Middle East J. of Management (46 papers in press)
Strategic agility in telecom industry: the effective factors on competitive advantages
by Sanaz Dehmolaee, Yaghub Rashnavadi
Abstract: Businesses from all industries need to monitor their environments and be strategically agile in their processes to be competitive in their respective industries. Strategic agility is defined as firms strategic intent to achieve agile operations which are driven by the management emphasis on improving its time-based competitive advantage. In this paper, we aimed to understand the role of strategic agility in promoting organisational performance in their competition in the telecom industry. Six hypotheses were developed. By using questionnaires, data were gathered from interviewing 384 practitioners in the telecom industry. Statistical research software such as SPSS and LISREL were used to analyse the data. The results show that strategic agility positively influences technological capabilities and organisational innovation and these in turn positively influence competitive advantage of an organisation in the telecom industry. We find no statistical proof neither for positive influence of strategic agility on organisational learning nor organisational learning on competitive advantage.
Keywords: strategic agility; competitive advantage; telecom industry.
Cultural Tensions in the Late Ottoman Empire: A Romantic Nationalism Model
by Alf Walle
Abstract: In the 19th century, Romantic Nationalism provided an alternative to rational visions and universal strategies for mankind. Doing so involved affirming that cultures are products of their heritage and that people are emotionally connected to them. As a result, alternative ways of life should not be forced upon people. By adapting Romantic Nationalism to an analysis of tensions in the later years of the Ottoman Empire, a widely understood paradigm of cultural stability and change is applied to a crucial era in Middle Eastern history.
Keywords: Ottoman Empire; Romantic Nationalism; Greek Independence; Arab uprising; Young Turks.
IT Efficiency and Communication Effectiveness in Crisis: Evidence from Security Sector Data in Yemen
by FUAD NASR
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of IT Efficiency (ITE) and Communication Effectiveness (CE) on Effectiveness of Crisis Management (ECM), and the impact of (ITE) on (CE). Hence, we proposed a method based on a second generation structural equation (PLS-SEM) to measure data of 143 Staff in operations room of security sector institutions (SSI) in Yemen, helping to understand and recognize the importance of developing technology systems and activate communication in the face of crises at all stages. The results obtained showed, that ITE items have significant influence ranging 0.14-0.23 on CE. Additionally, ITE items have significant influence ranging 0.15-0.31 on ECM. Moreover, it was found that CE items have significant influence ranging 0.19-0.31 on ECM. This study explored the direct impact of ITE and CE on ECM and the impact of ITE on CE. Previous studies rarely tested the effects of functional, administrative and technical service quality, simultaneously
Keywords: IT Efficiency; Communication Effectiveness; Effectiveness of Crisis Management; Security Sector Institutions.
The Saudi Confidence Process towards a Store within Objective and Sensual Antecedents.
by Maher Toukabri
Abstract: Marketers have always been struggling for ways to heighten the consumers' confidence. The present study extends this perspective through an analysis of the confidence process occurring in a sales point. It hence aims at examining the effects of both emotions and hedonic constructs on confidence within the mediating role of implication. The conceptual model of this research integrates pleasure, activation, hedonic value and utilitarian value, and estimates the role of the mediator's involvement in the confidence process. A quantifiable survey involving 300 respondents from the Valley Mall in Saudi Arabia has been conducted to test the different hypotheses. Results have indicated that the Saudi consumer expresses confidence and commitment to the store through his immersion of atmospheric factors which constitute emotions and implication towards the shop. Therefore, marketers should concentrate on emotions and implication as well as on objective effects in the store. Academicians, on their part, can extend the scope of this research by integrating other socio-psychological factors.
Keywords: Sale point; confidence,emotions; value; implication.
The Role of Organizational Socialization Tactics and Task Characteristics toward Turnover Intentions: Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness
by Sajjad Ahmad, Qasim Ali Nisar, Khurram Aziz, Sohail Younus
Abstract: Employees turnover is deemed as crucial issue within the organizations as it leads towards negative consequences. Previous studies almost ignored the prompt factors that can tackle the employees turnover issue within knowledge intensive sector. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the role of work-life balance practices and organizational socialization tactics towards employees turnover intentions by concentrating the mediating role of job embeddedness. Data have been collected through survey questionnaire method by applying simple random sampling technique. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structure equation modeling (SEM) techniques have been used for statistical analysis. Results divulged that Organizational Socialization Tactics significantly and negatively related to employees turnover intentions. Moreover, work-life balance practices also have significant and negative association with employees turnover intentions. Findings also revealed that job embeddedness significantly and partially mediates the relationship between Organizational Socialization Tactics, work-life balance practices and turnover intentions. This study gives insight understanding regarding the crucial factors that leads to reduce turnover intentions.
Keywords: Organizational Socialization Tactics;Task Characteristics; Job Embeddedness; Turnover Intentions.
Romantic Nationalism in the Post-Ottoman Era: A Continued Struggle of Tension and Unrest
by Alf Walle
Abstract: Romantic Nationalism involves peoples striving to live according to their heritage and traditions in lands under their control. This movement, originally emerging in the early 19th century West, exerted a significant impact during the final decades of the Ottoman Empire. After World War 1 President Woodrow Wilson of the United States advocated policies that were friendly to self-determinism in the Middle East. Ignoring these recommendations, Britain and France divided up the former Ottoman Empire with little regard to the will of the people who lived there. Since then, the reactions of effected ethnic groups, including the founding of Israel and its impacts upon indigenous Palestinians, have often been similar to Romantic Nationalism. Viewing these tensions with reference to Romantic Nationalism provides a useful tool of analysis, reflection, and policy formation.
Keywords: Romantic Nationalism; Megali Idea; Turkish War of Independence; Arab Nationalism; The Kurds; irredentism; Israel.
