International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (49 papers in press)
Cultivating consumer-brand relationship in social media: The role of consumer willingness to engage
by Terri Chan
Abstract: In todays digital era, social media advertising efforts continue to expand with strong abilities to concisely target, behaviorally profile, and interactively engage consumers. In the midst of plentiful brand information presented on social media, it has been argued that while consumers can attend to many brands, it is through consumers motivation to interact with one particular brand that brand-consumer relationship can be further fostered. Using stage theories of relationship development as the overarching framework, consumer and brand relationship in this study is conceptualized to be similar to the trajectory of a close friendship, which involves active engagement from both parties. Collating data from three independent sources, this study examined 195 leading consumer brands across 23 product categories in China to verify the role of consumers willingness to engage in shaping brand preference.
Keywords: consumer-brand relationship; consumer engagement; social media; empirical; online advertising; brand salience; brand distinctiveness.
Investigation of generational differences in advertising behavior and fake news perception among Facebook users
by Sunil Hazari
Abstract: Facebook is the largest social media platform that is used by all generations of users and businesses. Many users consider Facebook as a primary news source even though the news on Facebook is not authenticated. This fake news can be used for financial or political gain and can also impact consumer behavior towards products. The purpose of this study was to investigate advertising response behavior and fake news perception among multi-generational Facebook users in conjunction with other variables such as gender and political affiliation. Data were collected using a multi-stage quota sample of 400 respondents. A scale was developed and psychometrically tested as part of the study to determine fake news perception. Findings of this study can be used to drive engagement with Facebook users, and develop campaigns that use actionable segmentation scheme. Implications of user behavior and fake news perception are discussed, and future research directions are provided.
Keywords: Facebook; fake news; market segmentation; political marketing; political psychology; ideological differences; multi-generational differences.
A Moderated-Mediated Model of the Effect of Social Media Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior: Evidence from India
by Krishna Kumar Rajarathinam, Logu Rathinam, Satyanarayana Parayitam
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate the advertisement effectiveness of social media marketing among young consumers especially in Indian context. A conceptual model is developed and empirically tested after collecting data from 1325 respondents from two cosmopolitan cities of Southern India (Chennai and Coimbatore) using structured instrument. The hierarchical regression results indicate that: (i) Social media advertising is positively and significantly related to use of social media by consumers, (ii) Use of social media is significantly and positively related to (a) online buying behavior,(b) habitual buying behavior, (c) variety-seeking buying behavior, and (d) impulsive buying behavior. Results also indicate that various factors of social media (viz., accessibility, customization, user interest, and user interaction) moderate the relationship between social media advertising and use of social media by consumers. Finally, findings support for partial mediation of use of social media in the relationship between social media advertising and consumer buying behavior. Implications for advertising literature and practicing managers are discussed.
Keywords: Social media; online buying behavior; impulsive buying behavior; variety-seeking buying behavior.
Brand Celebrities. Analysis of Celebrity Sponsorship Posts on Facebook
by Goetz Greve, Andrea Schlüschen, Claudia Fantapié Altobelli
Abstract: The social media accounts of celebrities have inspired innovative ways for companies to promote their brands. One form of celebrity-related advertising are celebrity-sponsorship posts. These posts often come at a high cost for the advertiser while it remains unclear which content characteristics are expected to influence the effectiveness of these posts. This paper investigates the impacts of content characteristics of celebrity-sponsorship posts on Facebook on customer engagement. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the characteristics of 313 sponsored posts from 128 celebrities endorsing 154 brands. Drawing on the dual mediation hypothesis and uses and gratification theory, this study reveals that distinct content characteristics drive either attitudes towards the celebrity or attitudes towards the brand, revealing the double-edged nature of celebrity-sponsorship posts. The findings suggest that marketing managers should carefully design celebrity sponsorship posts by adjusting the balance between celebrity and brand emphasis. Otherwise, there might be a threat of either the brand being overshadowed by the celebrity, thus reducing brand attitude, or the brand capturing the celebrity by - from a fans perspective - being obviously recognized as plain advertising; as such, this effect can harm the attitude towards the celebrity and, consequently, reduces customer engagement.
Keywords: Celebrities; Brands; Celebrity Sponsorship Posts; Social Media; Facebook.
Return on Investment (ROI) and Return on Ad Spend (ROAS) at the Action level of AIDA using Last Touch Attribution method on Digital Advertising platforms
by Sriram K V, Anup Ananda Poojary, Vineet Jawa, Giridhar B Kamath
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to help marketers realize the importance of the last-click attribution model at the Action level of the AIDA model on the Return on Investment (ROI). Marketers often rely on last-click attribution modelling, and they obtain undesired results as Google Ads and Facebook Ads use the last-click attribution model as the default model. Being plagued with attribution-based issues, firms can end up overspending their budget because the ROI shows discouraging results and firms end up curtailing the campaigns, which further drops the conversion. This paper analyses the data from a jewellery brands marketing campaigns to understand the effect of Action level advertisements on Google Ads and Facebook platforms over Return on Investment (ROI). In conjunction with the ROI being affected by last-touch attribution, the authors have questioned the effect of the AIDA models last phase/level, i.e., the Action levels effect on ROI from the advertising platform. The findings revealed that ROI through Google Ads and Facebook Ads were different in the Action level of the AIDA using the last touch attribution model. This study contributes to the evidence of the ROI queries that the marketers have faced in the current digital marketing domain.
Keywords: return on investment; ROI; last touch attribution; last click attribution; AIDA model; action level AIDA model; google ads; facebook ads; ROAS; analytics.
Effects of Celebrity, Social Media Influencer, and Peer Endorsements on Consumer Responses Toward a Celebrity-Owned Brand: The Role of Source Credibility and Congruency
by Shiyun Tian, Jo-Yun Li
Abstract: Considering the growing popularity of celebrity-owned brands through social media advertising, this study investigates how different types of product endorsers (i.e., celebrities, social media influencers [SMI], and peer Internet users) influence consumers judgments toward celebrity-owned brands on Instagram. Results indicated that perceived expertise was important in consumers evaluation of product endorsement messages, whereas perceptions of endorsers trustworthiness did not differ across the three conditions. In terms of endorsement effectiveness, celebrities and SMIs had more significant impacts on consumer responses than fellow consumers when endorsing a brand owned by the celebrity, in which perceived expertise mediated the relationship between endorser type and advertising effectiveness. In addition, the endorser-consumer congruency is more prominent to SMI endorsements than to peer endorsements, whereas the endorser-product congruency is more crucial to peer endorsements than to celebrity endorsements. Theoretical and practical implications for researchers and marketers are discussed.
