilization of resources. Poor performance and lower technical efficiency results into higher cost and higher price of services to the end customers. The study determines the slack and radial movements by identifying peers and targets for performance improvements with better diagnose and 360 degree review.
    Keywords: Technical Efficiency; Banking; CAMEL; Data Envelopment Analysis; Non-parametric Model; Managerial Efficiency.

  • Evaluation of Performance of the Indian Power Sector from the Lens of Ratio Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharadinu Bikask Majumdar, Susmia Chatterjee, J.K. Das, Sangita Dutta Gupta 
    Abstract: The financial ratio analysis is an analytical tool performed to verify the financial efficiency of a firm. In this study, different financial or accounting ratios have been considered and performance evaluation of Indian power sector has been conducted. A comparative evaluation has also been carried out between the public and private power sectors associated in the generation and distribution of power in India. It was revealed from the study that in case current ratio (CURAT), return on asset (ROA), return on capital employed (ROCE) and return on equity (ROE), the values of mean are higher for the public sectors compared to the private sectors. However, the private sectors also have higher mean values for the ratios, return on sale (ROS), debt-equity ratio (DERAT) and asset turnover ratio (ATRAT). The steady financial position of the private sector is supportive to well-structured privatisation of power sector to overcome the gaps in the distribution of electricity.
    Keywords: financial efficiency; ratio analysis; public firm private firm comparison; current ratio; CURAT; return on asset; ROA; return on capital employed; ROCE; return on equity; ROE; return on sale; ROS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10051057

Special Issue on: BSVUCA-2020 “Business and Management in Changing Times

  • Green Bond Market: A Critical Review   Order a copy of this article
    by ASHIMA VERMA, Rachna Agrawal 
    Abstract: Climate change is real, and its impact is visible throughout the world in the form of melting of ice sheets, forest wildfires, earthquakes and cyclones. The study follows a combination of qualitative and empirical analysis to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the green bonds. It also aims to provide a critical view of the working of green bonds globally. The study diagnosed various barriers like the legal and judicial system of a nation, macro-economic environment, political instability, new technology costs, greenwashing, green bond verification requirements, supply and demand of green bonds and financial attractiveness of green bonds. This study will form a great help to governments and policymakers in providing measures for improving and facilitating a transition to a greener world.
    Keywords: green bonds; greenwashing; green bond principles; GBP; initial COVID-19 period; peak COVID-19 period.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10040790
  • Identifying and Prioritising MOOC Attrition Reasons using Best Worst Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeraj Chopra, Rajiv Sindwani, Manisha Goel, Ashutosh Nigam 
    Abstract: Despite the noticeable strengths of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), the high attrition rate of learners is posing challenges in its way to successful diffusion. This created the need to know the reasons behind the high attrition rate among learners. The present work identifies nine MOOC attrition specific reasons from the literature on MOOC and resistance to innovation. The study also classifies and prioritises the attrition reasons in terms of criticality. The reasons for attrition are grouped according to their nature into three categories, referred to as general reasons. The prominence of reasons is established by using the best worst method (BWM), a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. The optimised weights determined by BWM arranged them from most critical to least critical in terms of learners attrition. The results revealed technical reasons as the most critical general reason. The most and least critical specific reasons are identified as perceived risk and no penalty or reward. The study also suggested effective measures to address the challenges posed by various attrition reasons.
    Keywords: MOOC attrition; Prioritization; BWM; General reasons; Specific reasons.

  • Impact of sensory marketing on brand loyalty and consumers purchase intention: A quantitative study in the QSR industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunaina Kothari, Meenakshi Sharma 
    Abstract: The prime purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of dimensions of sensory marketing on consumers purchase intention and brand loyalty in the quick service restaurant (QSR) industry. On the basis of in-depth literature review, a conceptual model showing the dimensions and outcomes of sensory marketing was developed and structural equation modelling was carried out to ascertain the research framework. The conceptual model shows the hypothesised relation between the seven constructs: sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, consumers purchase intention and brand loyalty. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data of a sample size of 540 respondents. The empirical results reveal that sensory marketing dimensions: sight, smell, taste and touch positively influences consumers brand loyalty whereas sound has no impact on brand loyalty in the QSR industry. Also sight, smell and taste positively influences the consumers purchase intention whereas sound and touch has no impact on consumers purchase intention in the QSR industry. The contribution of the paper lies in filling the research gaps, developing an original sensory marketing model for the QSR industry and further validating it through quantitative study. The result of the research is of significance to academicians, policy makers and marketing practitioners.
    Keywords: Sensory marketing; branding; brand loyalty; consumer purchase intention; product differentiator; quantitative study; structural equation modelling.