Cognition-Based and Experience-Based Trust and Risk in Social Commerce in Egypt
by Emad Abou-Elgheit
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of cognition (rational factor) and experience on consumers trust and risk in a social electronic commerce context in Egypt. It also examines the impact of these factors on consumers intention to purchase online. Data was collected through an online survey distributed to a sample of 599 online shoppers in Egypt. Three electronic vendors supported the research by promoting the survey to their customers. The study argues that electronic vendors perceived reputation and integrity play a significant role in shaping consumers trust, while security protection and third-party seals help to reduce perceived risk. The study also has significant theoretical implications for the legacy theories of trust and social impact.
Keywords: Social commerce; trust; consumer behaviour; cognition; experience; digital marketing.
Total Quality Management and the Quality of Service provided: Case Study of Jordanian Public Management
by Sahem Nawafleh, Anan Abu Hummour
Abstract: A vital quality improvement process, known as Total Quality Management (TQM), is being utilised by numerous organisations worldwide with its success being displayed with increases in service quality. This paper aimed to measure the level of this success by measuring the improvement in service quality in the Civil Status and Passport Department within the Jordanian Public Sector. The influence of TQM on four separate criteria was measured. These were the level of response, the accuracy of the response, the employees empathy towards the service recipient and the availability of the service within a given time or place. Data was gathered via questionnaire response from 390 randomly selected personnel working within the Jordans Public Sector. The analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between TQM and service quality within the Jordanian Public Sector (α≤0.05). Further research in field can be rolled out across all Jordanian government institutions are recommended.
Keywords: Total Quality Management; Quality of Service; Public-Sector; Public Employees; Jordan.
Building E-Loyalty for E-retailers: Role of Justice Perception and Consumer Forgiveness
by Fatma Ozge Baruonu Latif, Aypar Uslu
Abstract: This study aims at exploring e-loyalty in the ecommerce context by emphasising the mediating roles of customer forgiveness with respect to the perceived fairness of recovery efforts and customers e-loyalty towards e-retailers. The data were collected from 380 respondents who experienced an online failure and had a recovery through a self- report survey. This study demonstrates that the customers who experienced a service failure and received recovery evaluated functional justice (distributive, procedural and informational), and relational justice (interpersonal justice) in a different way since functional justice only has a significant positive effect on customer forgiveness following an online failure. On the other hand, this research shows whilst emotional forgiveness mediates the relationship between functional justice and e-loyalty, forgiveness is affected by a religious commitment as well as fairness perception of customers. On the contrary, customers empathy is not an indicator of forgiveness in the commercial context. The results help e-commerce providers to focus on the perceived functional justice of recovery, such as fair monetary compensation primarily which empowers the interactional role of virtual assistants to help build a more empathetic relationship with the victims and through an apology and retribution system.
Keywords: forgiveness; e-commerce; fairness theory; recovery; e-loyalty.
Assessing Agile Project Management Practices: The Case of Palestinian Software Development Companies
by Abdalla Alhroub, Ayham A.M. Jaaron
Abstract: Software development sector in Middle East countries has been relying on agile project management (APM) approaches as a way to adapt to the global competitive environment. However, there seems to be scarcity in the current literature of empirical studies to assess the APM practices in this sector. This paper analyses the readiness of APM implementation in software development companies in the context of Palestine, a Middle East country, by assessing changes required for transforming projects into agile and challenges and risks involved in the transformation, in addition to exploring twelve agile principles and success factors for APM implementation. A case study methodology using mixed methods technique was adopted. The tools used for data collection were semi-structured interviews and questionnaire data from 67 different companies. Although data analysis shows that there is a high degree of implementation of APM practices, the results show that software development companies have a moderate level of ability to deal with challenges and risks of the APM processes. A managerial framework was developed to enhance software development companies working in the context of a Middle East country to properly adopt the practices of APM. The developed managerial model identifies the determinants of a successful APM process realization that will help software development companies maintain a sustainable growth.
Keywords: Agile; agile project management practices; agile principles; agile implementation; agile success factors; agile software development; Middle East; managerial framework.
Linking Emotional intelligence to knowledge Sharing Behavior: Mediating Role of job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
by Shumaila Naz, Cai Li, Qasim Ali Nisar, Muhammad Rafiq
Abstract: The main objective of the research is to investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and knowledge sharing behavior and its underlying mechanism. In knowledge intensive era, knowledge sharing behavior is contemplated as an inevitable factor to foster organizational success. Response has been taken from 340 call center employees located in Pakistan through questionnaires while employing stratified sampling technique. To analyze the measurement and structure model, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and partial least square method to structure equation modeling (PLS-SEM) have been utilized. The findings infer that emotional intelligence is positively associated with Knowledge sharing behaviour. Furthermore, job satisfaction and organizational commitment mediates the relation between emotional intelligence and knowledge sharing behavior. The study suggests that management must induce such human resource management programs that develop positive employees job attitudes and behavior and devise selection tool to identify employees emotional intelligence. The limitations are demarcated implying future research directions.
Keywords: Keywords: emotional intelligence; knowledge sharing behavior; job satisfaction; organizational commitment.
What Missing the Internet Means for E-business: A Case from India
by Varsha Jain, Amrita Bansal, Peng Hwa Ang, Ganesh B.E
Abstract: Comprehensively, around 40% of the general E-commerce business houses are associated through internet for various business exercises. This network has an exceedingly high degree of confidence and dependence on the internet. At the point when this internet is disrupted, it affects the organisations. To address this issue, we could not discover any examination on the impact of internet on the organisations, particularly multi-national organisations (MNCs). Subsequently, this investigation was completed to see how these organisations are dependent on the internet. It also studies the means and measures adopted by organisations in the case of internet interruption to limit the negative effects. To accomplish these targets, technology-organisation-environment (TOE) system and self-determination theory were utilised. 36 semi-structure in-depth interviews were taken with the representatives and entrepreneurs of various e-businesses. The finding of the examination has broadened the TOE structure and self-determination theory as political variables and condition factors, for example, scientific, social connectedness and limited time exercises were included as they played a noteworthy part in the internet disruption.
