International Journal of Society Systems Science (14 papers in press)
Aboriginal employment opportunities in a low-carbon economy
by Dora Marinova, Philip Webster, Angela Rooney, Tony McRae, Kurt Seemann, Ashley Garlett, Paul Fiocco
Abstract: This study explores opportunities for Australian Aboriginal youth to participate in a low-carbon economy and avoid further marginalisation. The concepts of low-carbon economy, green jobs and employment for transitioning to sustainability are discussed, followed by the case of a training organisation looking after Aboriginal youth. Outcomes from a survey of 155 graduating students and deliberative workshops with 60 participants conducted in Perth, Western Australia in 2016 are presented. The analysis shows: (1) Aboriginal youth are not clear about the meaning of green jobs but want to learn about them; (2) the low-carbon economy plays a double role in skills development requiring new capacity for opportunities, such as in renewable energy, and strengthening the importance of traditional knowledge and familiarity with the Australian continent, represented through ranger programs, use of native plants and rehabilitation of deteriorated land areas. Barriers to Aboriginal employment in green jobs and ways to overcome them are also discussed.
Keywords: Aboriginal; Australia; caring for country; deliberation; education; employment; green jobs; industry; low-carbon; skills; survey; sustainability; Western Australia; workshop; youth.
A review of the role of Institutions in Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania
by Anindita Roy Saha, Grace Charles Muangirwa, Nawin Kumar Tiwary
Abstract: Tanzania is among the first African countries to formally recognize the role of communities in the governance of forest resources. Some pilot activities were carried out in the early 1990s in the forests of Duru-Haitemba, Migori and Suledo that resulted in the forest policy and legislations to support Participatory Forest Management (PFM), a legal basis for which came from the Forest Act 2002. The local communities are involved in Joint Forest Management (JFM) and Community Based Forest Management (CBFM). JFM is a collaborative management approach whereby the responsibility of forest management and returns from forest products are divided among the forest-dwelling communities and the government bodies. CBFM takes place in village land where villagers enjoy full ownership and take management responsibility of the village forest reserves.
This paper attempts to study and assess the performance of the PFM institutions in Tanzania in terms of its goals of improving the livelihood of local people, improving environmental and forest conditions and improving governance. The term institution implies the set of rights, rules and processes of decision making in governing the use and management of the forests. The study revealed that despite the potential of PFM in improving forest resources and livelihoods of forest communities in Tanzania, there are limitations in the existing practices and institutional arrangements.
Keywords: Participatory Forest Management; Joint Forest Management; Community Based Forest Management; Institutions; Governance.
Malaysian Consumers Preference for Green Packaging
by Salini Devi Rajendran, Siti Norida Wahab, Minder Kaur Parthaman Singh
Abstract: The awareness of green packaging concept among Malaysians is still very unsatisfactory. Thus, this study investigates the awareness of green packaging among Malaysians and to identify the factors which influence consumers to purchase green packaging products based on the traditional Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The methodology used to collect the data from 200 Malaysian retail consumers was conducted via face-to-face interview, using a structured questionnaire. A large group of these respondents has little knowledge about green packaging. The results obtained through multiple regression analysis showed that consumers purchase intention was influenced by packaging design. Hence, green packaging knowledge, information and visual elements are the deciding factors in attracting consumers to purchase green packed products. The findings from this study will be useful not only to the companies but also to marketers to identify ways to improve their green packaging so as to attract consumers.
Keywords: green packaging; sustainability; theory of planned behaviour; consumers preference.
