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International Journal of Agile Systems and Management
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International Journal of Agile Systems and Management (26 papers in press)
Abstract: Industry 4.0 is an element of entrepreneurial strategy to survive to rapidly and constantly changing markets. Several studies acknowledge that small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) face challenges initiating innovation processes towards digital transformation, requiring stronger recourse to external expertise for research and development. Among others, the lack of structured business plans and strategic vision about digitalisation may hinder the potential of Indus-try 4.0 solutions for SMEs across several sectors. However, the success of the so called fourth industrial revolution will ultimately depend on whether SMEs can adopt and implement these technologies, as they represent the backbone of numerous economies worldwide. The present study aims at presenting the characteristics of a roadmap service supporting SMEs in the manufacturing and building sector throughout the technological and organisational planning of Indus-try 4.0 in their business strategies. Besides a literature review regarding existing examples of roadmaps for the introduction of Industry 4.0, the authors derived the structure of the proposed roadmap service tailored to the innovation requirements of SMEs and analysing the potential of innovative techniques for the generation of innovative ideas from the design thinking methodology. The results of a social experiment to validate the selected design thinking techniques show that most of them enable innovation dynamics in creativity workshops for Industry 4.0 roadmaps and are useful for deriving an implementation plan for Industry 4.0 in SMEs.
Keywords: industry 4.0; roadmap; self-assessment; readiness; maturity model; small and medium sized enterprises.
Abstract: Social and economic developments, such as the progressive aging of society or rigorous budgetary policies, combined with the latest unforeseen outbreak of the pandemic COVID-19 have shown the fragility of healthcare systems. Today more than ever, concepts like flexibility, agility and efficiency assume significance also for the design of healthcare systems. To increase agility and robustness of healthcare systems, this paper presents an implementation approach for Hospital 4.0 based on a profound analysis of scientific literature about Industry 4.0 and Hospital 4.0 and aims to provide a practice oriented guideline for hospital manager. The proposed roadmap is based on six phases starting with an assessment and ending with the long-term sustainable innovation and development process of future oriented Hospital 4.0 concepts. The main findings of this research is the transfer of Industry 4.0 guidelines to healthcare, leading to a comprehensive roadmap for the development and implementation of Hospital 4.0 strategies.
Keywords: Hospital 4.0; Industry 4.0; roadmap; healthcare system; assessment model; agile systems design.
Assessment and Prioritization of Risks and SCRM Strategies in Indian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Supply Chains- A SCRM-AHP model
by HARISH BABU
Abstract: In the current scenario, Risk Management is an important aspect of every organization. It is not limited to a particular area like Finance, Enterprise Risk Management, etc.. It is equally important to manage the risk in the supply chain. Every risk has a different effect on the performance of supply chain, which is mainly due to their different levels of impact and a different probability of occurrence. Some risks have significant consequences, while others have negligible consequences. Therefore, before selecting the appropriate risk strategy, it is essential for supply chain managers to proactively plan for each type of risk and to determine their priority. Proactive planning of supply chain risks mainly focuses on identification of significant risk and their anticipating strategy, for making a more robust supply chain. Supply chain risk management is also required to know the vulnerability of the supply chain. This research paper mainly focuses on the assessment of the significant supply chain risks and prioritization of supply chain risk management strategies by using Analytical Hierarchy Process methodology. The main objective of this research is to develop a decision support system for the implementation of supply chain risk management strategies in the context of the Indian SMEs. Indian Small and Medium Enterprises need to pay conspicuous attention to the field of supply chain risk management. Through this research an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive understanding of supply chain risks and risk mitigation strategies for the supply chain managers in the context of Indian Small and Medium Enterprises, for instance, selecting a suitable strategy rapidly and cost-effectively to reduce the impact of risks. Furthermore, the result of this research also contributes to develop a conceptual framework for researchers and academics.
Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process; Risk Management; Risk Mitigation; Risk Modelling; Risk Prioritization; SCRM Strategies; Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM).
