International Journal of Agile Systems and Management (13 papers in press)
A multipath methodology to promote ergonomics, safety and efficiency in agile factories
by Silvia Ceccacci, Marco Matteucci, Margherita Peruzzini, Maura Mengoni
Abstract: An important area of risk management practice for manufacturing companies relates to the prevention of injuries and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The greater benefits can be achieved where a preventive approach is used, based on ergonomic design of workplaces and attention to human requirements and limitations as well as human-machine interaction principles. The research aims at providing a pragmatic approach to support the application of ergonomic risk management in practice. It defines a multipath methodology to investigate human factors impacting on safety by considering the specific workspace, the adopted tools, the overall production environment and the workers activity. An industrial case study is described to illustrate the methodology and demonstrate the benefits for companies. Results suggest that the proposed multipath methodology allow to effectively assist analysts in the definitin of crucial risk factors and selection of proper ergonomics assessment and measurement tools accordign to the specific context of application.
Keywords: Ergonomics; Human-Centered Design; Risk Management; Design methods; Digital Manufacturing.
A comparative analysis of factor analysis Model for Pinpointing Agile Developers
by Alok Khatri, Dixit Garg, G.S. Dangayach
Abstract: Agile manufacturing is an emerging approach of engineering to deal with dynamic demand of customer and market. The Prime factors that influence agility are agile developers and enablers. Agile developers are mainly less investment factors that are basically governed by managerial power. To find out most important agile developers, a survey based study was conducted with the aim to develop model for agility developers and measure its level in Indian manufacturing industries. It was hypotheses that sensitiveness to change, relationship with customer, relationship with supplier, flexibility and competency and responsiveness is not significant with agile manufacturing. The data were analyzed by ANNOVA test, different factor analysis techniques and a complete regression model for agile developer was prepared with the help of Analytic hierarchy process. It was found that design excellence and decision flexibility variables have highest importance among all components and developers are being used almost at their 50% level.
Keywords: Agile manufacturing; agility developer; principal component analysis; linear regression model; Artificial neural network (ANN); Analytic hierarchy process (AHP).
Modelling the Factors of Agility of Humanitarian Operations
by Suresh M, Ganesh S, Raghu Raman
Abstract: The commercial concept of agility, when responding to humanitarian operations, has strong potential for increasing efficiency and effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of agility in the context of humanitarian operations, particularly cart festivals in India. This responds to the increasing pressure on festival organizers and public administrative officials to manage the festival and to control the crowd and other supporting facilities in a particular time window. Agility plays a major role in accommodating the unpredicted changes in cart festivals. Attempts are made to identify the factors which influence the agility of humanitarian operations. In this study, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach is applied to find the interrelationships among the factors. Finally, it is found that the most influential factors are multi-skilled and flexible people, Informal learning and development, completeness and change of culture.
Keywords: Humanitarian Operations; Agility; Change Management; Event Flexibility; Interpretive Structural Modelling.
Impact of Requirements Volatility and Flexible Management on GSD Project Success: A Study Based on the Dimensions of Requirements Volatility
by Mohammad Shameem, Bibhas Chandra, Chiranjeev Kumar, Arif Khan
Abstract: Global software development (GSD) is a modern paradigm in which the software development activities are performed across the geographical boundaries. The development teams in a GSD environment operates under the three distributed dimensions namely, geographical, cultural and temporal distances. The distributed dimensions presents substantial coordination and communication challenges among the team members which are becoming more challenging and gaining much attention for the phenomenon of requirement volatility. Therefore, we have developed a GSD risk based model using project performance risk as a mediating variable for analyzing the effect of requirement volatility to the success of a GSD project. The model has explored the moderating effect of flexible management approach for managing requirements uncertainty, which may increases the success of a GSD project as a results of effectively managing requirements uncertainty. To validate the research model, a survey study was conducted from the 103 GSD experts. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) procedure was utilized for testing the hypotheses. The findings of the study were highlighted that requirements volatility increases the project performance risks, which as a result has negative impact on a GSD project success. Additionally, the flexible management approach may increase the negative effect of requirements volatility as a result of reducing project performance risks. Based on the findings of this study, we can conclude that requirements volatility increases the risks in a GSD project which can be managed by the flexible management approach.
Keywords: Global software development; Requirements volatility; Structural equation modeling; Flexible management.
