Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising

International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (IJIMA)

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International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (45 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Reassessing brand versus concept associations: comparing free association task and sensory cue-based task   Order a copy of this article
    by Tilottama Chowdhury, Feisal Murshed, Meghan Messier 
    Abstract: Brand associations can trigger memories of people, places, and emotions that are desirable and as such, creating and maintaining a unique set of brand associations in the consumers’ mind space takes on increasing importance in today’s interactive marketing environment. This article explores an important variation in the nature and dynamics of brand associations based on two distinct approaches: free association task versus sensory cue-based task. Studies 1a and 2a employed the sensory cue-based task (related to the sound, taste, touch, smell, and sight) and studies 1b and 2b utilised the traditional free association approach to extract participants’ brand associations pertaining to a financial service brand and the concept associations related to financial security. Findings indicate that the free association task evokes tangible associations and conversely, the sensory cue-based task evokes intangible associations. The article contributes to branding theory, marketing communication literature, and offers managerial insights.
    Keywords: brand association; concept association; free association task; sensory cue-based task; brand communication.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046941
  • What drives Generation Z to Advocate for a Brand Online   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivek Mishra, Biswajit Das 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to: 1) examine the impact of brand-related antecedents; brand social-benefits, brand distinctiveness, brand prestige and brand warmth on online brand advocacy (OBA) behaviour of Gen Z; 2) examine the impact of OBA on consumers’ purchase intent; 3) to consider the moderating effect of social media involvement (SMI) on the relationship between the aforementioned antecedents and OBA. Based on an online questionnaire, data from 221 students were analysed using SPSS and Amos 23.0. The structural model reveals all antecedents to be positively related to OBA, which had a subsequent positive impact on purchase intent. Interestingly, SMI did have a moderating effect on the relationship between brand prestige, brand social benefits and OB, indicating the significance of engagement levels of Gen Zers and its impact on their advocacy intentions online. The paper shall be pivotal in enhancing brand trust and loyalty in these turbulent times.
    Keywords: online brand advocacy; OBA; brand social benefits; brand prestige; brand distinctiveness; brand warmth; purchase intent; social media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046942
  • An Examination of the Relationship among Conspicuous Consumption, Social Media Addiction, Narcissism, and Empathy: A Research on University Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayse Akbulut, Elif Esiyok, Ceyhan Cigdemoglu, Ozlen Ozgen 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationship between conspicuous consumption behaviour, social media addiction, narcissistic characteristics, and empathy for university students. Using a cross-sectional survey design, with a non-random sampling strategy, a total of 1,215 participants completed the online survey. Data were analysed through the structural equation modelling technique using the AMOS statistical analysis package to discover the relationship among variables. Findings indicated that social media addiction has a moderately positive relationship with conspicuous consumption, a weak negative relationship with empathy, and a moderately positive relationship with narcissism. As a result, both empathy and narcissism have an impact on conspicuous consumption, and social media addiction affects empathy. This study contributes to the literature in terms of exploring the relationship between empathy and conspicuous consumption together for young consumers.
    Keywords: conspicuous consumption; social media addiction; narcissism; empathy; social media; young consumers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10047370
  • The Role of Internet Celebrities in Purchase Intention and Impulse Buying   Order a copy of this article
    by Massoud Moslehpour, Alaleh Dadvari, Pei-Kuan Lin, Erdenebaatar Odgerel 
    Abstract: With the introduction of social media, celebrity endorsement has become trendy, influencing commercial strategy. While the economic impact of impulsive purchasing is well known globally, a model is developed to investigate the relationship between Internet celebrity endorsement and impulsive buying. The article looks into whether purchasing behaviour and e-WOM are linked to buying behaviour. An online survey of 426 using structural equation modelling (SEM) investigates the relationships among constructs. The results demonstrate a link between Internet celebrity endorsement and impulsive buying. Skincare purchase intent is closely linked to impulsive buying with electronic word of mouth as partial mediator. This study examines the impact of celebrity recommendations in cyberspace using planned behaviour, social identity, and response theory. It also shows how to efficiently recruit celebrity endorsers to increase client purchase intent, which promotes impulsive buying. Researchers and beauty product marketers can better understand consumer behaviour to target clients.
    Keywords: internet celebrity endorsement; ICE; electronic word-of-mouth; e-WOM; purchase intention; impulsive buying behaviour; IBB.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10047371
  • Does a chatbot’s location influence consumer attitude and intentions?   Order a copy of this article
    by Irene Roozen, Mariet Raedts, Guillaume Waetermans 
    Abstract: Chatbots engage in real-time conversations with customers. Moreover, they can collect data in a digital landscape that is increasingly sensitive to privacy. The objective of this study was to help strategic marketing decision-makers better understand how and where chatbots can be used effectively to gather consumer data. We analyse whether consumers’ privacy concerns influence their adoption. Furthermore, we invest if privacy concerns, and subsequently information disclosure, are significantly influenced by the chatbot’s location. In an experimental study (N = 398) we compared the (in)direct effects of the same chatbot in two different locations: Facebook and its own retailer’s website. Our results show that interacting with a chatbot on Facebook led to significantly lower attitudes towards chatbots and lower intentions to use chatbots. Both relationships are sequentially mediated via higher privacy concerns and less comfort with information disclosure. Companies therefore need to consider where to deploy their chatbots.
    Keywords: chatbot; privacy concerns; information disclosure; Facebook; Facebook messenger; retailer website; adoption behaviour; consumer-firm interaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10047372
  • Brand personality management of Indian business schools on Twitter: A machine learning approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Anand V, Daruri Venkata Srinivas Kumar 
    Abstract: Business schools in India use Twitter as one of the marketing communication channels for establishing distinctive brand images among the social media users. Quantifying the internet brand personality dimensions is essential to manage a business school brand image. The nature and volume of social media data necessitate the usage of data mining and machine learning models for data analysis. We computed the brand personality dimension scores of ten leading business schools in India by applying the machine learning-based model developed by Pamuksuz, Yun and Humphreys on 31,757 tweets. We also examined the congruence between the communicated and perceived brand personalities. Our results suggest that some of the older public schools are unable to properly align their communicated brand personalities with perceived brand personalities. Also, private schools need to improve on the sincerity dimension of brand personality. The results might spur some researchers to use the model with different data sources and scales. A counterintuitive subset of our results might make the Indian business schools re-think their branding strategies on social media networks. We provided directions for further research towards effectively managing the online brand personalities.