Beyond Diversity: Why the inclusion is imperative for boards to Promote Sustainability among Agile Non-Profit Organisations?
by Irfan Saleem, Safdar Husain Tahir, Zahra Batool
Abstract: Based on the theoretical underpinning of stakeholders perspective and sustainability model, the study aims to explain how the board of governors could enable agile non-profit organizations (NPOs) to achieve sustainability by adopting inclusive board behaviour. By juxtaposing two societies, one who welcomes the diverse workforce and others who dislikes a diverse workforce, the study contributes by linking sustainability and stakeholders theory of corporate governance. The cross-sectional design was used to collect primary data set of CEOs and the board of governors from agile NPOs of Canada and Pakistan. The study applies structural education model with the help of SMARTPLS. Empirical results suggest that board diversity indirectly helps to achieve sustainability in terms of performance. The study shows inclusive board behaviour unconsciously favours stakeholders, including both employees and society. Besides, results exhibit mediating effects of the inclusive board behaviour. Notably, this research is beneficial for the management of agile-NPOs.
Keywords: Agile; Non-profit organisations; Stakeholder theory; Sustainability model; Diverse workforce; Cross-sectional design; Structural education model; Mediation.
Benefits Realization Management systematic literature review
by Leandro Pereira, Mariana Sempiterno, Carlos Jeronimo
Abstract: Projects can bring value to organizations; however, most times organizations fail to fully realize all conceivable benefits. The purpose of Benefit Realization Management (BRM) is to help organizations achieve their strategic benefits through projects. Although BRM started focusing on IT projects, it is currently applied to many other areas. The impact of BRM practices on project success has been widely proved. A pioneering systematic literature review was used to identify BRM existing frameworks and establish how can they be effectively implemented in any organization. Three main frameworks were identified, one based on the BRM lifecycle, another on the capabilities needed for benefits management and finally one looking at individual ICT benefits. An effective BRM implementation needs clearly defined benefits so they can be planned for and easily measured. A clear distribution of responsibilities and review of the benefits achieved after project conclusion were also identified as critical factors.
Keywords: benefits realization management; project benefits; project management; systematic literature review; benefits management.
Concepts of Transdisciplinary Engineering: A Transdisciplinary Landscape
by Susan Lattanzio, Aydin Nassehi, Glenn Parry, Linda Newnes
Abstract: The term transdisciplinary is receiving increased attention within engineering academic and research funding communities. We survey authors of papers presented at the 27th ISTE International Transdisciplinary Engineering Conference (TE2020) to answer two research questions: 1) How do authors define transdisciplinary engineering? 2) What do authors perceive differentiates interdisciplinary engineering research from transdisciplinary engineering research? Responses from thirty-four participants (50%), are qualitatively analysed. Results show that for the three characteristics commonly used in characterisations of transdisciplinarity (goal, collaboration and integration), multiple concepts exist. These range from generic expressions which overlap with how interdisciplinarity is defined within the general literature, to stronger, more definitive expressions. Conclusions find that rather than a single definition a transdisciplinary landscape exists. To enable users to define where they sit in the transdisciplinary landscape, we create a framework enabling users to map their position under the three key characteristics of goal, collaboration and integration.
Keywords: transdisciplinary; transdisciplinary engineering; definitions; transdisciplinary engineering landscape.
SCOWP Agile Methodology for Secure Web-based Software Development
by Paul Sanmartin, Augusto De Arcos, Adriana Iglesias
Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology called SCOWP that combines the agility of Scrum with risk management (for Web environments) of Owasp. The purpose of SCOWP is to allow the development of an agile software product that meets the established functional requirements, considering the most important risks identified by Owasp. As a result, there will be a web-based software which implements the best security practices as a quality attribute that increases the value of the done product. A pilot development was implemented in a software development company with satisfactory results, furthermore this company formally adopted it as a job methodology.
Keywords: Agile methodologies; information security; OWASP; risks in web-based software; SCOWP; Scrum; secure software development.
Enhancing the Efficiency of Credit Card Service Delivery through Service Innovation: A Case Study
by Muhammad Kamran, Tonmoy Choudhury, Hadrian Djajadikerta, Ferry Jie
Abstract: This study is the response to the calls for enhancing the efficiency of credit card service delivery (CCSD) in Bangladesh which is currently an impotent but pivotal element of their banking system. The study presents a Role Activity Diagram (RAD) based innovative solution to eradicate the procedural impediments in CCSD and infers various recommendations to lower its cost and processing time. The proposed model can also enhance customer satisfaction and service quality by minimizing the chances of miscommunication and loss of information during the process. By eliminating some redundant activities and rearranging the various others, it can render the overall service delivery process more convenient and efficient. Considering the generic nature of the presented model, it is equally effective and applicable to other financial and non-financial organizations in Bangladesh and abroad for improving their service delivering efficiency.