  • Verification of a decision support model for export opportunities in the South African hardwood industries at The company   Order a copy of this article
    by Seugnet Bronkhorst, Cecile Niewenhuizen 
    Abstract: Entering a global market competitively, whilst ensuring profitability and sustainability of the organisation, requires a clear understanding of all factors impacting on such a strategic endeavour. Optimising global market opportunities and ensuring appropriate responsiveness to its dynamic and competitive nature, guidance and support of strategic decision making and concomitant decision support models seem to be inevitable. The indicators of trade and export competitiveness have not only multiplied, but became obscured, sometimes by seasonal global headlines, the fact that the global value chain proved to be erratic at times and not conclusively researched, as well as the reality that the sources of competitiveness on the supply side of international trade remain vague and the list incomplete. Therefore, the decision making process have become a complex process and procedure, which must, in the interest of consistency, responsiveness and inclusiveness, preferably manifest through a decision support model to clearly present prevailing business opportunities.
    Keywords: decision support model; decision making; strategic management; export opportunities; hardwood; European countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10047918
  • Twitter Based Content Analysis Unravelling Operational Performance Issues for Indian Railways: A Comparative Study on Focus of Current and Former Rail Ministers   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeraj Bhanot, Astha Sharma 
    Abstract: Indian Railways is considered as lifeline of the nation wherein government has been investing appreciable part of their GDP for its improvement. In this study, tweets from Twitter posted to and by two railway ministers has been analysed using Latent Dirichlet Allocation technique. Major issues in Indian Railways were highlighted during the tenure of above-mentioned ministers and how the issues were tackled by government (as evident from their tweets) have also been mentioned. The study is aimed at guiding policy-makers in identifying the concerns and problematic areas along with the difference between required actions and current focus of Rail Ministers.
    Keywords: Indian Railways; Twitter; Data Mining; Operational Performance; Rail Ministers; Rail Passengers.

Special Issue on: INCONSYM 2020 Global Economy Trends, Opportunities and Challenges

