International Journal of Agile Systems and Management (24 papers in press)
SCOWP Agile Methodology for Secure Web-based Software Development
by Paul Sanmartin, Augusto De Arcos, Adriana Iglesias
Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology called SCOWP that combines the agility of Scrum with risk management (for Web environments) of Owasp. The purpose of SCOWP is to allow the development of an agile software product that meets the established functional requirements, considering the most important risks identified by Owasp. As a result, there will be a web-based software which implements the best security practices as a quality attribute that increases the value of the done product. A pilot development was implemented in a software development company with satisfactory results, furthermore this company formally adopted it as a job methodology.
Keywords: Agile methodologies; information security; OWASP; risks in web-based software; SCOWP; Scrum; secure software development.
Success and Barrier Factors in Agile Transformation
by Frederico Batista, Leandro Pereira, Renato Costa
Abstract: Agile Methods have become an appealing way of working for organizations focused on improving their performance and matching their customers needs. Agile Methods were originally created to be used by small and independent teams, which leads to complex challenges when implemented in Large-Scale. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap in the scientific literature on Large-Scale Agile Transformations. A feedback from 294 Agile Experts was collected through a survey strategy. Parametric techniques were used to rank and explain the most relevant factors as success and barriers for agile transformations in Large-Scale.
Keywords: Agile Methods; Agile Transformation; Large-Scale Agile.
A fuzzy multi-objective modeling for supplier selection problem in leagile supply chain
by Mojgan Khorasani, Abolfazl Kazemi
Abstract: This paper investigates a supplier selection model under leagile procurement. The mathematical model is a fuzzy multi objective model. The paper incorporates the uncertainty and
Keywords: Supplier selection; Leagile supply chain; Demand allocation; Genetic algorithm; Taguchi parameter design method.
Kairós: Using Context Histories for Predictions and Recommendations in Projects Time Management
by Felipe Chaves Rodrigues, Alexsandro Souza Filippetto, Robson Kerschner Lima, Wesllei Felipe Heckler, Jorge Luis Victória Barbosa
Abstract: Time management is an important part of a project. Cost and quality are directly affected by any changes in deadlines. Therefore, this article presents Kairós, a computational model for prediction and recommendation in project schedules. We made a systematic mapping study on the research topics, and the gaps found were the base for the creation of the model. The model makes recommendations to the manager proactively according to best practices in project management, learning with the approval or rejection of each recommendation. We performed an evaluation through a prototype using simulated use cases with real data from a software development company. The results showed that the model was able to predict with a precision of 94% whether a task would be completed with delay, with 86% accuracy. The results demonstrated that the use of context histories contributes to project management.
Keywords: Project management; Time management; Project schedules; Prediction; Recommendation; Context histories.
Applying Agile Framework in Delivering, and Evaluating University Courses
by Malik Khalfan, Omid Haass, Pearl Li Ng, Tayyab Maqsood
Abstract: The learning approach in the education sector has transitioned from teacher-focussed or content-focused to student-centred. One of the main outcomes of a student-centred learning approach is to put the students first, both in course development and delivery. In this research, we discuss the delivery of a project management course by adopting Scrum, an agile methodology, using non-participatory observation. The findings of this study reveal that adopting agile methodologies, such as Scrum, demonstrates a strong alignment with student-centred learning and teaching practices. Our observation shows that the teaching team puts students experience as their key agenda during the weekly sprint retro and planning meetings. Our research findings also confirm that having an EduScrum Master to manage the teaching team enhanced collaboration, communication, and value delivery to students. However, the findings of this study are limited to the observations conducted by the research team and therefore, this paper also includes suggestions for future research opportunities in this area.
Keywords: Higher education; agile; Scrum; Project management.
A macro-level process model for integrating agile approaches in the design of product-service systems
by Sandra Einsiedler, Sagar Mule, Christiane Rau, Peter Hehenberger, Kristiana Roth
Abstract: Companies nowadays have to deal with faster changing industries. To gain competitiveness companies have to provide offerings that are adding value for the customer, which can be achieved through a Product-Service-System (PSS). Therefore, this study aims at developing an integrated approach to develop all components of a PSS while including agile approaches to ensure customer-centricity. After a thorough literature research on the topics of PSS and agile methods was carried out, a reference model was developed which integrates the specificities of these two areas forming an integrated framework for agile PSS design. The result of this research is a reference model which includes crucial steps which are specific for the development of PSS and includes customers in almost all steps. Moreover, the framework orchestrates the development of hardware, software and services specifically for PSS.
Keywords: Product-Service-System PSS; agile design; hybrid; reference model; Scrum.