Keywords: Service delivery; RAD; Credit cards; Banking; Innovation.
Success and Barrier Factors in Agile Transformation
by Frederico Batista, Leandro Pereira, Renato Costa
Abstract: Agile Methods have become an appealing way of working for organizations focused on improving their performance and matching their customers needs. Agile Methods were originally created to be used by small and independent teams, which leads to complex challenges when implemented in Large-Scale. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap in the scientific literature on Large-Scale Agile Transformations. A feedback from 294 Agile Experts was collected through a survey strategy. Parametric techniques were used to rank and explain the most relevant factors as success and barriers for agile transformations in Large-Scale.
Keywords: Agile Methods; Agile Transformation; Large-Scale Agile.
Boosting Inclusive Businesses Opportunities Through the Adoption of Scrum: an Execution Strategy to Enter Low-end Markets
by Anne Lange
Abstract: As consumer markets in Western industries are saturated, the Bottom of the Pyramid has become increasingly important as a future mass market. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to adequately address the needs of low-income consumers. Approaches such as inclusive business have become more significant in both the literature and in practice. However, it is still unclear how inclusive business structures can be designed. Given the importance of networks based on local partnerships and knowledge transfer as key factors for success, this research recommends taking an agile approach to frame inclusive business approaches. Based on the Scrum framework, this study creates a conceptual model: the Inclusive Business Scrum Approach. Referring to the execution level, the model illustrates how inclusive business can emerge. It thus not only helps to address the how of inclusive business, but it also considers topics related to the heterogeneity of partners and the composition of the team.
Keywords: Scrum; Agile; Inclusive business; Bottom of the Pyramid; Low-income market; Sprint goal; Partnership.
A fuzzy multi-objective modeling for supplier selection problem in leagile supply chain
by Mojgan Khorasani, Abolfazl Kazemi
Abstract: This paper investigates a supplier selection model under leagile procurement. The mathematical model is a fuzzy multi objective model. The paper incorporates the uncertainty and
Keywords: Supplier selection; Leagile supply chain; Demand allocation; Genetic algorithm; Taguchi parameter design method.
METAPHORIZATION of Staff's Behavior in Organization
by Alireza Amini, Seyed Mohammad Moghimi
Abstract: The present study aimed to make a metaphor for the employees behaviours in Iranian governmental organisations. In phase one, the organisational life of the staff was studied using the phenomenology strategy. A total of 43 middle managers in governmental organisations were selected through snowball sampling. In this stage, 13 metaphors related to organisational behaviours such as organisation as god sanctum, candle, meaning reflection, tortoise/rabbit organisation, action-puzzle (Chameleons), organisation as a hotel, promenade, farm, reflection of managers action, relationship maze, treasury of wealth, turnery of subterfuge, and organisation as a herd of horse or donkey were created. In the second phase, the Delphi technique was used to collect data in order to explore the nature of the behavioural metaphors, as well as their main impacts, which confirmed the validity of the first phase of the study. The results indicated behavioural metaphors for including cognitive-behaviour, structural, political, social, and adaptive behaviours.
Keywords: behavioural phenomenon; making metaphor; phenomenology; thematic analysis; Delphi technique; cognitive behaviour; structural behaviour; political behaviour; social behaviour; adaptive behaviour; governmental organisations.
The Impact of Supply Chain Practices on Flexibility During the Covid-19 Pandemic with Risk Management Culture as a Moderator
by Sara Elzarka
Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has affected supply chains around the world, it has tested the true resilience of businesses in every sector. Emerging economies are not as developed in supply chain management as developed economies and the pandemic severely affected numerous economic sectors resulting in devastating economic performance. This research focuses on examining how the regular supply chain management practices (SCMPs) have impacted the supply chain flexibility with supply chain risk management culture as a moderating variable during the pandemic. This study was conducted through an online based questionnaire. Data were collected from 283 manufacturing companies that presented different industrial sectors in Egypt. The data was analysed using partial least squares technique. The results indicated that strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship practices and information sharing are the three SCMPs which positively affect supply chain flexibility. Moreover, the supply chain risk management culture positively moderated the impact of strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship practices and information sharing on supply chain flexibility.
Keywords: supply chain management; supply chain flexibility; Egypt; supply chain practices; Covid-19; pandemic; risk management; risk management culture; MENA region; Middle East; supply chain performance.