Keywords: product endorsements; celebrity endorsements; social media influencer; peer; advertising; Instagram; celebrity-owned brand; source credibility; trustworthiness; expertise; endorser-consumer congruency; endorser-product congruency.
Influence of Post Types on Facebook Engagement: The Moderating Roles of Brand Category and Brand Internationalization
by Mathupayas Thongmak
Abstract: Strategies for brand community engagement have been lagging behind the social media growth. This paper thus attempts to understand the effects of content types on brand community engagement (likes, comments, and shares) in the understudied yet important country of Thailand using a comprehensive framework. This study collected 1,574 posts from 183 Facebook pages in nine brand categories. Content analysis was conducted to extract the content type of each post. The main study explored post-type effects together with the moderating influences of the brand category (FMCGs vs. non-FMCGs) and brand internationalization (global vs. local brands). The research also explored real cases of Facebook posts in nine brand categories and compared the influence of posts on fan engagement. The findings showed that different content types were utilized among brand categories and brand groups, but above all entertaining posts received the highest fan engagement. Both FMCG and global brands significantly moderated several relationships between post types and fan engagement. There was a small number of posts in some brand categories due to the nature of each industry. Recommendations are made regarding an effective content strategy to enhance Facebook page engagement for marketers and social media managers.
Keywords: Facebook; content strategy; uses and gratifications; brand page; engagement; brand category; brand internationalization; FMCG.
Role of Brand Experience, Brand Trust and Brand Love in Assessing Brand Loyalty: A Study of Fashion Jewellery Brands among Women
by Dheeraj Nim, Shamily Jaggi, Gursimranjit Singh
Abstract: Building strong brands become an imperative part of almost every firm and jewellery firms are not an exception to this. This present paper is an attempt to assess the mediating role of brand trust, brand satisfaction and brand love in the relationship between brand loyalty and brand experience. The hypotheses framed were tested from randomly collected data through self-administrated questionnaire filled by 300 females across PAN India. Responses were taken on five point Likert scale and the measurement model was tested through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique with Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 2.0 software. The results revealed that brand trust and brand love fully mediates the relationship between brand loyalty and brand experience whereas mediation effect of brand satisfaction is insignificant. The study found new directions for better explaining the brand experience and brand loyalty relationship that will help jewellers/marketers in designing their marketing strategies effectively.
Keywords: Brand; Experience; Jewellery; Love; Loyalty; Satisfaction; Trust; Women.
Antecedents of trust and purchase intention in social commerce in Brazil
by Natália Pagan, Karina Pagan, Janaina Giraldi, Edgard Merlo
Abstract: This article sought to create a theoretical model for trust and its antecedents, and purchase intention on social commerce websites in Brazil. The antecedents investigated were privacy, safety, proximity, familiarity, and habit of using the website. For this, we collected data from 350 Brazilian participants who use Facebook for purchases. Privacy, safety, familiarity, and the habit of using the website positively influence trust in the Brazilian social commerce website, while proximity does not have a positive influence on it. Trust was positively influenced by the purchase intention. International and Brazilian website administrators who wish to enter the Brazilian market can use the results of this paper to win consumer trust regarding their websites and thereby sell their products and/or services.
Keywords: Social commerce. E-commerce. Social Media. Trust. Antecedents of trust. Purchase Intention. Internet. SEM. Marketing Research. Web 2.0.
Privacy may be more important in Beijing than in Hong Kong in Location-Based Services
by Ranjan Kini, Qianyu Zhao-Serranos
Abstract: Location-based technologies are getting sophisticated, and there are many studies conducted focused on the influence of permission, trust, relevance, and context issues in the acceptance of Location-based services (LBS) and advertising in various cultural backgrounds. Understanding the perception of LBS in the e-commerce maturity spectrum is important for marketers to maximize the impact of these technologies. In this empirical study, the authors found that Beijing is a little more acceptive of LBS in a certain category of products and services while Hong Kong is acceptive in other categories. The research also identified that there are two groups of respondents progressives and vexessives, in both locations. The larger group progressives are openly embracing LBS and smaller group vexessives are often annoyed with LBS and are very slow in accepting of these technologies. The challenge is to identify the efficacy of these technologies for different categories of products in different economic, legal and cultural backgrounds and find effective solutions.
Keywords: Location-Based Services in Beijing and Hong Kong; Location-Based Mobile Advertising in Beijing and Hong Kong; Location-Based Mobile Marketing in Beijing and Hong Kong; Interactive Marketing; Privacy in Beijing and Hong Kong; \r\nInteractive Advertising\r\n.
Technology Disruption in Healthcare: Artificial Intelligence Application, Challenges, and Policy Recommendations in India
by Sheshadri Chatterjee, Ranjan Chaudhuri, Alkis Thrassou, Demetris Vrontis
Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, along with its related algorithms, hardware, capability, and applications, is rapidly expanding across sectors and industries, globally. Through a combination of theoretical and qualitative research this study identifies the different applications of AI in the healthcare sector, including biomedicine, disease diagnostics, hospital record management, living assistance, biomedical research, and more. Particular emphasis is placed on the case of Indian hospitals and the relevant opportunities and challenges for sustainable growth of AI in the healthcare sector, at both the policy and governmental levels. The study finds that policy improvements, greater investment in R&D activities, and effective governance constitute the keys towards the maximisation of both the potential and actual benefits of AI in the healthcare sector.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI governance; healthcare; hospitals; regulation; policy; opportunities and challenges; India.