Keywords: missing internet; e-businesses; India.
Influence of Transformational Leadership on Innovative Work Behavior, and mediating role of Teachers Self Efficacy and Innovative Climate: Insight from Engineering Institutions
by Sajid Khan, Asma Imran, Muhammad Nafees
Abstract: ABSTRACTrnPurpose - The primary aim of this research is to examine the influence of Transformational Leadership (TL) on Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) and mediating effect of Teachers Self Efficacy (TSE) and Innovative Climate (IC). All variables of this study are studied at the level of individual university employees. This insight can provide the instruction to the institutions regarding how to execute the effective leadership in creating the IC and TSE in order to make innovative behavior (IB) possible that helps out the academic organizations to remain innovative in their research work in a rapidly changing environment.
Design/Methodology/Approach - A quantitative research paradigm was employed using a questionnaire survey method, the data was collected from 112 academicians of engineering schools in the universities. Data has been analyzed through Pearson correlation and linear regression tests.
Findings in the engineering institutions the author found that a positive relationship existed between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior. The analysis of the results also supported the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior via one mediating variable Teachers Self Efficacy, but the results of the current study do not support the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior via second mediating variable Innovative Climate. Originality Value This study investigated the relationship of Transformational Leadership to Innovative Work Behavior by empirically testing the mediating role of Teachers Self Efficacy and Innovative Climate. rn
Keywords: Transformational Leadership; Innovative Work Behavior; Teachers Self Efficacy; Innovative Climate.
Impact of CRM Components System on Customer Retention in the Telecom Industry:
A Case of Y-Telecom in Yemen
by Wail Alhakimi, Abdulsalam Ghaleb
Abstract: This paper aims to identify customer relationship management components (call center, service center, and data mining) and their role in influencing customer retention through customer satisfaction in Telecom Industry. The study used a descriptive analytical method to answer the questions of the study. A questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The sample consists of 317 Y-Telecoms subscribers. The study showed that there is an effect of CRM system components in achieving customer retention. Data mining is deemed the highest component of the technological elements in CRM, which contributed in achieving customer retention. However, the call center is the lowest component, which requires more work and development. Customer satisfaction - the intervening variable - showed no correlation with customer retention. The study recommends the call center staff to improve their communication skills and focusing on data mining process to make better services for clients and employ them in marketing to target customers individually.
Keywords: Customer relationship management; CRM components; call center; service center; data mining; customer satisfaction; customer retention; Y-Telecom; Yemen.
Planning under Uncertainty using Chess Principles, Strategies and Tactics
by Isam Al-Filali, Ahmed Attia, Abdo Husseiny, Asma Alhamadi
Abstract: The uncertainty and volatility of oil prices and the rise of political uncertainty in the Middle East region have shifted the ground beneath the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies in recent years. The traditional planning methods are strategically blind and inherently short sighted when used by firms under uncertainty. This study provides concepts, analytic tools, and examples of the four levels of uncertainty. The study draws a parallel between the uncertainty in chess game and business and tailored chess principles, processes, strategies and tactics to be used by businesses under uncertainty situations. This study contributes to current knowledge of using chess as metaphor to describe business, finding a connection to the dynamics of chess given the use of its principles, strategy and tactics.
Keywords: Keywords: chess; strategic planning; uncertainty; strategies; tactics; analytic tools; uncertainty levels; principles of planning; planning under uncertainty; decision-making; competition; Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC); the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
The Effects of Perceived Organizational Justice And Ethical Climate on Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intention, and Job Performance
by Ozgur Kokalan, Umit Sevik
Abstract: This study aims to determine the moderator role of the organisational justice and the ethical climate perceived by employees on job satisfaction, intention on ceasing the employment, and performance levels. In the light of this aim, questionnaires were used by using the convenience sampling method with 347 employees in stanbul and Afyonkarahisar. The performance levels of 347 employees were evaluated by their administrators. The results of the questionnaires and the performance evaluation were analysed and interpreted by using descriptive analyses and regression analyses. According to the results obtained in the analyses, the perceived organisational justice was high when the job satisfaction, and performance levels were high when the perceived ethical climate was high; however, there were no significant relations between the turnover intention. It was determined that the perceived ethical climate had a moderator effect only in the relation between the perceived organisational justice, job satisfaction and performance.
Keywords: perceived ethical climate; job satisfaction; turnover intention; job performance; perceived organisational justice.
Providing a framework for evaluating the advertising efficiency using data envelopment analysis technique
by Armin Ejlal, Maysam Shafiee Roodposhti
Abstract: Advertising plays an important role in the marketing strategy and a considerable amount of budgets has been allocated for advertising every year. However, the proportion of advertisement campaign achievements to those designated for their design, or in other words, its efficiency, is questionable. This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of the food industrys advertising brands using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The duration of the campaign and budget as input and brand familiarity, attractiveness of implementation and sale were used as an output for the evaluation. The results of the study indicated that there are inefficiencies in this industry, thus in an attempt to improve the situation of the advertising efficiency, some solutions was provided to managers. Also, the most important variables affecting the efficiency of the food industry was identified by Sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: Advertising; efficiency; Data envelopment analysis.
Multidimensional Structure for the Effect of Innovation Culture and Knowledge Sharing on the New Product Development Process with Emphasis on Improving New Product Development Performance
by Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi, Ali Shahrokhnia
Abstract: The main goal of the paper is to study the effect of innovation culture and knowledge sharing on the New-Product Development (NPD) process with emphasis on improving new-product development performance." The research has been implemented in software developer or producer companies as well as information technology companies in Tehran, Iran. This study is an applied research in the goal view, and contains qualitative variables; also, it is a descriptive-survey and casual-correlation research in the data-gathering view. The validity of the content of the questionnaire posited in this study was confirmed by academic and industrial experts and constructive validity indices. Moreover, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using Cronbachs Alpha and Composite Reliability indicators. Findings have shown that appropriate infrastructure for innovation has the most effect on creating an innovation culture; it was also revealed that there is a positive and meaningful
relationship between innovation culture and new-product development performance which is made by the mediation of knowledge sharing and NPD process.
