International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy (18 papers in press)
On-board generation of HHO gas with dry cell electrolyser and its applications: A review
by P.V. MANU, Navaneeth Kishan T. R., S. Jayaraj, A. Ramaraju
Abstract: In this era of depleting fossil fuels, alternative fuels and their study has gained much importance. One of the methods of using alternative fuels is operating the IC engines in dual fuel mode. This review is an attempt to highlight the investigations on the HHO gas supplemented combustion in IC engines, particularly the diesel operated ones. HHO gas has better burning characteristics than pure hydrogen since hydrogen and oxygen does not attain the diatomic state. Hence, ideally HHO gas is having higher energy releasing capability. HHO inducted systems show better performance than that of the ordinary diesel engines in terms of brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and engine torque. HHO inducted systems also show better emission characteristics. The emission of CO and unburned hydrocarbons are almost reduced by 30 40 %. One of the major disadvantages of using HHO gas is the possible increase in NOx emission.
Keywords: Dry cell electrolyser; HHO gas; Dual fuel.
Energy and CO2 Emissions in the Gulf Cooperation Council Region
by Mohammed Al-Mahish
Abstract: This paper evaluates the factors that cause environmental contamination in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region through carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The paper conducts qualitative analysis by focusing on the IPAT equation and quantitative analysis using panel data methods. The results of the qualitative analysis show that political factors, such as wars and unrest, affect the environmental quality in the GCC region. The results of comparative static analysis show that the increase in population, GDP, and energy production increase CO2 emissions. Through panel regression methods, we fail to reject the null hypotheses as suggested by the comparative static analysis, hence the paper concludes that population, GDP, and energy supply cause environmental pollution in the GCC region.
Keywords: GDP; Kuznets Environmental Curve; panel regression; IPAT.
Using makeup water to recycle cooling tower evaporated water: A feasibility study using experimental data
by Amirreza Heidari, Ehsan Heidari
Abstract: Wet cooling towers are one of the most water intensive technologies which are widely used in air conditioning applications, especially in dry regions. Considering the current water crisis around the world, it is essential to improve the design of these cooling towers to reduce their water consumption while maintaining their cooling performance. Makeup water of cooling tower is usually a constant temperature water which is cold enough to condensate the moisture content of the cooling tower exhaust air. Therefore, it has a great potential to recycle water evaporation of cooling towers, which is not considered so far. This paper investigates a novel design for cooling towers utilizing the makeup water to recycle part of the evaporated water. To perform a realistic evaluation of this idea, the experimental data of a real world cooling tower were measured. Using these data, a dynamic simulation was performed in TRNSYS software to evaluate the water saving potential. The results show that this design will recycle 105 liters water during 2 hours of cooling tower operation. This paper has highlighted the importance of using makeup water in reducing the water consumption of wet cooling towers.
Keywords: Wet cooling tower; Water saving; Makeup water; Air conditioning.
An energy analysis of first to third-generation bioethanol production in Brazil: the potential for CO2 emissions
by Flavio Numata Junior
Abstract: First (1G), second (2G), and third-generation (3G) ethanol industrialization produces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increases carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere. In this study, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concluded that hydrolysis and filtration processes have the largest environmental impact, and, despite a trend of increased discharge generated by electricity related to 3G introduction, thermodynamic processes still show the highest emissions. These results demonstrate the importance of developing a strong technology base in biofuel industrialization, predominantly due to the vast potential of 3G production, which increasingly requires higher energy consumption and more efficiency from the industrial system. As such, the aim of this paper is to assess the environmental impact caused by CO2 emissions in 1G, 2G, and 3G ethanol production.
Keywords: Energy analysis; LCA; CO2 emissions; Bioethanol.
