Middle East J. of Management (28 papers in press)
The Assessment of the Saudi Arabia Contractors Classification System and Other Worldwide Systems
by Saud Almutairi, Mohammed Algahtany, Jacob Kashiwagi, Dean Kashiwagi, Kenneth Sullivan, Isaac Kashiwagi
Abstract: Construction projects in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) have experienced poor performance for the past three decades. The KSA construction environment lacks the best practices found in more developed countries. The governments construction relies on the low-bid delivery method and prequalified contractors using the Contractors Classification System (CCS). However, the CCS does not accurately represent contractors capabilities and performance. The Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) desires to develop and improve the current CCS. This paper reviews all of the parts of the KSAs CCS through a case study, as well as a review and analysis of other classification systems worldwide through literature research. Several issues with the CCS are identified, such as no performance feedback, project participants not turned over, complexity, outdated practices and no performance measurements. The findings identify that the current CCS must be modified to be able to accurately reflect contractor capability and performance.
Keywords: Saudi Arabia; Contractor Classification System; Performance information; MOMRA; low-bid; innovation; contractor capability.
The Antecedents of Firm Innovativeness: Empirical Evidence from Small-Sized Firms
by Khaled Nawaser, Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi
Abstract: In this paper, we investigated the effect of customer relationship management initiation on firms marketing information and then we tested how these two factors accelerate idea generation (innovativeness) within small sized firms. We tested these relations by using original data from 103 Iranian small sized firms. Results indicate that customer relationship management initiation leads to the improvement of organizational marketing information significantly. We also found a positive relationship between firms customer relationship management initiation and firm innovativeness and a positive relationship between firms marketing information utilization and firm innovativeness. Limitations of the study are indicated and directions for future research are noted.
Keywords: customer relationship management initiation; marketing information utilization; firm innovativeness; small-sized firms.
Causes of delay in Construction Projects in Oman
by Tariq Umar
Abstract: Construction projects are full of risk and uncertainties and delays can have negative economic consequences and can create bad image for all the parties involved in the project. Delays in construction projects have several causes associated with owner, consultant and contractors. This paper aims to explore the causes of delays in construction projects in Oman. The causes of delays in construction projects are firstly discussed with a review of different published literature. The results of interviews with experienced construction professional working with client, consultant and contractor are reported. Results reveal that contractual issues, workforce, materials, coordination between construction parties, and external factors are the main factors which cause delay to construction projects in Oman. This research work is exploratory in nature and provides basic causes of delays in construction project in general. Further research is recommended to explore projects specific causes of delay in construction in Oman.
Keywords: Project management; Contracting; Planning & scheduling; Construction Projects; Qualitative Method; Causes of Delay.
Studying the influences of Learning Orientation and Firm Size on Entrepreneurial Orientation - Firm Performance Relationship in Saudi Context
by Wassim J. Aloulou
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the direct influence of Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on Learning orientation (LO), considering the latter as the mediating variable in the relationship between EO and Firm performance (FP). The paper aims also to study the influence of firm size in the EO-FP and LO-FP relationships as a potential moderator variable. The empirical study was developed using a sample of 230 Micro-to-Large firms in Saudi Arabia. The proposed hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear and multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed a significant relationship between EO and LO and a mediating role of LO on the EO-FP relationship. Likewise, the findings indicate also that firm size significantly moderates only the LO-FP relationship. However, the results reveal a negative but non-significant influence of the interaction variable between EO and firm size on FP. Being as one of the few empirical studies on the subject line in a transitional and non-Western context such as Saudi context, this study highlights certain implications and avenues for both entrepreneurship scholars and practitioners in such context.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; learning orientation; firm performance; firm size; Saudi Arabia.
Chronological Age versus Cognitive Age: An Examination of Lifecycle and Gender Differences
by Larry P. Pleshko, Richard A. Heiens, Adel Al-Wugayan
Abstract: The current study examines the concept of self-perceived age in the Middle Eastern market through the use of the cognitive age construct. The results of a survey of 613 respondents in the Kuwait market reveal that the five-item cognitive age measure scored 0.949 on Cronbachs coefficient alpha, which is indicative of a reliable variable. The results also indicate that the differences between chronological age and cognitive age vary across lifecycle age groups. Specifically, Kuwaiti consumers overall tend to perceive their cognitive ages to be below their actual chronological ages, and this pattern becomes stronger as consumers get older. The analyses also find that age differences exist by gender. Men under the age of 25 in the Kuwait market perceive themselves to be almost four years older than their actual chronological ages. The study suggests that the cognitive age construct might be a useful segmentation variable in the Middle Eastern market.