A Systems Approach to Managing Complex Engineering Assets: Exploring Shifts in Equipment Management and Reliability Enhancement Paradigms
by Burnet Mkandawire
Abstract: Engineering asset management is a complex socio-technical system, and there has been a surge in efforts to optimize the capacity utilization of these assets in the wake of conflicting objectives: to enhance reliability and at the same time to lower costs. The major challenge is in determining which assortment of approaches (tools, strategies, techniques, methodologies and philosophies) to apply in order to get optimal trade-offs of cost, risk and performance or reliability. This paper critically reviews the literature to examine shifts in physical asset management paradigms over the past few decades and to determine the best combination of approaches; and it shows that none of these approaches are able, individually, to optimize the trade-offs, but as a cluster. It proposes a systems-thinking model-based integration approach. Pilot studies have shown that using the model proposed can yield savings in maintenance costs of 15-40% and in avoided costs of up to 15%.
Keywords: Equipment management paradigms; Multi-criteria risk-modeling; Power-asset management; Reliability; Systems-thinking approach; Transdisciplinary approach.
Communication patterns and team performance within agile software development project
by Saieshni Thanthony, Annlizé Marnewick, Carl Marnewick
Abstract: Communication is a prerequisite for team performance, a fact that has been reiterated throughout the literature. However, even with strong evidence that communication plays a vital role in enabling team performance, there continues to be a lack of agreement as to precisely how. This article commences by reviewing the literature regarding this topic to determine communication and team performance patterns. The insights from the literature regarding the patterns were then validated by Agile Software Development (ASD) academics and practitioners through the use of a quantitative survey. Certain previously known communication and team performance patterns were rejected but most patterns were found to be an accurate description of the ASD team dynamic. A summary of the deductions is presented in the form of a rich description of the communication and team performance patterns which provides meaningful insight into the current ASD team dynamic. This exploratory research contributes to the body of knowledge that deals with the research topic. The research assists future researchers and ASD academics and practitioners with making improvements in team performance by understanding and modifying applicable team communication aspects.
Keywords: agile; agile software development; communication; agile software development teams; communication patterns; team performance.
A Critical Review of Australias China-dominant Education Supply Chain
by Mamta B. Chowdhury
Abstract: This study examines whether the expansion of Australias international education sector has been highly dependent on students from China supported by competitive supply chain management. In 2019, earnings from international education were A$40.3 billion, of which 32% was contributed by Chinese education visitors. However, researchers and observers have been alluding to the risks of over-reliance on the Chinese market in recent years. Further, the COVID-19 outbreak since early 2020 has severely disrupted the supply chains of the international education sector because Australia imposed travel bans for all international visitors. The econometric results of the study suggest that Chinese students contributed significantly to the education exports and economic growth of Australia. Policy recommendations emphasise the diversification of the education market and effective supply chain management to recover from the financial hardship experienced by the sector caused by the COVID-19 pandemic along with the recent geopolitical tension between Australia and China.
Keywords: Internationalisation of education; international students; supply chain disruption; Australia and China; cointegration and ARDL Bounds Tests.
COVID-19 and its impact on supply chain financing and the role of Islamic Fintech: Evidence from GCC countries
by Mustafa Raza Rabbani
Abstract: The present study analyses the COVID-19 situation in 5 GCC countries namely, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman and Kuwait and its impact on supply chain financing. All these oil rich countries are already severely affected by this pandemic and have taken several measures to control the spread of the virus from lockdown to social distancing and consequently resulted into the massive disruption in the supply chain financing. The study uses discourse analysis to analyze the COVID-19 situation in these countries and concludes that there is a need to design a long-term strategy with the increased role of financial technology (Fintech) that includes every section of the society in post COVID-19 measures. The study also proposes a sharia compliant Islamic Fintech model for supply chain financing to help in recovery post COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: COVID 19; Islamic Finance; Fintech; economic policy; stimulus package; Supply chain finance; GCC;.
