International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management
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International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management (12 papers in press)
Abstract: To meet transport sector obligations to emissions reductions, large effects may be derived from intelligent transportation systems (ITS) solutions. Substantial decrease of vehicle miles travelled (VMT) can be achieved using transportation systems management (TSM) measures, especially through high-occupancy vehicles (HOV) incentives. Of these, carpooling and vanpooling approaches proved to be effective. However, there is a lack of reliable enforcement procedures. A review of automated vehicle occupancy verification (AVOV) research and development (R&D) is followed by a proposal focused on the Pan European emergency call 'eCall 112'. The concept explores options for an eCall 112 application as an enforcement tool in TSM operations with vehicle occupancy data contained in the minimum set of data (MSD) as the base for new road transport policy tools. A set of incentives is described which support transport and environmental objectives. The proposed enforcement may impact congestion levels in combination with HOV-lanes and without them. Climate, environment, and the performance of road transportation systems could benefit from integrated road safety and TSM operations.
Keywords: automated vehicle occupancy verification; AVOV; carpool; environment; general data privacy regulation; GDPR; information and communications technology; ICT; intelligent transportation system; ITS; transportation demand management; TDM; transportation systems management; TSM; transport policy; vanpool.
Is more automation always better? An empirical study of customers willingness to use autonomous vehicle functions
by Mohamed Souka, Daniel Böger, Reinhold Decker, Christian Stummer, Alisa Wiemann
Abstract: Sometime, many (maybe all) vehicles on our streets will drive autonomouslyor at least have autonomous functions. However, in the short run, consumers preferences regarding the automation of pivotal vehicle functions are not entirely clear. This paper accordingly investigates consumers willingness to use three levels of automation (none, partial, and full) of potentially autonomous vehicle functions (safety, parking prediction, and remote diagnostics). The results show that consumers willingness to use autonomous vehicle functions is generally the highest for moderately autonomous functions and that the willingness to use these functions decreases above a certain level of autonomy. This paper also finds that this effect is moderated by gender and depends on individual involvement level with respect to autonomous vehicle functions, that is, highly involved consumers are more likely to appreciate autonomous vehicle functions compared with low-involved consumers.
Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; autonomous vehicle functions; choice-based conjoint analysis; consumer preferences; involvement; level of automation; safety; parking prediction; remote diagnostics; willingness to use.
Pie sharing and pie expansion in buyer-supplier new product development partnerships
by Joachim Wölfel, Pan Theo Grosse-Ruyken
Abstract: Firms seek new product development (NPD) partnerships to achieve competitive advantage by pooling interorganizational resources. Although such collaborations may expand the partnerships total value pie, sharing the pie often results in poisonous win-lose rivalry amongst partners. This study investigates how automotive suppliers may gain competitive advantage and increase their financial stake within NPD partnerships with OEMs. We analyze sources of pie expansion from a resource-based view (RBV) perspective and the mediating role of fairness in pie sharing. As NPD partnerships also induce dependencies between collaborating firms, we extend the RBV with arguments from resource dependence theory (RDT). We test our predictions on a sample of 147 NPD partnerships between tier-1 suppliers and OEMs. Our findings suggest that fairness in pie sharing significantly mediates pie expansion. Moreover, NPD partnerships enable suppliers to increase OEMs dependency on their firm, which mediates suppliers competitive advantage, resulting in a more equitable division of the value pie.
Keywords: pie sharing; pie expansion; fairness; new product development; buyer-supplier partnerships; automotive industry; resource-based view; resource dependence theory; competitive advantage; financial distribution.
Shifting Patterns in the Application of Industrial Policy
by Greig Mordue
Abstract: The practice of industrial policy in economically advanced jurisdictions is examined, focusing on the post 2000 period. Building from literature and cases from the Canadian automotive industry, the paper demonstrates how actors engaged in the application of industrial policy in economically advanced, high labour cost jurisdictions have responded to shifting pressures and opportunities. Explanation is provided for how those changes have caused objectives to broaden from a focus on manufacturing to industrial R&D. While vertical industrial policy tools endure, the transition has prompted increased emphasis on horizontal industrial policy instruments. The cases also demonstrate that a shift has occurred from externally-generated projects towards internal, organic forms of development, a change that has elevated the primacy of internal, corporate champions in firm level investment attraction.
