International Journal of Intelligent Systems Design and Computing
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International Journal of Intelligent Systems Design and Computing (2 papers in press)
Increased theta activity after Om mantra meditation with Fourier and wavelet transform by Bhavna Harne Abstract: The Om mantra is found to be the most powerful of all the mantras in the scriptures of olden India. Om mantra is used meditation. The present study is based on Om mantra meditation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which this meditation works, and there is a need for more rigorous EEG investigations of the underlying neurobiology. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) are two tools of spectral analysis of the EEG signal. In our previous study, FFT analysis has been used for spectral analysis of the EEG signal to investigate the effect of OM mantra meditation. It was proved that this mediation plays a role in providing relaxation. In the present study, we continued our work with wavelet analysis to firmly establish this benefit. The dataset of our previous study was used in this work. Two way repeated measures ANOVA was used on relative power obtained by FFT and DWT. The comparative results of both methods are presented. The same increasing and decreasing pattern of relative power are observed in each band with FFT and DWT. A significant increase in theta power when averaged across all brain regions was found only with the method of FFT. But an increase in theta power in all regions of the brain has been observed with both the methods. Raised theta is a sign of deep relaxation. Once again results of this study confirm that 30 minutes Om mediation offers relaxation. The study suggests that if such a small duration of Om meditation has such a relaxing effect then it could be the way to destress if adopted as a daily routine. Keywords: Mantra meditation; EEG; OM.
A Review on the Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Systems by Prabhash Chandra, Devendra Agarwal, Praveen Shukla Abstract: Considering the benefits of the human decision making, the efforts have been executed to implement it in machines. The chronic problem addressed in this implementation is the representation and manipulation of human knowledge which is full of uncertainties and imprecision due to its subjective nature. To deal with this problem a strong mathematical framework is investigated known as fuzzy logic. Initially the concept of fuzzy set has been developed by extending the boolean crisp set logic. Further, type-2 fuzzy systems and interval type-2 fuzzy systems are investigated. This paper reviews the approaches and systems developed under the category of interval type-2 fuzzy systems along with the interpretability and accuracy issues in fuzzy systems. Keywords: Crisp Sets; Fuzzy Sets; T-Norm; S-Norm; Type-2 Fuzzy Systems; Interval Type-2rnFuzzy Systems.