A Framework to Improve Lean Implementation by review leveraging aspects of Organizational Culture: The Case of Saudi Arabia
by ABDULLAH ALKHORAIF, Patrick McLaughlin, Hamad Rashid
Abstract: Implementing Lean into manufacturing small and medium enterprises faces difficulties, whereas it is more likely to be implemented successfully in larger companies, which then gain the advantages of Lean systems (Karim et al., 2011). In addition, Organizational culture is one of the most important factors to focus on to facilitate the implementation of Lean within Saudi Arabian manufacturing (Karim and Arif‐Uz‐Zaman, 2013). Thus, more research that focuses on Lean implementation in SMEs are needed. This article focuses on contributing to develop a framework to improve Lean Implementation into small and medium enterprise manufacturing organisations in Saudi Arabia by leveraging aspects of Organizational Culture. Qualitative research is confirmed to be useful for uncovering such insider views, (Corbin and Strauss, 1990).The research will be based on qualitative and grounded theory inside action research with and an inductive approach. Action research tends to be used for prompting conscious change within a somewhat controlled environment, (Collis and Hussey, 2013). The data collection generally employed to study culture consist of; semi structured interviews, observation and focus groups. A framework by identifying suitable interventions to facilitate lean culture. a series of interventions developed with participants. these interventions permitted a framework for SMEs to be developed. A plan of linked interventions designed to develop aspects of lean culture forms the output of phase three. The planned interventions for SMEs are should take place together as a series of interlinked interventions. The interventions come from two sources literature review and data gathering. The contributions of this study are threefold: First, there has been no previous framework of Lean implementation in SMEs manufacturing sector. In addition, It also contributes to knowledge about the failure of lean implementation. Concerning aspects of organizational culture that facilitate lean implementation. This knowledge is transdisciplinary and adds to the domains of lean implementation, organizational culture and lean culture. Finally, it supports the academic society with scheme for proposal future research
Keywords: Lean manufacturing; Lean implementation (LI); Grounded theory; Organizational culture (OC); Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); King of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
Industry 4.0 in New Zealand Dairy Industry
by Ray Y. Zhong, Fariz Aziz, Shaqir Samsudin, Neeraj Nambiar, Uthman Aziz, Eric Li
Abstract: New Zealand may be have the largest dairy industries in the world due to natural resources suitable for cows. It is facing new opportunities because a new generation of industry termed as Industry 4.0 is coming. Facing the new technologies, how traditional dairy industry in New Zealand could seize the golden opportunities in the context of Industry 4.0 to upgrade and transform? This paper analyses the current status of New Zealand dairy industry and gives some investigation results. Some significant insights and lessons from this study could be used for guiding dairy industry which is contemplating the implementation of Industry 4.0 enabled solutions.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; New Zealand; Dairy Industry; Technology Management.
The allocation of improvement programs in a flow shop for single and multi-products: a simulation assessment
by Paolo Renna, Michele Ambrico
Abstract: The continuous improvement is crucial to increase the companys competitiveness in today's market. This paper proposes a multi-dimension simulation environment to test improvement programs in a flow shop context. The simulator developed tests the programs proposed in the literature: centralized, distributed and hybrid. The main original contributions of this research are: a simulation environment with higher details; the analysis of several performance measures as the throughput, lead time, work in process, average utilization and the defected products for each workstation of the production line; the case of flow shop with multi-products. The experimental plan concerns the change of the following issues: set-up times, bottleneck position and process times. The flow shop without improvement programs is the benchmark of the performance measures. The simulation results show how the centralized policy is the better in a single product case, while the hybrid policy leads to the better results in case of multi-products.
Keywords: flow shop; allocation of improvement programs; performance measures; multi-products; discrete event simulation;.
Cleaner Production Value Stream Mapping at a Chromium Plating Plant: A Case Study
by Effendi Mohamad, Anuar Ishak, Mohd Rizal Salleh, Muhamad Arfauz A Rahman, Teruaki Ito, Mohd Amri Sulaiman
Abstract: In this study, the researchers have reported their experiences of a local SME chromium plating company in Melaka. They have described the different actions that were undertaken for reducing the environmental pollution, economic waste, along with the worker hazards and safety. Furthermore, this study also reports the important factors that affected the introduction of novel techniques and the measurement of the 3 pillars of economy, environment and society, though, some overlaps must be resolved. The conventional Value Stream Mapping (VSM) processes do not take into consideration both the environmental and societal metrics at the same time. Therefore, the researchers synergised the Lean and Environmental Toolkits proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 2007 along with the Malaysian Green Industry Auditor Guidelines (2014) in order to study the sustainability of the production line. This novel proposed VSM process could improve the performance of the 3 pillars, was seen to be significant due to its sustainability, was cost effective and also showed many additional benefits. In this report, the researchers investigated the different measures by embedding the Cleaner Production (CP) technology in their novel VSM technique, and this technology was known as Cleaner Production VSM (CPVSM). This was an efficient visualization process for the Lean and was seen to promote the sustainable development in the levels where it was implemented. The researchers observed many advantages of this technology, wherein the CP process implementation could be improved by using the CPVSM approach and it also promoted the Lean Manufacturing (LM) sustainability.
Keywords: Carbon Footprint; Cleaner Production; Lean Manufacturing ; Value Stream Mapping.
