International Journal of Agile Systems and Management (12 papers in press)
Industry 4.0 Roadmap for SMEs: Validation of Moderation Techniques for Creativity Workshops
by Riccardo Brozzi, Erwin Rauch, Michael Riedl, Dominik T. Matt
Abstract: Industry 4.0 is an element of entrepreneurial strategy to survive to rapidly and constantly changing markets. Several studies acknowledge that small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) face challenges initiating innovation processes towards digital transformation, requiring stronger recourse to external expertise for research and development. Among others, the lack of structured business plans and strategic vision about digitalisation may hinder the potential of Indus-try 4.0 solutions for SMEs across several sectors. However, the success of the so called fourth industrial revolution will ultimately depend on whether SMEs can adopt and implement these technologies, as they represent the backbone of numerous economies worldwide. The present study aims at presenting the characteristics of a roadmap service supporting SMEs in the manufacturing and building sector throughout the technological and organisational planning of Indus-try 4.0 in their business strategies. Besides a literature review regarding existing examples of roadmaps for the introduction of Industry 4.0, the authors derived the structure of the proposed roadmap service tailored to the innovation requirements of SMEs and analysing the potential of innovative techniques for the generation of innovative ideas from the design thinking methodology. The results of a social experiment to validate the selected design thinking techniques show that most of them enable innovation dynamics in creativity workshops for Industry 4.0 roadmaps and are useful for deriving an implementation plan for Industry 4.0 in SMEs.
Keywords: industry 4.0; roadmap; self-assessment; readiness; maturity model; small and medium sized enterprises.
Performance metrics in Scrum software engineering companies
by Fernando Luis Almeida, Pedro Carneiro
Abstract: Finding effective ways to evaluate the process and a team in software engineering is not a trivial task. Therefore, it is pertinent to study metrics that can be used in Scrum environments to monitor and evaluate the team's progress and support the implementation of improvements. This study explores the relevance of 12 specific metrics applied in a Scrum environment and explores their importance considering multiple dimensions through the adoption of a quantitative methodology based on a survey that received 137 valid answers from Portuguese Scrum professionals. The results allowed us to conclude that the metrics related to the business value delivered and sprint goal success are the most relevant. Furthermore, factors like the number of years of experience of individuals, their role in the Scrum team, and the size of the organization are factors that influence the perception of the importance of these metrics.
Keywords: Scrum; Agile; Metrics; Measurements; Software Development; Software Quality.
Structural model of Lean and Cleaner production on manufacturing sustainability performance: Malaysian Manufacturers Perspectives
by Muhamad Zaki Yusup, Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan Mahmood, Mohd Rizal Salleh, Norfaizem Ibrahim
Abstract: In terms of practices, the implementation of Lean and Cleaner Production shared a common focus, aiming to enhance the degree of management efficiency, while reducing the barriers in continuous improvement activities. This positively produced an enormous impact on the performance in economic, environmental and social competency, while improving the level of sustainable manufacturing performance. Using a survey data from 107 respondents consists of Malaysian manufacturers, this study empirically focus to explore and examine the relationships between Lean and Cleaner Production with manufacturing sustainability performance via Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square technique. The results have shown that the implementation of Lean and Cleaner Production produced a significant positive effect on the economic and competency sustainability performance. Although the relationship between Lean and Cleaner Production with environmental sustainability performance is not significant, but through well-intentioned impulses, manufacturing firms could grasp the opportunities in improving the performance of economic, enhancing the social competency and grasp a better environmental friendly practices
Keywords: Lean Production; Cleaner Production; Manufacturing Sustainability; Structural Equation Modelling; SEM-PLS; Malaysia.
Soft skills for newborn software engineers in agile teams
by Suzana Sampaio, Thiago Bastos, Marcelo Marinho
Abstract: Agile methodologies have become an appealing option. The people-centered set of values and principles increases people's factors relevance. Furthermore, an agile environment must enable software engineers to work efficiently, to collaborate, and to share skills. However, these factors are often not fully understood by agile practitioners. This paper investigates the required soft skills for software engineers in an agile team. In order to do that, a comprehensive literature review helped to categorize the soft skills found in the literature. Also, we conducted a survey with 63 software engineers. Based on the respondents profile, the 8 most important skills were selected and they are discussed and included in a software instrument for self-evaluation that also presents some recommendations. The instrument was tested and recommended by a group of software engineers. This research can be used by young software engineers and academic communities to improve the software engineers' soft skills.
Keywords: soft skills; behavioural competence; people factors; agile methodologies; software engineers; agile teams.