    Keywords: business school; internet brand personality; social media; Twitter; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10050212
    by Juliana Christino, Erico Cardozo, Luisa Sepúlveda Marins 
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate particularities in the formation of favourable attitudes toward advertising in mobile game applications. For this purpose, the following constructs were elected: 1) entertainment, credibility, informativeness, irritation and personalisation from Sigurdsson et al. (2018); 2) general attitudes towards ads and general attitudes towards in-game ads from Poels et al. (2013); 3) the reward construct from Busch et al. (2013) as a pioneer extension ever made in studies related to in-app ads (within the apps) of the interstitial-type specifically in mobile games. A survey was conducted with 260 players. The data was analysed using structural equation modelling. The results showed
    Keywords: attitude; players’ attitudes; towards advertising; mobile games; publicity; advertising in mobile games.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10050590
  • Effectiveness of Social Media Influencers and Their Impact on Customers' Attitudes and Buying Intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadeel Elmousa, Wong Foong Yee, Cheah Jun Hwa 
    Abstract: This research aims to bridge the industry and literature gaps by corroborating the impact of social media influencers on consumer attitudes and intentions towards promotions. A total of 350 responses were acquired through the purposive sampling method. The selected approach for testing the hypotheses was partial least squares (PLS). The observations corroborated the model by substantiating that source credibility, subjective norms, and meaning transfer were significantly related to attitude. Furthermore, source credibility, attitude, and subjective norms were significantly related to buying intention. From various contexts, this study contributes to the marketing literature and sector. First, this work employed the theory of reasoned action from the psychology domain to demonstrate the association between behaviour and attitude in human activities, which is presently being extended to an influencer marketing situation in Malaysia. Second, the outcomes of this research can offer profound insights and guiding principles for firms, marketing agencies, marketers, and influencers.
    Keywords: social media influencers; SMIs; influencer marketing; attitude; purchase intention; subjective norms; partial least square; PLS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10050994
  • The Influence of Digital Marketing on Tourist's Behavioral Intentions from Social Networks and E-WOM Interactions   Order a copy of this article
    by Miriam R. Aziz, Adel F. Al Alam 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the influence of social networks and electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) on tourists’ behaviour from the perspective of destination image and satisfaction. Data are collected on a purposive sample of 1,600 tourists visiting and/or travelling to Lebanon in 2019. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used to extract the factor structure and verify the validity and reliability of the measurement model. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to examine the conceptual model, which confirms e-WOM has a positive significant impact on destination image, which in turn has a significant impact on tourists’ satisfaction. Key results of this work provide practical insights for the tourism industry organisations in order to build and enhance their competitive advantage destination based on consumers’ intentions.
    Keywords: e-WOM; tourism; social networks; and consumer behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051248
  • Who are the right customers for mobile and paper coupons?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Galib 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the factors that will help marketers identify suitable consumers for mobile and paper coupons. The quantitative research study adopts a series of three studies using two different types of coupons. The data analysis was done through factor analysis, multiple regression, and t-test. This study revealed that consumer’s usage intention between mobile and paper coupons is contingent upon their level of technology acceptance, need for haptics, smart shopping behaviour, and risk averseness. Through shedding light on consumer’s behavioural attributes, this research will contribute to the advancement of marketing theory in the emerging coupon literature. It will also help marketers develop their segmentation, communication, and distribution strategies and target the right customers accurately. It is the first study to examine the differences in consumers’ perception between mobile and coupons in light of different behavioural attributes.
    Keywords: mobile and paper coupon; technology acceptance; TECH; need for haptics; smart shopping behaviour; SMSB; risk averseness; RISK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051383
  • The Level of Involvement and Consumer Response to Advertising through Hashtags: A Segmentation Approach with Self-Organizing Maps   Order a copy of this article
    by Manijeh Bahrainizadeh, Sepideh Aslami, Nosrat Jamshidi 
    Abstract: Nowadays, using hashtags in advertising is becoming critical, but the audience’s reaction to this type of advertising is not yet clear to advertisers. This study aims to identify different segments of consumers on social networks based on their level of involvement and response to advertising via hashtags as well as a demographic variable. Through an experiment, this study examined consumer responses to hashtags in social media-based advertising. The survey was conducted on an available sample of 545 Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn users. The results showed three distinctive segments of social network users: relatively rationally non-involved consumers rationally involved consumers and relatively emotionally involved consumers. The findings of this research are important for marketers who advertise via hashtags since little is known regarding social networks user segments according to consumers’ responses and levels of involvement in advertising via hashtags. This research addresses this gap and has important implications for marketers.
    Keywords: hashtag; involvement; consumer response; self-organising maps; segmentation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051579
  • Examining the relationship among sensory brand experience, brand love, brand advocacy and brand commitment using a comparative study of three brands of Social Networking Sites (SNSs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhay Jain, SUZANEE MALHOTRA 
    Abstract: This paper seeks to analyse the impact of sensory brand experience of three popular brands of SNSs on the feelings of brand love for the millennials. Further, the impact of brand love on brand advocacy and brand commitment for the three brands is examined. Using self-administered online survey questionnaire responses collected from 750 active millennial users of Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp the research hypotheses are evaluated using factor analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings support that sensory brand experience has an impact on brand love and that further brand love also impacts the advocacy and commitment for the brands. This study seeks to enrich the brand love literature by exploring sensory brand experience (a sub-dimension of broader brand experience notion) which has not been extensively studied in the past, that too for millennials from an Indian sub-continent perspective.