Harmonic analysis of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor in polluted Algerian network
by Mohamed Nassim KRAIMIA, Mohamed Boudour
Abstract: This paper presents the study of the impact of harmonic distortion generated by the Thyristors Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) in Algerian electric power system. By applying Fourier transform of terminal voltage and switching function, The TCSC model is used as a harmonic admittance matrix, in the frequency domain. Then integrated into a balanced harmonic load flow algorithm based on the Newton-Raphson method. The study has been carried out with the equivalent Algerian power system 114 bus. The total harmonics and RMS voltages are evaluated under different operating regions of the TCSC.
Keywords: harmonic power flow; nonlinear load; TCSC; Algerian power system; total harmonic distortion.
Assessment, Simulation and Analysis of PV Power Generation for Educational Building of Rural Women University in India: A Case Study
by Sonal Sindhu
Abstract: The present investigation evaluates the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar PV system for Faculty of Engineering and Technology (FET), Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalya (BPSMV), Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Haryana, India. In this investigation, Solargis Photovoltaic (PV) planner software has been utilized because of its ability to provide access to reliable PV potential information within short span of time. Present study analyses the performance of 160 kWp solar rooftop plant and compares the performances of different PV technologies on the basis of simulated energy yield and performance ratio (PR). Amorphous PV technology performs the best among the four PV technologies in terms of energy yield and PR. Life cycle cost of the proposed PV power plant has also been evaluated to get unit cost of electricity (UCE) of $0.051/kWh. Finally, comparative studies have been carried out with the existing thermal power plants (TPP) in Haryana. It is observed that PV power generation is still a costly option but the gap between the two is reducing day by day and PV systems are going to be competitive in near future. The study enables researchers and engineers in this area to understand roof top solar PV power plant and its economic viability. The present study acts as milestone to address the energy need and provides guidance to set-up similar PV power plants for various applications viz. in agriculture, commercial, health, and educational sectors etc. in rural Haryana to name only a few.
Keywords: Photovoltaic; Solargis PV planner; Performance ratio; Energy yield; Life cycle cost analysis; India.
INDIAS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE AND THE CHALLENGES FOR OPTIMIZED INTEGRATION OF VARIABLE ENERGY SOURCES
by SUTAPA PATI
Abstract: Renewable energy penetration in India is strongly linked to growing energy consumption, energy security and access to energy. Variable energy sources, viz. solar, small hydro power and wind energy form a significant share of Indias energy mix. High intermittency in these technologies can lead to system related operational issues such as varying power quality and unreliability. On the other hand, grid integration of renewable energy projects is essential for bringing about an increase in the renewable component of regional and national energy mix. This paper analyzes the existing status, technical and systemic challenges in large scale integration of renewable energy sources. In order to understand the complexities therein, the experiences of renewable energy service providers were supplemented by secondary literature. This paper adopts a system based view for analyzing issues of renewable energy integration and upscaling for India, encompassing technical, infrastructural, and user specific aspects. It stresses the specific interventions that would bolster system strength and readiness for a renewable rich India. It also highlights key challenges of power quality, constancy and grid balancing and each ones unique position in a sustainable energy future for India.
Keywords: Grid Integration; Grid Balancing; Distributed Energy Resources; Variable Energy Sources; Sustainable Energy System.