Keywords: Ageing; Gender; Lifecycle; Self-Perceptions; Cognitive age; Chronological Age; Middle East; Kuwait.
Entrepreneurs perception of Opportunities and Challenges Learnings from Sultanate of Oman
by Siraj K.K, AbdulRahman Nafei, Nawwaf Al Rajhi
Abstract: This paper examines the perception of entrepreneurs about the opportunities and challenges for entrepreneurial ventures in Sultanate of Oman. In Oman Vision-2020, the Oman Government placed significant emphasis on developing entrepreneurial ventures to support its strategy to diversify the economy and develop non-oil sectors, utilize domestic resources and promote employment, thereby to achieve sustainable economic development. A mixed research design is followed in this study. Primary data are collected from 60 entrepreneurs, selected randomly from the database provided by Oman Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The study revealed an improved awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the entrepreneurial opportunities in the region. Statistical analysis highlighted the need for government intervention to mitigate the financial, technical, marketing and legal challenges faced by entrepreneurs. The life of an entrepreneur is challenging; it requires not only policy initiatives, but also accelerated efforts from various governmental and non-governmental agencies to develop a favorable climate for entrepreneurial growth in the region.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial intention; creativity; Sultanate of Oman.
Measuring consumer perception of ethical issues in advertising: Evidence from Nigerian advertising audience
by Shafiu Ibrahim Abdullahi
Abstract: This research paper uses logit model to empirically test Nigerian consuming public views on certain parameters related to ethics in advertisement in the Nigerian media in relation to the respondents personal characteristics. These parameters include age level, education, religion, extravagancy (wastefulness), and deception (lies) featuring in advertising messages. Thus, the paper tries to find out the attitude of Nigerian consumers toward controversial advertising. Data for the study was collected using questionnaires distributed to respondents who are presumed familiar with advertising messages being convene through mediums such as TV, Radio, print media, social media, and the net. The study finds respondents educational level and religiosity to play important role in determine how he/she perceives ethical issues (advertising offenses) in advertising. With both variables having positive effects on consumers ethical orientation, while wastefulness as promoted by advertising messages is detested by more ethically oriented consumers. The research findings have important message for advertisers, be cautious in handling advertisings by factoring-in consumers feeling about ethical matters/offensive adverts in advertising messages. Looking at the non-availability of empirical works in this line of study in Nigeria, there is need for more empirical studies to unearth consumers feeling regarding the advertising messages they are being bombarded with daily.
Keywords: Ethics; Advertising; Consumers; Logit model; Conspicuous; Nigeria; Religion; Empirical; Immorality; Deception; advertising offense; controversial advert.
Understanding Egypts Emerging Social Shoppers
by Emad Abou-Elgheit
Abstract: This article analyses recent preferences, motives and patterns of consumers shopping online and influenced by social media in Egypt. The emerging global trend of social commerce is rapidly disrupting the ways consumers take decisions and shop online. Egypt being the largest retail market in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), with the highest social media popularity among internet users, provides an example to examine social commerce in developing economies in MENA region. Through a representative sample of the market, the article highlights key cognition, emotional, experience and personality aspects that influence consumers decision making and orientation towards trusting electronic vendors. Also, the article examines the variance in behaviour and perception between different demographic, cultural, geographic and behavioural consumer segments. The article also informs electronic vendors and researchers on the processes of trust building and risk perception in social commerce.
Keywords: e-commerce; Egypt; social commerce; consumer behaviour; trust; risk.