Keywords: Innovation Culture; Knowledge Sharing; New Product Development process; New Product Development Performance.
Firm-level investment, Financing Choices, and Corporate Taxation Management: Evidence from panel of Non-Financial Firms
by Abdul Haque, Ammar Abid, Saira Sundas, Ali Qamar Jibran
Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between firms financing choices, taxation benefits and investment in Pakistani listed firms where firms are reliant on bank financing to finance their investment, as financial markets are not well developed. We apply the system Generalized Method of Moments regression estimation on a sample of firms listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange during the period from 2001-2014 to deal with the endogeneity concerns. Our findings are that there is a positive relationship between leverage and investment accruing from the use of tax shield benefits which also are positively and significantly associated with the firm-level investment. Equity is also positively related to investment but the effect of leverage is more pronounced than equity. When we classify the firms according to their level of debt, we find that the positive and significant relation between leverage and investment is stronger in firms with a medium level of debt, consistent with the trade-off theory argument of the existence of an optimal level of debt. Overall our results are consistent with the hypothesis that firms utilize debt to supplement their investment in circumstances where alternate mechanisms of finance are not well developed deriving tax shield benefits in the process as long as such benefits outweigh the financial distress costs. An important implication of the findings is that the debt holders might not perform the traditional disciplinary role to restrict over investment bias in economies where the relationship between debt holders and borrowers are complex and firms are financially constrained.
Keywords: Firm-level investment; Taxation; Financial Expenses; Debt and Equity Financing.
The Islamic Perspective of Environmental Sustainability and Management
by M.M. Sulphey
Abstract: The study examines the Islamic perspective of Islamic environmental sustainability based on the Holy text the Quran, and the sayings of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) the hadith. The paper conducts a thorough review of the above two texts and presents the Islamic perspective of the behaviour expected from humans to address environmental sustainability issues. It also attempts to present the duties and responsibilities desired of human beings towards having a self sustaining environment that will be an ideal place for the future generations too. The presentation of the paper is such that it will act as a trigger for further research in this challenging and marvellous area.
Keywords: Environmental sustainability; Environment management; Islam; Islamic perspective; Quran; Hadith.
The Impact of Job Crafting on Work Engagement: Evidence from Jordanian Universities
by Yahya Melhem
Abstract: Job crafting has emerged as a theoretical approach that expands perspectives on job design to include proactive changes that employees make to their own jobs. This study examines the impact of job crafting on work engagement mediated by autonomy and task independence among university academics in Jordan. Data for this study were collected from 264 academics to explore the effect of job crafting on work engagement. Results indicated that job crafting has positive significant impact on work engagement, and that autonomy and task independence facilitate and enhance job crafting behaviors. Recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.
Keywords: Job crafting; Job Engagement; Autonomy; Task Independence; Academics; Jordan_.
The impact of emotional intelligence on employee performance and employee engagement: Mediating role of job satisfaction
by Shumaila Naz, Cai Li, Hira Salah Ud Din Khan, Muhammad Rafiq
Abstract: The aim of the study was to explore the impact of emotional intelligence on employee engagement, employee performance. It also investigated the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship of emotional intelligence-employee engagement, and emotional intelligence-employee performance. Data was obtained from 233 employees working in manufacturing sector of the Lahore, Pakistan using convenience sampling through self-administered survey. Theories of ability model of emotional intelligence, affective events theory, and conservation of resources COR theory was underpinned to support proposed research model. Convergent validity of studied variables and relationships were measured through measurement model and structural model of PLS-SEM respectively. The findings revealed that emotional intelligence is significantly and positively associated with employee performance and engagement directly and indirectly through job satisfaction.
Keywords: emotional intelligence; employee engagement; job satisfaction; employee performance.
A TEST OF MARKET EFFICIENCY USING STOCK MARKET ANOMALIES (A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH).
by Dr. Syed Zain Ul Abdin, Muhammad Waqas, Mumtaz Ahmad
Abstract: Previous researchers study the presence of anomalies in the stock market but very least studies identify the causes that generate anomalies. This study tests the efficient market hypothesis in the context of prospect theory. The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of behavioral factors on different classes of anomalies. Further, investigate the differential effect of prospects components on different classes of anomalies. Data collected from 324 real individual investors of Pakistani stock exchange. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized model using smart PLS 3.0. The results show that mental accounting has a positive significant effect on all anomalies. In short, investors use their own mental account in their decision-making. Loss aversion has a positive significant effect on technical anomalies and regret has a positive significant effect on fundamental anomalies. However, Self-control does not have a significant effect on technical and calendar anomalies.
Keywords: Prospect Theory; Behavioral Finance; Stock Market Anomalies; Fundamental Anomalies; Technical Anomalies. Calendar Anomalies.
Factors Affecting Buyers' Trust in E-Commerce in Palestine
by Rania Abduallah, Yahya Saleh
Abstract: Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is relatively a new concept and research topic in developing countries including Palestine. In this form of commerce, the first impression that users create about an organisation is often based on the organisations websites trustworthiness. This has motivated many researchers to investigate the factors that influence buyers trust in such websites. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the potential factors affecting buyers trust in e-commerce in Palestine. More specifically, the study embraces a multi-dimensional construct of trust (integrity, benevolence, ability) rather than examining each single dimension of trustworthiness individually. In addition, the effect of independent variables including website design attitudes, reliability, privacy and security attitudes, customer satisfaction and governmental factors on e-commerces trust dimensions have been mathematically investigated. To this end, relevant data from a random sample of 354 Palestinian citizens who have experienced the online shopping, or who have interest in online purchasing, were collected. Statistical analyses revealed significant effects of all independent variables except reliability on buyers trust in e-commerce in Palestine. Also, four linear regression models relating the independent variables with e-commerces trust and its three dimensions
(integrity, benevolence, ability) have been built and statistically validated.