    Keywords: brand advocacy; brand commitment; sensory brand experience; brand love; millennials; social networking sites; SNSs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051725
  • The Influence of Perceived Risk and Branding on Fresh Produce Purchase Online   Order a copy of this article
    by Archana Kumar, Eklou Amendah 
    Abstract: The overall objective of this study is to examine consumer attitudes toward online fresh produce shopping using perceived risk factors such as performance, financial, and social risks. Online grocery shopping has picked up steam in the US since the beginning of the pandemic; however, the purchasing habits of fresh produce remains unclear. Shopping for fresh produce online has several issues including inherent variability of the produce, difference in customer preferences, delivery, and freshness issues. This study identifies some risk factors associated with purchasing fresh produce online and highlights the role of branding as a means to mitigate these risks. The authors use structural equation modelling to analyse the data. A multi-group structural approach is also used to examine the impact of the moderating variables on the causal relationships. The results show that financial concern is the biggest risk factor and branding the fresh produce reduces this risk considerably.
    Keywords: online fresh produce; branded fresh produce; performance risk; financial risk; social risk.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051916
  • Segmenting Consumers on Social Networks Based on Individual Motivations for Engagement in eWOM Communication with Self-Organizing Maps   Order a copy of this article
    by Manijeh Bahrainizadeh, Hamid Izadi 
    Abstract: Social networks allow consumers to share marketing content and advertise products for free through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communication. Consumers regularly share eWOM regarding their motivations. Some of these motivations have been identified in previous studies. This study aimed to understand how consumers can be segmented on social networks according to the individual motivations for engagement in eWOM. A self-organising map was used for segmentation. Data were collected by sending questionnaire links to 385 Iranian users of Telegram, Facebook, and Instagram using a convenience sampling method. A total of three segments were identified: active users with low individual motivation, who spent a relatively long time on social networks, but had low individual motivations to participate in eWOM activities. Active users with high individual motivations were young users who devoted the most time to social networks and were highly motivated. Finally, inactive users with individual motivations who, despite having sufficient individual motivations, spent very little time on social networks. This study, by applying a self-organising map for segmenting consumers on social networks, provides insights into how companies should make strategies to engage consumers in eWOM communication, taking into account individual motivations.
    Keywords: electronic word-of-mouth communication; eWOM; individual motivations; segmentation; self-organising maps; SOMs; social networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10052688
  • eWOM Consumers Tryst with Trust and Transitions A Qualitative Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Rishikesh Bhaiswar, N. Meenakshi, Deepak Chawla 
    Abstract: The study highlights how online shoppers build, erode, or make trust superfluous in obtaining eWOM communications. Further, the study traces when, why and how online shoppers transition between offline word of mouth (WOM) and eWOM communications. The qualitative investigation involved collecting data by conducting four focus group discussions (FGD) and five in-depth interviews from online shoppers purchasing electronic gadgets using eWOM information. The initial coding was used to get an overview of entire datasets, and final coding was applied to categorise data into fewer category themes and subthemes. The findings of this study unveiled that online shoppers attributed trust to the quality of eWOM information, valence, and visualisation of product information. eWOM lost trust in online communications when they experienced fake reviews and ratings, incomplete reviews or information, or untrustworthy platforms. Further, eWOM users found trust to be superfluous if they were expert consumers, or when they purchased a well-established brand. Lastly, eWOM users transitioned to offline WOM to confirm, verify, build confidence in the entire decision journey of buying high-priced electronic consumer durables (ECD)s.
    Keywords: electronic word of mouth; eWOM; trust in eWOM; distrust in eWOM; fake eWOM and transition from eWOM to WOM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053115
  • Online brand experience for a tourist destination and its influence in behavioural intentions in post-visit stage   Order a copy of this article
    by Lina Marcela Padilla-Delgado, Alexander Zuñiga-Collazos 
    Abstract: Nowadays, in order to attract more tourist attention, destinations have decided to focus on marketing, in particular, the experience a tourist may involve before, during and after engaging with the destination. The present study aims to work on the gap of quantitatively test and analyse the six dimensions of online brand experience and its relationship with behavioural intentions. The research methodology proposes a model using a sample of 112 national tourists who have visited the City of Cali. The data analysis is performed through a partial least squares (PLS) model using the SMARTPLS software. The study identifies positive and direct relationships between brand experience and the behavioural intentions of the national tourist in post-visit context. It highlights the role of the different media platforms within the path of living the brand experience in an online context.
    Keywords: brand experience; online platforms; recommendation intention; re-purchase intention; tourism destination; social media platforms; sensorial dimension; social dimension.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053471
  • Identifying sources of noise within the networked interplay of marketing messages in social media communication.   Order a copy of this article
    by Kimberley Hardcastle, Prabash Edirisingha, Paul Cook 
    Abstract: Social media networks include multiple platforms, devices, human and non-human actors with varying functionalities, making message noise inevitable. The constructed nature of message noise and its influence on shaping meaning is documented; however, the types of noise and how this noise operates within the network requires exploration to enhance understanding. Drawing on observations made during a 21-month Netnography of a service brand’s hashtag community, we collected a dataset comprising 1,000 screenshots from Instagram and Twitter. Results reveal social media message meanings are interrupted by the network creating noise at five key interception points. Findings reveal three different types of noise that emerge within the network. This includes technical, material and architectural noise. Findings contribute to managing effective communication and identify variables that have not previously been discussed. This helps marketers and advertisers to understand the operationalisation of noise type and noise interception in the social media environment, offering practitioners a competitive advantage and the opportunity to support consumers in overcoming technological barriers when accessing marketing messages in the digital realm.
