International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management (7 papers in press)
Is more automation always better? An empirical study of customers willingness to use autonomous vehicle functions
by Mohamed Souka, Daniel Böger, Reinhold Decker, Christian Stummer, Alisa Wiemann
Abstract: Sometime, many (maybe all) vehicles on our streets will drive autonomouslyor at least have autonomous functions. However, in the short run, consumers preferences regarding the automation of pivotal vehicle functions are not entirely clear. This paper accordingly investigates consumers willingness to use three levels of automation (none, partial, and full) of potentially autonomous vehicle functions (safety, parking prediction, and remote diagnostics). The results show that consumers willingness to use autonomous vehicle functions is generally the highest for moderately autonomous functions and that the willingness to use these functions decreases above a certain level of autonomy. This paper also finds that this effect is moderated by gender and depends on individual involvement level with respect to autonomous vehicle functions, that is, highly involved consumers are more likely to appreciate autonomous vehicle functions compared with low-involved consumers.
Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; autonomous vehicle functions; choice-based conjoint analysis; consumer preferences; involvement; level of automation; safety; parking prediction; remote diagnostics; willingness to use.
Pie sharing and pie expansion in buyer-supplier new product development partnerships
by Joachim Wölfel, Pan Theo Grosse-Ruyken
Abstract: Firms seek new product development (NPD) partnerships to achieve competitive advantage by pooling interorganizational resources. Although such collaborations may expand the partnerships total value pie, sharing the pie often results in poisonous win-lose rivalry amongst partners. This study investigates how automotive suppliers may gain competitive advantage and increase their financial stake within NPD partnerships with OEMs. We analyze sources of pie expansion from a resource-based view (RBV) perspective and the mediating role of fairness in pie sharing. As NPD partnerships also induce dependencies between collaborating firms, we extend the RBV with arguments from resource dependence theory (RDT). We test our predictions on a sample of 147 NPD partnerships between tier-1 suppliers and OEMs. Our findings suggest that fairness in pie sharing significantly mediates pie expansion. Moreover, NPD partnerships enable suppliers to increase OEMs dependency on their firm, which mediates suppliers competitive advantage, resulting in a more equitable division of the value pie.
Keywords: pie sharing; pie expansion; fairness; new product development; buyer-supplier partnerships; automotive industry; resource-based view; resource dependence theory; competitive advantage; financial distribution.
Shifting Patterns in the Application of Industrial Policy
by Greig Mordue
Abstract: The practice of industrial policy in economically advanced jurisdictions is examined, focusing on the post 2000 period. Building from literature and cases from the Canadian automotive industry, the paper demonstrates how actors engaged in the application of industrial policy in economically advanced, high labour cost jurisdictions have responded to shifting pressures and opportunities. Explanation is provided for how those changes have caused objectives to broaden from a focus on manufacturing to industrial R&D. While vertical industrial policy tools endure, the transition has prompted increased emphasis on horizontal industrial policy instruments. The cases also demonstrate that a shift has occurred from externally-generated projects towards internal, organic forms of development, a change that has elevated the primacy of internal, corporate champions in firm level investment attraction.
Keywords: industrial policy; automotive; Canada; research and development; R&D; Toyota; General Motors.
The diversity of agents and patent thicket evolution in electric vehicles
by Artemio Chavez, Arturo Lara
Abstract: The evolution of the inventive process in electric vehicles has been increasingly complex and thus the probability of patent thicket too. However, patent agents (individual inventors, companies, non-practicing entities, and alliances) are not homogeneous in interests and abilities. Based on information from the Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in the period 1976-2012, it is described: i) the growing complexity in the inventive activity of electric vehicles, ii) the characteristics and evolution in the inventive activity of agents and iii) the relation with patent thickets. It is shown that the evolution of patent thickets (from low to high complexity) is associated to the evolution of technological knowledge as well as the evolution of the agents.
Keywords: Patent thicket; diversity of agents; complexity; electric vehicles; intellectual property; anticommons; patent networks.
Customer Perceptions of Shared Autonomous Vehicle Usage: An Empirical Study
by Amy Wong, Peter Rinderer
Abstract: Changes in demographics and mobility behavior such as the increasing participation in shared economies and the evolving trend of autonomous driving has accelerated the move towards autonomous mobility services. Coupled with the changing needs, perceptions and behaviors of customers, it is crucial that automobile manufacturers and mobility service providers deliver excellent customer service and build long-term customer relationships. This study examined customer perceptions of technology availability, internet connectivity, safety, reliability, service provider attributes and their relationships with customer perceived value and customer purchase intentions in mobility services. Data was collected from 206 respondents via an online survey. The findings showed that the best predictor of customer perceived value is technology availability, while the best predictor of purchase intentions is service provider attributes. The findings provide important insights for automobile manufacturers and mobility service providers. Further discussion and implications are provided.
Keywords: customer perceived value; purchase intentions; shared autonomous vehicles.
Mexican competitive advantage in NAFTA: A case of social dumping? A view from the Automotive Industry
by Alex Covarrubias V
Abstract: In the midst of the NAFTA renegotiations, the Mexican Automotive Industry (MAI) has drawn much attention. Gaining a progressive share of markets, jobs and portfolio investments within the region and accounting for the entire U.S. trade deficit, the MAI is one of the most critical pieces in the way of a new NAFTA. In addition, the US president, Donald Trump, has criticized it as an example of the shortcomings of the old agreement. These facts call for a better assessment of the MAIs sources of competitive advantage.
This paper builds on business cycle theories and socio-economic perspectives of market embedded institutions to provide an additional lens with which to study the MAI and NAFTA. It presents theory and evidence to demonstrate that the MAI position rests on social dumping policies that underpin illegitimate sources of competitive advantage. It then discusses the issues at stake in the current NAFTA renegotiations.
Keywords: NAFTA; Automotive Industry; Labor; Social Dumping; Renegotiations; Trump administration.
Dynamic Capabilities in the Automotive Industry under Digitalisation – A Quantitative Study in the Automotive Supplier Industry
by Heike Proff, Florian Knobbe
Abstract: Digitalisation affects companies at all firm levels: It enables digital processes, digital products/services and digital business models and therefore also complete new digital value systems, and leads to long-term discontinuous change, particularly in the capital-intensive automotive industry. Dealing with changes demands the dynamic capabilities of sensing, seizing and reconfiguring operational capabilities and changing business activities. In times of long-term discontinuous changes under digitalisation, different patterns of (more or less discontinuous and comprehensive) activation of dynamic capabilities and their utilisation for changes in operational capabilities and business activities can be determined. A quantitative study at German automotive suppliers shows that companies fall into five distinct patterns of activating and utilising dynamic capabilities under digitalisation and that this results in distinct leverage points in the business activities.
Keywords: Dynamic capabilities, digitalisation, (dis)continuity, digital value system, automotive suppliers