A Structured Approach to Large and Medium Scale Business Change: A Resource Orchestration Perspective
by Hamdan Mansoor, Richard H. Weston, Rohana Abdullah, Steven King, Peter Jackson, Paul Foley
Abstract: This paper brings together systematic understandings about making changes in businesses. It does so by: observing industry practice; applying systems engineering science; and reviewing emergent management theories about asset orchestration. Thereby the paper proposes the use of an Open Source Road Map for large and medium scale business change projects; that lends a conceptual organizing structure for the accomplishment of business change. A practical use of the resulting Road Map is also exemplified at a fairly abstract level.
Keywords: Resource-Based View; Business Change; Road Map; Asset Orchestration; Complex Systems Engineering.
Designing a User-Centred Public Transportation Services: An Integrated Quality Service Systems Approach
by Amalia Suzianti, Nadhira Dhana Shafira
Abstract: Traffic congestion in Jakarta often occurs because of the imbalance between the mobilisation of citizens and the extent of using public transportation. To overcome this problem, the Indonesian Government issued a strategic plan for bus rapid transit (BRT) transportation to improve the transportation services quality. An essential component of BRT transportation is its stations; an initiative to improve BRT service quality involves improving the station services. To fulfil passenger needs and improve the BRT station services, this research recommended a service blueprint design based on the service quality, theory of inventive problem-solving (TRIZ), and quality function deployment (QFD) methods which obtained 13 recommendation solutions from 18 priority attributes along with 29 inventive principles to be mapped into the service blueprint.
Keywords: service design; integrated service systems; public transportation services; bus rapid transit station; service innovation; service blueprint; service quality; TRIZ; inventive principles; QFD; quality function deployment.
Kairós: Using Context Histories for Predictions and Recommendations in Projects Time Management
by Felipe Chaves Rodrigues, Alexsandro Souza Filippetto, Robson Kerschner Lima, Wesllei Felipe Heckler, Jorge Luis Victória Barbosa
Abstract: Time management is an important part of a project. Cost and quality are directly affected by any changes in deadlines. Therefore, this article presents Kairós, a computational model for prediction and recommendation in project schedules. We made a systematic mapping study on the research topics, and the gaps found were the base for the creation of the model. The model makes recommendations to the manager proactively according to best practices in project management, learning with the approval or rejection of each recommendation. We performed an evaluation through a prototype using simulated use cases with real data from a software development company. The results showed that the model was able to predict with a precision of 94% whether a task would be completed with delay, with 86% accuracy. The results demonstrated that the use of context histories contributes to project management.
Keywords: Project management; Time management; Project schedules; Prediction; Recommendation; Context histories.
Applying Agile Framework in Delivering, and Evaluating University Courses
by Malik Khalfan, Omid Haass, Pearl Li Ng, Tayyab Maqsood
Abstract: The learning approach in the education sector has transitioned from teacher-focussed or content-focused to student-centred. One of the main outcomes of a student-centred learning approach is to put the students first, both in course development and delivery. In this research, we discuss the delivery of a project management course by adopting Scrum, an agile methodology, using non-participatory observation. The findings of this study reveal that adopting agile methodologies, such as Scrum, demonstrates a strong alignment with student-centred learning and teaching practices. Our observation shows that the teaching team puts students experience as their key agenda during the weekly sprint retro and planning meetings. Our research findings also confirm that having an EduScrum Master to manage the teaching team enhanced collaboration, communication, and value delivery to students. However, the findings of this study are limited to the observations conducted by the research team and therefore, this paper also includes suggestions for future research opportunities in this area.
Keywords: Higher education; agile; Scrum; Project management.
A macro-level process model for integrating agile approaches in the design of product-service systems
by Sandra Einsiedler, Sagar Mule, Christiane Rau, Peter Hehenberger, Kristiana Roth
Abstract: Companies nowadays have to deal with faster changing industries. To gain competitiveness companies have to provide offerings that are adding value for the customer, which can be achieved through a Product-Service-System (PSS). Therefore, this study aims at developing an integrated approach to develop all components of a PSS while including agile approaches to ensure customer-centricity. After a thorough literature research on the topics of PSS and agile methods was carried out, a reference model was developed which integrates the specificities of these two areas forming an integrated framework for agile PSS design. The result of this research is a reference model which includes crucial steps which are specific for the development of PSS and includes customers in almost all steps. Moreover, the framework orchestrates the development of hardware, software and services specifically for PSS.
