Title: Hints, multiple attempts, and learning outcomes in a computer-based formative assessment system

Authors: Jinnie Choi; Mikołaj Bogucki

Addresses: Pearson, 501 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02116, USA ' Pearson IOKI Sp. z o.o., Jana Henryka Dąbrowskiego 77A, 60-529 Poznań, room 12.08, Poland

Abstract: In formative assessment, providing feedback, such as hints and multiple opportunities to answer a question, are important features that support learning. Increasingly in computer-based systems that support formative assessment, the controls are given to instructors over the settings that encourage or discourage learners' hint opening behaviour or multiple attempts. Different settings may affect how learners: a) access hints differently; b) make multiple attempts to improve answers or give up. Ultimately, these settings may encourage effortful behaviours and eventually, learning. This study analysed empirical process data and examined under which settings learners: a) persist with multiple attempts to reach correct answers; b) conscientiously submit all problems assigned to them; c) perform better in terms of getting a correct answer on their first try. Evidence showed that instructors' use of settings that encourage hint opening and multiple attempts was associated with learners' higher persistence and conscientiousness, but with lower performance.

Keywords: formative assessment; technology integration in assessment; learning outcomes; process data.

DOI: 10.1504/IJQRE.2020.111449

International Journal of Quantitative Research in Education, 2020 Vol.5 No.2, pp.136 - 156

Received: 07 Nov 2018
Accepted: 06 Oct 2019

Published online: 11 Nov 2020 *

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