Innovativeness and Knowledge Management in Public Sector Enterprises
by Omid Tajeddini, Javad Tajeddini
Abstract: There is an increasing concern over the effect of strategic orientation on the performance of public organizations in developing countries. Despite the possible advantages of strategic orientation to organizations documented in Western economies and private owned enterprises, little knowledge exists into these practices and their impact on leveraging a strong competitive advantage in state owned enterprises in transitional economies such as Iran. The purpose of this paper is to extend to previous research (Tajeddini and Trueman, 2016) and aims to examine the effect of innovation and sharing knowledge on performance of SOEs in Iran. Theories of innovation and knowledge management are combined with a strategic model to examine a survey of 110 Iranian public sector managers and frontline employees in Tehran. The research provides insights into the role of strategic orientations of SOEs that operate within transitional economies. Special attention is paid to innovation and knowledge sharing. The findings include: (1) innovativeness is associated with improved business performance, job satisfaction, and overall performance and (2) A strong knowledge sharing is correlated with higher levels of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and overall performance. All data were collected in a cross-sectional manner with public organization bearing their own restrictions and, therefore, all we can conclude is that the role variables and their posited consequences are related at one point in time. Our conclusions were based on perception of the managers of SOEs and rigorous theorizing and anecdotal evidence. The results of this research is critical and interesting for public managers. From empirical evidence, the authors found that SOE managers must regard organizational innovation and sharing knowledge as two essential strategic capabilities for a superior performance in terms of satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Keywords: state owned enterprises; Innovation; sharing knowledge; Iran.
The Effect of Organizational Justice on Organizational Silence: Testing the Mediational Role of Workplace Spirituality
by Ozgur Kokalan
Abstract: Today, organisational injustice causes many organisational problems. One of these problems is organisational silence. Organisational injustice negatively affects organisational silence in the workplace. To decrease this negative effect, an organisation can use many different techniques. One of these techniques is to establish a workplace spirituality within the organisation. The main aim of the study is to examine the mediating roles of spiritual values in the workplace in the relationship between organisational justice and organisational silence. The sampling of the study included 472 employees from private participation (Islamic) banks and conventional public banks. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation methods were used in order to detect the direction and level of the relationships between the parameters. According to the mediating analysis findings, workplace spirituality is the full reason for the relation between organisational justice and organisational silence in private participation (Islamic) banks and the conventional public banks.
Keywords: organisational justice; organisational silence; workplace spirituality; management; SEM; structural equation model.
Strategic agility in telecom industry: the effective factors on competitive advantages
by Sanaz Dehmolaee, Yaghub Rashnavadi
Abstract: Businesses from all industries need to monitor their environments and be strategically agile in their processes to be competitive in their respective industries. Strategic agility is defined as firms strategic intent to achieve agile operations which are driven by the management emphasis on improving its time-based competitive advantage. In this paper, we aimed to understand the role of strategic agility in promoting organizational performance in their competition in the telecom industry. Six hypotheses were developed. By using questionnaires, data were gathered from interviewing 384 practitioners in the telecom industry. SPSS and Lisrel were used to analyze the data. The results show that strategic agility positively influence technological capabilities and organizational innovation and these in turn positively influence competitive advantage of an organization in the telecom industry. We find no statistical proof neither for positive influence of strategic agility on organizational learning nor organizational learning on competitive advantage.
Keywords: strategic agility; competitive advantage; telecom industry.
The Impact of Internal Marketing on Employee Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Restaurant Industry of Saudi Arabia
by M. Sadiq Sohail
Abstract: This study investigates the role of internal marketing (IM) on
employees perceived job satisfaction and the consequent impact on customer
satisfaction. A model is developed to explain the influence the factors of
IM on employees job satisfaction. Data was collected from 401 frontline
employees of several types of restaurants in Saudi Arabia. The results suggest
that IM practices such as leadership commitment; internal communication
and reward system has a significant effect on frontline employees perception
of job satisfaction. Service training and development does not contribute to
frontline employees perception of job satisfaction. Employees job satisfaction
is a contributor to customer satisfaction. The findings broaden and deepen
an understanding of how the factors of IM practices reinforce employees job
satisfaction. The results have useful implications to the restaurant business,
particularly in the Middle East nations to capture IM factors, which will
provide job satisfaction to employees and ultimately increases customer
Keywords: internal marketing; restaurant industry; job satisfaction; customer
satisfaction; Saudi Arabia.