  • The Influence of Social Media Advertising on Indian Students' Perception Towards Online Purchase   Order a copy of this article
    by VAIBHAV MISRA, Anubha Vashisht 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the perception of students in social media advertising. The study was conducted on 126 respondents from the institutional area of Noida. The analysis was conducted using Spearmans correlation and K-independent samples test. It was found that there is a significant influence on social media advertising on students to purchase online. Further, it was also found that information, privacy, credibility, electronic word of mouth, and trust were the important factors of social media advertising that motivates students to purchase online. Practical applicability and managerial implications were discussed.
    Keywords: online shopping; social media; advertising; EWOM; privacy; information; credibility; trust; online purchase; social media factors; student perception; electronic word of mouth; EWOM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10040374
  • Municipal solid waste management with reference to India: opportunities, challenges and future directions   Order a copy of this article
    by SNEHA KUMARI, K.K. Tripathy, Vidya Kumbhar 
    Abstract: Waste management involves reuse, recycle and reducing the waste, essential for sustaining the city. These wastes if left unused can lead to hazardous effect on health and environment. The aim of the study is to explore opportunities, challenges and future direction on municipal solid waste management in smart cities. The paper has undergone exploratory study identifying challenges, opportunities and future directions in municipal solid waste management of smart city. Primary data has been collected from 92 households in a smart city, Pune and the waste wards of 76 divisions (prabhags) of four zones of Pune. Data visualisation and data analytical tools have been used for analysis. The paper has come out with different parameters like doorstep waste collection, waste segregation and others in the smart city. The study provides future direction and opportunities for the solid wastes management. The study is beneficial for sustaining the waste management practices.
    Keywords: solid waste; management; smart city; challenges; opportunities; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10058846
  • The effect of social media advertisements on the AIDA model for young consumers in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kunal Kapoor, Divyansha Kumar, Anubha Vashisht 
    Abstract: Today, the entrepreneurs (Dana, 2000; Wright and Dana, 2003) are using social media advertising (SMA) to catch young consumers' eyes to persuade them to take action (Shanahan et al., 2019). Therefore, this study was designed to study the effectiveness of SMA (Poecze et al., 2018) with the help of AIDA model of advertising (Yoo et al., 2004). The primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire and maximum respondents were of the age group of 16 to 24 years. The primary data was analysed using Chi- square analysis, cross tab matrix and linear regression using SPSS. The result of this research shows that although major mobile phone brands can capture the attention and interest of the target population, it is not effectively being converted into buying (action). The authors also suggest, testing moderating and mediating factors that might affect the consumers' buying behaviour for future studies.
    Keywords: AIDA model; social media advertising; SMA; mobile phones; young consumers; Facebook advertisements; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10058847
  • Opportunities and challenges ahead of start-ups in emerging markets in the era of sharing economy and globalisation   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The start-ups culture is going up across the nations post-year 20082009. The birth of several institutions to support such budding entrepreneurs and start-ups are the real motivation for them. It is a known fact that such start-ups have reduced the burden of the economy and government in terms of shifting from job seeker to job creator. The purpose of the research is to study opportunities and challenges ahead of start-ups in emerging markets and analyse the possibility of globalisation. The study also includes analysing the existing business model of leading start-ups in emerging markets (India). Additionally, the study also aims to analyse the risk of over dependence of start-ups on technology in the long run. The study comes up with some interesting recommendations to start-ups for the prosperity of their business and categorically suggested that technology can be an enabler but creating value is the core of any business.
    Keywords: business model of start-ups; internationalisation of start-ups; institutional supports; emerging markets; organisational development; redefining business model; the sharing boom; start-ups under covid-2019; start- ups in India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10058848
  • EMO Sapiens: a study on the enchantment of emoted language and its impact on the emoji usage behaviour of the interlocutors   Order a copy of this article
    by Rashmi Jacob 
    Abstract: The term sapiens is commonly used in conjunction with the ancient Greek word Homo describing a species of bipedal primates to which modern human belongs. Emo Sapiens is characterised by the species of humans enchanted with the development of emoted language in the multimodal online environment. The objective of the study is to understand the factors affecting the emoji usage behaviour of interlocutors in the process of online communication on social media platforms. For this study, a survey questionnaire is used with the purpose to understand the growing emoji usage in online communication and its impact on the usage behaviour of interlocutors. Based on the responses, the structural equation modelling approach (SEM) is used to test four hypotheses. The standardised beta of the cause and effect relationship indicates conceptual clarity and the mood are the leading influencers on the usage behaviour of the interlocutors. Conceptual clarity is found to have the maximum impact on emoji usage in informal online communication on the different social media platforms.
    Keywords: emoji; confirmatory factor analysis; CFA; structural equation model; SEM; current usage behaviour; emoted developments.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10058850
  • Validation of buyer supplier relationship value dimensions- Qualitative study based evidence from auto component industry India   Order a copy of this article
    by Pranay More, Jaideep Jejurikar, Anil Keskar, Santosh Gopalkrishnan 
    Abstract: Contemporary studies done by both the researchers as well as the industry practitioners working in the marketing domain, have widely explored the concept of relationship value and its dimensions. Despite its expanding body of literature, limited study about the applicability of these dimensions amongst the relationship between the lower tier supply chain partners can be found in the marketing literature. This study seeks to validate the established relationship value dimensions amongst the relationship of, previously unmapped, upstream supply chain partners. The study is comprehensive in nature when compared with prior studies as it integrates the maximum number of value drivers (6 nos) and indicators (15 nos). The focal point of the study is the coalition of tier-1 and the tier-2 supply chain partners in Indian autocomponent industry. This paper offers twin insights; from a literary standpoint, it paves the way for further quantitative research in investigating the influence of these dimensions on relationship value at the level of upstream supply chain partners. From the application perspective, the inferences urges that the autocomponent supply chain partners to emphasise their efforts on these studied dimensions which will aid in establishing strong competitive advantage over their counterparts.
    Keywords: auto component supply chain; buyer-seller relationships; relationship value; value in a relationship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10046386
  • A study of female consumer buying behaviour towards organic personal care product   Order a copy of this article
    by Minakshi Sharma, Manisha Goel, Rajiv Sindwani 
    Abstract: In investigating the consumer buying behaviour towards organic personal care products (OPCP) among Indian female consumers, the current paper reports findings of a study conducted in Delhi NCR region. The aim of the study is to identify the dimensions that influence female consumer buying behaviour towards OPCP and to identify the influence of various OPCP dimensions on consumer satisfaction. The literature suggests that the present work is among the pioneers in the field of Indian female buying behaviour towards organic personal care segment. Five dimensions namely health and safety, knowledge and awareness, hedonism, social factors, and labelling and certification are proposed on the basis of factor analysis. The relationship between OPCP dimensions and satisfaction was investigated using structured equation modelling. Findings revealed that all five dimensions have positive significant influence on customer satisfaction. The findings also revealed that social factors and labelling and certification showed the strongest effect on consumer satisfaction. The study provides insights for cosmetic firms and academicians.
    Keywords: organic personal care products; consumer buying behaviour; customer satisfaction; factor analysis; structural equation modeling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10058849
  • Impact of Microfinance on Socio-economic Status of Women Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries: A Sentiment Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruchika Bal, Kanwal Anil 
    Abstract: Microfinance has brought the ray of light in the times of darkness by financing the marginalised. Various studies have shown the evidence that microfinance has deeply influenced the economic as well as social capital of women in developing countries. The research evaluates the effect of microfinance on socio-economic status of women entrepreneurs in the developing countries. This study is based on the descriptive analysis performed through text-mining, sentiment analysis using NLP in RStudio and a systematic review of literature in the context of developing countries. The findings from the research underline that although microfinance has carved its niche in developing nations in building a positive image about itself, there are, however, certain factors that may retract this positive position. The present research can prove to be a useful reference point for micro finance institutions and policy making institutions in designing microfinancing programmes and policies more holistically, worldwide.
    Keywords: microfinance; empowerment; gender equality; socio-economic status; women entrepreneurs; global phenomenon; developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10042809

Special Issue on: SIMSARC'20 The Indian Economy Transcending Barriers through Innovative Global Management Practices