On The Sprint Length Estimation Technique in Agile Software Development Using Planning Poker
by Sarika Sharma, Deepak Kumar, M.E. Fayad
Abstract: Abstract: The recent literature trend has highlighted the existing method for deciding the length of sprint in agile software development acts as a limitation for agile practitioners and researchers. It prevents them from driving benefit from existing theme and semantic release planning methods. Since, most of the existing theme and semantic releases planning method arernbroadly user story clustering method where user-stories having common themes or semantics are clustered together. Hence, making it difficult for agile practitioners and researchers to deliver a set of user-stories having common theme or semantic as a unit through a sprint whose length is randomly chosen and is constant for all the sprints in a project. Therefore, this research paper suggests planning poker for estimating the length of sprint to accommodate and deliver a release scope derived using theme or semantic based release planning method as a unit. To perform the research study, a theme based release is taken into consideration and an agile team is set-up to deliver half of the sprint using traditional approach and another halfrnusing proposed approach. The output from the proposed method is then compared to the traditional approach using balanced relative error (BRE) calculation method and the standard agile metrics. The planning poker estimates for proposed (median BREbias = ?0.1154 , BRE = 0.2154) and traditional approach (median BREbias = ?0.1169, median BRE = 0.2267) were found almost consistent. An overall saving of approximately 30% saving in sprint planning time was observed for proposed approach over traditional approach. Also, The stakeholder satisfaction and agile team experience were also reported as excellent when working on the proposed approach in comparison to traditional approach.
Keywords: Software Engineering;rn Agile Methodology;rn Sprint; Estimation; Planning Poker.
Is agility in organizational management an established study field? A bibliometric analysis of literature (2000-2020)
by Gerardo Matturro-Mazoni, Royer David Estrada-Esponda, Carlos Hernán González-Campo
Abstract: Purpose: To contribute to the discussion about whether agility has become an established field of study in organisational management. Methodology: Bibliometric analysis of academic studies published between 2000 and 2020 and indexed in Scopus and Web of Science. To locate the necessary literature, search strings were defined based on keywords, and strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were also defined. Findings: 1011 paper were selected for the study. As of 2014, a sustained increase of publications is noted on the topic. The activities and organisational processes that have been studied the most are production and supply management. Practical implications: For practitioners, the dominant keywords found are a starting point to locate more specific publications on the application of agility practices in organisations. For researchers, knowing which are the relevant journals and who are the most prolific authors will allow them to access the most relevant and contemporary studies on the topic.
Keywords: agile; agile organisation; agile practices; agile project management; bibliometric analysis; organisational management; supply management; quality management.
Gamification for Agile: A Systematic Literature Review
by Rita Marques, Miguel Mira Da Silva, Daniel Gonçalves
Abstract: Gamification has been applied in software engineering, particularly to motivate software engineers to adopt agile techniques. This study assesses the state of the art regarding the use of gamification in agile projects, namely regarding these studiescharacteristics; their impact on the projects; and the challenges encountered. rnA systematic literature review method was followed by searching relevant digital libraries for peer-reviewed papers and dissertations on the topic. rnOverall, 225 papers were found and 12 were selected as primary papers. Most of these studies focused on the Scrum framework, and the completion of stories/tasks was the agile practice that was subject to gamification more times. While the impact of gamification initiatives was positive, these studies lacked a proper empirical validation of the proposed solutions. Moreover, the challenges faced are scarcely discussed. rnDespite the novelty of this field, there seems to be potential in the use of gamification to improve agile projects.
Keywords: Gamification; agile; agile management; agile projects; agile practices; Scrum; systematic literature review; software engineering; software engineers; motivation.
Social Media Users Perspectives on the Supply Chain: Positivity amongst Negativity During COVID-19 Panic Buying in Australia
by Violetta Wilk, Saiyidi Mat Roni, Ferry Jie
Abstract: This study explored Australian social media users perspectives on the supply chain disruption during the COVID-19 crisis. It examined user-generated content (UGC) through the lens of Social Network Theory and Drive Theory.
We harvested 91,105 publicly available Twitter posts originating in Australia, from February 2020 to April 2020, that contained #coronavirus (hashtag) and supply (keyword). The big data were analysed with Leximancer, which enabled text-mining and data visualisation.
Supply chain concerns were dominant in UGC about supply during the pandemic. Interestingly, social media users were also able to identify positivity during the crisis, and presented rationales and justifications, along with defence and solutions to supply chain disruption.
Supply Chain Management (SCM) organisations should work with social media users who are able to steer the online narrative and, as a result, foster positivity, deter panic and negativity during a crisis.
Keywords: COVID-19; crisis; supply chain; disruption; social media; big data; social network; Leximancer.
Prioritization of Green Agile Workforce Enablers from the Perspective of Sustainable Agile Supply Chain Using DANP
by Somaieh Alavi
Abstract: Achieving agility and supply chain sustainability requires trained human resources who not only have agility but also are green. The present study aims to prioritize the green agile workforce activities based on the agile and sustainable supply chain. After an in-depth review of the research literature, the components of the agile supply chain and sustainable supply chain were identified, green agile workforce and its enablers were introduced and categorized. Green agile workforce enablers were classified into three main categories: green leadership, green knowledge and skill, and green environment. Finally, using DEMATEL, the communication network among the components was identified and the enablers of the green agile workforce were prioritized by Fuzzy Analytic Network Possess (FANP). The results of FANP showed that among green agile workforce enablers, green leadership, green knowledge, and skill, and green work environment were ranked first to third, respectively.