Consumers Information Control and Privacy Concerns in Personalized Social Media Advertising
by Mariko Morimoto
Abstract: This study investigated the relationships between popular social media platforms in Japan (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and LINE), degree of ad personalization, consumers perceptions (attitudes toward ads and advertised brands), and behavioral responses (purchase intent and ad avoidance) to personalized advertising. It also examined associations between consumers information control and privacy concerns with perceptual and behavioral responses to personalized social media advertising.
A three (degrees of ad personalization)
Keywords: Ad personalization; social media advertising; personalized advertising; privacy concerns; information control.
The role of Social Networks for decision-making about tourism destinations
by Bruno Miguel Vieira, Ana Pinto Borges, Elvira Vieira
Abstract: It was studied the influence of social networks (SN), as part of tourism management/marketing strategy, on destination selection. It was also presented the new extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), considering the constructs of Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease Of Use (PEOU) and Attitude Towards the Use (ATU), and added Perceived Enjoyment (PE), e-Word-Of-Mouth (eWOM) and Previous Influence Factors (PIF) to assess tourists behavioural intention (BI) towards the use of social network for choosing the tourism destination. For such, we performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the hypotheses were tested by structural equation modelling (SEM). Logistic regression was conducted to explain the influence of SN on choosing and finding destination information. 66.5% of the respondents had used SN to get information or decide on their tourist destination. Facebook and Instagram exhibited greater impact on tourist destination selection than LinkedIn. The results provided insights for marketers, for governments and tourism related organizations.
Keywords: social networks; tourism destination; influence; tourist behaviour; analysed theories; constructs.
Classifying bloggers based on content creation approaches: implications for influencer marketing strategies
by Beatrice Ietto, Federica Pascucci
Abstract: Today bloggers represent an established type of influencers and undiscussed marketing tool for promotional purposes. However, due to the multitude of bloggers acting as influencers that exist today, marketers might experience difficulties in identifying the most suitable bloggers. The aim of the paper is to build an empirically-based multidimensional framework which classifies consumer bloggers based on their content creation approaches. In particular, taking a social-practice theory perspective, content creation is considered as a routinised behaviour influenced by what the blogger considers as meaningful within a particular socio-cultural context. The analysis is based on a netnographic analysis of Australian music bloggers. The paper argues that a bloggers content creation approach predominantly depends on the subjective importance that the blogger gives to one of following dimensions: personal influences, audience influences, community influences, commercial influences. According to the identified content creation approaches, the paper develops a bloggers classification multidimensional framework relevant for marketing practitioners wanting to identify bloggers for their promotional strategies.
Keywords: blog marketing; netnography; music industry; influencers; influencer marketing; taxonomies; classifications; cultural intermediaries.
EXAMINING THE ROLE OF BELIEFS IN PREDICTING VALUES, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOURS OF INDIAN MILLENNIALS TOWARDS FACEBOOK ADVERTISING: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF FACEBOOK ADVERTISING VALUE
by Taanika Arora
Abstract: The transition from the traditional advertising channel to the evolving Facebook advertising channel has transformed not only the advertising industry but also the ways in which consumers perceive the advertising messages. Thereby, the purpose of the study is to examine the relationships among the beliefs, value, attitude and behaviour of Indian Facebook users towards Facebook advertising, hence a conceptual framework has been proposed based on the combination of the advertising model given by Ducoffe (1995) and Pollay and Mittal (1993). The model has deployed the structural equation modelling (SEM) technique for determining model fit, establishing the validity and reliability of the adapted scales, and testing the proposed hypotheses. The results indicated that the proposed framework is a robust tool for measuring advertising effectiveness on Facebook. Moreover, it was found that Facebook advertising value plays a mediating role in determining the relationship between consumer beliefs and attitude towards Facebook advertising.
Keywords: Facebook advertising value; FAV; attitude towards Facebook advertising; Indian millennials; consumer beliefs.
Measuring the Impact of Creative Viral Advertising Content on Hierarchy-of-Effects: An Application of Structural Equation Modeling
by Balpreet Kaur, Rishi Raj Sharma
Abstract: The study measured the impact of creative viral advertising content on consumers response process. Based on the traditional hierarchy-of-effects model, a conceptual model was framed by considering new developments in advertising practices. The attempt here was made to identify the impact of creative viral advertising content on four stages: drawing the attention of the consumer, generation of interest in advertisement or brand advertised therein, product purchase intentions, and intentions to disseminate positive word-of-mouth (WOM) about advertised product/brand. SEM technique was applied to know whether the impact of creative viral advertising content is mediated through each succeeding hierarchy-of-effect stage. The results indicated that though the hierarchy-of-effects model is applicable, creativity, an independent variable, also has the strength to directly impact consumers intents to purchase and diffuse positive WOM for the products/brands advertised. Hence, the study leaves implications for practitioners to redesign their advertising content to enhance the Ad's attention-catching capacity, which will impact the consumers' intentions to share advertisement online.
Keywords: Viral Marketing; Viral Advertising; Ad creativity; SEM; Hierarchy-of-Effects; Word-of-Mouth (WOM).
The Mediating Effect of Luxury Perception on the relationship between Social Media Marketing and Purchase Intention of Luxury Jewelry Brands
by Mirna El Shayeb, Sara El-Deeb
Abstract: Purpose Driven by the theory of Veblen effect, need for uniqueness theory, Cue utilization theory, Sociometer theory and Brewers Optimal Distinctiveness theory, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the relationship between social media marketing and purchase intentions and the role luxury perception plays in mediating the relationship.
Design/methodology/approach - A non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data of 404 participants. The tests used were confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis using Amos and SPSS programs.
Findings - The findings showed that the components of luxury perception, which are conspicuousness, quality, and hedonism partially mediates the relationship between social media marketing and purchase intention of luxury jewelry brands. However, two components which are uniqueness and Extended self does not mediate the relationship.
Originality/value The present study contributes significant value concerning both the theoretical and managerial implications of how social media marketing affects the consumers luxury perception, and how this perception can affect their intention to purchase luxury jewelry brands in the Egyptian context.
Keywords: Social Media; Social Media Marketing; Luxury Branding; Jewelry; Luxury Brands; Luxury Products; Luxury Perceptions; Jewelry Industry; Purchase Intention.
CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND FUTURE RESEARCH AGENDA
by GURVEEN KAUR, PANKAJ DESHWAL, Hamendra Dangi
Abstract: Customer engagement (CE) is an emerging research area that is receiving considerable attention not only from the management practitioners but the academicians as well. Regardless of the huge number of researches initiated in this area, the available literature looks splintered and lacks conceptual unidirectionality. Therefore, present research aims at administering a domain-based
Keywords: customer engagement; customer engagement behaviour; customer brand engagement; brand community engagement; systematic review.
Impact of online ratings on the box office collection of Bollywood movies
by Girish Taneja, Anu Bala
Abstract: Decision for watching a movie in the theatre is dependent on various factors such as the actors, story, reviews, ratings by critics and viewers. People may get positively inclined towards watching movies in the theatre having multiple reviews, good star rating by leading critics and viewers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of online ratings by critics and viewers on Bollywood movies performance at the box office. In this study, the researcher fetched national level Bollywood movies data with the help of various websites like www.bollywoodmovies.com, www.timesofIndia.com, www.imdb.com, www.bookmyshow.com. Correlation and Regression analysis were applied to understand the impact of ratings on the box office revenue earned by the movie. There is a significant association between the online ratings and box office collection of Bollywood movies while controlling the effect of other independent variables such as the number of screens, star power, distributors and production budget. The study concluded that there is a significant impact of critic and viewers rating on the box office collection of Bollywood movies
Keywords: Reviews; Movie reviews; Critics rating; Box office collection; Viewers rating.
Are Social Media and Mobile Applications threatening Retail Websites?
by Ricardo Ramos, Paulo Rita, Sérgio Moro
Abstract: The use of mobile applications and social media platforms is reshaping the access to the Internet. This study aims to analyze if consumers prefer to use a mobile application/social media platform or a retail website to search for a product or service and what are the reasons supporting their choice. Data was collected through unstructured interviews applied to Internet consumers. 770 replies were returned with their perspective and analyzed through text mining to uncover hidden patterns of knowledge. The outcome revealed that the vital aspect that makes consumers prefer a retail website is due to service quality. The choice for mobile applications/social media platforms is its system quality in the act of searching for a product or service online. The demographic analysis exposed that younger generations prefer mobile applications/social media, suggesting a different future for retail websites.
Keywords: retail website; social media; mobile application; consumer behavior; text mining.
Applications of Virtual Reality in marketing (2000-2020): A 4C marketing-mix based review and future research agenda
by Nidhi Yadav, Shikha Sota, Harish Chaudhary
Abstract: The last decade has seen a rapid technological transformation in the way marketing is thought and performed. Virtual reality (VR) is one such technology that is being applied across marketing channels to creatively engage, communicate, sell, and service the consumers. This paper is a systematic literature review of the last 20 years of research on applications of virtual reality in marketing. This paper provides a descriptive review of literature, tracks the evolution of the virtual reality concept from technological to experiential view, and outlines the application of VR across Lauterborns 4C marketing mix
Keywords: virtual reality; marketing; literature review; marketing technology; 4C.
Investigating factors affecting Trust and purchase intention towards online websites: Structural Equation Modeling Approach
by Pallavi Dogra
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of important factors which affect the purchase intention of the customers towards the online products. Besides this, study has evaluated the moderating role of the online review on the relationship between trust, website quality, familiarity and purchase intention. Data has been collected from the 481 active users of the online shopping websites in India. The selected respondents for the study comprises of the working professionals who are residing in the various parts of the country. Theoretical framework was purposed and afterwards AMOS was applied to examine the interrelationship between the constructs. The results confirmed that trust, website quality, familiarity are significantly affecting the purchase intention. Also, results highlighted that online review are moderating the relationship between website quality, familiarity and purchase intention. The main finding of this research provides significant implication for the managers and policy makers to focus on these extracted factors in order to have positive purchase intention. Managers are also interested in the relevance of the online review which is significantly moderating the interrelationship between the constructs.
Keywords: Trust; website quality; familiarity; purchase intention.
Research about Persuasive Effects of Social Media Influencers as Online Opinion Leaders 1990-2020: A Review
by Louisa Ha, Yang Yang
Abstract: This paper examines the 167 scholarly journal articles published from 1990 to 2020 related to persuasive effects of online opinion leaders and social media influencers. The USA, China and Germany were the three most common settings those studies were conducted. Most research articles explained the influence mechanism of social media influencers based on prior celebrity endorsement research, focusing on credibility, trustworthiness, homophily and parasocial interaction. In this review, we examine what we learned from the research literature in eight topics about the persuasive effects of influencers: 1) typology of influencers and methods to identify influencers; 2) relationship between the influencers and followers; 3) characteristics of the followers of influencers; 4) scope of influence of the influencers, 5) mechanism of influence; 6) approaches/strategies of influencers to brand endorsement; 7) measurement of influence outcomes; and 8) ethics of social media influencer marketing. A research agenda is proposed on how to further develop social media influencer marketing research based on the technology affordance of each social media platform and important areas that have been under-explored.
Keywords: opinion leader; social media; influencer marketing; celebrity endorsement; brand persuasion process.
SMS advertisement and purchasing intentions: an emerging market perspective
by George Amoako, Albert Martins, Joshua Doe, Marian Tsegah
Abstract: This study sought to investigate and understand customer behaviour that determines attitudes in relation to SMS advertising and purchase intentions in Ghana. The quantitative method was used with simple random sampling technique in selecting the respondents. Four hundred eighty-five questionnaires were issued out, 420 were returned and 400 used as the sample size. Structural equation modelling was employed to analyse the relationship amongst the variables. The study findings supported the hypothesis that informative SMS advertisement, entertaining SMS advertisement, credibility of SMS advertisement and irritability of SMS advertisement all has positive influence on purchasing intentions of customers.
Keywords: SMS advertisement; SMS advertising; purchase intentions.