Keywords: electronic commerce; e-commerce; trust; integrity; ability; online purchasing; regression; benevolence.
How will Increasing the Competitiveness of Energy Sector Stimulate the Economic Growth of Saudi Arabia: 2030 Vision
by Nadia Yusuf
Abstract: The study has identified main factors associated with the increase in competitiveness of energy sector to benefit the countrys economy. Quantitative research design was opted to investigate the association between oil prices, carbon emissions, electricity consumption, natural gas production, wind and solar energy, and energy supply of Saudi Arabia. GDP was the variable used to represent economic. The results have shown positive and significant impact of competitiveness of oil production (p = 0.044) and consumption (p = 0.000) on GDP. The competitiveness of gas production is
significant and positive on economic growth of the country (p = 0.000). There is 5.8% increase in economic growth of Saudi Arabia. There is a significant impact of new work strategies and creating employment on the economic development of the state, along with the deducing the harmful factors of the growth and progress.
Keywords: carbon dioxide emission; economic growth; energy consumption; energy prices; energy sector.
Do Family Firms Pay More to Their CEOs?
by Anam Tasawar, Mian Sajid Nazir, Farooq Anwar
Abstract: The present study sheds light on the potential dominance of family ownership and its control on CEO compensation in Pakistani family and non-family firms by using data of 132 firms during 2009 to 2015. This study contributes toward new milestone in prior research regarding to developing eastern economies with family dominance in businesses, with respect to impact of family control on CEO compensation. The literature in corporate finance points out that the family firms scrub the level of compensation, which reveals that larger family shareholders play active monitoring role as well as regulate the pay structures of top management. The current study establishes a support for alignment hypothesis of agency theory and does not support the corroboration of managerial rent extracting behavior in family firms. Moreover, the financial institutions have positive effect on CEO compensation; however, the role of institutions in deciding CEO perks becomes negative in case of family firms as compared to non-family firms.
Keywords: CEO compensation; family ownership; firm performance; board independence; institutional ownership.
Testing for Temperature Anomaly in Capital Markets of Pakistan and India
by Mian Sajid Nazir, Hammad Hassan Mirza, Arslan Shaukat, Ayesha Liaqat
Abstract: This study shows temperature-based indicator impact on trading decision and stock returns to financial investors. By using disaggregated data, we showed that stock markets deviate (anomalies) from fundamentals and contradicts the rule of efficient market hypothesis. Among other anomalies, temperature anomaly is said to be driven through psychological factor of investors moods which can influence their trading decisions. We find a statistically significant but negative relationship between Karachi temperature and KSE-100 index returns for the period of January 02, 2006 to Dec 31, 2015. However, Mumbai temperature seems to have no impact on BSE-100 index for the period of our research. Using GARCH methodology, the study incorporates daily temperature data from two South Asian financial hubs and their respective impact on stock returns. The findings of this paper can be further extended to analyze whether other economic sectors are influenced by the temperature based stock market anomalies.
Keywords: temperature anomaly; weather; moods; Pakistan Stock Exchange; Mumbai Stock Exchange.
Leadership Competencies of Middle Managers and Employees' Job Performance: Evidence from a Palestinian Media Channel
by Wasim Al-Habil, Mohammed Aboramadan, Essam Zaqout
Abstract: This paper aims to examine the relationship between leadership competencies and job performance at Al-Aqsa TV channel. A descriptive analytical design was adopted in this study. A total number of two hundred and eighty-eight questionnaires were distributed to Al-Aqsa TV channel employees. One hundred and eighty-one questioners were returned and were usable for statistical analysis. In this study, the Leadership Competency Model was used to measure the leadership competencies at Al-Aqsa TV channel. The results showed that middle managers at Al-Aqsa TV possess leadership competencies at a medium level. The results also demonstrated a positive relationship between leadership competences and performance at Al-Aqsa TV channel. Job performance was mainly influenced by three competencies which are: building coalitions or communications, business acumen and leading change. The paper suggests that building coalitions/communications, business acumen, and leading change, leading people, results driven competencies must be considered while developing job performance development plans. Finally, this paper contributes to the media management empirical literature as the topic is not well developed in developing countries and especially in Palestine.
Keywords: Media Management; Leadership Competencies; Job Performance.
Compensation systems attributes and teachers performance: Mediating effect of Psychological contract fulfillment
by Rana Nadir Idrees, Imran Haider Naqvi, Asma Imran, Muhammad Ismail
Abstract: Higher education institutions (HEIs) play a role in building a knowledge economy, but doing so requires dedicated, well-educated and well-performing teachers, so teachers performance (TP) has become an issue for developing countries. This research evaluates the impact of compensation system schemes on teachers performance in the universities of Pakistan in order to explain the mediating role of psychological contract fulfilment (PCF). A nationwide survey of 52 HEIs in Pakistan was conducted using the random sampling probability technique. After the data collection, mediation was checked using quantitative research methods, including correlation, regression,
multiple mediation, and process. This study analyses the importance of psychological contract fulfilment in mediating the relationship between compensation systems attributes (CSAs) and teachers performance and suggests that psychological contract fulfilment mediates the relationship between compensation system attributes and teachers performance. This study confirms and extends existing empirical evidence concerning the basis of the CSAs-PCF-TP relationships. The current study helps higher-education authorities and other policymakers to realign their compensation systems to
create stronger relationships between compensation and psychological contract fulfilment to teachers performance, which will help them to attain their sustainable development plans.
Keywords: tenure track system; TTS; performance; appraisal; psychological contract fulfilment; PCF; higher education; socio-economic indicators; university; faculty; human Resource; human capital; ranking.
