Title: Factors affecting primary school achievement in Botswana: a multilevel model for general student performance

Authors: Cuc Thi Kim Nguyen; Matthew Gordon Ray Courtney; Shelley Gillis

Addresses: Melbourne Graduate School of Education, The University of Melbourne, Level 8, 100 Leicester St., Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia ' Melbourne Graduate School of Education, The University of Melbourne, Level 8, 100 Leicester St., Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia ' Melbourne Graduate School of Education, The University of Melbourne, Level 8, 100 Leicester St., Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia

Abstract: This study explores and identifies key student- and school-related factors associated with general academic achievement of Year 6 primary school students in Botswana. Drawing on the SACMEQ II data, and making use of 3,322 students from 170 schools, the investigation identifies sources of variation in student achievement. While previous research in the country identifies school equipment and resourcing as key determinants of student achievement, this study also identifies factors not previously considered, such as teacher reading ability and student-teacher ratio. Controlling for socio-economic and geographic factors, the investigation uses multi-level structural equation modelling to identify regularity-of-meals, teacher literacy, student-teacher ratio, and tendency to speak English outside of school as drivers for improving learner equity and achievement across the country. Suggestions for school policy and teacher training are discussed.

Keywords: African primary education; educational policy; Botswana; multilevel modelling; student achievement.

DOI: 10.1504/IJQRE.2018.092301

International Journal of Quantitative Research in Education, 2018 Vol.4 No.3, pp.218 - 239

Available online: 30 May 2018 *

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