Brand accommodation to informal communications on social media: With the mediation of communication appropriateness and the moderation of product involvement
by Hyun Ju Jeong, Jihye Kim
Abstract: Drawing on communication accommodation theory, this experimental study investigates whether, how, and when brand communications cultivate consumer engagement on social media. Results show that informal (vs. formal) communications yield greater intentions to follow and share brand content. Further, the extent to which consumers perceive this communication as appropriate for brands within social media fully mediates the greater effects of informal (vs. formal) communications on following, sharing, and posting intentions, particularly for those low in product involvement. These findings highlight that assimilating brand communications to consumers casual conversations is processed as a heuristic cue driving social media engagement among low-involved consumers. This persuasion is psychologically mediated by the appropriateness of communication accommodation consumers may feel from the efforts of brands to reduce a social distance to them. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: communication accommodation; brand accommodation; consumer engagement; brand communications; communication appropriateness; product involvement; social media.
Listen as Much as You Want: The Antecedents of the Engagement of Podcast Consumers
by Simoni F. Rohden, Gabriel Tassinari Da Silva, Carla Freitas Silveira Netto
Abstract: Podcasts are becoming popular with internet users and are used by brands as part of their digital marketing strategy. The aim of the paper is to understand which variables influence the engagement of consumers and result in financial support for podcasts. With a focus group followed by a survey involving 274 Brazilian listeners who financially support podcasts it was possible to confirm that the benefits perceived by these listeners play a significant role in their engagement with this medium. Feelings of gratitude and connection with the brand also had a positive impact on engagement, therefore confirming the literature and the focus group analysis. Contrary to the literature, however, feelings of indebtedness were not significant in the model. The main contribution of the paper is that it sheds light on why people financially support podcasts, even though the content is available for free.
Keywords: podcasts; engagement; gratitude; brand-self connection; consumers.
Comparing the effectiveness of social media endorsers for mass and luxury markets
by Imene Ben Yahia, Lolwah Al-Mudahka
Abstract: This research mobilises the social learning theory to investigate the impacts of the endorser type (celebrity, micro-influencer, and macro-influencer) in social media on purchase intent of a mass-market and a luxury perfume. Two studies were conducted. 415 responses were collected from social media users, and data were analysed using partial least square structural equation modelling. Findings demonstrate that not only celebrities, but also macro-influencers are good endorsers of luxury perfumes. Indeed, their impact is as effective as that of celebrities in terms of meanings transfer and congruency. Micro-influencers, however, are more effective than celebrities when it comes to mass-market brands. In addition, for this category, the influence of macro-influencers is as strong as that of micro-influencers. Therefore, macro-influencers seem good endorsers for both luxury and mass-market perfumes. This study has important implications for both Marketing academicians and practitioners.
Keywords: influencer marketing; social media; endorsement; celebrity; social commerce.
Does Online Shopping Allure Frugal Buyers ?
by Satinder Kumar, Aqwinder KAUR, Amina Omrane
Abstract: The present study aims at examining and pinpointing the essential factors that may influence online buyers behaviours in India. For this purpose, it considers frugality, assimilated for a long time to a low consumer spending, as an impactful dimension of the consumer purchasing behaviour. A questionnaire was administrated, during a period of three months ranging from May to July 2020, to 642 adult online buyers living in the North of India. Collected data were then analysed via SPSS and AMOS softwares. The overall findings show that frugal consumers draw their attention mainly to price and discounts, convenience of online shopping, product quality and durability, as well as security aspects while taking online shopping decisions. The results enrich the literature on frugal online buyers behaviours. They have practical implications for online marketers who are invited to understand the behaviour of frugal consumers and identify the factors that might affect their buying decisions.
Keywords: frugal buying behaviour; online shopping; security; online convenience; online promotion; the North of India.
Modelling the Impact of Social Media Marketing for Apparel Brands: Evidence from India
by Amit Kumar Gupta, Vibhava Srivastava
Abstract: Social media has been widely acknowledged as a significant platform for different business activities. The study examines and models the interactions between social media marketing activities, their effectiveness, brand equity, and customer responses concerning apparel brands. The Indian apparel market is the second-largest retail market after food and grocery in India. The digital population of India amounted to approximately 688 million active users, of which 400 million users were active social media users as of January 2020. The primary data was collected from a survey of 266 respondents in India, of which 262 responses were found valid. WarpPLS 7.0 was used in which data was subjected to variance-based structural equation modelling for hypotheses testing. The study found that social media marketing activities of apparel brands with interactive and trendier contents would be proven effective, which would form favourable brand equity amongst the customers and eventually would result in customer loyalty. It also found that apparel brands interactive and trendier social media marketing activities would form customers willingness to pay a premium price if these activities are perceived as effective. The study concludes with the implications for academics as well as for industry.
Keywords: social media marketing activities; brand equity; social media marketing effectiveness; customer loyalty; price premium willingness; India.
Building Corporate Reputation through Social Media Marketing Efforts: The Mediating Role of Corporate Brand Credibility
by Zanete Garanti, Nicholas Igbudu, Temitope Popoola, Demetris Vrontis, Yioula Melanthiou
Abstract: Social media is a widely used tool by companies to communicate with their customers. This study explores customers perception of social media marketing efforts by companies and their role in enhancing corporate reputation. It also evaluates the mediating role of corporate brand credibility in the relationship between social media marketing efforts and corporate reputation. Data for this study was adopted from 404 customers of the retail banking sector in Latvia, contacted via social media platforms such as Facebook using the non-random snowball sampling method. The structural equation modelling technique was used to test the relationship of the study variables. The study results show a direct and significant influence of social media marketing efforts on corporate brand credibility. However, social media marketing efforts do not have a significant impact on corporate reputation. Corporate brand credibility has a positive direct impact on corporate reputation. Therefore, it is shown that corporate brand credibility mediates the relationship between social media marketing efforts and corporate reputation.
Keywords: social media marketing; SMM; corporate brand credibility; CBC; corporate reputation.