    Keywords: social media communication; platform functionality; technology devices; marketing messages; internet message noise; network configuration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053472
  • Far More Than Just Flying! Role of Airline Brand Experience in Shaping Brand Satisfaction and Brand Loyalty   Order a copy of this article
    by Harleen Pabla, Harmeen Soch 
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to fill the gap in literature which is to examine the influence of individual brand experience dimensions on brand satisfaction and brand loyalty. For this study, a sample of the Indian aviation sector was selected since there is little data available on the aviation business in emerging economies. The study is based on primary data collected from 501 passengers who have travelled by air using structured questionnaire. IBM SPSS 24 and PLS 3.3.3 have been used to analyse and interpret data. The empirical findings demonstrate that all dimensions of brand experience impact brand satisfaction and brand loyalty with the exception of the behavioural dimension. Based on importance-performance map analysis (IPMA), sensory dimension holds more importance on brand satisfaction and the emotional dimension has a stronger impact on brand loyalty. The results of this study can assist managers in creating a more advanced experience framework to attract satisfied and loyal customers.
    Keywords: brand experience; brand satisfaction; brand loyalty; aviation sector; PLS-SEM; importance-performance map analysis; IPMA; PLS-Predict.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053596
  • The role of online travel stores’ usability in word of mouth generation, e-satisfaction, and users' purchase behavior   Order a copy of this article
    by Achilleas Barlas, Yeoryios Stamboulis 
    Abstract: The current study aims to examine online travel stores’ website usability and its relationship and contribution to online purchase intention, e-satisfaction and word-of-mouth generation. E-satisfaction was also examined as a mediating factor in the relationship between usability and word-of-mouth. Although the number of people of all ages that use these kinds of online travel stores to plan their vacation or their trips is rising annually, the research behind it is still limited. Online questionnaires were completed by 194 individuals. The outcome of the research has shown a significant role of website usability on e-consumer intention. It’s suggested that online travel stores should try to maximize users’ satisfaction with their interactions with websites. Online travel stores should try to acknowledge the needs of their online users. The results of the research come to contribute to the limited literature on the role of website usability in e-WoM and satisfaction, specifically in online travel stores. Results may be used in a practical way by administrators, designers, and marketers that operate online travel stores.
    Keywords: website usability; e-WoM; online travel stores; e-commerce; purchase intention; e-satisfaction; on-line tourism; user experience; e-tourism; e-service quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053889
  • Research on Anthropomorphism in the 21st Century : A Bibliometric Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Megha Agarwal, Utkal Khandelwal 
    Abstract: This paper scrutinises the extant research literature on anthropomorphism, the first-ever in the field, using the bibliometric technique. The study analyses 342 articles from Scopus and Web of Science databases published from 2000 till May 2022, using the bibliometric tool
    Keywords: anthropomorphism; literature review; bibliometric analysis; science mapping; thematic; Biblioshiny.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10054435
  • The Effects of Personalization on Advertising Value and Attitude in the Case of Indonesian E-Marketplace   Order a copy of this article
    by Prima Andriani, Sahid Susilo Nugroho 
    Abstract: This study aimed to examine perceptions of personalisation, incentives, timeliness, advertising value, and attitude in Indonesian e-marketplaces. It also investigated the roles of incentives and timeliness in mediating the relationship between personalisation and advertising value. Moreover, it examined the role of advertising value in mediating the relationship between personalisation and attitude. The sample in this study is the users of e-marketplaces, with a total of 376 respondents selected by the purposive sampling method. This study used Structural Equations Modelling (SEM) to test the hypotheses proposed. The findings indicate that for personalisation in advertising to have value, a communication strategy is needed that involves incentives and timeliness in delivering advertisements so that the advertisement gets a good response from customers. This research contributes to the understanding that data profiles and track records of product searches by customers become big data to map personalised product offering strategies.
    Keywords: Advertising Value; Attitude; Incentives; Personalisation; Timeliness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10054506
    by Neeraj Bansal, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma 
    Abstract: Despite the tremendous growth of online retailing due to COVID-19 pandemic, online apparel retailing is still in the fancy stage. This study aimed to test the dimensions (merchandise, interaction, reliability, personalisation, and country of origin (COO)) of customer satisfaction in an online setting, especially in apparel retailing. A random sampling survey approach has been adopted to collect 435 valid responses from customers aged between 15 and 40 years, who have transacted at least once in online stores, using aself-administered questionnaire through Google Forms. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling was employed to test the proposed model. The results highlighted that merchandise, interaction, reliability, personalisation, and COO are positively influencing customer satisfaction. Research findings imply to apparel e-tailing firms to critically analyse the website quality indicators that augment customer satisfaction and facilitate retaining old and gaining potential customers.
    Keywords: online apparel retailing determinants; customer satisfaction; country of origin; COO; merchandise; website dimensions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10055437
  • Why do users follow sponsored influencer content? Toward a deeper understanding of consumption-related user motivations   Order a copy of this article
    by Jörg Tropp, Andreas Baetzgen 
    Abstract: Brand-related content is by no means a disruptive factor in the relationship between influencer and follower. It has a functional and social value that positively affects follower engagement and purchase intention. Based on the uses and gratification approach the aim of the study is 1) to identify the consumption-related gratifications which are sought by consumers of sponsored influencer content on Instagram and 2) to gain knowledge how these affect influencers’ advertising value, follower engagement and purchase intention. Four group discussions and a subsequent online survey among Instagram users (n = 540) are used to explore the relevant gratifications sought and their respective influence. The results demonstrate that search for consumption inspiration, reward, and quality (re)assurance, in particular, motivates users to expose themselves to influencers’ brand-related content. These gratifications have a direct and significant influence on advertising value and purchase intention, independent of influencer credibility, relationship closeness between influencer and follower, and content quality.