Keywords: industrial policy; automotive; Canada; research and development; R&D; Toyota; General Motors.
The diversity of agents and patent thicket evolution in electric vehicles
by Artemio Chavez, Arturo Lara
Abstract: The evolution of the inventive process in electric vehicles has been increasingly complex and thus the probability of patent thicket too. However, patent agents (individual inventors, companies, non-practicing entities, and alliances) are not homogeneous in interests and abilities. Based on information from the Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in the period 1976-2012, it is described: i) the growing complexity in the inventive activity of electric vehicles, ii) the characteristics and evolution in the inventive activity of agents and iii) the relation with patent thickets. It is shown that the evolution of patent thickets (from low to high complexity) is associated to the evolution of technological knowledge as well as the evolution of the agents.
Keywords: Patent thicket, diversity of agents, complexity, electric vehicles, intellectual property, anticommons, patent networks.
New business models and the sharing economy: impacts and challenges for the traditional automotive industry
by Eduardo Lúcio Lasmar Júnior, Rodrigo Marçal Gandia, Joel Yutaka Sugano, Thais Assis De Souza, Demóstenes Zegarra Rodriguez
Abstract: The outstanding features of a vehicle do not include great modifications for nearly 100 years, as the same to the major car manufacturers' business models (BM). Recent service's platforms related to urban mobility use, mostly, the sharing economy, resulting in disruptive innovations. This offer to the users new experiences in services (e.g., Uber) which provides the vehicle's use without the onus of ownership. From this perspective, this paper qualitatively evaluates the modifications in the automakers BM's standards based on strategies and innovations of the new businesses of the main groups of automotive manufacturers. As a result, we observed that traditional products-based automakers are already moving towards to fit in the new BM, which are impacted by the sharing economy. Finally, we proposed a framework based on an unbundled model operating synergistically in three types (customer relationship management, product/service innovation and infrastructure management).
Keywords: business model; automakers; sharing economy; disruptive innovation; OEM; mobility as a service.
Consumer-brand relationship development in the automotive market: an integrative model
by Hans Rüdiger Kaufmann, Cid Gonçalves Filho, Christiane Rocha e Silva, Plínio Rafael Reis Monteiro
Abstract: The nature of consumer-brand relationships (CBR) represents one of the topics with the most significant literary resonance in contemporary marketing. However, there is still a gap of a well-defined, integrated, and empirically tested model explaining the causal relationships of CBR's development stages. This study aims to explore and bridge this knowledge gap in the automotive market setting. In this sense, a survey of 427 consumers was carried out. The interrelated factors of the successive stages showed adequate levels of variance explanation. As word of mouth grows in importance, due to the spread of digital social networks, the research's results suggest that the development of attachment/love should become a primordial challenge to develop consumer-brand relationships. The main knowledge contribution of this research is the test of an integrated CBR model focused on the automotive market. The final CBR model reflects a fair level of consistency and provides a useful basis for practitioners to plan in detail actions that will engage consumers and manufacturer's brands.
Keywords: automotive marketing; car manufacturer branding; consumer-brand relationships; brand equity; brand love; brand equity; brand loyalty; brand trust; brand commitment; brand image.
Special Issue on: 26th Gerpisa International Colloquium 2018 Who Drives the Change? New and Traditional Players in the Global Automotive Sector
by Hélio Henrique De Matos, Ana Valéria Carneiro Dias, Raoni Barros Bagno
Abstract: Organisational ambidexterity is the capacity to simultaneously perform 'exploitation' and 'exploration', that is to exploit existing skills, for instance through incremental innovation, without abandoning the exploration of new opportunities, e.g., through radical or major innovation. This paper aims to analyse how an emergent country automotive subsidiary organises itself for innovation and undertook exploration and exploitation efforts in the context of a multinational group over time. Research was done from a single retrospective, qualitative study. Results showed the existence of 'parallel structures', 'contextual ambidexterity' and 'temporal balancing' for ambidexterity. The relation between organisational ambidexterity and the trajectory of the subsidiary concerning international division of innovative labour was analysed, thus providing a conceptual contribution in order to understand the dynamics of organisation for innovation and, particularly, ambidexterity in the context of multinational companies. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed especially regarding the impacts of organisational ambidexterity on subsidiaries' capability upgrading processes.
