International Journal of Technology Marketing (12 papers in press)
Location-based marketing using mobile geofencing: lessons learned from a user-centred application development research
by Manuel B. Garcia
Abstract: Location-based marketing (LBM) is becoming an integral element of the media mix for making highly personalised offers to the targeted audience at the most opportune time and place. Yet, the literature calls for more usability studies due to the lack of user-centred research. To fill this gap, this study explores the development of PushMapp a geomarketing tool for launching LBM campaigns through a user-centred, parallel-iterative approach. Usability analysis shows that this type of application is affected by issues related to security, privacy, advertisement relevancy, and notification overload. Meanwhile, only performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and hedonic motivation appeared to be the significant factors in an LBM mobile application. Experiences from this study provided valuable insights for marketers and business owners who plan to capitalise on LBM strategies by underscoring the importance of integrating users input, ensuring usability compliance, and conforming to factors of mobile application utilisation.
Keywords: location-based marketing; LBM; geofencing; marketing; advertising; usability; mobile application development.
Consumer repurchase intention of smart wearable devices: an extension of the technology integration model
by Zalfa Laili Hamzah, Muhammad Waqas, Rohayu Abdul Rahman, Ezlika Ghazali
Abstract: The popularity of smart wearable devices has significantly increased in recent years. However, little is known about the factors that can enhance the repurchase intention of smart wearables. This study adopted a mixed-method approach in the form of netnography and semi-structured interviews to explore the benefits that lead to the repurchase intention of smart wearables. Results revealed that consumers look for technological features and agency-based factors that facilitate their technological extension and subtraction. Similarly, individual characteristics such as self-identity can also lead to technological extension and subtraction. This technological extension and subtraction, along with intrinsic hedonic benefits, can lead to perceptions of economic value. This perception of economic value can lead to consumer satisfaction and eventually to repurchase intention of smart wearables. This result validates and enhances the technology integration model by presenting the integration of factors in a consolidated framework that can explain the repurchase intentions of smart wearables.
Keywords: smart wearable; repurchase intention; continuance intention; utilitarian benefits; hedonic benefits; economic benefits; technology integration model.
Support the creation of appropriate tourism offers by finding a model, using machine learning algorithms, to forecast spending by tourists
by Ana Ktona, Etleva Muça, Denada Çollaku, Irena Shahini, Irena Boboli
Abstract: Tourism in Albania is one of the potential pillars of economic development, offering real opportunities for GDP growth and employment. New technology development and the digital transformation of society have led to tourism in the upper social and economic dimensions. Technology can make an impact by improving tourist experiences through: integration of generation mobile, integration of IoT, data evaluation, reputation and promotion. This study presents the potential for using technology and computer science applications in finding models to forecast tourist expenditure. These models can be a support in creating appropriate tourism offers. Data has been collected from tourists in the city of Gjirokastra using a face-to-face questionnaire. Various machine learning algorithms have been applied to our data to determine the best model for forecasting tourist spending. The most appropriate model is that found by applying a support vector machine for regression. The model we found can be used in forecasting the expenditure of a first-time visitor. Tourism agencies can use this information to create convenient and affordable offers to increase the number of tourists visiting the area.
Keywords: machine learning algorithms; forecasting spending; creating tourism offers; support vector machine for regression.
The impact of implementing chatbot on customer visit intention: application for hotel management
by Nguyen Thi Khanh Chi
Abstract: This study is undertaken to investigate whether hotel providers can increase customer trust and customer experience through chatbot service rather than through traditional face-to-face interactions which further motivate customers to visit hotel. This study uses customer data to test the impact of three chatbot dimensions on customer trust and experience. Correlation analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) were employed to examine the causal relationships. The results show that three chatbot dimensions have significantly positive impact on customer trust and customer experience. Information quality has the highest effect on customer experience while service quality has the highest influence on customer trust. Meanwhile, customer trust has higher influence on hotel visit intention that customer experience. Moreover, three chatbot dimensions also have indirect link with customer intention. This paper also contributes several implications to theory and practice.
Keywords: chatbot; hospitality industry; customer trust; customer experience; hotel visit intention.