    Keywords: influencer marketing; brand related content; Instagram content; gratifications; advertising value; user engagement; sponsored influencer content; consumption related user motivations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10055715
  • CSR AD IMPACT ON PURCHASE INTENTION   Order a copy of this article
    by Syed Ali Abbas  
    Abstract: The study investigates the impact of CSR-oriented ad on customer purchase intention from the perspective of an economy brand. Convenience sampling was employed aiming at respondents having brand awareness and involvement in the purchase of similar product category of competing brands. The hypothesis was confirmed by applying regression analysis satisfying all required assumptions. Findings revealed the moderate positive effect of CSR-oriented ad on customer purchase intention, though it is considered a significant contribution as convincing the high-income group to purchase a low-end brand even with little margin is a motivating factor. Further, in general majority of respondents raised their opinion for more CSR activities. As for limitations, the chosen brand might be considered low or economy among the sample chosen in this study, but it might have a better perception in other countries.
    Keywords: CSR; purchase intention; brand revitalisation; COVID-19; consumer behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10055716
  • Model of Consumers’ Stockpiling Behaviour during the COVID-19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Md Monirul Islam, Fathema Farjana Hani 
    Abstract: This study aims to determine and discuss how perceived threat of COVID-19 disease, exposure to social media, and self-efficacy influence perceived risk and fear of product shortage; and how perceived risk and fear influence consumers’ stockpiling behaviour. A questionnaire was created in Google forms and used to collect data from 290 household consumers. After testing the scale items’ reliability and validity, structural equation modelling (SEM) and hypothesis tests were used to validate the model. The findings indicate that perceived threat COVID-19 disease and self-efficacy positively influence perceived risk, perceived threat of COVID-19 disease, self-efficacy, and perceived risk affect fear insignificantly, and fear and perceived risk significantly affect stockpiling behaviour. Besides contributing to the literature, this research helps to explore customers’ stockpiling behaviour, providing knowledge that will pave the way to balancing the demand and supply in the market. With knowledge of the stockpiling behaviour that occurs during the pandemic, marketers and policymakers in every country can take proactive measures.
    Keywords: COVID-19; stockpiling behaviour; non-perishable goods; self-efficacy; perceived risk; fear.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10055932
  • An investigation of the effective drivers of social commerce intentions- The mediating role of trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Taanika Arora 
    Abstract: The Web 2.0 revolution and proliferation of various social networking sites across the globe have resulted in a tremendous increase in the consumer’s engagement in commercial transactions over various social media platforms. The development of social relationships leading to increased development in e-commerce has given rise to a new stream known as social commerce. However, addressing the dearth of literature in this area, the present study aims to propose a conceptual model built on s-commerce perspectives, social support, and trust transfer theory, wherein the indirect effects of s-commerce attributes (community platform and social support) on s-commerce intention through trust have been examined. The data was collected from 705 social media users and analysed using the structural equation modelling technique. The results obtained from the study confirm the significant role of s-commerce attributes (community, platform and social support) on s-commerce intention. Also, the results provide for the mediating role of trust in the relationships between s-commerce attributes on s-commerce intention. The results indicate that the proposed framework is a valid and robust tool for measuring the behavioural intention to adopt s-commerce and renders beneficial clues for practitioners, and social media marketing managers to effectively use social media platforms.
    Keywords: social commerce; trust; community attributes; platform attributes; social commerce intention; social support.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10055980
  • Improving multilevel marketing firm performance through network externality and digital technology support   Order a copy of this article
    by Thamrin Selamet, Tirta Nugraha Mursitama, Asnan Furinto, Pantri Heriyati 
    Abstract: Today’s growth and development of digital technology have had an impact on a variety of businesses and industries. As a result, the multilevel marketing (MLM) industry must likewise embrace digital technologies. However, engaging MLM firms to utilise digital technology is a complex process. This study examines the relationship between network externality, digital adoption capability and MLM firm performance. This study uses a quantitative research method with a sample of 184 MLM companies in Indonesia. The data are taken by spreading the questionnaire. The findings revealed that the ability to adopt digital does not necessarily directly improve firm performance and instead must be mediated by network externality in terms of improving firm performance. Although turbulent technology has less influence on this industry, it should be considered during the strategy development process. This study found new empirical evidence that network externalities are an essential aspect of the MLM company’s growth. The findings are projected to contribute to the network marketing business and management growth significantly.
    Keywords: network marketing; multilevel marketing; MLM; network externality; digital adoption; technology turbulence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10056067
  • Investigating online loyalty, attitude, credibility and moderating role of moral-identity from CRM perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Harishchandra Singh Rathod, Vijayendra Gupta, Richa Shreevastava, Ashwin Jadeja, Krishnaba Vaghela 
    Abstract: Cause-related marketing (CRM) is widely acknowledged as a promotional marketing tool across emerging markets. CRM is a promotional activity where the company partners with a charity organisation to donate to a particular cause by purchasing a specific product. The increased competition has led online businesses to pay attention to credibility because it becomes a point for successfully realising CRM marketing strategy. Past studies have focused on the western context, and less research has been carried out in the Indian context. In the first stage of the study, we investigate the effect of company, brand and charity credibility on attitude toward the brand in the CRM context. Next, we investigate the impact of CRM brand attitude on online customer loyalty. IBM-SPSS-AMOS 22 software analysed 608 respondents through the structural equation modelling method. The results of this study have established the effect of company credibility, brand credibility and charity credibility on attitude toward CRM and its subsequent impact on online customer loyalty. Furthermore, our research ascertained the moderating role of moral identity on attitude toward CRM and online customer loyalty. The findings of this study would guide Indian marketers and retailers alongside charity managers to design effective CRM campaigns.
    Keywords: online customer loyalty; attitude toward CRM; company credibility; brand credibility; charity credibility; moral identity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10056068
  • KOC’s characteristics, KOC effectiveness and online customer engagement towards travel products: evidence from Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Thu-Hang Hoang, Hong-Diem Le, Trieu-Chau Ngo, Minh A. B. Nguyen 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated unprecedented technology access, especially in the tourism field when people are restricted to travel based on several lock-down regulations. This has progressively generated favourable conditions for the rise of key opinion consumer (KOCs) on multiple social media channels. However, KOC is still a novel concept that is underexplored by past literature. The objective of this study is to investigate some distinctive KOCs characteristics including five elements (expertise, trustworthiness, usage similarity, source dynamism and cognitive effort) with the moderating role of product KOC alignment that impact online customer engagement when interacting with travel-related marketing content on various social media platforms. The research adopted the PLS-SEM technique in the data analysis gained from 350 young consumers in Vietnam. The results of this paper propose the foundation for catering more effective strategies to reach higher levels of customer engagement via the use of suitable KOCs profiles and relevant choice of travel products.