Towards a fair and accountable health policy making:Assessment on the Decision-Making Process of the Chinese Healthcare reform
by Yi Wei, Ziyu LIU
Abstract: According to the World Bank Group and the World Health Organization (2016), the Chinese healthcare system has generally performed well but still faces great challenges. A rapidly ageing population and the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases indicate that the Chinese healthcare system is at a crossroads that demands a reconsideration of its decision-making process. This study focuses on how to build a fair decision-making process based on the conviction that procedural justice is of vital importance in achieving the legitimacy of any substantive outcome. We employs the four conditions of A4R as benchmarks to evaluate the decision-making process (2006-2009) and explore the flaws and deficiencies of the current path-dependent healthcare system reform, such as poor information disclosure, inadequate public participation,insufficient appeals process, and multi-leadership. Given those imperfections, the paper concludes with several recommendations for future improvements in promoting the fairness of the healthcare decision-making process in China.
Keywords: fair procedure;health reform;policy-making;public participation.
Psychosocial Safety Climate and Burnout among Academicians: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement
by Teoh Kok Ban, Daisy Kee Mui Hung
Abstract: As Malaysian universities are moving towards world-class research universities, academicians are now facing higher stress, making them more vulnerable to burnout. Academicians usually will experience burnout in two symptoms, namely emotional exhaustion due to high job demands and disengagement due to circumscribed job resources. Hence, a literature review related to burnout is done on full-time academicians who have worked more than one year in Malaysian research universities, and Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) is found useful in this context as it is a precursor to working conditions including job demands and job resources and in turn, burnout, work engagement and performance through mediation pathway. This paper proposes a better job design by PSC through different types of job demands which could enhance the work engagement of academicians while minimizing their level of burnout. Therefore, work engagement is proposed in this study as a potential mediator for the relationship between challenge demands and hindrance demands to burnout among academicians. Directly and indirectly, in-depth PSC context proposed for the rewarding job demands and reduce the burnout level of academicians via the mediation of work engagement. Therefore, the measurement of PSC could offer a useful tool to help in the change of management practices of research universities and in turn academicians health and well-being.
Keywords: research universities; burnout; job demands; psychosocial safety climate; work engagement.
Assessing Recent Pattern of Gold Price Volatility in Malaysia (2005-2018)
by Hishamuddin Abdul Wahab, Nur Laila Mohd. Arif
Abstract: Gold price has been subjected to volatility clustering since the abolishment of the gold standard in August 1971. While there are myriad studies focused on developed economies, studies on the pattern of volatility in gold especially under the context of small open economy of Malaysia are still lacking. Attempting to fill in the gap, this study provides insight into the trend of gold price volatility as well as to examine the time variant nature of gold volatility surrounding the US Subprime crisis. This study also provides a new perspective on the transmission between bilateral exchange rate (MYR/USD) and gold price. This study covered recent daily data from August 2005 to July 2018 using different models of ARCH-GARCH including ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH and TGARCH. Accordingly, gold price volatility was persistent across all periods. Enhanced volatility was evident during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis (GFC) owing to high speculative activities and clustered news over the period. In term of asymmetry response, there was inverted asymmetry effect where positive shock raised volatility in gold. Finally, bilateral exchange rate (MYR/USD) affected gold price volatility with positive relationship, implicating the high sensitivity of gold investment during the depreciation of local currency.
Keywords: Gold Volatility; GARCH; TGARCH; EGARCH; MGARCH-GCC.
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Ambidextrous Behaviours in Small and Medium Enterprises in Malaysia
by Wai Chuen Poon, Osman Mohamad
Abstract: This paper contributes to the growing body of research that focuses on the antecedents of ambidextrous behaviours, that is, understanding the role of emotional intelligence influencing ambidextrous behaviours. One central challenge caused by ambidextrous behaviours is the divergence mindset catering to the contradiction of exploitative and explorative behaviours. The manner in which owner-managers recognise with and act out contradictory demands provides an insight into the balancing act of ambidextrous behaviours. Following theory of dynamic capability, the present study sought to identify the role of emotional intelligence (EI) managing ambidextrous, exploitative and explorative behaviours among owner-managers from small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. Out of 1,000 invited respondents, a total of 220 owner-managers participated in this research. 183 useable data were analysed using Partial Least Squares (SmartPLS v3.2.7), result suggests that EI positively influence exploitative and explorative behaviours. Interestingly, though, data indicates EI negatively influences ambidextrous behaviours. Furthermore, ambidextrous behaviours were found to positively influencing business performance. This study adds to the limited theoretical and empirical understanding of the role of EI and ambidextrous behaviours. This present study concludes by highlighting the implications and significance of these findings for theory, managerial practice, and future research.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Ambidextrous Behaviours; Firm Performance; Small and Medium Enterprise; Malaysia.
