Title: Social enterprise models: creating the fortune at the base of the pyramid

Authors: Shyam J. Kamath; Yung-Jae Lee; Xiaotian Tina Zhang

Addresses: School of Economics and Business Administration, Saint Mary's College of California, 380 Moraga Road, Rheem Campus, Moraga, CA 94306, USA ' School of Economics and Business Administration, Saint Mary's College of California, 380 Moraga Road, Rheem Campus, Moraga, CA 94306, USA ' School of Economics and Business Administration, Saint Mary's College of California, 380 Moraga Road, Rheem Campus, Moraga, CA 94306, USA

Abstract: This article develops on the legacy of C.K. Prahalad's seminal work on the base of the pyramid (BoP) by focusing on the aspect of income generation at the BoP. After reviewing the literature on creating sustainable livelihoods and employment at the BoP, we develop a set of archetypal social enterprise models that underlie the creation of business ecosystems and successful businesses at the BoP. Also provided are examples of sustainable models in microfinance, value chains, health and education provision, goods and services and infrastructure development. This flows from the health, opportunity, peace, education, infrastructure, and microfinance (HOPEIM) focus of integrated ecosystem development work conducted by us with BoP livelihood creation projects in India, Philippines, Rwanda, Thailand and Uganda. The paper offers several major findings in terms of how successful BoP ecosystem development can be initiated and sustained.

Keywords: social enterprise; social business; business models; base of the pyramid; BoP; income generation; social entrepreneurship; business ecosystems; microfinance; value chains; health provision; education provision; goods and services; infrastructure development; India; Philippines; Rwanda; Thailand; Uganda.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSEI.2013.057023

International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2013 Vol.2 No.3, pp.269 - 292

Available online: 05 Oct 2013 *

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