Affordances of livestreaming shopping on social networking sites improve viewers' trust in streamers, which affects purchase intention: an uncertainty reduction theory perspective
by Hsiu-Chia Ko
Abstract: The absence of sound transaction mechanisms for livestreaming shopping on social networking sites (LSS-SNS) has led to shopping-related uncertainty and has become the main barrier stopping viewers from making purchases. We used uncertainty reduction theory and information technology affordance theory as the foundation for an exploration of which LSS-SNS affordances meet viewers information-seeking needs, reduce uncertainty, and increase viewers trust in streamers, thereby boosting their purchase intention. Our results indicate that interactivity, observing the amount of positive word-of-mouth from other viewers, and streamer self-presentation can enhance viewers trust in streamers. However, product visibility and observing other viewers purchase behaviours do not positively influence trust in streamers. Our results also indicate that viewers trust in streamers has a pivotal positive effect on their purchase intention. This study suggests that the social interaction capabilities characteristic of social networking sites are the core strength that mitigates uncertainty in LSS-SNS.
Keywords: livestreaming shopping; uncertainty reduction theory; affordance theory; trust; purchase intention; observational learning; word-of-mouth; self-presentation.
Special Issue on: TOURMAN 2021 Technology Marketing in Tourism and Hospitality
The dialogue between tradition and modernity: exploring creative cultural tourism design in the 'internet plus' era
by Yuanyuan Zong, You-Yu Dai, Tianyu Wu, Danwei Bu
Abstract: A heterogeneous developmental model of tourism resources in modern cities would result in a lack of vitality in the local culture. Creative cultural tourism design in the 'internet plus' era is an important issue in the development of cultural tourism integrated with creative elements. Taking Hankou historic blocks as an example, the researchers conducted a qualitative study using a combination of the volunteer-employed photo method and photo-elicitation interview to explore the framework of the experiencescape for displaying creative cultural tourism design. The results reveal four categories of experiencescapes (i.e., cultural, functional, technological, and servicescape) associated with design elements. Six tourist emotions evoked from visiting these experiencescapes and their respective elements were also categorised. The findings contribute to exploring creative cultural products at the historic block level and offer marketing implications for (re)designing more effective projects from a tourism perspective.
Keywords: creative cultural tourism design; experiencescape; volunteer-employed photo; VEP; method; photo-elicitation interview; PEI; China.
Role of TripAdvisor in influencing international tourists visiting Puducherry
by Vaishnavi Ramanujam, Prem Kumar
Abstract: The study explores the perception of the international tourists about Puducherry based on TripAdvisor reviews using a mixed-method approach in two phases. First phase included quantitative survey using structured questionnaire (n = 189) to know the demographic profile and social media adoption. Second phase included manual content analysis and sentimental analysis (using R packages) to understand the sentiments of the tourists based on TripAdvisor reviews (July 2019-January 2020). Findings reveal five main attributes of the destination. Visiting Temples, beaches, walking were the most sought after activities. Sentiment analysis displayed high frequency of positive reviews (joy, trust, anticipation and surprise). Reviews on social media influence other tourists to visit a destination. These reviews can be used in addressing negative eWOM and matching the perception of tourists by collaborating and streamlining the services. TripAdvisor reviews can help destination marketers in designing the marketing strategies.
Keywords: TripAdvisor; social media; tourism; India; Puducherry.
Piloting a digital maturity model for smart destinations
by Alain Imboden, Sandra Grèzes-Bürcher, Dominique Fumeaux, Emmanuel Fragnière, Michael Fux
Abstract: The article presents the pilot phase of a digital maturity model designed to support peripheral tourism destinations in their transformation into smart destinations. The relevancy and usability of the maturity model was assessed through the analysis of three Swiss tourism destinations. A survey deduced from the model was sent to the destinations followed by focus groups to identify the particularities and key strategic issues related to their transformation into smart destinations. The study confirmed the relevancy of the model while underlining the necessity to further quantify some of its indicators. The destinations demonstrated great awareness of the opportunities new technologies present for tourism development. However, they all shared the same limitations in terms of resources and ability to foster a culture of innovation among all their stakeholders. The necessity for peripheral destinations to embrace digitalisation to remain competitive but also to be accompanied during this process was underlined.
