Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Blockchains and Cryptocurrencies

International Journal of Blockchains and Cryptocurrencies (IJBC)

These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

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International Journal of Blockchains and Cryptocurrencies (6 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Consensus protocols as a model of trust in blockchains   Order a copy of this article
    by Auqib Hamid Lone, Roohie Naaz Mir 
    Abstract: Blockchain is a decentralised, replicated, transparent and immutable data store. Blockchains are best described not as 'trustless', but on the basis of distributed trust: trusting everyone in aggregate. Consensus protocols are the heart and soul of the blockchains as they help in achieving this distributed trust. Blockchains are updated via the consensus protocols that guarantee their consistency and integrity over geographically distributed network nodes. Various algorithms can be applied to achieve a consensus based on the requirements like performance, security, scalability, consistency, and failure redundancy. Creating a global fair decentralised consensus protocol is of prime importance, in order to address above-mentioned requirements sufficiently. This paper focuses on analysing the already proposed consensus protocols adopted by popular blockchain platforms to determine their feasibility and efficiency. Parameters that are critical in evaluating blockchain consensus protocol are also discussed. This paper also analyses the hardness of achieving the fair decentralised trust with proof.
    Keywords: blockchain; consensus protocol; Byzantine fault tolerance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBC.2019.10020421
  • Cryptocurrencies: the communication inside blockchain technology and the cross-border tax law   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrea Romaoli Garcia, Pedro Henrique Romaoli Garcia 
    Abstract: This research aims to analyse the social event that is modifying the traditional financial system since the blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies came up. Taxation in international scenario were examined by the ideal from governments in a democratic system as an instrument that materialises human rights. The social observation approaches the legacy of Emile Durkheim philosophy who established a power relationship between social fact and coercion. Taxation has been the focal point in smart economy to juridical scientists and everyone involved in the digital economy. This research conducted tests and researches from historical and social method, seeking for laws, doctrine, jurisprudence and concrete case analysis in front of the philosophical school of logical-semantic constructivism as a suitable means to verify the possibility of constructing a matrix rule of tax incidence. This research was enough to show that the blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies fulfils its humanitarian role in the smart economy.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; blockchain; cryptocurrency; domain name system; DNS; human rights; ICANN; international tax; logical-semantic constructivism; matrix rule; peer to peer; smart economy; United Nations; UN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBC.2019.10021394
  • Mathematical assessment of blocks acceptance in blockchain using Markov model   Order a copy of this article
    by Riktesh Srivastava 
    Abstract: Blockchain, introduced in bitcoin system is disrupting the way transactions are done in businesses via charging small transaction fees. It is observed that the acceptance of blocks in the blockchain is based on transaction value. Transmittals through blockchain are favoured due to low transaction cost and grander security. However, attempt of implementing blockchain to revolutionise business processes writhes from problem of waiting time for blocks. In this paper, the transaction-confirmation-time is appraised using queuing theory, where the approval rate of blocks in blockchain is concocted using Markov queue model. Four specific use cases of 1, 3, 6 and 60 confirmations are considered for practical purposes.
    Keywords: blockchain; transaction-confirmation time; distributed consensus mechanism; Markov model; waiting time.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBC.2019.10021395
  • A quick synopsis of blockchain technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Veeramani Karthika, Suresh Jaganathan 
    Abstract: Blockchain evolved as a core technology of Bitcoin, and earned a significant attraction for entrepreneurs and researchers nowadays. The blockchain is an open, immutable distributed public ledger that allows transactions to take place in a decentralised manner without a need for a trusted third party. Bitcoin, the first successful cryptocurrency, is a peer-to-peer electronic payment system. The thought for Bitcoin started as a means for making a secure currency that had no centralised control. Blockchain application is not only restricted to Bitcoin, but it also ignited the idea of using it for a wide range of fields such as ehealth, governance, arts, culture, education, electricity trading, etc. To apply this technology to many areas, one should have a complete understanding of what it is, this paper is meant to give a quick synopsis of blockchain technology (BT).
    Keywords: distributed public ledger; decentralisation; consensus mechanisms; digital signature; hash function; blockchain protocols.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBC.2019.10021396
  • Digital ledger technology-based real estate transaction mechanism and its block size assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikita Singh, Manu Vardhan 
    Abstract: Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is set to transform the existing architectural models of financial institutions and government machineries. Although real estate transactions are a major source for the governments to earn revenue, these are plagued with the risk of fraudulent practices. The digital documents are vulnerable to the alteration or any other attacks or can be tampered and ownership of the documents can be changed. The centralised storage involves single point of failure as well as network traffic overhead. The proposed distributed and decentralised blockchain-based architecture provides protection against any intrusive activity which is offset by the majority voting achieved in consensus mechanism for each transaction and verification request. The proposed work provides web interface for user queries and analysis of query search time is carried out.
    Keywords: DLT; inter planetary file system; IPFS; leader election; consensus mechanism; peer to peer network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBC.2019.10021397
  • Optimised and dynamic KYC system based on blockchain technology   Order a copy of this article
    by José Parra-Moyano, Tryggvi Thoroddsen, Omri Ross 
    Abstract: Systems that use blockchain technology to improve the know-your-customer (KYC) process have only been proposed at a conceptual level and all share certain attributes that make their adoption very difficult. We propose and program a blockchain-based system that reduces and shares out among the financial institutions (FIs) that work with a customer the costs of the KYC process and also makes it possible for FIs to dynamically update information related to customers and disseminates this information among participating FIs. Additionally, our system addresses some of the attributes that hinder the adoption of previously proposed solutions by FIs. The result is a stand-alone solution that reduces the cost of the KYC process without requiring any central instance to store the customer's data, and in which FIs share the initial costs of the KYC process as well as the running costs of keeping the information about customers up to date.
    Keywords: blockchain; know-your-customer; KYC; blockchain identity; distributed ledger technology; DLT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBC.2019.10021398