Examining the effects of brand authenticity and brand identification on consumers willingness to pay premium
by RICHA JOSHI, Prerna Garg, Shampy Kamboj
Abstract: The present study proposes a holistic framework to understand the effect of brand authenticity and brand identification on willingness to pay premium by taking brand jealousy as a mediating variable. Brand jealousy is a feeling of jealousy a consumer experiences when the brand he loves is purchased/owned by other individual but he himself is not able to possess the brand. Also, the effect of brand authenticity and brand identification in influencing brand jealousy is evaluated through direct and indirect routes by taking brand love a mediator. The findings of the study reveal that brand identification and brand authenticity have a direct and significant effect on brand jealousy, brand love, and willingness to pay a premium. The study confirms that the managers of sportswear brands and marketing planners must not ignore the relative importance of brand authenticity and identification in their overall brand-related assessment. Additionally, they should also focus on brand love and jealousy to facilitate willingness to pay premium from the perspective of the consumer.
Keywords: brand jealousy; brand love; brand identification; consumer-brand relationships; willingness to pay premium.
Service Experience Gamified: A Study on Convergence of Gamification and Contemporary Service Experience
by Tapish Panwar, Kalim Khan
Keywords: gamification; service experience; service marketing; gamified services; service-dominant logic; SDL.
CONTENT MARKETING TOWARDS CUSTOMER VALUE CREATION
by Ruta Repoviene, Ausra Pazeraite
Abstract: This article presents theoretical and empirical aspects of content marketing towards customer value creation. Despite interest in content marketing and the importance of customer value in marketing theory, so far there is a lack of research in this area. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to fill this gap by determining the theoretical and empirical implications of content marketing dedicated to customer value creation. Based on conducted theoretical analysis, a conceptual model of content marketing towards customer value creation was developed. In the presented research paper, the corresponding model is examined in exploratory qualitative research by applying expert interview method. Given findings based on continuous theoretical analysis and empirical study provide an original approach and relevant suggestions on directions for both further scientific research and practical application of content marketing towards customer value creation.
Keywords: content marketing; digital content; content idea; content distribution; customer value creation; social value; functional value; emotional value.
Effects of e-marketplaces brand trust on repurchasing intention and WOM: Are they reinforced by consumers online shopping experience?
by Pedro De Santi, Julio Carneiro-da-Cunha, Robson Guerreiro
Abstract: Brand retailing websites with higher brand trust influence consumers repurchasing intention and word-of-mouth (WOM). However, we did not know if this assumption is valid in e-marketplaces. In addition, such relation could be moderated by the consumers previous experience in internet transactions. Considering this, we aimed to identify if the previous experience with internet transactions has a moderating effect between trust and loyalty factors among e-marketplaces consumers. We conducted a survey with 197 Brazilian e-marketplace consumers. Our results confirmed that brand trust was an antecedent of repurchasing and word-of-mouth intentions in e-marketplaces. Such word-of-mouth is also associated with the repurchasing intention. However, we identified that consumers previous online shopping experience did not have moderating effect in e-marketplaces. Managers of e-marketplaces should not segment their marketing strategies considering more/less-experienced consumers. Managers could improve WOM and repurchasing sales providing after-sales actions oriented to brand reinforcement to achieve higher consumers loyalty.
Keywords: e-marketplace; electronic marketplace; online marketplace; brand trust; repurchasing; word-of-mouth; WOM.
Relation Between Electronic Word of Mouth and Purchase Intention : Exploring the Mediating Role of Brand Image
by Amar Kumar Mishra, Deepak Kaushal, Swati Bisht
Abstract: Word of mouth is considered to be one of the preeminent mediums of communication for the consumer to exchange information regarding product/service which ultimately affects the behaviour of consumers. With the invention of the internet and technology, consumers have dropped the traditional way of communication and started moving towards online channels of communication to attain information regarding products/services to settle the purchase decision. Because of the vast growth of electronic word of mouth (EWOM) communication in India, many marketers and researchers are showing interest and trying to acknowledge how EWOM influences the behaviour of consumers and their purchase intention (PI). However, the mechanism through which EWOM influences PI has not been explored much. The main motive of this research was to examine the conceivable influence of EWOM communication on PI through brand image (BI) in context to Indian customers.
Keywords: electronic word of mouth communication; EWOM; brand image; purchase intention; structural equation modelling.
Gen- Z Social Electronic Word of Mouth Communication and Mediating Role of Contents Quality and Sources: PLS-SEM Path Modelling
by Manoj Kumar, Pradeep Mamgain, Krishna Pratap Singh
Abstract: The study examined elaboration likelihood model (ELM) information processing routes in the context of Gen-Z active social WOM seeking in the involvement of hospitality service buying. The ELM was employed and serial mediating routes of information processing were investigated. The samples (n = 430) were collected especially from the generation-Z group of individuals from different cities in India, such as Dehradun, Delhi, Nainital, Mussoorie, Bhubaneswar, Ranchi, Srinagar, Pune, Jaipur only. The partial least square-SEM was tested for the proposed relationship and bootstrapping used to verify potential mediation. The findings of the research indicate that active social media WOM information seeking to social WOM influence have a serial mediation effect of opinion leader, source of closeness and communication content quality and process investigated on two ELM routes (i.e., central and peripheral information processing route). The findings of this research may be an asset to the market communication leaders and corporate media administrators. However, it helps to understand the social media WOM communication active seeking pattern and being mediation factors of opinion leader, source of closeness and well as content quality indirectly effect into the further social media electronic word of mouth influence.
Keywords: generation-Z; social media electronic word of mouth; communication content quality; CCQ; hospitality services; information processing; serial mediation; elaboration likelihood model; ELM.
Social Media Marketing and Restaurant Purchase Intention: Do Online Brand Community Identification and Gender Matter?
by Blend Ibrahim
Abstract: Social media marketing (SMM) creates diverse content via social network sites to promote different products, services, information and ideas. This study is built on the stimulus-organism-response framework and uses and gratifications theory. It aims to investigate online brand community identification (OBCI) and purchase intention as major consequences of SMM activities (SMMAs). A structural equation modelling approach and a PROCESS macro were applied to analyse 338 online questionnaires completed by Facebook users who follow restaurant Facebook pages. The findings revealed that SMMAs have a significant positive influence on OBCI and purchase intention. Furthermore, OBCI acts as a mediator between SMMAs and purchase intention. These results indicate that gender role positively moderates the direct and indirect effect of SMMAs on purchase intention. Finally, the moderated mediation analysis findings suggest that female customers receive a high level of OBCI when interacting with SMMAs, which, in turn, increases purchase intention relative to males.