  • Influence of Advertisement's Controversial Element and Emotional Appeal on Customer Intention to Buy   Order a copy of this article
    by Prabha Kiran, Jayanta Banerjee, Vasudevan M, Krishna Kishore S V 
    Abstract: This paper studies the influence of an advertisements controversial element and emotional appeal on the customer intention to buy. The research paper is both exploratory and conclusive. S-O-R model was used for the study. Convenience sampling was used to draw a sample of 264 respondents. The data were tested for reliability, correlation and regression. The advertisements controversial element and emotional appeal significantly influence the customers intention to buy. The controversial element and the emotional appeal are positively correlated with the customer intention to buy. The research was done within a limited time and resources. The future research paper can include more moderators in the research model. The research paper provides a better understanding of the emotional appeal and the controversial element of an advertisement on customer intention to buy.
    Keywords: controversial element; emotional appeal; customer intention to buy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10048253
  • A study on adoption of mobile wallet: Moderating role of Gender   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhavna Prajapati, Arijit Goswami, Archa Agrawal, Drishti Tibrewala 
    Abstract: The cashless economy is growing with ease of usage and its applicability. Mobile wallet helps in payment electronically with the use of a device. The modes of payment have shifted from traditional way to digital payment. Several factors like attitude, mobility, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, and social influence encourage the customers to use mobile wallets. The paper aims to find out the various factors, which motivate people in the adoption of mobile wallets. To add more gender was used as moderating variable to investigate whether males and females are of the same opinion towards intention to use mobile wallets. A total of 238 respondents were administered by partial least square structural equational modelling (PLS SEM) in Smart PLS version 3.3.2. The paper will be beneficial for all the e-wallet companies.
    Keywords: cashless economy; digital payment; mobile wallet; social influence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10048254
  • A study on Managerial Capabilities (Entrepreneurial Orientation and Mindset) and respective international opportunity exploitation in North Indian SMEs of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek Misra, Arpit Khurana, Rajesh Shankar Sharma 
    Abstract: The study focuses on the middle rung managers and their perceptions of capabilities as influencing their ability to exploit international growth opportunities across developing economy. The study operationalises the managerial capabilities with aid of two broad set of factors representing managerial perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation and dimensions of managerial individual global mindset. The managerial perceptions of exploiting international opportunity have been operationalised with aid of factors of internationalisation drive, export engagement and export commitment. The study focuses on the traditional and new age small to medium enterprises in Northern India namely automobile, textile, ITES and Biopharma clusters. The study seeks to examine the influences of capabilities across managerial class on their respective firm based international opportunity exploitation.
    Keywords: global mindsets; managerial capabilities; internationalisation drive; export commitment; export engagement; firm’s entrepreneurial orientation; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10044741
  • Culture, employee well-being and engagement relationship: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Sivapragasam Panneerselvam, Kavitha Balaraman 
    Abstract: The study purported to identify elements of positive culture and explore the effect of positive culture on engagement, well-being, and efficacy levels of knowledge professionals in Indian IT and ITES organisations. A sample of 626 knowledge professionals drawn from multiple IT companies identified through multi-stage sampling. This study show that the positive culture is positively related to employee well-being (path = 0.29, p < 0.01) and in turn, the intervening variable employee well-being is positively and significantly related (path = 0.58, p < 0.01) to the dependent variables such as work-related perceived efficacy and to engaged employee (path = 0.44, p < 0.01). Compared to the direct effect of positive culture on employee efficacy beliefs and engagement level, the study asserts that employee well-being plays a mediating role in the culture-engagement relationship.
    Keywords: employee well-being; engaged employees; IT industry; knowledge professionals; India; perceived efficacy; positive culture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10047876
    by Amir Hafizullah Khan, Rijuta P. Joshi, Kimsy Gulhane 
    Abstract: Online video streaming services industry has experienced a radical shift among consumer choices towards entertainment content. It is not only witnessing the shift from traditional habit of content consumption to the binge-watching behaviour among viewers but also addressing the increased concern among online streaming content providers to woo buyers. From a survey administered to online streaming content subscribers, researchers in the current study have identified factors that influence consumer buying behaviour towards online streaming services, several of which are different than the ones found in the previous studies. These parameters were selected by considering social commerce and social media marketing efforts of the firms. The study sought to capture the impact of selected indicators on consumer buying behaviour towards online streaming services. A conceptual model was tested using structural equation modelling which proved the goodness of fit of the model. Theoretical implications and future development of factors influencing online streaming content adoption among consumers were also discussed.
    Keywords: consumer buying behaviour; CBB; decision making; social media; social commerce; online streaming services; OSS; OTT platforms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10047899
    by Uzoma Ogbonna, Collins Irem, Chioma Ibiam 
    Abstract: This study examined poverty reduction in Nigeria: the impact of financial inclusion with the objective of determining the impact of financial inclusion on poverty reduction in Nigeria. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test, the Johansen cointegration and error correction model were used in data analysis. The study revealed that commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults and depositors with commercial bank per 1,000 adults have positive and significant impact on poverty reduction in Nigeria while borrowers from commercial banks has negative and significant impact on poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study recommended that commercial banks should increase their marketing strategies in order to attract much deposits. In the same vein, banks should be encouraged to expand branch operations to penetrate the rural economy so as to encourage the poor have access to financial services and reduce poverty incidence and borrowers should be educated on the implication of misappropriation of borrowed fund.
    Keywords: financial inclusion; poverty index; poverty alleviation; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2021.10048259
  • Relationship between organisational learning and business architecture: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Debangsu Sarma Chaudhuri, Partha Sarkar 
    Abstract: In this study, the relationship between organisational learning (OL) and business architecture (BA) is objectively established by using three different approaches. Organisational learning for this research is characterised by using aspects like employee knowledge for development of the organisation through the process of knowledge acquisition, transition, development and synthesis whereas that of business architecture involves information and synergy between environment-strategy-structure-process-output paradigm. The present research has been carried out in the port and shipping industry of India. Data were collected through validated questionnaires and analysed by canonical correlation, bivariate correlation and stepwise regression. In all the three cases, it was found that the constructs are highly correlated as a whole as well as between individual variables.
    Keywords: organisational learning; business architecture; knowledge; learning; canonical correlation; stepwise regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10047877