Eco-friendly and Healthy Consumption of Young Saudis: Its Stimuli and Welfare.
by Maher Toukabri, Odai Falah Mohammad AlGhaswyneh
Abstract: This study intends to discover the determinants of healthy consumption in the Saudi market. It equally intends to fill the rift caused by the absence of studies investigating the healthy consumption process and the benefit brought to the Saudi youth.
The literature background allows us to design a model of the healthy consumption of young Saudis, and the hypotheses to test. The quantitative part presents two samples of young consumers in the Saudi market. For this, we interviewed consumers, visitors of four restaurants in Arar Mall, located in KSA. The first sample was used in the exploratory study and the second one was collected to confirm the measurements, test the hypotheses, and validate and specify the developed model.
This study aimed at providing deeper insights into the healthy consumption of young Saudis. Hence, we specifically concentrated on youth healthy intention purchase antecedents, their willingness to pay mediation, and past behavior moderation.
Keywords: Health consciousness; Subjective norm; Perceived behavioral control; Past healthy eating behavior ; Willingness to pay for green; Healthy eating intention.
Linking Ability-enhancing HR practices, Customer Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence: Insight from Banking Sector
by Imran Naqvi, Sarah Azhar, Asma Imran
Abstract: Purpose This study defines and expound the relationship between ability-enhancing HR practices (A-HRM) and customer satisfaction (CS).Ability-enhancing HR practices comprise recruitment &selection (R&S) and training (TR).The mediating role of emotional intelligence (EI) is tested within the relationship of A-HRM and CS. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted on a group of 467 employees and same number of customers from 126 banks branches operating in Punjab,Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used in the process of statistical analysis. Findings The research confirmed a significant statistical relationship between all studied variables: A-HRM, EI and CS. It was concluded, on the basis of the analysis, using SEM, that A-HRM have an indirect influence on CS, through EI. Research limitations/implications A cross-sectional design and use of self-reported questionnaire data are limitations of this study. Originality/value This study theoretically confirms that emotional intelligence has a positive impact on customer satisfaction and a mediating effect on the relationships between ability-enhancing HR practices and customer satisfaction. The results of this research extend the knowledge in the area of customer service outcomes, with aspects of HR practices and emotional intelligence in the organizations.
Keywords: Ability-enhancing HR practices; Emotional intelligence; Structural equation modeling; Customer satisfaction.
The antecedents of student-university identification: An investigation into the Egyptian higher education sector
by Hisham Hawass
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the quality of interaction between students and professors, and university reputation on student-university identification in the public Egyptian higher education context. It also examines the mediating effect of the student\'s passion to learn on the above mentioned relationships. The study uses a questionnaire which consists of valid and reliable measurement scales. A structure equation modeling has been conducted in order to empirically examine the hypothesized relationships. The findings reveal that university reputation is directly associated with student-university identification. The student\'s passion to learn partially mediates the relationship between reputation and identification. Moreover, the passion to learn fully mediates the association between the quality of interaction and identification.
Keywords: Student-university identification; quality of interaction between academics and students; university reputation; and the passion to learn.
Developing Entrepreneurial Intentions: What Matters?
by Saaed Mujahid, Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik, Navaz Naghavi
Abstract: This study aims to identify the major personality traits and their impact on entrepreneurial intentions of Pakistani business students, specifically in terms of perceived support and perceived barriers. The study used a close ended questionnaire adopted from previous studies to collect data from 200 business students studying in business schools of Karachi, Pakistan, and applied the Partial Least Square (PLS) method to analyze the relationships. Results revealed that attitude, innovativeness and risk taking ability have a profound effect on entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, study analyzed results by dividing students into two categories education system i.e. matric system and Cambridge system. Interestingly, risk taking ability and innovativeness were high among those students who studied from matric system which is contrary to perceived wisdom. Based on these findings, our study suggests devising awareness programs aimed at fostering students attitude toward entrepreneurship and nurturing their creativity. For an in-depth analysis, study suggests focusing on high risk taking, innovative individuals to further understand what drives them.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention; Partial Least Square (PLS); Attitude towards entrepreneurship; Psychological formation; Risk taking; Innovativeness; Creativity ; Perceived wisdom; Awareness.
Examining the Indirect Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Performance: An Empirical Study in Lebanon
by Tamara Kasamani, Rania Mostafa
Abstract: The current study examines a mediated model to understand the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm performance (FP). Based on the research findings from a sample of 110 respondents from Lebanese firms, the results suggest that the CSR and FP association is an entirely mediated relationship. In particular, CSR is positively linked to firm financial performance indirectly through the enhancement of reputation, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage. Hence, the findings reduce ambiguity around CSRs direct role, and reveal that CSR promotes firm performance indirectly through building intangible assets (reputation, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage) that are essential to the survival of a firm.
Keywords: competitive advantage; corporate social responsibility; customer satisfaction; firm performance; Lebanon; reputation.
AN ANALYSIS ON SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING PRACTICES OF THE TURKISH BANKING SECTOR
by Ahmet Mentes
Abstract: Stakeholders increasingly expect firms to disclose their activities and the effects of these activities on environment and society. Banks and other financial institutions are no exception and face similar pressure from all stakeholders to be more transparent. This study uses Global Reporting Initiative guidelines to explore the sustainability reporting practices of the Turkish banking sector. All of the fifty two banks that operate in Turkey as of 2015 are included in the study. Results exhibit that only nine banks release sustainability reports. The economic (EC) dimension indicators of sustainability reports have the highest disclosure rate among reporting banks. On the other hand Financial Services Sector (FS) supplement has the lowest disclosure rate among reporting banks compared to other dimensions of sustainability reporting. Findings also indicate that the asset size of sustainability report releasing banks add up to more than seventy five percent of the banking sector in Turkey.
Keywords: Finance; Banking; Sustainability; Sustainability Reporting; Banking; Turkey; Global Reporting Initiative; Governance; Voluntary Disclosure; Corporate Strategy.