Keywords: Agile Supply chain; Sustainable Supply chain; Green Agile Workforce.
Agile Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Apparel Industry
by Rui Gonçalves, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Álvaro Dias, Rui Vinhas Da Silva, Natália Teixeira
Abstract: Artificial intelligence systems are increasing its importance in the field of creating value for companies who seek to gain competitive advantage. This is especially true for the online shopping apparel world, in the case of virtual try-on systems. Following this line of thought the theme consumers acceptance of artificial intelligence virtual try-on systems when shopping online apparel came up as a research problem. In this sense this investigation intendeds to study the acceptance by consumers of the virtual try-on artificial systems when buying apparel online according to specific variables previously
defined. To assess this, a quantitative approach was used, based on the structural equations model, the partial least squares technique. This research allowed the creation of a new model based on technology acceptance model by including new variables and revealed that the influence of predictive variables on the dependent variable (ATU) is not the same.
Keywords: consumer behaviour; artificial intelligence; agile applications; virtual try-on; VTO; technology acceptance model; TAM.
Choosing the wrong integrated research approach and how to correct it: Reflections on developing a Shared Information Management System
by Mark Wever, Munir Shah, Nel Wognum, Mostafa Sharifi, Niall O'Leary
Abstract: Researchers often lack critical information to decide what type of integrated research approach multi-, inter- or transdisciplinary is needed at the start of a project. In the present paper, we aim to contribute insights regarding these difficulties by discussing the case study of the ongoing development of a Shared Information Management Systems (SIMS). SIMSs form the backbone of state-of-the-art transparency schemes called hyper-transparency schemes. Such schemes offer small businesses the opportunity to establish more direct relationships with consumers and citizens. Developing a SIMS is complex, requiring collaboration between many different disciplines and practitioners. We discuss how our approach has evolved during the development process from a multidisciplinary towards a transdisciplinary approach. We outline the challenges that arise at the start of a project when the chosen approach does not match well with the research problem at hand. We discuss how we are planning to overcome these challenges. The case study presented here is relatively novel in the literature and thus should act as a valuable resource as the importance of integrated research grows.
Keywords: Integrated research; transdisciplinary; shared information management system; transparency; hyper-transparency; supply chain redesign.
A comparative study between design thinking, agile, and design sprint methodologies
by Ketmanto Wangsa, Ritesh Chugh, Shakir Karim, Raj Sandu
Abstract: Choosing a suitable problem-solving methodology is vital for project success. Three popular approaches are design thinking, agile and design sprint. To date, a comparative review of these three approaches is missing. This paper provides a comparative outlook between design thinking, agile, and design sprint through a literature review lens. Critical aspects of differentiation between the three approaches centre on time, team composition, flexibility, main focus, goal setting and challenges, whereas the similarities are around problem-solving collaboration and user-centricity. Design thinking applies human-centred design as a key to addressing problem-solving needs. Agile is known for its iterative and incremental processes and is beneficial when uncertainty prevails. Design sprint focuses on a unique five-day process for designing, prototyping, and testing to bridge the gap between design thinking and agile. This study offers insights that will benefit project managers, designers, engineers, or anyone wanting to choose an appropriate approach for problem identification and resolution.
Keywords: design thinking; agile; design sprint; methodologies; comparative; literature review; project management.
Improving crane routes in automated container terminals: A complex network approach
by Iñigo L. Ansorena
Abstract: The storage yard plays a key role in automated container terminals. This paper aims to shed new light on the planning of yard operations through the use of graph theory. Although complex graphs can be a very useful tool for planning yard operations, previous research has not addressed this issue yet. Given a theoretical representation of the storage yard as a small world model (Kleinbergs model), it is proposed a two-step method to improve crane routes on the yard. In the first step, a cluster detection technique is used to reveal the well-connected groups of nodes (ground slots). In the second step the crucial transition nodes between the groups are determined (bridge nodes). This study suggests that the terminal could gain efficiency in the long term by focusing on groups and bridge nodes.
Keywords: clusters; bridge nodes; Kleinberg model; automated terminals; yard routes; small world; operations control; transferring containers; storage yard; automated terminal; complex graph.