Special Issue on: ICBM-2019 Innovation, Business and Globalisation

  • An Effectiveness Measurement Model for Knowledge Management A Balanced Scorecard Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Meenu Chopra, Vikas Gupta 
    Abstract: The industry is transforming immensely to adapt to the challenges of globalisation and deregulation coupled with fast-paced convergence of technological resources, spur innovation, achieving operational efficiency and dilution of industry boundaries. There is an increased focus on organisational excellence and KM can help play a significant role in the process. All these changes are opening a completely new terrain for organisations and converging on aggregating and processing internal and external knowledge is inevitable in this profoundly competitive market place. The purpose of conducting this research is to identify the prominent KM practices in knowledge-intensive sectors and propose an instrument for gauging their implementation and impact on the measures of organisational performance. The study endorses the previous studies and uses both qualitative and quantitative research techniques for the development of an instrument in the Indian IT sector. Thorough literature review followed by the collection of firm-level data is used to specify the domain of construct, generate scale items, purify and validate the scale. A measurement model is proposed and tested with the help of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The research proposes a 31-item scale to measure KM practices under nine heads - culture, people integration of HRM and KM, KM leadership, information and communication technology (ICT) for KM, network and alliances for KM, learning and growth, internal process perspective, customer service perspective and financial performance perspective. The scale exhibits internal consistency and unidimensionality and also clears the reliability and validity tests - construct, convergent and discriminant. The proposed scale developed in this study would be a practical management tool for measuring KM practices in organisations and assessing its impact on all the dimensions of organisation performance.
    Keywords: knowledge management (KM); knowledge management practices; balanced scorecard (BSC); scale; validity; reliability; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

  • Do Socially Responsible Funds perform better? A case study of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruchi Kansil 
    Abstract: An investment is considered socially responsible depending on the nature of the business the investee company conducts. The growing importance of socially responsible behaviour has led to the emergence of socially responsible funds which are mutual funds which invest in socially responsible companies. Existing research suggests that since the beginning of the early 20th century, these investors are a means by which significant influence can be exerted over businesses to act responsibly. The present paper attempts to explore whether or not such funds outperform the market in the Indian context. The results corroborate the fact that socially responsible funds do not underperform the market. As a consequence, the study intends to fill the existing gap in the literature on socially responsible funds as well as socially responsible investments. The results of the paper would help to promote socially responsible investment practices amongst investors and initiate financial authorities, government, regulators and other stakeholders to formulate policies and norms for the same.
    Keywords: socially responsible investment; SRI; socially responsible funds; responsible behaviour; ESG investment; ESG funds; ESG Indices; ESG Benchmark; SRI Benchmark; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10033467
  • The Emerging Role of Mobile Banking in Domestic Financial Remittance by Poor: Evidence from Urban Slums of Delhi   Order a copy of this article
    by Shruti Malik, Girish Chandra Maheshwari, Archana Singh 
    Abstract: Over the past few decades domestic financial remittance has considerably increased in India. However, migrants residing in urban areas face many issues in remitting money to far and distant places. In this respect the significance of mobile banking should be highlighted to disseminate various banking services in places of poor financial access. Considering this backdrop, the purpose of this paper is to study the impact of mobile banking in domestic remittance by poor residing in urban slums of Delhi. The empirical models were studied through probit and tobit regression. This paper suggests a significant role of mobile banking in domestic remittances of money by poor. The research findings are useful to various banks and policymakers in improving mobile banking services for financial remittance by poor in urban areas.
    Keywords: domestic remittance; financial inclusion; mobile banking; urban slums.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2020.10035548

Special Issue on: Challenges and Opportunities in the Digital Era Management and IT

  • Exploring the Development of Social Entrepreneurship in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Chandni Sengupta, Sunil Mishra 
    Abstract: The philosophy of social entrepreneurship is very much useful as it contributes to environmental sustainability; promotes gender equality; improves health; imparts vocational skills etc. It is connected with CSR that has come a long way in India. From approachable activities to justifiable initiatives, corporates today have exhibited their ability to make a noteworthy difference in society and improve the overall quality of life. Corporate have the expertise, strategic thinking, manpower and money to facilitate extensive social change. Effective partnerships between Corporate, NGOs and the Government will place India's social development on a faster track. Under the social responsibilities of entrepreneurship, the employees become the backbone of these initiatives and volunteer their time and contribute their skills, to implement them. The objective of this paper is to critically explore processes and initiatives taken for the growth of social entrepreneurship in India and to examine the development of the community through CSR and entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; CSR; Community; Wellbeing.

    by Manish Madan, Ankita Popli 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to identify the various factors enabling Digitalisation in India, to establish a relationship between various factors enabling Digitalisation in India, and to present the complex relationship among these factors in the form of an Interpretive Structural Model/ Design/Methodology/Approach: Descriptive research has been applied, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. The researchers have interviewed experts and as far as the secondary data is concerned that was obtained from web sites, journals etc. There are 37 different parameters, which are under nine dimensions were tested by ISM technique done with the help of expert opinions. Interpretative Structural Modeling is a process in which a set of interlinked elements are given a form of a comprehensive and a systematic model. In the present work only 37 variables are identified for modeling digitalisation of country. More number of variables can be identified to develop ISM. The experts' help have been sought to analyze driving and dependence power of the variables. Here the framework developed depends upon the opinion of few experts and has some element of bias. Through ISM, a relationship model among digitalisation variables has been developed. This model has not been statistically validated. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has the capability of testing the validity of the model. Therefore, it may be applied in the future research to test the validity of this model. rn
    Keywords: Digital India; Factors enabling Digitalisation and Interpretive Structural Model,.