    Keywords: key opinion consumer; KOC; customer engagement; e-engagement; KOC effectiveness; KOC characteristics; social media; internet marketing; travel; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10056135
  • Growing influencer credibility to drive endorsement effectiveness: A literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Chuong H. B. Nguyen, Joel Mero, Heikki Karjaluoto 
    Abstract: The accumulating body of research on influencer credibility that is emerging makes it relevant to reconcile the current findings in order to encourage further research. This article pursues three primary objectives: 1) it aims to define influencer credibility in the social media context; 2) it aims to develop a conceptual framework that integrates the antecedents and outcomes of influencer credibility; 3) it aims to uncover gaps in the literature and guide future research directions. Using 39 articles from 2016 to 2020, the results reveal that influencer credibility is driven by three groups of antecedents: 1) the characteristics, interactions, and relationships of influencers and audiences; 2) sponsorship disclosure; 3) the perceived fit of influencers with brands, audiences, and content. Influencer credibility is also a predictor of favourable attitudinal and behavioural outcomes, such as brand attitudes and purchase intentions. The review highlights managerial implications and issues deserving further research attention.
    Keywords: influencer marketing; influencer credibility; source credibility; sponsorship disclosure; endorsement effectiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10056331
    by Barbara Francioni, Ilaria Curina, Sabrina Hegner, Marco Cioppi, Elisabetta Savelli 
    Abstract: Within the studies investigating the consumer-brand relationships, brand hate has been partially disregarded as a research topic. This paper aims to extend the analysis of the brand hate outcomes by considering both their offline and online nature (i.e., offline/online negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) and offline/online complaining) and by also testing the role of concern for others and venting negative feelings as possible mediators on the relationship between brand hate and both offline/online behavioural outcomes. To reach this objective, structural equation modelling has been employed on a sample of 493 consumers. Findings reveal that concern for others is mainly involved when consumers perform NWOM in the offline context among their friends/family, while venting negative feelings is the main motive in the online context and for complaining to the company. The paper provides managerial implications useful to manage the consumers’ offline/online behaviours in the brand hate context.
    Keywords: brand; brand hate; consumer behaviour; consumer-brand relationship; concern for others; venting negative feelings; offline negative word-of-mouth; NWOM; online negative word-of-mouth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10056990
  • Examining purchase behavior through brand advertising strategy in social media fan pages: The mediating effects of consumer engagement behaviors   Order a copy of this article
    by Qazi Ahmed, Anees Wajid, Muhammad Arsalan Nazir 
    Abstract: The study aims to explore the associations of remuneration and creativity as brand advertising strategy on the purchase intention of social media consumers. The study proposes that this relationship is mediated through user-generated content (UGC) and peer influence which act as consumer engagement behaviours. We draw evidence through structured questionnaire from 673 respondents from higher educational institutes. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) for data analysis and testing hypotheses. The results portray that remuneration imposed a significant impact on UGC and peer influence but showed an unsupportive linkage with purchase intention. Creativity exerted a significant impact on UGC, peer influence and purchase intention. Both UGC and peer influence fully mediated the relationship between remuneration and purchase intention. Contrastingly, both of these intervening variables partially mediated the relationship between creativity and purchase intention. We introduce less studied predictors of social media advertising (SMA) and provide valuable insights using the under-researched context of Pakistan. The research framework also offers some guidelines for social media researchers and practitioners.
    Keywords: remuneration; purchase behaviour; brand advertising; creativity; UGC; peer influence; social media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10057722
  • A framework for mobile social networks (SNS) advertising effectiveness attributes and its effects on the behavioral intentions of North African cyberconsumers   Order a copy of this article
    by Nesrine Mzid, Amel Chaabouni 
    Abstract: is research aims to study the main attributes that predict advertising effectiveness via the mobile social network services (SNS) and their relationship with the advertising effectiveness which influences cyberconsumers’ purchase intentions. A quantitative study was conducted on a sample of 430 Tunisian cyberconsumers (North Africa) who frequently use their mobile phones. Particularly, the theory of uses and gratifications adapted in the context of this research is used to analyse the reactions of online consumers to the use of social media. The method of structural equations based on the AMOS approach was deployed for data analysis. The results reveal a positive effect of content relevance, mobile convenience, perceived control, context relevance, personal profile convenience and social influence on effectiveness of mobile advertising via social networks services. In other words, this research provides the necessary steps for creating effective advertising messages with the aim of obtaining positive reactions to mobile advertising.
    Keywords: mobile advertising; mobile social networking service; social networking service; SNS; advertising attributes; advertising effectiveness; behavioural intentions of cyberconsumers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10057723
  • Role of Parasocial Interaction and Planned Behaviour Theory in Consumption Restriction Intentions   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmet Durmaz, Mehmet Yüksel, Nilsah Cavdar Aksoy, Ebru T. Kabaday? 
    Abstract: Parasocial interaction (PSI) which defines relationships between influencers and consumers is also a determiner of successful marketing initiatives. In essence, it contradicts environmental and societal concerns of communities regarding inordinate buying behaviors of consumers. This conundrum represents a rarely studied research area and constitutes the main motivation of the present paper that seeks to reveal how PSI and theory of planned behavior (TPB) impact consumption restriction intentions. Drawing from social cognitive theory, this study identifies the PSI and TPB as exogenous and endogenous factors, and investigates their impact on consumption restriction intentions of consumers. Results aver that TBP is a rudimentary element for consumption restriction intention. Contrary to expectations, PSI demonstrated insignificant effect on intention. But it is also found that isolated PSI negatively impacts consumption restriction intentions on low media/celebrity influence condition. This study paves a new path for PSI-behavioral intention studies by exclusively focusing on pro-environmental intentions.
