Title: Group-IV and V ion implantation into nanomaterials and elemental analysis on the nanometre scale

Authors: Andreas Markwitz, John Kennedy

Addresses: National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, 5010 Lower Hutt, New Zealand. ' National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, 5010 Lower Hutt, New Zealand

Abstract: Novel group-IV and V nanomaterials are produced by newly set-up low energy ion implantation and electron beam annealing (EBA) systems at GNS Science. This review paper introduces the community to GNS|s new nanotechnology systems. Three representative examples on the use of the systems for nanotechnology research and development are given for (a) subsurface lead ion implantation into Si resulting in an unexpected Pb retention after annealing, (b) SiC nanocrystals on Si as large as 500 nm formed by understoichiometric low-energy carbon ion implantation and EBA and (c) doping of ZnO. The results highlight the importance of low-energy ion implanted depth profiles intersecting with the surface, absence of oxygen in the annealing chamber and electron beam enhanced diffusion for novel nanomaterial development. Ion beam analysis methods of RBS and NRA prove to be useful in depth profiling implanted ions showing the ideal combination of ion implantation and ion beam analysis for nano-materials development.

Keywords: ion implantation; electron beam annealing; EAB; ion beam analysis; silicon carbide; nanocrystals; lead diffusion; zinc oxide doping; nanomaterials; nanotechnology.

DOI: 10.1504/IJNT.2009.022926

International Journal of Nanotechnology, 2009 Vol.6 No.3/4, pp.369 - 383

Published online: 03 Feb 2009 *

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