Special Issue on: Development Bridging the Gaps in Emerging Economies

  • Macro-Economic Environment and Credit Risk of Islamic Banking in a Dual Banking System: Evidence from Malaysia and Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdulazeez Abdurraheem, Md. Mahmudul Alam, Ibrahim Abiodun Oladapo, Ibraheem Abdurraheem 
    Abstract: Understanding the effects of the macro-economic environments dynamics on the credit risk of Islamic banking in a dual banking system could help the Islamic banking industry. This article empirically investigates this issue based on Malaysian and Indonesian data from 2007 to 2017 by using the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) cointegration modelling approach. The study finds a significant long-term relationship between the Islamic banking credit risk and macroeconomic factors such as GDP, conventional interest rates and exchange rate movements. The findings of this study will further enrich our understanding of the impact of the economic environment, particularly the movement of conventional interest rates on the operations and credit risk profile of Islamic banks in a dual banking environment. Findings of this study are expected to benefit not only Islamic bank personnel but also regulatory authorities and policy-makers operating in dual banking environments.
    Keywords: Credit risk; Islamic Banking; Macroeconomic environment; Dual banking system; DOLS; Cointegration.

  • Impact of Social Media on Marketing and Operational Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Jordan: Applying the Delphi Method in Social Media Studies   Order a copy of this article
    by Marzouq Al-Qeed 
    Abstract: Social media channels have achieved a worldwide reach and growing reputation over the last decade. Companies throughout the world now use them as part of their marketing and other business activities. This study explores the effect of social media and particularly in Jordan, how the concept of engagement impacts on Jordanian SMEs and what is the influence of word-of-mouth for those SMEs. The study also investigates the social media marketing efficacy of Jordanian SMEs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews using the Delphi method and five social media experts based in Jordan were interviewed. Result shows that social media is mostly used for promotion and brand creation in Jordan. However, the companies in Jordan have yet to apply both online and offline strategies when using social media. This study will create important insights for managers and policymakers about how they can capitalize on social media platforms in framing their marketing and operational strategies.
    Keywords: Social media; Social media marketing; Delphi method; Bidirectional communication; Operations; Jordan.

    by Nurazilah Zainal, Law Siong Hook, Mohammed Hariri Bakri, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Soheil Kazemian 
    Abstract: This study attempts to examine existence of Fisher Effect theory in Malaysias conventional and Islamic money markets. Time series data has been included for the years 2011 to 2018 and consists of two stages of data analysis. First stage analysis examines the existence of a Fisher Effect relationship by applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach as an estimation method. Second stage analysis determines the strength of the Fisher Effect relationship. The findings suggest that the Fisher Effect theory exists in Malaysias Islamic money market but there is evidence for this in the conventional one. This outcome suggests that the Islamic money market can accurately predict inflation in the future. However, it appears in a weak form of relationship. Overall, outcomes of this study provide benefits for policy-makers since the existence of the Fisher relationship reflects an effective monetary policy for economic growth and sustainable development.
    Keywords: Islamic Money Market rates; Fisher effect; Inflation rates; Monetary Policy; ARDL cointegration test.

  • Effect of Indonesian certification system and environmental sustainability practices on palm oil firm performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ria Nelly Sari, Dinda Intan Suri, Rita Anugerah, Vince Ratnawati, Erlane K Ghani 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine the effect of ISPO certificates on environmental sustainability practices and the effect of environmental sustainability practices on firm performance. This study also examines the role of environmental sustainability practices as a mediating variable that influences the relationship between ISPO certificates and firm performance. Data for this study were collected through a questionnaire submitted directly to managers of 158 SMEs in the palm oil industry in Riau Province, Indonesia. 134 responses were returned and analyzed by WarpPLS. The results showed that the ISPO certificate has a positive influence on firm performance and environmental sustainability practices. The findings suggest that palm oil companies have to obtain palm oil certificates to maintain their environmental sustainability practices and subsequently improve performance.
    Keywords: ISPO certification; environmental sustainability practices; firm performance; WarpPLS; Indonesia.

  • Corporate Governance and Earnings Management: Does Board Composition Matters?   Order a copy of this article
    by Aziatul Waznah Ghazali, D. Agus Harjito, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Jamaliah Said 
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between Board of directors composition and the practice of real earnings management of Malaysian listed firms. Malaysian corporate landscape offers an interesting platform for a study on relationship-based capitalism. The sample of this study comprise of 651 Malaysian listed firms from the period of 2010 2014. This study offers a contemporary study focusing on the relationship between the composition and diversity in the boardroom of directors and real earnings management. The findings of the study shows that boardroom with women on board, foreign directors and having directors with international experience are more inclined to engaged in real earnings management. In the wake of recent corporate failures and corporate governance reforms, this study should provide a greater contribution in understanding the relationship between board of directors attributes and financial reporting quality from the perspective of a multi-racial developing country.
    Keywords: Financial Misreporting; Corporate Governance; Real Earnings Management; Board of Directors; Earnings Quality.