    Keywords: Parasocial Interaction; Social Cognitive Theory; Theory of Planned Behaviour; Consumption Restriction; Social Media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10057988
  • The Influence of the Use of Luxury Brands and Social Media on Self-Expansion in the Clothing Industry: Evidence from Tehran   Order a copy of this article
    by Alireza Rokhsari, Saba Ali, Hassan Tanha 
    Abstract: The luxury brand, with its capacity to create different dimensions of the brand experience, effectively strengthens the luxury brand consumer’s feeling towards himself. One of these feelings is the sense of self-expansion, which is especially attractive to generation Y; also known as millennials; because, according to their personality traits, they are seeking comprehensive progress. In this research, we have examined the effect of luxury brand experience on the relationship between quality with brand identity. This research’s statistical sample comprises 426 men and women aged 21 to 39 sample using luxury clothing brands in Tehran, and the moderating role of the novelty is investigated. They have been categorised in terms of their age, level of education, marital and income status. The finding demonstrates that the variable of self-expansion decreases with the increase in education and age, however; it has a direct relation with the marital status and financial situation.
    Keywords: luxury; self-expansion; millennials; brand experience; use of social media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10057990
  • The Effect of Self-Monitoring and Endorser Attractiveness on Online Video Advertising Responses   Order a copy of this article
    by Dongjae Lim, Jhih-Syuan Lin 
    Abstract: This study examines how self-monitoring influences the effect of physically attractive endorsers in online video ads. A series of between-subject design online experiments found that high self-monitors are more favourable and more likely to share online video ads with an attractive endorser than ads with a less attractive endorser. In contrast, individuals with low self-monitoring do not differ in their advertising responses. In addition, a moderating effect of gender influences high self-monitoring females’ favourable ad responses. In a follow-up study for provocative online video ads (e.g., nudity and sexuality), gender may limit the effects observed in the study, as males with high self-monitoring are reluctant to share such content. On the other hand, females were reluctant to share online video ads, regardless of each individual’s self-monitoring level. The study provides theoretical and managerial implications discussed in which matching individuals on self-monitoring and gender is vital for matching appropriate endorser types of online video advertising.
    Keywords: online video advertising; self-monitoring; endorser attractiveness; sex appeal; gender; share intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10058110
  • Online Customer Experience: A Review and Research Agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehak Goyal, PANKAJ DESHWAL 
    Abstract: Online customer experience (OCE) in simple terms is the perception made by the customer after interacting with a company’s online touch points. This area is crucial for the marketers to form strategies and thus require meticulous research. This study evaluates the literature on OCE and creates a timeline for subsisting knowledge. It reviews the existing theories, approaches and methodologies applied and also present future directions to better understand the uncovered areas in this domain. As this review suggests, further research should focus on the other side of the coin that is how OCE varies in different sectors.
    Keywords: customer experience; online customer experience; digitisation; FLOW; TAM; holistic experience; purchase journey; satisfaction; repurchase intention; trust.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10058897
  • A model for understanding the Customer Experience (CX) landscape from Business-to-Business(B2B) context: Theorization from the journey of Indian service technology firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishanu Bhattacharyya, Bikash Debata, Rajeev Verma 
    Abstract: Customer experience (CX) refers to the overall holistic perception of the brand in the mind of the customers. According to reputed research firm IDC, the spending in CX grew approximately from $550 Billion in 2019 to $640 Billion by 2022 (Ross, 2019). Even in 2023, majority of the companies are expected to spend higher amount in CX related spent by an average of 24% compared to last year (Gareiss, 2022). However, the recent hype cycle report from Gartner has highlighted the fact that the priorities for CX landscape are changing drastically (Davis, 2022). This paper adopts a focus group methodology and studies the concept, barriers and opportunities of CX in the B2B context of Indian service technology firms. The findings of this paper reveal that usage of right form of data clubbed with technology enablers can aid towards the positive CX experience.
    Keywords: customer experience; CX; B2B customer experience; CX process; B2B marketing; CX in B2B context; case study; qualitative research; Gioia methodology; focus group discussion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10058898
  • Technological Emergence in the Area of Personalised Advertisement Using Emergence Scoring and Topic Modelling Based on Patent Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Nishad Deshpande, Shabib Ahmed Shaikh, Alok Khode 
    Abstract: With the advent of internet, online advertisement has come a long way with personalisation based on user habits, history, etc. as compared to generalised advertisements which many times were considered as spams. The development of sophisticated algorithms and availability of data helps in identification of emerging technologies which in turn can aid technology forecasting and better decision making. Patent is an important techno-legal tool to protect innovations. The developmental aspect of a technology can be studied using patent documents. The current study uses patent dataset to analyse and evaluate patents in the field of personalised advertisement, provides state of the art and also identifies emergent concepts in this domain. The study highlights that the emergence of artificial intelligence and deep learning would drive personalisation along with user interface which may play an important role in customised content delivery as well as user experience for interactive and immersive personalised advertisement.
    Keywords: personalised advertising; targeted advertisement; web-based advertisement; patent analysis; technology trends; topic modelling; latent Dirichlet allocation; LDA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10059309
  • The mobile phone industry in the Kurdistan region of Iraq: from quality to loyalty   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmet Demir, Najih Samin Ahmed 
    Abstract: After the COVID period, customer expectations and company strategies have changed in many markets and products. It is very important to keep up with this change in academic studies and publications, to re-identify the differences as well as the similarities, and as a result, to offer new strategic change opportunities to the market actors. In this sense, the research aimed to present a regional and comprehensive study of the mobile phone market, which is the most developing and expanding market in recent years. The study obtained data as a result of the questionnaire applied to 1,189 people who are currently using mobile smartphones in the Kurdistan region, and after passing these data through validity-reliability analysis. Through a rigorous process of validity and reliability analysis, the gathered data underwent causality analysis utilising structural equations modelling. When the results were examined, it has been determined that the product users in the market shape their purchasing and loyalty according to the brand perception of the product, rather than their own product usage experience. In this context, strategic maps were presented to market actors.