Establishing the Validity and Reliability of Kuwait Resources of Nation Branding Model
by Khaled Alazemi, Fauziah Shaik Ahmad
Abstract: To transform the economy of a nation and develop a strong national brand performance various resources are needed and must be managed by the government to ensure strong nation brand performance. In the evaluation of nation branding resources and management, a valid as well as a practical and reliable model is needed. This study is aimed at developing and assesses the validity and reliability of a model for the measurement of the perception of Kuwaiti businesspersons towards the implementation of nation branding management in Kuwait. Based on Anholts hexagon, a conceptual model developed by Simon Anholt for nation branding, this study integrates the resource based view (RBV theory) to the model. The study develops a Kuwait Resources of Nation Branding (KRNB) framework to examine how resources (which include tourism, investment, and export related) affecting the nation branding management and the nation branding performance A questionnaire is utilized for data collection and is distributed to a sample of 72 Kuwaiti business persons using the snowball technique. Experts are employed in the assessment of content validity. Measurement of construct validity is done using smart-PLS . The reliability of all measures were confirmed using the results of Alpha test (?>0.7) with minimum value of =0.835 . For convergent reliability, AVE had higher values than the recommended threshold of ?0.5 with minimum value of 0.513 and CR values > 0.6. . The study found that the proposed KRNB model is valid as well as reliable.
Keywords: resources; nation branding management; nation branding performance; Kuwait resources of nation branding model.
A longitudinal analysis of Internet use. The case of Greece.
by Elias Gounopoulos, Stavros Valsamidis, Ioannis Kazanidis, Sotirios Kontogiannis
Abstract: Internet usage for capital enhancing activities is not considered by the Greeks necessary to their everyday life. The majority of the Greek users prefer to use it for communication, entertainment and information, while fewer are using it for electronic banking services, educational activities, etc. This paper examines the changing effect of socio-economic and demographic factors on Internet use in Greece, for the years 2013 and 2015.
We used multivariate analysis to analyse the micro data of the surveys, on the use of ICTs by the households and individuals, conducted by the Hellenic statistical authority. Our results show that Internet use in Greece reflects and reproduces current social inequalities. The people who are employed, educated, live in urban areas and have higher income, benefit more from using the Internet. Although the inequalities in Internet use seem to decrease marginally, policy measures should adopt a targeted strategy for vulnerable social groups.
Keywords: Digital divide; Digital inequality; Internet use; Multivariate analysis; Greece.
Study of passage width considering passing by each other in living space of evacuation centre
by Yuya Yamato, Zhenjiang Shen, Ade Candra Masrul
Abstract: In living room of evacuation centres, there are living spaces and passages. Living space is used for eating and sleep, and passage is common space that many evacuees use every day. Since passages are used for necessary movement in evacuation daily activities, various patterns of passing by each other are considered in passage. In this study, the researchers conducted classification of passage width from the priority level of passing. Then, the passages were organised based on the result of classification. The evacuation centre condition related to the result of classification was also shown. This research contributed to identifying area of passage width needed when making evacuation centre management plan. In addition, this study calculates the capacity from passage width and points out the restricted daily activities. Furthermore, the researchers considered minimum passage width that will be easy for evacuees to pass in evacuation centre.
Keywords: easiness of passing; evacuation daily activities; evacuation centre capacity; impression evaluation; priority level; type classification.