  • Capital Structure, Liquidity and Firms Value: Evidence from Emerging Market in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Sholihun, Grahita Chandrarin, Prihat Assih, Diyah Sukanti Cahyaningsih 
    Abstract: This study examines the influence of liquidity on capital structure and firm value, and corporate governance is used as a variable to moderate the relationship between capital structure and firm value. This study uses a sample of companies in the manufacturing industry whose shares are actively traded on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The data used is data pooling, the cross-section data and time-series data, the period 2010 to 2014. Sampling by purposive sampling, while the analysis technique using phat analysis. First result, liquidity has a negative and significant effect on a company's capital structure. Second, liquidity has no significant effect on firm value. Third, capital structure analysis has a significant effect on firm value. Fourth, liquidity negatively affects firm value through capital structure. Fifth: analysis of the influence of corporate governance on the relationship between capital structure and firm value shows a positive and significant relationship
    Keywords: Capital Structure; Corporate Governance; Firm Value; Liquidity.

  • Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure: A Case Study of ASEAN-4 Large Non-Financial Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaratin Lily, Imbarine Bujang, Mori Kogid, Debbra Toria Anak Nipo, Normah Haji Omar 
    Abstract: Most research on exchange rate exposure concentrates on the symmetric framework, but little research has considered the asymmetric framework. For this reason the present study applies the asymmetric framework to investigate how exchange rate movements affect large non-financial firms share return in ASEAN-4 (Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand) using the Non-linear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) model. The study results provided support for asymmetric exchange rate exposure mainly in Indonesia and Malaysia. Further analysis of asymmetries indicated some firms experienced multiple asymmetric exchange rate exposure and especially in Thailand. The findings provide an alternative explanation for the exchange rate exposure puzzle. As well, stakeholders such as financial managers and policymakers should not ignore the multiple asymmetric exchange rate exposure when they are formulating an appropriate hedging strategy.
    Keywords: Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure; Orthogonal Market Return; ASEAN-4; NARDL; Non-Financial Firm.

  • The Political Economy of Saudi Arabias Vision 2030 in the era of Globalisation: The Role of Islam   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The world's current and pervasive global religious upheavals have been strongly identified with Islamic fundamentalism in several African and Middle East countries. This form of religious belief has generated much interest in its implications for the Saudi Arabian government's Vision 2030 strategy and how the Islamic religion is practised. This paper investigates the reasons why religious extremism in Saudi Arabia is very minimal, and how this state of affairs can be harnessed to achieve Vision 2030. A qualitative research method is employed here and the paper surmises that while religious extremists subject individuals and communities to distorted forms of religious beliefs and dogma, fundamentalist beliefs should be harnessed to moderate practices of religious principles. Such beliefs can serve as essential resources that could be mobilised and deployed to achieve economic development throughout an increasingly globalised world.
    Keywords: Africa; development agenda; extremists; fundamentalism; Saudi Arabia; Vision 2030.

  • Impact of human and Islamic social capital on Inclusive Economic Growth: Evidence from Malaysia and Nigeria.   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruhaini Muda, Ibrahim Abiodun Oladapo, Roshayani Arshad, Rahayu Abdul Rahman 
    Abstract: This study analyses the extent to which human capital and social capital contribute to economic growth. This study makes use of panel data for 14 states from 2005 to 2014 for Malaysia and eight states between 2009 and 2013 for Nigeria. These are two emerging economies of Muslim-dominated countries. This study uses zakat collections as social capital and enrolment rate while the poverty index serves as a proxy for human capital. Findings show that there is a positive and significant effect of social and human capital on the economic growth of both countries. Moreover, results indicate that Islamic social capital increases the potential for stimulating positive economic growth that creates opportunities for society. This study will assist policymakers to formulate a suitable policy response based on Islamic social and human capital for inclusive growth. Such a policy could form part of the solutions to many contemporary societal issues, including poverty and income inequality.
    Keywords: Islamic social capital; inclusive economic growth; Malaysia; Nigeria.

  • Do Islamic and Conventional Credit Cards Significantly Differ in Malaysia?   Order a copy of this article
    by Md Mahmudul Alam, Md. Kashedul Tuhin, Ibrahim Oladapo, Khadar Dirie 
    Abstract: This study is aimed at empirically investigating the differences between the Islamic and conventional credit cards in Malaysia. The study analyses 234 credit cards by using descriptive and one-way ANOVA. The data were collected from RinggitPlus and Imoney websites. Islamic credit cards are based on the principles of Islamic law (Shariah) while conventional credit cards as used in the West are not, but in many cases Islamic and conventional credit cards do follow the same features such as cash back, minimum annual income, annual profit/interest rate, interest/charge rate for late payment, and interest/charges for cash withdrawal. However, there are a few cases where the features of both cards significantly differ, for example: interest/profit rate, balance transfer fees, annual fees, cash withdrawal fees, and annual fees for supplementary cards. The findings of this study will generate important insights for the managers and decision-makers in Malaysias credit card market.
    Keywords: Credit card; Islamic Finance; Conventional Finance; Interest rate; Malaysia.