    Keywords: mobile phone product quality; dealer’s service quality; switching cost; mobile phone industry; Iraq.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10059310
  • Can Virtual, CGI-Generated, Influencers Help Sell Products on Instagram? Effects of Perceived Realism and Disclosure on Brand-Related Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions   Order a copy of this article
    by Joe Phua, Nathaniel Evans, Youngjee Ko, JeongHyun Lee 
    Abstract: Virtual influencers, CGI-generated avatars with fabricated personalities, are increasingly being used by brands to advertise products on social media platforms. Applying theoretical frameworks including the match-up hypothesis (Kamins, 1990), parasocial identification (Horton and Wohl, 1956; Rubin and Perse, 1987), source credibility (Ohanian, 1990) and the persuasion knowledge model (Friestad and Wright, 1994), the current study assessed effects of perceived realism (high versus low) and disclosure (yes versus no) of a virtual influencer in an Instagram brand ad on perceived brand credibility, brand attitude, purchase intention and eWOM intention. Using a two (realism: high versus low) x two (disclosure: yes versus no) between-subjects experiment, results revealed that perceived realism exerted a significant main effect on the dependent measures, and also interacted with disclosure to influence brand-related outcomes. Further, perceived prosocial characteristics of the virtual influencer also mediated between realism and the dependent measures. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: virtual influencers; social media; influencer marketing; advertising.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10059311
  • The Moderating Effect of Adaptive Selling Behavior on the Benefits of Social Media Usage in Sales during the COVID-19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Arti Pandey, Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol 
    Abstract: Grounded in the media naturalness theory and compensatory adaptation theory, this research examines whether adaptive selling behaviour can be a moderator that strengthens the effect of social media usage on sales and sales performance. Survey data were collected from 227 export salespeople from 120 companies in Thailand who have begun to use social media in sales during the COVID-19 pandemic. The hypotheses were tested using partial least squares structural equation modelling. The results supported the positive association between social media usage in sales and sales performance. Nevertheless, the result from the moderating effect test revealed that social media usage in sales’ positive effect on sales performance is particularly strong among salespeople with high adaptive selling behaviour. For salespeople with low adaptive selling behaviour, social media usage in sales has a weak effect on sales performance. Our research provides implications to sales organisations, which can increase productivity of their human capital.
    Keywords: adaptive selling behaviour; sales performance; social media; marketing communication; human capital; productivity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10059312

Special Issue on: CBIM2022 Innovation, Communication and Value Co-Creation in Digital marketing

  • How does influencer marketing build up the engagement between brand and followers   Order a copy of this article
    by Minh Le 
    Abstract: Influencer marketing is a vital and effective marketing channel for developing a brand relationship on social media platforms. Influencer marketing is successful because of its diversity, innovation, and proximity to customers. Nevertheless, previous research has not shown a connection between the various facets of brand participation. The purpose of this study was to determine how the credibility, competence, content, interaction, lifestyle, and brand congruence of influencers affect cognitive, emotional, and behavioural brand engagement and lead to increased purchase intention. An online questionnaire was used to gather data, and it was circulated across various online platforms and social media platforms. The data was then analysed using the structural equation model (SEM). According to the research, there are a number of factors that help to grow the followers’ brand engagement with influencers. These factors include credibility, knowledge, content, interaction, lifestyle, and brand congruence. In addition to that, the practical and theoretical ramifications of the results are discussed in this paper.
    Keywords: influencer’s life style; influencer-brand congruence; influencer’s interaction; influencer’s content; cognitive; affective; and behavioural brand engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10055219
  • E-shopping Orientation, Trust and Impulse Buying in the Online Context A Study Based on female members of Generation Z in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Annie John, Jain Mathew, Sridevi Nair 
    Abstract: A large number of studies have attempted to understand consumer behaviour in the online context. One construct that has been of particular interest to marketers, retailers and researchers, is impulse buying behaviour. The number of studies attempting to understand the drivers of impulsive purchases have been on a rise. The current pandemic also saw a rise in impulsive purchases and the interest in the construct was renewed. The current study is based on the S-O-R model and evaluates the relationship between e-shopping orientation, trust and impulse buying behaviour. The findings are based on data collected from female members of Generation Z and suggest that frequent visits to e-retail stores and increased patronage can increase the level of trust in the retail partner and influence the number of impulsive purchases. The findings are particularly significant for retailers looking to drive sales through impulsive purchases. In addition, the findings provide empirical support for the application of the S-O-R model to online retail context.
    Keywords: online shopping; e-retail; e-shopping orientation; trust; impulsive buying behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10056876
  • Examining the moderating role of gender and point of purchase platforms on eWOM intentions   Order a copy of this article
    by Manu Jain, Saumya Dixit, Shilpa Sindhu, Amit Shukla 
    Abstract: Owing to uncertainty pertaining to online shopping, researchers have acknowledged the presence of positive eWOM on e-commerce websites as an important source of information. However, existing research does not explain the effect of beliefs on consumer attitude and intentions. Hence, drawing on the belief attitude intention model, this research examines the role of behavioural beliefs pertaining to economic incentives and altruism on attitude towards writing eWOM. Furthermore, the moderating role of gender and point of purchase platforms is also tested. Data collected from 277 millennials was analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The results indicate that behavioural beliefs pertaining to economic incentives and altruism are significant predictors of attitude, which further strengthens positive eWOM intentions. Furthermore, gender moderates the relation between altruism and attitude and point of purchase platforms moderates the economic incentives-attitude and attitude-intention relationship. Implications for theory and practitioners are also discussed.
    Keywords: e-tailer; brand website; positive eWOM; altruism; intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10056877