Linking Elements of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance: Examining the Moderation of Environmental Dynamism
by Imran Shafique, Munazza Saeed
Abstract: This research is designed to examine the impact of elements of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firm performance by considering environmental dynamism as a potential moderator. Data was gathered from 143 textile and leather manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan. Partial least square (PLS) was employed to analyze the hypotheses. The findings reveal that EO elements positively affect firm performance directly, except in the case of proactiveness. However, the nexus between the elements of EO and firm performance are also positively moderated by the environmental dynamics. Managers can exploit the EO elements according to the environmental situation of the industry. Further, scholars can comprehend better the EO-firm performance link by considering the environmental dynamism of the industry. Innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking as distinctive EO elements are hypothesized and their individual effects on firm performance analyzed considering the environmental dynamism as a potential moderator.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation (EO); innovativeness; proactiveness; risk-taking; environmental dynamism; firm performance,.
Local decision-making within the concept of governance in Jordan
by Anan Abu Hummour
Abstract: Present study determines how public policy is made at local level in the countrys public sector. The primary data was gathered in the form of questionnaire responses from 281 randomly selected personnel working in local administration within the Kingdom of Jordans public sector. The findings indicate that there are various actors involved in the public policy process in Jordan. These actors include local councils, municipal councils, governorate councils, and executive councils as well as citizens, local donors, foreign aid, and civil society organizations. Furthermore, inflexibility, mystery, unresponsiveness, and centralization are the most common characteristics that overwhelmingly dominate local planning in Jordan. The finding also shows that there is a significant association between roles of actors on local decision-making at ( 0.05). The existence of the effect is statistically significant at the level of significance = ( 0.05) for the actors roles (local citizens, local donors, foreign aid, and civil society organization) related to roles affecting local decisions-making
Keywords: Keywords: governance; public policy; decision-making process; local administration; Jordanian public sector; councillor.
Role of leaders in the development and maintenance of organizational culture through artifacts
by Asma Khalid, Bakhtawar Bibi, Ch. Shoaib Akhtar
Abstract: The present research explores the role of leaders in the development and maintenance of organizational culture by studying artifacts a part of organizational culture. To understand the culture of organizations, ethnographic approach is used. Primary data was gathered through twenty-eight semi-structured interviews, non-participant observation and studying and analyzing of different documents. For the study, two organizations belonging to insurance sector of Rawalpindi, Pakistan were taken as case studies. Data analysis included primarily with simple coding, followed by line by line coding and then themes were generated. Artifacts of organizational culture are discussed according to Schein Model of Culture (1990; 2004). Findings of this research suggest that artifacts such as tangible assets, logo, employees as asset, respect are important in organizations to be successful in the market. The other important finding is that leaders play a significant role in the development and maintenance of organizational culture through artifacts and bring success to the organizations.
Keywords: Leaders; organizational culture; artifacts; ethnographic research; Schein model of culture.
IMPACT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS ON JOB ATTITUDES IN HEALTH SECTOR OF PAKISTAN: THE MODERATING ROLE OF ISLAMIC WORK ETHIC
by Hira Khan, Ma Zhiqiang, ABDUL AZIZ IBN MUSA, Thomas UDIMAL
Abstract: This research study investigated two manifold objectives. The first objective is to inspect the impact of perceived organizational politics on Job attitudes (job satisfaction, job Involvement and organizational commitment) and second objective aims to explore the moderating impact of Islamic work ethic on the association between perceived organizational politics and Job attitudes. Data was collected from 310 nurses employed in health division of different cities in Pakistan through systematic random sampling. This was done through a self-administered Questionnaire. Convergent validity of studied constructs and associations were tested through measurement model and structural equation modelling respectively. The results revealed that perceived organizational politics is significantly and negatively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. However, the findings did not support the negative affect of perceived organizational politics and job involvement. Moreover, the result indicated that Islamic work ethic weakens the negative association between perceived organizational politics and both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The current study provides a new perspective for employees attitude that result in organizations accomplishment. Limitations and suggestion for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Perceived Organizational Politics (POP); Islamic work ethic (IWE); Job attitudes (Job satisfaction; Job Involvement; Organizational Commitment).
Debunking the Myths of Workplace Fun
by Elif Bilginoğlu
Abstract: Some of the myths of workplace fun which are formed in the minds of some people either get in the way of creating a fun work environment or cause people to feel guilty or judge others, when they are having fun at work. In order to eliminate these myths, this paper explains why conclusions that appear to be facts can truly be myths about workplace fun. Each myth presented in this paper is followed by a discussion of related research on workplace fun and its implications for organizations, managers and employees. Thus, this paper attempts to clarify a number of issues about this concept and aims to offer a factual report which corrects the myths surrounding workplace fun by making us become more aware of what research has to say about it. A number of widely held beliefs about workplace fun are examined in the context of research findings and a literature review that demythologize them with alternative perspectives. The key to understanding that the workplace fun has positive organizational effects, than most of us have been led to believe; is to dispel these myths, so that we have a better understanding of the concept.
Keywords: Workplace fun; myths; fun at work.
Special Issue on: Leadership and Management Challenges and Issues Facing Organisations in Developing Countries
THE INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT INNOVATION, BRAND IMAGE, AND PHYSICAL EVIDENCE TO PURCHASE DECISION AND WOM OF STARBUCKS IN JAKARTA
by Sri Wahyuni
Abstract: Purchase decision and Word of Mouth of product were essential parts of marketing. Once a customer decides to buy a product then shares positive WOM towards the product. The purchase decision and WOM conducted by the customers create some advantages for the company. The customers of Starbucks Jakarta are the object of this study. Questionnaires, as the primary data used in this study, were disseminated to 120 customers of Starbucks in Jakarta. The data collection method used purposive sampling method. While AMOS 20.0 program was used to test the hyphotheses. This study had six research hyphotheses; four of them showed positive and significant effects, only two of the hyphotheses showed no positive influence. Product innovation and physical evidence gived significant influence towards purchase decision and WOM. However, brand image did not influence purchase decision and WOM. This study was expected to give implication towards the company and the marketers to develop the brand image by creating marketing activities.