Simultaneous Application of Distributed Generator and Network Reconfiguration for Power Loss Reduction using Adaptive Quantum inspired Evolutionary Algorithm
by Gopisetti Manikanta, Ashish Mani, Hemender Pal Singh, Devendra Kumar Chaturvedi
Abstract: In a power system, a common problem encountered by distribution utilities is excessive power losses occurring in their respective networks. These losses decrease the loadability, reliability, and security of the system. Changing switching configuration, placing Capacitor banks, changing transformer taps, gradation of conductors, and placing Distributed Generators (DG) are some of the established methods used in the distribution network to maximize the percentage power loss reduction. Independent implementation of DG and Network reconfiguration are majorly used techniques to reduce the losses. Power losses are further reduced if DG is operated in parallel with Network reconfiguration. In this paper, two different Scenarios are created with various cases to minimize power losses. In Scenario I, simultaneous placement and sizing of DG along with Network reconfiguration is used. Six different cases are created to reduce the power losses with the independent and simultaneous implementation of DG and Network reconfiguration. Majority of the work done on this crucial combinatorial optimization problem has mostly restricted the number of DGs to three, which have high power ratings. In Scenario II, an investigation has been performed to reduce the power losses with an increased number of small-sized DGs, and total power injected by DGs into the system is less than the load demand. Five cases are created by operating different DGs, i.e., other than three in parallel with Network reconfiguration. Optimal DG sizing and placement problem and optimal feeder reconfiguration problem are complicated non-linear, non-differentiable combinatorial optimization problems. An Adaptive Quantum inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (AQiEA) is used to maximize the percentage loss reduction and improve voltage profile in the distribution system by solving optimal DG problem, optimal feeder reconfiguration problem, and combination of both. AQiEA uses entanglement and superposition principles, which dont require any operators to avoid premature convergence and tuning parameters for improving the convergence rate. The effectiveness of AQiEA is demonstrated by computer simulations of two IEEE standard benchmark test bus systems viz., 33 bus system, and 69 bus system. Tabulated results show that DG operating in parallel with Network reconfiguration has the maximum reduction in power losses as compared with the independent implementation of both. Experimental results indicate that AQiEA has better performance as compared with other algorithms that are available in the literature.
Keywords: Power loss; Adaptive Quantum inspired Evolutionary Algorithm; Distributed Generator; Network Reconfiguration;.
Distortion Minimisation of Harvested Electrical Energy over Wireless Medium
by Khadeejah Abdulsalam, Kingsley Owomero
Abstract: In this research paper, two point-to-point energy communication links were considered. The first link involves the transmission of energy from different energy harvesting sources to a fusion centre with a unity channel gain while the second involves the transmission of energy from a point (the base station) to a mobile station under a known fading profile. In the first case, the objective is to minimise the distortion that is inherent in the transmission from different energy harvesting sources to a fusion centre. The second case however seeks to maximise the throughput of the harvested energy (with processing energy cost) to the mobile station. In both cases, the problem was formulated in a convex optimisation framework and the optimal power transmission policy was derived. Lastly, the impacts of correlation in the optimal power transmission policy and processing energy cost in the power transmission policy for the maximisation of throughput were presented. We conclude that efficient harvest of electrical energy and transmission over wireless medium can be used to supply electrical energy to mobile devices.
Keywords: Energy harvesting communication; wireless power transfer; distortion.
A Phase Shifted Modular Multilevel Converter with Variable Arm Inductance
by Rahul Jaiswal, Anshul Agarwal, Richa Negi
Abstract: The performance of modular multilevel converter depends on modulation technique, circuit parameter and harmonic order, etc. This performance can be improved by better modulation technique, proper selection of circuit parameter (arm inductance and capacitance), etc. This paper presents the performance of modular multilevel converter using a phase shifted and phase disposition modulation technique. It has been observed that the total harmonic distortion of phase shifted modulation technique is better than the total harmonic distortion of phase disposition modulation technique. The paper is also shown the analysis of modular multilevel converter using variable arm inductance. A comparative analysis of voltage and current THD has also been shown here. The total harmonic distortion is minimum below 100
Keywords: Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC); Phase Shifted Pulse Width Modulation (PSPWM); Phase Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PDPWM); Total Harmonic Distortion (THD); Arm inductance.
Special Issue on: Energy Policies and Standards for Large-scale Renewable Energy Integration with Utility Grids
Present status, energy policies and future perspective of solar photovoltaic in India
by Nirav Patel, Nitin Gupta, Arun Kumar Verma
Abstract: This paper aims at presenting state of art solar photovoltaic (SPV) in India and various initiatives and actions plans launched by Indian Government to augment the share of most promising and growing source of renewable energy SPV. A renewable and sustainable source of energy such as solar PV has been playing a vital role in curbing carbon emission. This paper presents a widespread review of the present status, various energy policies and future perspective of SPV considering the fact that India is having an abundant amount of solar energy potential. The intention of this review is to emphasise broadly on the major constraints hampering the growth of SPV energy in India. Efforts have been made to presents the selections guide, applicable standards and state-wise sanctioned solar parks. It is hoped that the information reported in this paper will be a worth of one-stop source of information for researchers.