Keywords: Product-Service-System PSS; agile design; hybrid; reference model; Scrum.
A Systems Approach to Managing Complex Engineering Assets: Exploring Shifts in Equipment Management and Reliability Enhancement Paradigms
by Burnet Mkandawire
Abstract: Engineering asset management is a complex socio-technical system, and there has been a surge in efforts to optimize the capacity utilization of these assets in the wake of conflicting objectives: to enhance reliability and at the same time to lower costs. The major challenge is in determining which assortment of approaches (tools, strategies, techniques, methodologies and philosophies) to apply in order to get optimal trade-offs of cost, risk and performance or reliability. This paper critically reviews the literature to examine shifts in physical asset management paradigms over the past few decades and to determine the best combination of approaches; and it shows that none of these approaches are able, individually, to optimize the trade-offs, but as a cluster. It proposes a systems-thinking model-based integration approach. Pilot studies have shown that using the model proposed can yield savings in maintenance costs of 15-40% and in avoided costs of up to 15%.
Keywords: Equipment management paradigms; Multi-criteria risk-modeling; Power-asset management; Reliability; Systems-thinking approach; Transdisciplinary approach.
Communication patterns and team performance within agile software development project
by Saieshni Thanthony, Annlizé Marnewick, Carl Marnewick
Abstract: Communication is a prerequisite for team performance, a fact that has been reiterated throughout the literature. However, even with strong evidence that communication plays a vital role in enabling team performance, there continues to be a lack of agreement as to precisely how. This article commences by reviewing the literature regarding this topic to determine communication and team performance patterns. The insights from the literature regarding the patterns were then validated by Agile Software Development (ASD) academics and practitioners through the use of a quantitative survey. Certain previously known communication and team performance patterns were rejected but most patterns were found to be an accurate description of the ASD team dynamic. A summary of the deductions is presented in the form of a rich description of the communication and team performance patterns which provides meaningful insight into the current ASD team dynamic. This exploratory research contributes to the body of knowledge that deals with the research topic. The research assists future researchers and ASD academics and practitioners with making improvements in team performance by understanding and modifying applicable team communication aspects.
Keywords: agile; agile software development; communication; agile software development teams; communication patterns; team performance.
Performance metrics in scrum software engineering companies
by Fernando Almeida, Pedro Carneiro
Abstract: Finding effective ways to evaluate the process and a team in software engineering is not a trivial task. Therefore, it is pertinent to study metrics that can be used in Scrum environments to monitor and evaluate the team's progress and support the implementation of improvements. This study explores the relevance of 12 specific metrics applied in a Scrum environment and explores their importance considering multiple dimensions through the adoption of a quantitative methodology based on a survey that received 137 valid answers from Portuguese Scrum professionals. The results allowed us to conclude that the metrics related to the business value delivered and sprint goal success are the most relevant. Furthermore, factors like the number of years of experience of individuals, their role in the Scrum team, and the size of the organisation are factors that influence the perception of the importance of these metrics.
Keywords: scrum; agile; metrics; measurements; software development; software quality.
Firm's supply chain agility enabling resilience and performance in turmoil times
by Marcelo Bronzo Ladeira, Marcos Paulo Valadares De Oliveira, Paulo Renato De Sousa, Marcelo Werneck Barbosa
Abstract: Facing a scenario of greater risk and turbulence, in which vulnerability and disruption events can impact firms' operations and supply chains, agility remains a key capability for its effects on performance and, especially important in turbulent periods, on firm's resilience. This paper presents the findings of a quantitative study that attempted to describe these effects. By means of a survey with a group of 305 top executives and management professionals in manufacturers of non-durable consumer goods operating in Brazil, this study describes agility taking into account the respondents' perception of the firm's internal limits as well as the upstream and downstream firms value chain processes. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse data and validate the research model. In terms of managerial contributions, the research findings suggest that investments must be directed at improving firms' integration and flexibility, especially if agility is considered a relevant competitive capability in operations strategy.
Keywords: supply chain agility; process integration; process flexibility; organisational resilience; competitive performance.