Conceptual model for Pair Design and Pair Testing based on the characteristics of Pair Programming
by Timo Missler, Eva-Maria Schön, María José Escalona, Jörg Thomaschewski
Abstract: Pair programming is a method that is widespread in the field of agile software development (ASD) and is acknowledged as state of the art of programming. This article initially addresses the question of what constitutes the key attributes of pair programming. Therefore, we analyzed the extent to which these attributes can be applied to the development-related areas of human centered design (HCD) and the quality assurance (QA) of software will then be examined. The results of this analyses lead to the presentation and consideration of a new conceptual model for the application of the attributes of pair programming in the context of pair design (HCD) and/or pair testing (QA). The discussion shows that a transferability and application is appropriate and that both HCD and QA benefit, particularly in terms of the product quality and product throughput time.
Keywords: Pair programming; human-centered design; software quality; quality assurance; agile software development.
Towards Continuous Strategy in Software Business
by Tanja Suomalainen, Jenni Myllykoski
Abstract: This paper examines the strategic planning in software-intensive businesses. As software-intensive businesses are going beyond agile and lean software development towards continuous deployment, it requires both continuous planning throughout the organisation and a link between strategy and software development. A better understanding of the strategic planning practices among software companies is needed to enable continuous deployment. However, the current literature does not yet address this issue. We conducted a multiple-case study involving three companies by interviewing 24 people in various roles and at different organisational levels. This study reveals an emerging need for continuous strategy in all cases. With a continuous strategy, we refer to the view that strategic planning can be an ongoing process without a predefined planning cycle. The case companies in our study were in different phases in adopting practices of continuous strategy. This paper highlights the reasons behind continuous strategy and describes the current practices of continuous strategy. Continuous strategy is especially vital for software companies dealing with turbulent business environments, but adopting the practices of continuous strategy is challenging. This study concludes that the main challenges are related to planning practices, transparency, communication and organisational structure.
Keywords: Strategic planning; continuous strategy; continuous planning; software development; continuous deployment; software business.
Analysis of agile supply chain enablers for an Indian manufacturing organisation
by Bharat Singh Patel, Atul Kumar Tiwari, Manish Kumar, Cherian Samuel, Goutam Sutar
Abstract: The contemporary manufacturing companies are making endeavours to implement agility in their supply chain to become competitors in highly uncertain and fast changing business environment. To be truly agile, a supply chain must possess a number of distinguishing characteristics which can be called as Agile Supply Chain (ASC) enablers. Again, to focus and attentive to all agility enablers effectively is not economical. Thus, to overcome this problem an AHP based framework is proposed in this study that would help the supply chain managers to assign relative importance to various agility enablers. The objective of present work is to categorise ASC enablers and examine its relative importance for better implementation of agility in perspective of an Indian manufacturing industry. This study deploys, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a popular Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool as a solution methodology, such that the decision problem breaks into hierarchy of different levels constituting goal, criteria and alternatives. A case study of a North India based manufacturing organisation is presented, in which four experts from the case-organisation and two experts from academia are contemplating to reach consensus for the pair-wise comparison of criteria and alternatives. The results show that there are three enablers namely virtual enterprises, customer satisfaction and adaptability are among the top priority enablers; enabler collaborative relationship is the moderate priority enabler and remaining three enablers i.e. use of information technology, market sensitivity and flexibility are the lowest priority enablers. To effectively implement agility in the supply chain, this study proposes that the manufacturing industries need to focus on the most important ASC enablers and also address the enablers with the least important at a later stage.
Keywords: Agile manufacturing; Agile supply chain; Agile supply chain enablers; Analytic hierarchy process (AHP); Flexibility; Customer satisfaction; Adaptability.
Multidisciplinary Design Automation A Conceptual Framework for Working with Product Model Extensions
by Tim Heikkinen
Abstract: Design automation can be used to support efficient information handling and knowledge processing in computer-based product modelling, as well as make possible new design exploration and optimisation capabilities. To be able to utilise and manage design automation systems over time, it is important to understand how the disciplinary methods and models are dependent on each other through the product model constituents and then how these relations should be built to support maintenance, leveraging and future reuse. Awareness of the concrete representation of relations could support the systems traceability and transparency, and depending on the chosen technique, comprehension and extendability can be affected. This paper presents a conceptual framework for how a set of product model constituents are, can and to some extent, should be extended to define relations in multidisciplinary design automation systems.
Keywords: Multidisciplinary design automation; system relations; extended product model.
CT Based Agile 3D Printing System For Pre-operative Planning Of Orthopaedic Surgeries
by Ton Tron, Wencheng Liu, Bernard Chen, Andrey Molotnikov, Xinhua Wu
Abstract: Addressing the increase in complexity and number of orthopaedic surgeries especially in the aging population is a major challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. The availability of physical model of patient-specific bones can benefit pre-operative planning of surgeries and lead to better surgical options and improved outcomes. This paper describes a CT-based agile 3D printing system for manufacturing patient-specific bones that can be used for pre-operative planning and assist in the choice and application of orthopaedic implants.
Keywords: 3D printing; Computed tomography (CT); Structure of bones; Orthopaedic surgery; Pre-operative planning.