Keywords: smart tourism; digitalisation; regional development; digital maturity.
Is destination image instagrammable? Visit intentions and Value co-creation through social media content
by Antonios Giannopoulos, Christos Livas, Ioanna Simeli, Chara Achlada
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to investigate the direct and indirect effects of social media content on tourists intention to visit a destination, as well as to examine the mediating role of willingness to co-create value and destination image. An online survey was specially designed for the social media users of the official Instagram account of the city of Athens, Greece. The results suggest that destination-generated and user-generated content significantly affect the intention to visit the destination both directly and indirectly through willingness to co-create value online and destination image. Given the significant mediating role of destination image and willingness to co-create value online, destination management organisations (DMOs) are advised to reconsider the digital touchpoints with their target market by stimulating online co-creation with visitors through social media. However, for digital communications to unfold and avoid any adverse effects, DMOs targeting efforts consider the particularities of diverse market segments.
Keywords: social media; visit intention; destination image; online value co-creation; mediation analysis; DMOs; marketing; user-generated content; UCG; destination-generated content; DGC; digital communications; eWOMs.
SECI model questionnaire validation for hospitality establishments
by Spyros Avdimiotis, Fotis Kilipiris, Andreanna Tragouda
Abstract: Nonaka and Takeuchi, who have been broadly acknowledged as two of the most distinguished theorists in knowledge management, in their book The Knowledge-Creating Company, How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation, (1995), which was a benchmark for knowledge management, postulate that knowledge is perpetually conversed and develop through the stages of socialisation, externalisation, combination and internalisation, building the (SECI) model named by the acronym of the aforementioned four stages, which indicates the constant knowledge transformation, development, and transfer. Nevertheless, this model was developed through qualitative research and thus, no structured questionnaire was employed. The primary research objective and aim of this paper was to develop and validate the SECI model knowledge management questionnaire for quantitative research in the tourism sector (SMQ-T). For that reason, a survey was administered amongst a convenient sample of 365 employees in the tourism sector in Greece, with a questionnaire of 48 items. Methodologically, validation was performed using Cronbachs alpha test to check internal consistency and reliability, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to verify the extracted factor and their loading, and finally confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
Keywords: socialisation externalisation combination and internalisation; SECI model validation knowledge transfer hotel employees.
Tourism destinations online representation: a performance assessment
by Anastasia E. Spyridou, Evangelos Christou, Donghee Shin
Abstract: This study aims to expand the application of a website assessment model called the Website Quality Index (WQI), to a global sample of tourism destination sites, with an aim to create a representative global ranking system measuring effectiveness and attractiveness of tourism destination websites. The results of this study indicate that there is a disconnect between the destinations that rank highly in number of visitors and tourism spending when compared to the WQI ranking. These findings contribute to future digital marketing strategies for tourism destinations, and provide valuable insight into the importance of meeting consumer demands and an increased focus to keeping up with technological trends.
Keywords: Website Quality Index; WQI; tourism destinations; websites.
Same same but different: the destination image of Dubai and Abu Dhabi on YouTube
by Russell B. Williams
Abstract: Dubai and Abu Dhabi are striving for a unique destination image that will differentiate each and attract visitors. The projected destination images of Abu Dhabi and Dubai found on YouTube are examined in this paper. On the explicit level, six of nine attributes are similar in the portrayals of the two destinations. Dubai is shown to be a place where there is more action plus sun, sea and sand. Abu Dhabi is shown to have more opportunity for social experiences. At the implicit level, Dubai is shown to emphasise more pop culture and more globalised experiences. Abu Dhabi has slightly greater emphasis on folk and high culture and portrays its visitors as travellers more than tourists and interactors rather than isolates. The two destinations are seen as same-same but different rather than being completely different or similar. The implications of these contrasts and similarities are discussed.
Keywords: Dubai; Abu Dhabi; pull factors; destination image; manifest; latent.