Keywords: product innovation; brand image; physical evidence; purchase decision; and WOM.
Linking Leaders Emotional Labor Strategies with Leaders Attitude: An Effective Approach towards Leadership
by Sajjad Ahmad, Qasim Ali Nisar, Asma Imran, Summaira Malik, Waqas Chaudhary
Abstract: Emotions are important part of ones life and job. Emotions are always ready for feisty attack on individuals attitudes at workplace. These also affect a leaders attitudes. Thereby, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of leaders emotional labor strategies on leaders attitudes by considering the mediating role of leaders job satisfaction. The data were collected from teachers of universities in Punjab Pakistan by using simple random sampling. Data from the university teachers of Punjab have been made use to examine the impact of different emotional strategies like deep acting, surface acting, and genuine emotional aspects impacting the teachers loyalty and commitment outputs. In order to evaluate the results, Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structure Equation Modeling had been used to evaluate the appropriate results. Results divulged that emotional labor strategies significantly influence the leaders attitudes. Moreover, surface acting is significantly and negatively associated with leaders organizational commitment and leaders loyalty. Similarly, deep acting and display of genuine emotions significantly and positively correlated with leaders organizational commitment and leaders loyalty. Path analysis results indicated that leaders job satisfaction partially mediate the relationship between emotional labor strategies and leaders attitudes. The study contributes to the current knowledge regarding emotional labor strategies and leaders attitudes.
Keywords: Emotional Labor Strategies; Surface Acting; Deep Acting; Display of Genuine Emotion; Organizational Commitment; Loyalty; Job Satisfaction.
Organizational politics and task performance: The intervening role of affective organizational commitment in a public sector organization
by Muhammad Butt, Atif Mahmood, Sara Kanwal, Farooq Bajwa
Abstract: Organizational politics is one of the pervasive but overlooked domains, particularly in public sector organizations who serve citizens. In this context, a conceptual model was proposed to empirically consider the intervening role of affective organizational commitment between the infrequently studied relationship of perception of organizational politics and task performance among the employees of a large public organization in the capital city of Punjab, Pakistan. Accordingly, to test the presumed predictions of current study, we employed Preacher and Hayes mediation analysis in SPSS.22. The findings of multiple regression, with 10000 bootstraps demonstrated the effect of perceived organizational politics on employees task performance was transmitted only through affective organizational commitment. Therefore, it provides the empirical support for an argument that extant literature has not tested before in a public sector organization, who protects the citizens. The data collection from single source using self-reported measures might have raised the chances of common method biased and also, cross-sectional design of current study limits its ability to draw sound conclusions. Overall the findings of this study contributes towards our understanding of how politics in workplace impact civil servants task performance.
Keywords: organizational politics; organizational commitment and employee performance.
Transformational Leadership And Work Engagement: Exploring The Black Boxes By Looking Into The Lense of Intentional Change Theory
by Muhammad Waqas, Raheema Zubair, Atif Mahmood, Farooq Anwar
Abstract: Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the effect of transformational leadership (TL) on work engagement (WE) of nurses in Lahore-Pakistan. Previous studies showed that some job demands had positive connection with WE while some reviews declared negative influence of job demands on WE. This study intended to find out the role of leadership in defining job demands as challenges and their further relationship with WE. Design/methodology/approach: Primary data and snowball sampling technique was used. Data was analysed on Smart PLS3. Findings: Test analysis showed that TL has significant relationship with WE. Practical implications: In hospitals, transformational leaders reduced the stress of nurses which lead to self-confidence and caused them to perceive job demands as a challenge. Originality/value: This study obtained TL as positive leadership style in hospitals as there was more risk involved regarding human health, and nurses must ask from their leaders before giving any treatments to the patients.
Keywords: job demands; job resources; transformational leadership; job challenges; work engagement.
Effects of external prestige on emotional labor: mediation by organizational identification and moderation by perceived organizational support
by Farooq Anwar, Ishfaq Ahmed, Muhammad Waqas, Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail, Talat Islam
Abstract: Purpose: With the shift from manufacturing to services economies, the need of customer management has increased. The shift has also increased the role of frontline employees in managing their emotions, as they may directly influence customers responses towards organisations products and services. Based on this premise, this study values emotional labour and role of external prestige in predicting it. Furthermore, it also entails the investigation of organisational identification as mediator and perceived organisational support as moderator. Methodology/Design: This study is aimed at investigating the emotional labour and its explanatory mechanism, data was collected from 314 services employees through structured questionnaire. Sample was selected based on both random and referral sampling techniques, through questionnaire. Findings: Results empirically prove that external prestige of organisation influences employees emotional responses, while organisational identification partially mediates the relation. And, perceptions of organisational support, influences the strength of relation between external prestige and organisational identification.
Keywords: external prestige; organisational identification; emotional labour; perceived organisational support; surface acting; and deep acting.
THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ON ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
by Jamshid Ali Turi, Shahryar Sorooshian
Abstract: Focus of the research was to find out the impact of organisational structure on organisational learning and to find out which type of organisation provides better learning opportunities. Data was collected from 130 universities operating in public and private sector of Pakistan. The approach used for research was formative conceptualisation for organisational learning. The framework makes clear that organisational learning varies according to the kind of structure. The study of the different design variables allows us to expand our understanding of different organisational learning implications. Study shows that organic structural profile helps organisational learning and greater knowledge creation rather than mechanic profile. The critical variables that facilitate learning are centralisation and indoctrination. The study further responds to the need to provide empirical evidence about the influence of organisational structure on organisational learning, advancing the measure of this emergent field of management research using formative conceptualisation.
Keywords: organisational learning; organisational structure; formative measure.