    by Rintan Nuzul Ainy, Jamaliah Said 
    Abstract: The information of corporate social responsibility is considered as a signal that the companies have been able to meet the interests of all stakeholders. Whereas, corporate governance function is to control the management behaviours to act in accordance to companys interest. The study investigates the direct relationship between the corporate governance quality and the company performance. Subsequently, this study examines the mediating effect of corporate social responsibility and the relationship between corporate governance and company performance. Corporate governance quality ensures companys ability to fulfil the interests of the stakeholders. The data were obtained from annual report of 100 manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results show that the companies that disclose more CSR information and having stronger corporate governance tend to perform better. This indicates that CSR information is considered as a signal that the companies have been able to meet the interests of stakeholders.
    Keywords: corporate governance; corporate social responsibility; CSR; company performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10037094
  • Impact of Government Size and Regulatory Efficiency to Microfinance Institutions Efficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Nazratul Aina Mohamad Anwar, Fakarudin Kamarudin, Hafezali Iqbal Hussain, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Wong Hor Yaan 
    Abstract: The development of microfinance institutions (MFIs) contributes to providing financial services for the poor and small businesses. This research aims to examine the impact of economic freedom dimensions which are the government size and regulatory efficiency, MFIs specific characteristics, macroeconomics determinants to the social efficiency (SE) and financial efficiency (FE) of MFIs in the Philippines and Malaysia. The chosen study period is 2011 to 2017. The non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach is applied in the first stage of analysis to identify the efficiency level of MFIs while the multiple panel regression model is employed in the second stage of analysis. Apart from this the Generalised Least Squares (GLS) regression is used to identify and explain the determinants of social efficiency and financial efficiency. The robustness test results show that financial efficiency is more significant and efficient than MFIs social efficiency. This indicates MFIs in the Philippines and Malaysia focus more on sustainability rather than their primary social objective of providing financial services to low-income households. The MFIs, government, policy-makers, investors, and future researchers will obtain important insights into MIFs efficiency from this research.
    Keywords: Microfinance Institutions; economic freedom; government size and regulatory efficiency; financial efficiency; social efficiency.

  • The Moderating Effect of Good Governance on the Relationship between Family Ownership Structure and Aggressive Transfer Pricing   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Khoiru Rusydi, Lindawati Gani, Setio Anggoro Dewo, Jusuf Halim, Sharifah Norzehan Syed Yusuf 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, is to examine the relationship between family ownership structure and aggressive transfer pricing. Then this study examines the moderating effect of good governance implementation on the relationship between family ownership structure and ATP. A sample of 840 ASEAN public listed companies from year 20132016. This study shows that family ownership structure has a negative relationship with ATP. Additionally, this study also provides new evidence that the quality of good governance strengthened the negative relationship between family ownership and ATP. This indicates the importance of the synergy between family ownership and good governance in further minimising the ATP practices. This study offers a new measurement perspective on the aggressiveness of transfer pricing in ASEAN by using profit level indicator (PLI) method. This study has important implications for developing a more specific policy to reduce state losses due to abusive transfer pricing practices.
    Keywords: family ownership; aggressive transfer pricing; ATP; corporate governance; government governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2022.10036893
  • Enhancing Financial Reporting Quality: Does the Mandatory Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards Matter in Developing Economies?   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Kyari 
    Abstract: This study explores the relationship between compulsory implementation of international Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and financial reporting quality (FRQ) using accrual and value relevance models. Guided by the agency and signaling theories, data were collected from the published accounts of commercial listed companies on the Nigerian stock exchange. The study revealed that the information disclosed in financial statements of Nigerian banks are value relevant. Equally, the study disclosed that earnings under IFRS are more persistent and have higher accrual value. The study concludes that the adoption of IFRS has improved the quality of information disclosed in financial reports of Nigerian banks. It also concludes that the monitoring and enforcement functions of relevant Nigerian authorities are satisfactory but not enough. While these conclusions have met the objectives of this study, further analyses are recommended particularly on banks that are not listed on the Nigerian stock exchange.
    Keywords: Financial; reporting; quality; standard; earnings; value; adoption; agency; signaling; mandatory.

  • Comparative Analysis of Islamic and Conventional Credit Cards in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Dwipraptono Agus Harjito, Md. Mahmudul Alam, Mohammed Shakib, Ahmad Aljumah 
    Abstract: This study aims at comparing the Islamic vs. conventional credit cards in Malaysia based on the data of 51 Islamic and 183 conventional credit cards operating in Malaysia. The findings show that despite being Shariah-based, Islamic credit cards share the same features with conventional credit cards regarding minimum income requirement, annual interest or profit rate, late payment charge rate and cash withdrawal rate. However, the features for annual and late payment fees and charges for supplementary cards differ between these two types of cards. This is a pioneer study on a comparative analysis between the financial and non-financial features of Islamic and conventional credit cards in Malaysia. This study endeavours to deliver significant insights about the two types of credit cards which assists people to take decision on gaining competitive advantage by selecting appropriate credit card.
    Keywords: Credit card; Islamic Credit card; Interest; Shariah compliant; Entrepreneurship; Malaysia.

    by Silvia Indrarini, Grahita Chandrarin, Edi Subiyantoro, Diyah Sukanti Cahyaningsih 
    Abstract: Firm value is the investors perception of a companys success rate that is often associated with stock prices. Increased stock prices indicate an increase in the shareholders wealth. This study aims to examine the direct and indirect effects of good corporate governance on earnings quality and firm value. The population is all manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2011-2016 period. The data is analyzed using SEM-PLS model. The results show that good corporate governance has a significant effect on earnings predictability as a measure of earnings quality; earnings predictability has a significant effect on firm value, and good corporate governance has a significant effect on firm value both directly and indirectly through earnings predictability.
    Keywords: good corporate governance; earnings predictability; firm value.