Keywords: solar PV; renewable energy; solar potential; renewable public obligation; RPO; energy policies; grid interactive; off-grid; India.
A system dynamics modelling for energy planning and carbon dioxide estimation of the Nigerian power sector
by Babajide Epe Shari, Yacouba Moumouni
Abstract: Energy is essential to supporting the modern life-style; it is the main driver to economic development and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Due to associated complexities and uncertainties, decision makers and energy planners face increasing pressure to effectively address energy related challenges, including approaches to low carbon energy provision. This study seeks to develop a long-term, 2010-2050, system dynamics (SD) model of the Nigerian power sector (NPS). The model then helps to investigate ways to bridge the electricity supply and demand gaps by simulating various performance scenarios based on real socio-economic variables and estimation of CO2. A total of six policy scenarios were implemented. These scenarios sought to evaluate the influence of the following four parameters: 1) transmission losses (Tx); 2) time to adjust capacity (TAC); 3) population growth rate (PGR); 4) capacities under construction. Accordingly, results not only showed that the completion of the existing project and the Mambilla multipurpose hydropower (MMHP) would make the NPS 71% energy secured, but also revealed a paradigm shift in CO2 reduction in the planning process considered by the study in contrast to the existing generations. Finally, capability of SD was affirmed by properly capturing feedbacks, delays, and other complexities in the NPS.
Keywords: system dynamics; carbon dioxide; Nigerian power sector; energy planning; energy policy; Mambilla hydropower.
An investigation on the petrochemical industry development in Iran: a system dynamics approach
by Vahid Hajiebrahimi Farashah, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Zeinab Sazvar, Hamed Shakouri Ganjavi
Abstract: Petrochemical industry plays a significant role to achieve high value-added from oil and gas reserves, especially for countries with huge resources of fossil fuels. This study aims to investigate and model the development dynamics of the petrochemical industry in Iran using system dynamics (SD) methodology. Consequently, after describing the interrelationships among the main variables making the dynamics of domestic investment, a quantified model is built to simulate possible outcomes under different scenarios. According to the results, in 2025, the capacity of Iran's petrochemical productions will range from 73 to 78 million tons. Also, the value of products will range from 26 to 36 million dollars (USD) in 2025 that can be an interesting research area to investigate how the value of diversified petrochemical products can be increased. Finally, through a model-based scenario and policy analysis, some optimised policies are offered to enhance the petrochemical industry of Iran in the future.
Keywords: petrochemical industry; system dynamics; capacity expansion; scenario analysis; Iran.
Optimisation of energy and exergy parameters of a C.I. engine in dual fuel mode using Taguchi method
by Nayak Himanshu Sekhar Ray, Ramesh Chandra Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar Mohanty
Abstract: In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are applied to analyse the quantity and quality of energy and exergy in a compression ignition (C.I.) engine using diesel and biogas in dual fuel mode. The energy and exergy for the engine have been calculated and analysed by Taguchi method for both modes of operation using MINITAB software. The results show the similar energetic performance of dual fuel mode as that of diesel fuel mode. The exergetic performance parameters also follow the similar trends according to the energetic performance parameters. The analyses are based on energy and exergy distribution of dual fuel mode with the varying load and compared with the corresponding values of diesel mode.
Keywords: energy; exergy; Taguchi method; C.I. engine; biogas; diesel; dual fuel; S/N ratio; response curve.