Keywords: social media marketing; SMM; social network sites; SNSs; Facebook page; restaurant purchase intention; consumer behaviour; restaurant industry; online brand community identification; OBCI.
The impact of user-generated fake news on brand equity: Moderating mechanisms of brand attitude and corporate reputation
by Beate Stiehler-Mulder, D. Maduku
Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of consumers perceived realism of user-generated fake content on consumer-based brand equity. In addition, the moderating roles of both brand attitude and corporate reputation on the impact of the perceived realism of user-generated fake news on brand equity is examined. A survey design was used to obtain 354 responses randomly from a South African national consumer panel. Scale validation and hypotheses testing were assessed by means of structural equation modelling. The results show that consumers perceived realism of fake news is significant and negatively related to brand equity. Moreover, the findings emphasise that brand attitudes and corporate reputation serve as moderating mechanisms through which the impact of the perceived realism of fake news on consumer-based brand equity is revealed. The findings extend the currently limited literature on the impact of fake user-generated content on brand equity.
Keywords: user-generated fake news; fake news; perceived realism; corporate reputation; brand attitude; social media.
Purchasing Intentions and Digital Influencers
by Dimitri Laroutis, Philippe Boistel, Mustafeed Zaman
Abstract: While the web marketing literature has recently called into question the impact of influencers on their followers purchasing behaviour, very few studies have addressed this issue per se. Our study aims to fill this gap by examining the variables that boost followers purchasing intention. Based on survey data collected from 247 followers, we built an econometric model designed to anticipate followers buying intentions. Our findings show that followers purchasing behaviours is influenced not only by the characteristics of the influencer being followed, but also by those of the follower in question, the product or service on offer, and the overall congruence of these factors. These variables reveal an impact on consumer intentions ranging from
Keywords: digital influencers; influencer marketing; purchase intentions; social media; social media influencers; stated preference method.
Reassessing brand versus concept associations: comparing free association task and sensory cue-based task
by Tilottama Chowdhury, Feisal Murshed, Meghan Messier
Abstract: Brand associations can trigger memories of people, places, and emotions that are desirable and as such, creating and maintaining a unique set of brand associations in the consumers mind space takes on increasing importance in todays interactive marketing environment. This article explores an important variation in the nature and dynamics of brand associations based on two distinct approaches: free association task versus sensory cue-based task. Studies 1a and 2a employed the sensory cue-based task (related to the sound, taste, touch, smell, and sight) and studies 1b and 2b utilised the traditional free association approach to extract participants brand associations pertaining to a financial service brand and the concept associations related to financial security. Findings indicate that the free association task evokes tangible associations and conversely, the sensory cue-based task evokes intangible associations. The article contributes to branding theory, marketing communication literature, and offers managerial insights.
Keywords: brand association; concept association; free association task; sensory cue-based task; brand communication.
What drives Generation Z to Advocate for a Brand Online
by Vivek Mishra, Biswajit Das
Abstract: The objective of this study is to: 1) examine the impact of brand-related antecedents; brand social-benefits, brand distinctiveness, brand prestige and brand warmth on online brand advocacy (OBA) behaviour of Gen Z; 2) examine the impact of OBA on consumers purchase intent; 3) to consider the moderating effect of social media involvement (SMI) on the relationship between the aforementioned antecedents and OBA. Based on an online questionnaire, data from 221 students were analysed using SPSS and Amos 23.0. The structural model reveals all antecedents to be positively related to OBA, which had a subsequent positive impact on purchase intent. Interestingly, SMI did have a moderating effect on the relationship between brand prestige, brand social benefits and OB, indicating the significance of engagement levels of Gen Zers and its impact on their advocacy intentions online. The paper shall be pivotal in enhancing brand trust and loyalty in these turbulent times.
Keywords: online brand advocacy; OBA; brand social benefits; brand prestige; brand distinctiveness; brand warmth; purchase intent; social media.
My Brand, My Self(ie) Why Consumers Portray Themselves in Brand-Selfies
by Anne Mareike Flaswinkel, Markus Rump, Reinhold Decker
Abstract: By presenting themselves in self-portraits with brands, so-called brand-selfies (BSs), consumers can demonstrate their personal attachment to brands. A closer look at this mainstream phenomenon expands the understanding of consumer-brand relationships. The ease of sharing and networking has increased the importance of BSs in marketing. Because they reveal a lot about consumers opinions and spread quickly on social networks, BSs can be a valuable marketing tool. In a cross-sectional study, we identify brand identification as the strongest predictor of consumers intention to portray themselves with a brand in a BS. Furthermore, we find belonging and reward to have significant impact on the intention to post a BS. We distinguish consumer motivations for posting BSs from general motivations for posting selfies, add to previous research on selfie posting behaviour and user-generated content, and conclude with a discussion of implications for marketers looking to incorporate selfie marketing into their marketing strategy.
Keywords: electronic word-of-mouth; e-WOM; brand-selfie; social media marketing; user-generated content; UGC; brand identification; selfie marketing; consumer behaviour.
An Examination of the Relationship among Conspicuous Consumption, Social Media Addiction, Narcissism, and Empathy: A Research on University Students
by Ayse Akbulut, Elif Esiyok, Ceyhan Cigdemoglu, Ozlen Ozgen
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationship between conspicuous consumption behaviour, social media addiction, narcissistic characteristics, and empathy for university students. Using a cross-sectional survey design, with a non-random sampling strategy, a total of 1,215 participants completed the online survey. Data were analysed through the structural equation modelling technique using the AMOS statistical analysis package to discover the relationship among variables. Findings indicated that social media addiction has a moderately positive relationship with conspicuous consumption, a weak negative relationship with empathy, and a moderately positive relationship with narcissism. As a result, both empathy and narcissism have an impact on conspicuous consumption, and social media addiction affects empathy. This study contributes to the literature in terms of exploring the relationship between empathy and conspicuous consumption together for young consumers.
Keywords: conspicuous consumption; social media addiction; narcissism; empathy; social media; young consumers.