Research Agenda for Supply Chain Management 4.0
by Ferry Jie, Susan Standing, Naeem Janjua, Ahmed Ibrahim, Craig Standing
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of the supply chain management 4.0 literature in the principal logistics and supply chain management journals, across a five - year time frame. rnThe selected journal articles are categorised on the basis of an analytical framework that contains keywords related to supply chain management and Industry 4.0.rnThe systematic literature review indicates that supply chain issues from an industry 4.0 perspective are under-researched. Many technical issues are unexplained, and broader methodological factors as well as how the process can be managed in organisations are major gaps in the literature.rnBased on the literature review we argue that supply chain researchers need to understand the major developments taking place linked to Industry 4.0 and engage in research that fills the gaps. rn
Keywords: Industry 4.0; supply chain: innovation; cybersecurity.
Extended Reality Prototyping for Transdisciplinary Collaboration in Product Development
by Lucas Küntzer, Thomas Nather, Markus Krost, Timo Zenner, Georg Rock
Abstract: Product developers and manufacturers are constantly looking for methods and technologies to make their processes more efficient and their activities more effective. The recent increase in accessibility of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality technology has made them attractive for exploration and validation activities in small teams. This paper gives an overview of Extended Reality prototyping in agile product development and presents the challenges regarding its integration into established processes at the example of two case studies. Based on experience, solutions to common problems with the integration of these technologies are proposed. The paper describes best practices to be implemented for Extended Reality prototyping to become a valuable and accepted method for transdisciplinary collaboration and communication.
Keywords: extended reality; virtual reality; augmented reality; extended reality prototyping; prototyping; transdisciplinary collaboration; product development; manufacturing industry; transdisciplinary communication; validation; exploration; user experience; accessibility; process integration;.
Impact of Project Management to Capability Transformation
by Vânia Patrício, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Nelson Antonio, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Rui Gonçalves, Carlos Jeronimo
Abstract: A central question for researchers and practitioners is whether and which project management (PM) practices foster capability transformation in order to develop dynamic capabilities (DCs). To explore this question, this study seeks to empirically examine whether PM practices promote capability transformation. To this end, 141 surveys of professionals with project experience were analysed. This research used partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) and empirically presents factors and practices that significantly facilitate the possibility of PM practices transforming capabilities in organisations, thereby leveraging DCs, through the accumulation, integration, utilisation, and reconfiguration of knowledge gained from projects. This quantitative study contributes to the literature by presenting scales for measuring PM practices and factors that contribute to capability transformation, and highlighting those, thereby providing an important contribution to organisations and academia in developing DCs through PM.
Keywords: dynamic capabilities; project management; PLS-SEM; partial least squares structural equation modelling; reconfiguration; capability transformation.
Key Enablers of Successful Digital Transformation: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Study
by Riham Adel
Abstract: Digital transformation has attracted the attention of academia, yet to date the majority of research contributions are from developed countries. 60% of research stream is qualitative with limited quantitative contributions. It was reported that the low success rates of digital transformation were due to lack of consensus about digital transformation enabling factors. The shortage in measurement frameworks, and the need for empirical studies from different countries and industries were noted. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore, conceptualise, and prioritise the digital transformation key enabling factors. Consequently, integrate into the proposed organisation maturity measurement model, in order to guide organisations pursuing digitalisation in its strategic renewal and structural decision-making. The model is quantitatively validated, and its goodness-for-fit is affirmed. The hypothesised relationship between the key enablers and successful digital transformation is accepted indicating positive total effect of value = 0.761 with empirical evidence from Egyptian petrochemicals organisations.
Keywords: digitalisation; digital transformation; organisational enablers; leadership capabilities; digital strategy; digital readiness; Egypt.
Special Issue on: Barriers in Global Supply Chain Among Uncertainty, Pandemic, and Recession Financial, Diversity and Structural Issues
The role of tourism supply chain management in developing informal empowerment of rural communities in Bangladesh
by Md. Abdul Alim, Rudrendu Ray, Md. Hafijur Rahman, Md. Julhaz Hossain, Rubaiyat Shabbir, M.A. Rashed Kabir
Abstract: Tourism supply chain management (TSCM) plays a crucial role in developing rural communities. TSCM is considered to be one of the essential pillars for developing informal empowerment of rural communities. Therefore, this study investigates on how TSCM informally empowers rural communities, and in this regard, social exchange theory (SET) was employed as the foundation of the study. A qualitative research approach was carried out and a series of in-depth interviews was conducted to collect data. The collected data was analysed using NVivo software. The study yielded mixed findings which indicated that the informal empowerment of the economic, socio-cultural, infrastructural, and educational aspects of rural communities had been meaningfully enhanced through TSCM, while environmental empowerment was found as less experienced. The implications of these findings expect to contribute substantially to this field of study. Finally, limitations and future research directions are also discoursed.
Keywords: Tourism Supply Chain Management; Informal Empowerment; Rural Community; Bangladesh.