Keywords: ambidexterity; exploration; exploitation; dynamic ambidexterity; innovation management; IM; organisation for innovation; automotive industry; international division of labour; multinational companies; MNC; emerging countries.
Reorienting electric mobility research focus on industrialisation issues
by Marc Alochet, Christophe Midler
Abstract: Considering the pace of the EV market, the high level of investment made by carmakers in electric line-up development, scale production units and mobility services, we acknowledge that electromobility dynamics enters now a transitional phase. Industrialisation strategies, predominant in the success of EV market scale up, have been quite neglected till now and, consequently, we state that electric mobility research must be refocused on these issues and introduce a research question: is BEV scale-up, along the whole value chain, driven by reuse of manufacturing assets or pulled by (product) design disruption? We identify two differentiated industrialisation scenarios: one driven by manufacturing assets dependency path, one pulled by the optimised BEV product design strategy whose we discuss benefits, drawbacks and conditions of success. Furthermore, from empirical observations, we confirm that the EV market is in a transitional phase and, based upon observations of some carmakers, we identify strong patterns of a manufacturing assets dependency path regime.
Keywords: EV; scale-up; transitional phase; value chain; industrialisation scenario; manufacturing strategy.
The trajectory of China's new energy vehicles policy
by Sergio Tadeu Gonçalves Muniz, Bruce M. Belzowski, Jaclyn Zhu
Abstract: This paper describes and analyses the trajectory of public policies on new energy vehicles (battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles) in China from 2009 to 2018s first quarter, with a focus on policies adopted by the Central Government of China (CGC). The aim is to analyse the recent policy path on new energy vehicles (NEVs) under the demand-pull versus technology-push theoretical approaches. In this context, this paper classifies the main public policies on NEVs adopted in China in recent years on these two broad approaches and analyses the direction of federal NEV policies, based on its trajectory. The article shows that the policies adopted by the central government changed dramatically in recent years, moving from simple buyer incentives (demand-pull policies) to a more complex set of policies comprising incentives not only for buyers, but also stimulus for automotive manufacturers to invest in R&D, and technological densification (demand-pull plus technology-push policies).
Keywords: electric vehicles; EV; NEV policies; China; demand pull vs. technology push.
The existing and the emerging: car ownership and car sharing on the road towards sustainable mobility
by Elisabeth Marie Cassidy Svennevik
Abstract: The use of car sharing has experienced rapid growth in recent years, but user-numbers are still low, and privately owned cars dominate. This paper studies how the use of car sharing contributes to altering the car system in urban areas. The study employs data from semi-structured interviews with 39 households in Oslo that are members of car-sharing arrangements. How does the current use of car sharing in Oslo relate to and influence the established use of privately owned cars? Are these relations elements in a transition towards sustainable mobility? The study finds that car sharing acts help to promote reduced car-ownership, changing and reducing the overall use of cars. However, there are limits to its contribution to environmental sustainability because of the continued use of fossil fuel cars and the continued dependence on privately used cars.
Keywords: car sharing; sustainability transition; shared mobility; collaborative consumption; privately owned cars; automotive industry.
Global supply chains and intangible assets in the automotive and aeronautical industries
by Claude Serfati, Catherine Sauviat
Abstract: The relocating of transnational corporations (TNCs) high-generating value activities at the upper (design, development, branding and intellectual property) and lower (marketing, maintenance and post-sales services) ends of their global supply chains (GSCs) and the amazing rise of intangible assets (IA) in their stock value operate in interaction. The paper documents the deep transformations in major French automotive and aeronautical TNCs strategies in particular in the management of their R&D in relation with the appeal of IA for financial investors. It thus highlights a further dimension of the relation between finance and production to the ones more commonly addressed by the literature on financialisation.
Keywords: transnational corporations; TNCs; global supply chains; GSCs; intangible assets; R&D; financialisation; automotive industry; aeronautical industry; relational power.