Digital Mock-up and Voice of the Customer in the Context of Physical Product Development
by Ana Rita Costa, Milton Borsato
Abstract: Software development requires urgency in its launch in the market. Based on this, Agile Project Management has been introduced to reduce the time gap between idea and product release. Several studies have been developed to combine the qualities of Agile Management with those of the traditional Project Management for the application in physical products. Based on these studies, the following question has arisen: how can digital mock-ups be used to implement a hybrid (agile combined with traditional) project management approach, with customer participation, for physical products? In the present research, a development case study on a car steering wheel was conducted using digital mock-ups and the customer's voice. The study was applied to an audience of approximately 500 people. Results show the possibility of using digital mock-ups as a support for the development of physical products through the hybrid approach. For the generalization of the method, more research must be conducted using different products from different areas.
Keywords: Agile Management; Voice of the Customer (VoC); Product Development; Hybrid Approach; Digital Mock-up.
Measuring the sustainability of the broiler chicken supply chain
by Aries Susanty
Abstract: This research identifies suitable indicators and their scale for measuring the sustainability performance of the broiler chicken supply chain, applies the developed measurement system in a specific broiler chicken supply chain, and offers recommendations for improving the sustainability of the broiler chicken supply chain. A total of 15 and 9 indicators were analyzed to improve the sustainability performance of the broiler chicken supply chain at the farm and chicken slaughterhouse chain levels, respectively. Analytic hierarchy process was applied to determine the level of importance for the sustainability of each chain (level 1), each dimension (level 2), and each indicator (level 3). The Delphi method was utilized as an iterative process to collect and explain experts judgments regarding the policies that should be implemented to improve sustainability. Measurement results indicate that the total score of the sustainability performance of the broiler chicken supply chain at all levels (small, medium, and large) belongs to the good category; the total score of the broiler chicken supply chain with large farms is higher than that of the broiler chicken supply chain with medium and small farms. Efforts to increase the sustainability performance focused on low-value indicators and marginal category, i.e., the price of one-day-old chicks, the average feed price for one chicken in one harvest period, the average price of drugs and vaccines for one chicken in one harvest period, and the comparison between male and female workers in chicken slaughterhouses
Keywords: farm chain; chicken slaughterhouse; broiler chicken supply chain; sustainability performance.
Weighted interpretive structural modelling approach for exploration of performance measures of benchmarking of internal supply chain management
by Kailash , Rajeev Kumar Saha, Sanjeev Goyal
Abstract: Benchmarking is a versatile tool to improve the existing supply chain performance of the manufacturing industries through continuous use of Plan Do Check Action (PDCA) cycle. The regular practice of benchmarking provides a decision support in the performance analysis of internal supply chain of manufacturing Industry. The seven PMs have been identified through the literature review. The brainstorming activity of experts team from different manufacturing industries is used to identify the importance/weightage/effect of one performance measure as compare to other performance measure. The survey questionnaire tool is used to collect the opinion of experts about benchmarking of ISCM. The present work includes, weighted interpretive structural modelling (WISM) approach to develop a structural model, which will represents the interrelationships among identified PMs. WISM model allocates the key PMs at three levels. Such type of model not only helps in understanding the conceptual relationship among the PMs, but it may also use in determining their interdependence to assess the ISCM performance of industries.
Keywords: Survey Questionnaire; Weightage of PMs; Driving Power; Dependence Power; MICMAC analysis.
Development of a Connectivity Map for Measurement of Total Supply Chain Value
by Soheil Zargham Khoei, Sid Ghosh
Abstract: Organisations intend to optimise their Supply Chain (SC) by following the most suitable SC strategies that serve their business interest to gain a competitive advantage. This paper reviews the literature to extract the relationship between leagile attributes and SC drivers in terms of Total Supply Chain Value (TSCV). To this end, three leagile attributes including Efficiency & Flexibility (E&F), Decoupling Point (DP), and Virtual Network (VN) along with four main SC drivers consisting of Production, Distribution, Inventory, and Information have been deployed. The effects of the leagile attributes to the SCs drivers are evaluated to measure TSCV using four performance metrics i.e., Cost, Quality, Service, Lead time. This research developed a conceptual connectivity map to measure the average value of each driver at a micro-level (upstream/downstream) to evaluate TSCV at the macro-level for SC optimisation. The proposed connectivity map would support supply chain managers to implement the leagile strategy and measure TSCV. Findings demonstrated that E&F directly affects Distribution, Inventory, and Production. Also, E&F facilitated indirectly by Information to impact Production, Distribution, and Inventory. DP directly affects Production, inventory, and Distribution and indirectly facilitated by information to impact Production, inventory, and Distribution. VN indirectly affects Production, Inventory, and distribution facilitated by the information system.
Keywords: Supply Chain; Optimisation; Leagile; Performance Metrics; Connectivity Map.