Impact of wind power-based DG on nodal prices in distribution system with harmonic load
by Anil Kumar, Naresh Kumar
Abstract: The competitive electricity market structure is one of the factors to adopt the real time pricing structure for efficient operation of distribution networks. It is the key responsibility of the distribution network operator to determine the real time prices-based tariff structure for smart distribution systems. The prices must take into account the effect of load and must be based on the change in the operating state of the system. In this paper, by using wind power in distribution system and basic forward backward sweep load flow method is used for analysing the affect of harmonics on nodal prices. The method uses marginal loss coefficients (MLCs) to get these prices, the results are compared with realistic ZIP and normal or constant power (CP) loads. The entire study is conducted on IEEE 33 bus radial distribution system (RDS).
Keywords: distribution system; load model; harmonic load; nodal prices; wind-based DG.
Simultaneous allocation of multiple distributed generators and shunt capacitor banks in radial distribution systems using grasshopper optimisation algorithm
by Suresh Kumar Sudabattula, M. Kowsalya, Velamuri Suresh
Abstract: Electricity has become a part of day to day life of the people. With the increase in population, electricity demand is also raised. The development of distribution systems (DSs), the optimal utilisation of shunt capacitor banks (SCBs) and distributed generators (DGs) in the DSs are heightened. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to allocate both DGs and SCBs simultaneously on the DS. The objectives are to minimise power loss, improving the voltage profile and voltage stability index (VSI) of the DS. First locations of DGs and SCBs are found out by loss sensitivity factor (LSF) technique. Next grasshopper optimisation algorithm (GOA) is used to determine the rating of these sources. The methodology is implemented on IEEE 33 and 69 bus test systems considering optimal allocation of multiple DGs without and with placement of capacitors. Finally, the results obtained by the proposed method are compared with GA/PSO and PSO methods.
Keywords: distributed generators; DGs; shunt capacitor banks; SCBs; loss sensitivity factor; LSF; grasshopper optimisation algorithm; GOA; power loss; voltage stability index; VSI.
Optimal fuel consumption planning and energy management strategy for a hybrid energy system with pumped storage
by Faycel Merad, Hocine Labar, Mounia Samira Kelaiaia, Okba Djelailia, Salah Necaibia
Abstract: Energy management system is very critical for solving the energy problem in remote areas, especially autonomous systems that uses diesel generators. The fuel cost increases due to transport over long distances makes it unsustainable system. for that an optimal sizing of the hybrid microgrid energy system (HMGES) with an energy management control (EMC) strategy was proposed in this work for an isolated site in southern Algeria, which consisting of photovoltaic (PV) source, diesel generator (DG), with a power hydroelectric storage (PHS) system in order to increase the reliability. The HMGES based on renewable energy is profitable for supplying the domestics and agricultural demand. This work evaluates three different standalone systems that used to guarantee the supply of energy for the isolated Saharan zone. The HMGES with EMC system not only decrease the harmful CO2 emission due to the less consumption of fuel, but also reduce the system cost comparison with the (DG and PV/DG) standalone systems, which are the objectives function of this study.
Keywords: hybrid system; energy management; microgrid; PV system; diesel generator; power hydroelectric storage PHS system.
Harmonic minimisation in direct torque controlled induction motor using neural network controller
by Sudhakar Ambarapu, M. Vijaya Kumar
Abstract: In a conventional direct torque control (DTC) method, hysteresis controllers are used to process the flux and torque errors influencing space voltage vector selection to obtain direct torque control of induction motor resulting in harmonics. The scope of the paper is to apply neural network controller technology for direct torque controlled induction motor drives suitable for high performance application. Then the flux and torque errors are processed through hysteresis controllers along with neural network controllers in order to improve voltage space vector selection strategy and achieve reduction in current harmonics and improve quality of electrical energy. Finally, the Simulink models of direct torque controlled induction motor with and without neural controller are tested in MATLAB/Simulink for different operating conditions with favourable results.
Keywords: neural network controller technology; induction motor; hysteresis controller; direct torque control; harmonics in electrical energy.