An empirical examination of leadership styles' impact on innovative behaviour and entrepreneurial orientation in Canadian firms: a cross-cultural perspective
by Raushan Gross, Emilyn Cabanda
Abstract: In the small and medium-sized enterprise, cross-cultural and entrepreneurial leadership research, there has been an assumption that one's leadership style modus operandi is one size fits all. In the current research, Canadian leadership styles and leadership differences between Canadian and North American business entrepreneurial leaders were tested. New empirical results are substantive and add to the cross-culture entrepreneurial theory. There are limited Canadian-based entrepreneurial studies: the expected corollary was that there were no differences between Canadian and American leadership styles; however, the results reported otherwise. Data were obtained from 145 Canadian respondents located in Toronto, Ontario in Canada. Data were analysed with hierarchical regression analyses and multivariate analysis of variance in testing seven hypotheses. The analyses reported a statistically significant difference in Canadian and North American leadership styles employed in an entrepreneurial context.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; innovative behaviour; leadership styles; Canadian business; small and medium-sized enterprise; SME; cross-culture entrepreneurship.
A study on good governance in controlling corruption in education sector in India
by Lokinder Kumar Tyagi
Abstract: Corruption and poor governance practices go hand in hand. The more the loop holes present in government policies, the more flexible and adaptable it becomes for the people to exercise their capacity of power and money in an unauthorised and illegal way leading to the destruction of the main ethics of education by exploiting the general public through encouragement of various malpractices like bribery, nepotism, fraud, and favouritism. Ultimately, this situation violates the rights of the deserving people as well as affects the society and economy of the country. Therefore, there is an urgent call for enforcement of good governance practices which can curb the corrupt activities in education sector. This study has been conducted with the objective to understand the concepts of 'governance' and 'corruption' and also to study the role of good governance practices in controlling corruption in Indian Education System by proposing a tentative model between the two.
Keywords: good governance practices; corruption; Indian education system; bribery; anti-corruption; sustainable development; fraud.
Multi-criteria supplier evaluation/selection by considering ethical factors under uncertainty
by Mohammad Azadfallah
Abstract: In recent years, companies pay more attention to ethic and ethical issues have become a key determinant of performance in the business arena. This is not an area which has been systematically examined. From the literature, it appears to be assumed that the supplier selection is multiple attribute decision making/multiple criteria decision making (MADM/MCDM) problem, information and performances usually incomplete and uncertain, and supplier ethics is becoming another key factor to consider, too. The question typically posed is; how ethical factor can be modelled formally for an established MCDM models? In this paper, we propose a new interval TOPSIS-based procedure to resolve this problem. So, the proposed method has a capability to identify a measure of unethical performance with input and output system balancing, and consist of the two-step. In the first step, a new interval TOPSIS-based approach is used, results of this step are input for conventional interval TOPSIS method in the second step. The results indicate that the accuracy of the decision has been increased by considering the ethical factors.
Keywords: uncertainty; multiple attribute decision making; MADM; multiple criteria decision making; MCDM; interval TOPSIS; ethical factor; supplier selection problem.
Comparison on online shopping apps: a study conducted on smartphone users of West Bengal
by Debarun Chakraborty
Abstract: "I love ordering things online for my purchase because when they arrive it is a present to me from me". This freaky quote is definitely a manifestation of the current shopping behaviour which frames around the buzzword 'online shopping' and 'e-commerce'. In both marketing quarter of the corporate houses and the academic quarter as well online shopping is getting a momentum at a steady accelerated pace and its well reflected in the shopping habits of the Indian urban folk. The promising growth of online shopping in India is indeed prompting factor to take up the research study where preferred online shopping portals are compared and contrasted on selected parameters to ascertain which of those the most is sought after by the shoppers. The study was conducted in the eastern metropolis like Kolkata as well as in Siliguri, Durgapur and Asansol. The research design was a cross sectional study. The relevant Chi square method was employed to find out the best shopping site compared to the rest of the sites selected.
Keywords: online shopping; e-commerce; shopping apps; smartphone.