Assessment and Prioritization of Risks and SCRM Strategies in Indian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Supply Chains- A SCRM-AHP model
by HARISH BABU
Abstract: In the current scenario, Risk Management is an important aspect of every organization. It is not limited to a particular area like Finance, Enterprise Risk Management, etc.. It is equally important to manage the risk in the supply chain. Every risk has a different effect on the performance of supply chain, which is mainly due to their different levels of impact and a different probability of occurrence. Some risks have significant consequences, while others have negligible consequences. Therefore, before selecting the appropriate risk strategy, it is essential for supply chain managers to proactively plan for each type of risk and to determine their priority. Proactive planning of supply chain risks mainly focuses on identification of significant risk and their anticipating strategy, for making a more robust supply chain. Supply chain risk management is also required to know the vulnerability of the supply chain. This research paper mainly focuses on the assessment of the significant supply chain risks and prioritization of supply chain risk management strategies by using Analytical Hierarchy Process methodology. The main objective of this research is to develop a decision support system for the implementation of supply chain risk management strategies in the context of the Indian SMEs. Indian Small and Medium Enterprises need to pay conspicuous attention to the field of supply chain risk management. Through this research an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive understanding of supply chain risks and risk mitigation strategies for the supply chain managers in the context of Indian Small and Medium Enterprises, for instance, selecting a suitable strategy rapidly and cost-effectively to reduce the impact of risks. Furthermore, the result of this research also contributes to develop a conceptual framework for researchers and academics.
Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process; Risk Management; Risk Mitigation; Risk Modelling; Risk Prioritization; SCRM Strategies; Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM).
Firm\'s supply chain agility enabling resilience and performance in turmoil times: lessons to be learned
by Marcelo Ladeira, Marcos Paulo De Oliveira, Paulo Renato De Sousa, Marcelo Barbosa
Abstract: In turbulent situations, process integration and flexibility are key antecedents of firms supply chain agility. We argue that firms supply chain agility, especially in contexts characterized by turbulence, is a key enabler of competitive performance and organizational resilience. Based on a survey carried out with a group of 305 top executives and management professionals in manufacturers of non-durable consumer goods operating in Brazil, structural equation modeling was used to analyze data and validate the research model. Evidence suggests that process integration and flexibility are predictors of agility, which is positively associated with resilience and overall performance. This assertion is of particular interest, especially in numerous disruptive situations brought about by critical events, such as occurred in the case of the Covid-19 pandemic. The present study also collected data concerning the generic competitive strategies of firms (cost versus differentiation), perceived levels of vulnerability, and the analytical capabilities of these companies.
Keywords: Supply chain agility; Process integration; Process flexibility; Organizational resilience; Competitive performance.
Scrum anti-patterns, team performance and responsibility
by Sylva Žáková Talpová, Tereza ?tvrtníková
Abstract: Currently, the most widely used agile method is Scrum. Scrum works on the principle of a self-organized team, and it is in such teams that so-called anti-patterns appear. These represent a bad pattern of behaviour or bad habit, which can have a negative impact on team performance. The aim of this paper is, through the use of several data collection methods in three Scrum teams, to determine which anti-patterns exist within them that impact team performance results and to set the responsibility for these anti-patterns. We establish a set of methods for the analysis of anti-patterns in Scrum teams and their influence on the performance of these teams. The results indicate four critical issues and problems looming. It is somewhat surprising to find that in terms of responsibility, the Scrum Master is not directly to blame for any of these problems, and in fact, cannot influence these problems from its role.
Keywords: anti-patterns; agile; Scrum; Scrum Master; productivity; project management; self-organized teams; project; velocity.
Beyond Diversity: Why the inclusion is imperative for boards to Promote Sustainability among Agile Non-Profit Organisations?
by Irfan Saleem , Safdar Husain Tahir, Zara Batool
Abstract: Based on the theoretical underpinning of stakeholder’s perspective and sustainability model, the study aims to explain how the board of governors could enable agile non-profit organizations (NPOs) to achieve sustainability by adopting inclusive board behaviour. By juxtaposing two societies, one who welcomes the diverse workforce and others who dislikes a diverse workforce, the study contributes by linking sustainability and stakeholder’s theory of corporate governance. The cross-sectional design was used to collect primary data set of CEOs and the board of governors from agile NPOs of Canada and Pakistan. The study applies structural education model with the help of SMART–PLS. Empirical results suggest that board diversity indirectly helps to achieve sustainability in terms of performance. The study shows inclusive board behaviour unconsciously favours stakeholders, including both employees and society. Besides, results exhibit mediating effects of the inclusive board behaviour. Notably, this research is beneficial for the management of agile-NPOs.
Keywords: Agile; Non-profit organisations; Stakeholder theory; Sustainability model; Diverse workforce; Cross-sectional design; Structural education model; Mediation