Special Issue on: Barriers in Global Supply Chain Among Uncertainty, Pandemic, and Recession Financial, Diversity and Structural Issues
by Pakeezah Butt, Muhammad Kamran, Farman Afzal, Mohammad Mushfiqul Haque Mukit
Abstract: This study is the response to the calls for enhancing the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) by investigating the impact of market orientation on firm performance through green supply chain management (GSCM) practices. To this end, we used a formal questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data from 300 respondents in Pakistani SMEs and estimated our model employing partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Our results indicate that market orientation drives firms to adopt GSCM practices. Moreover, GSCM is a significant channel through which market orientation enhances firm performance. Among the GSCM practices, reverse logistics emerged as the strongest driver of firm performance. By highlighting various policy implications, our findings urge the SME sector to implement GSCM in their business operations in achieving environmental, economic, social and operational milestones together.
Keywords: Environmental collaboration; Firm performance; Green supply chain management (GSCM); Market orientation; PLS-SEM; Sustainability performance.
Three Decades of Research on the Demand and Supply Side Perspectives of Digital Technologies in Banking: A Review & Research Agenda
by Shilpa Taneja, Liaqat Ali, M. Kabir Hassan, Yun Doo Lee
Abstract: The research appraises the empirical evidence from wide-ranging vital aspects related to digital technologies in banking to provide a classical review and future research directions. The paper consists of a review of 187 research articles published during the last three decades on the designated aspects of digital banking technologies. The search strategy used for the review consists of looking for relevant research articles in the literature. The initial method of searching includes the identification of keywords, phrases, and search strings related to selected aspects of digital banking. By integrating the findings from previous studies and understanding the current state of knowledge, the study makes a significant contribution to the existing and developing literature in the field. Moreover, the review puts forth the gaps which need to be addressed in contributing to the management issues. By identifying various findings from diverse angles, the bank managers can develop sustainable strategies so that the all-inclusive growth of digital banking technologies can be achieved.
Keywords: digital technology; banking; adoption; acceptance; operations; sustainability.
A systematic literature review of board diversity in agile healthcare supply chain
by Kylie De Klerk
Abstract: The healthcare supply chain plays a fundamental role in addressing the healthcare needs of local and global communities. The composition of the healthcare sector, particularly regarding cultural and gender diversity, is an antecedent to effective medical healthcare management, resources and information sharing, to operationalizing governance objectives, and achieving organizational performance. Following an appraisal of the selected literature, six themes emerged in the research area of diversity in healthcare. These were cultural diversity management, gender diversity management, governance and leadership, board management, Indigenous healthcare, and healthcare workers and teamwork. Findings from the study suggest the advancement of critical elements of organizational diversity research in the agile medical supply chain organizations, including aspects of the influences of workforce heterogeneity on board governance practices, organizational culture and climate-specific studies, organizational performance and non-performance outcomes, and diversity disparities in senior and executive-level leadership roles. This study can influence regulatory decision-making, strategic policy origination, and operational diversity management programs.
Keywords: gender diversity; board diversity; medical healthcare management; healthcare supply chain; healthcare corporate governance; Indigenous healthcare.
Yet Another Investigation on Blockchain in Smart Healthcare
by Mohiuddin Ahmed, Shahrin Sadik, Suaib Akhter, Abu S. S. M. Barkat Ullah
Abstract: Blockchain technology is a digital tool to modernize the existing smart healthcare eco-system that uses Internet of Things (IoT) as one of its prerequisites. The growing demand for reliable and cost-effective remote healthcare service incorporated with blockchain technology amidst the pandemic COVID-19 particularly highlights the positive impact of the technology on the healthcare industry. Identifying and classifying the advantages of blockchain based healthcare applications is required for bringing a revolutionary transformation. There has been a plethora of research and reviews on blockchain in healthcare, however, there is a lack of connection between the COVID-19 pandemic and the integration of blockchain. This paper aims to review the blockchain based healthcare eco-system with a particular focus on interoperability, COVID-19, critical analysis of available blockchain platforms and the challenges associated. Unlike other surveys, this review also indicated the requirement of explainable blockchain and appropriate future directions. Among many other articles on blockchain, this paper will serve as a reference for blockchain and its role in global pandemic.
Keywords: Blockchain; Internet of Things (IoT); e-Health; Digital Health; ElectronicrnHealth Records; Remote Patient Monitoring System; Interoperability; Cryptography;rnSmart Contracts; Hyperledger Fabric; Ethereum; Supply Chain Management; COVID-19.