The Role of Internet Celebrities in Purchase Intention and Impulse Buying
by Massoud Moslehpour, Alaleh Dadvari, Pei-Kuan Lin, Erdenebaatar Odgerel
Abstract: With the introduction of social media, celebrity endorsement has become trendy, influencing commercial strategy. While the economic impact of impulsive purchasing is well known globally, a model is developed to investigate the relationship between Internet celebrity endorsement and impulsive buying. The article looks into whether purchasing behaviour and e-WOM are linked to buying behaviour. An online survey of 426 using structural equation modelling (SEM) investigates the relationships among constructs. The results demonstrate a link between Internet celebrity endorsement and impulsive buying. Skincare purchase intent is closely linked to impulsive buying with electronic word of mouth as partial mediator. This study examines the impact of celebrity recommendations in cyberspace using planned behaviour, social identity, and response theory. It also shows how to efficiently recruit celebrity endorsers to increase client purchase intent, which promotes impulsive buying. Researchers and beauty product marketers can better understand consumer behaviour to target clients.
Keywords: internet celebrity endorsement; ICE; electronic word-of-mouth; e-WOM; purchase intention; impulsive buying behaviour; IBB.
Does a chatbots location influence consumer attitude and intentions?
by Irene Roozen, Mariet Raedts, Guillaume Waetermans
Abstract: Chatbots engage in real-time conversations with customers. Moreover, they can collect data in a digital landscape that is increasingly sensitive to privacy. The objective of this study was to help strategic marketing decision-makers better understand how and where chatbots can be used effectively to gather consumer data. We analyse whether consumers privacy concerns influence their adoption. Furthermore, we invest if privacy concerns, and subsequently information disclosure, are significantly influenced by the chatbots location. In an experimental study (N = 398) we compared the (in)direct effects of the same chatbot in two different locations: Facebook and its own retailers website. Our results show that interacting with a chatbot on Facebook led to significantly lower attitudes towards chatbots and lower intentions to use chatbots. Both relationships are sequentially mediated via higher privacy concerns and less comfort with information disclosure. Companies therefore need to consider where to deploy their chatbots.
Keywords: chatbot; privacy concerns; information disclosure; Facebook; Facebook messenger; retailer website; adoption behaviour; consumer-firm interaction.
Antecedents of Brand Love leading to Purchase Intention towards Refurbished Video Game Consoles
by Akshay Kancherla, Jossy George, Benny Godwin
Abstract: This paper examines different constructs that influence purchase intention of refurbished video game consoles to assess its multi-factorial association with brand love. The data was collected from video game console cafes in the cities of Bangalore and Pune, India. The findings demonstrate that adoption determinants and social influence have a positive influence on brand love, while notably, environmental involvement has a positive influence on an individuals purchase intention. Brand love wont singularly influence positive purchase intention in the context of refurbished video game consoles. The paper clarifies that brand love alone cannot influence the purchasing decision of an individual in the context of refurbished video game consoles, the companies selling or remanufacturing these products can benefit by advertising these products as being environmentally involved. This is the first paper that examines the effects of brand love and purchase intentions in the context of refurbished video game consoles.
Keywords: environmental involvement; brand love; adoption determinants; social influence; purchase intention; refurbished video game consoles.
Factors of virtual influencer marketing influencing Generation Y consumers purchase intention in Malaysia
by Yoong Ruey Yap, Nurlida Ismail
Abstract: The advent of computer-generated virtual influencers disrupts the convention of traditional influencer marketing that relies on real human influencers as brand ambassadors. This study sheds light on the key factors of virtual influencer marketing that affect the purchase intention of Generation Y consumers in Malaysia by using relevant ideas from TEARS model and Theory of Planned Behaviour. From data analysis based on 450 respondents, it is confirmed that factors such as parasocial interaction and attractiveness have highly significant effects, except for perceived realism and trustworthiness. Interestingly, attitude towards virtual influencer strongly mediates the relationship between the significant factors (parasocial interaction and attractiveness) and purchase intention. Lastly, gender and persuasion knowledge only have significant moderating effects in the relationship between parasocial interaction and purchase intention, but they are insignificant towards other factors.
Keywords: virtual influencer marketing; parasocial interaction; attractiveness; trustworthiness; purchase intention; Malaysia.
Special Issue on: The Disruptive Marketing Landscape
Harvesting the power of Location Data to improve customers experience and destination attractiveness.
by Olga Pachni-Tsitiridou, Konstantinos Fouskas
Abstract: Consumers increasingly use mobile applications and devices that is a valuable source of data for organisations. Mobile devices are utilised in every step of the customers journey, from planning to sharing their experience, thus they are considered a valuable source of data for public and private organisations. Data from these sources include location and textual information and can help tourism organisations and destinations improve their offerings, understand customers preferences and needs. Our field research based on interviews of 13 organisations in the Greek ecosystem, shows that tourism organisations use insights mainly from social networks and although acknowledging their benefits do not utilise location data. This paper aims not only to pinpoint the opportunities for organisations and destinations to utilise different location data types and identify the necessary complementary skillsets needed but also to identify the importance of inter-organisational relationships among key stakeholders to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.
Keywords: location data; customer experience; destination attractiveness; location technologies; digital transformation; interorganisational relations.
Why Do People Post Instagram Stories
by Nutnicha Keerakiatwong, Viriya Taecharungroj, Jesper Döpping
Abstract: Instagram Story has now become a widely used feature for self-presentation. However, despite its popularity, limited research has addressed the Instagram Story concept. Research lacunas that we aimed to fill included lack of in-depth understanding of the motives and self-presentation affordances that the platform offers to users. This research elucidates reasons why people post on Instagram Story and its characteristics and features that enhance self-presentation by highlighting input from 23 regular Instagram Story contributors in Bangkok, Thailand. Results determined that people used Instagram Story to connect with others of a similar disposition, to present their lifestyle, passion and values and as a means of archiving and recollecting past activities. This study also explains the affordances of Instagram Story and reinforces the current body of knowledge by highlighting the role of ephemerality and culture. We suggest brands to leverage Instagram Story and help users have fun, connect and shape their identities.
Keywords: Instagram Story; social media marketing; self-presentation; video marketing.