The complexity of small business growth: A Saudi perspective
by Hafedh Ibrahim, Mahmoud Mohammad Al-Ajlouni
Abstract: Drawing from complexity theory, the study takes a configurational approach towards small business growth and contributes to literature by demonstrating how three sets of causal conditions, that is, entrepreneurial orientation, firm resources, and the environment, combine to form configurations that affect small business growth. The study was conducted in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia) and analyzed data from a survey of 369 SMEs using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). The results corroborate the equifinality and the asymmetric nature of small business growth demonstrating that no single factor is key in initiating small business growth, and that there is no single exclusive causal path leading to that outcome and that the causal conditions of combinations that lead to small business growth are different from that lead to non-growth.
Keywords: Small business growth; Entrepreneurial orientation; Firm resources; Environmental uncertainty; fsQCA; Complexity theory; Middle East.
Do Feelings of Trust/Distrust affect Employees Turnover Intentions? An Exploratory Study in the United Arab Emirates
by Rachid Zeffane, Shaker Jamal Bani Melhem
Abstract: We examine the impact of trust, job satisfaction and perceived supervisor support on employee turnover intention. Data was gathered from 311 respondents employed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) service sector. Four main hypotheses are developed and tested. Statistical analysis using SMART-PLS confirmed that trust has significant effects on turnover intention, but job satisfaction has a more significant impact. Surprisingly, perceived supervisor support had no significant direct effect on turnover intention. However, further analysis (of the indirect effects) revealed that trust mediates the impact of perceived supervisor support on turnover intention. In other words, perceptions of supervisor support alone do not necessarily reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Unless such support is accompanied by feelings of trust, it would not be sufficient to reduce turnover intentions. Implications of these findings for future research and management practice are discussed.
Keywords: Trust; Job Satisfaction; Perceived Supervisor Support; Turnover Intention; Service Sector; United Arab Emirates.
Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of Fast-Food Restaurant Staff in Ankara/Turkey:Some Strategies from Managerial Approach
by Kerem Kaptangil, Mustafa Daskin
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge of foodservice staff in fast-food resaurants in a Turkish context. Data for this empirical investigation were gathered from a sample of full-time foodservice staff at the different fast-food restaurants in Ankara/Turkey. Respondents self-administered the questionnaires. A total number of 165 questionnaires were obtained in the research location. Results based on the descriptive statistics, staff works in fast food restaurants in Ankara are not knowledgeable on foodborne/food poisoning and the training rate is not at the satisfactory level. In addition, t-test result demonstrates that female respondents are more knowledgeable compared to males. This paper provides implications for managers in terms of minimizing the negative effects of foodborne diseases and maximizing the employees food safety knowledge in a servive setting where the food indusrty is increasing. Theoretically, the current study by examining the food safety knowledge of restaurant staff and providing insights into the foodborn disease in a developing touristic destination lends further contribution to the related literature.rnrn
Keywords: Foodborne disease; Fast-food restaurants; Food handlers; Food safety; Turkey.
Cultural Tensions in the Late Ottoman Empire: A Romantic Nationalism Model
by Alf Walle
Abstract: In the 19th century, Romantic Nationalism provided an alternative to rational visions and universal strategies for mankind. Doing so involved affirming that cultures are products of their heritage and that people are emotionally connected to them. As a result, alternative ways of life should not be forced upon people. By adapting Romantic Nationalism to an analysis of tensions in the later years of the Ottoman Empire, a widely understood paradigm of cultural stability and change is applied to a crucial era in Middle Eastern history.
Keywords: Ottoman Empire; Romantic Nationalism; Greek Independence; Arab uprising; Young Turks.
IT Efficiency and Communication Effectiveness in Crisis: Evidence from Security Sector Data in Yemen
by FUAD NASR
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of IT Efficiency (ITE) and Communication Effectiveness (CE) on Effectiveness of Crisis Management (ECM), and the impact of (ITE) on (CE). Hence, we proposed a method based on a second generation structural equation (PLS-SEM) to measure data of 143 Staff in operations room of security sector institutions (SSI) in Yemen, helping to understand and recognize the importance of developing technology systems and activate communication in the face of crises at all stages. The results obtained showed, that ITE items have significant influence ranging 0.14-0.23 on CE. Additionally, ITE items have significant influence ranging 0.15-0.31 on ECM. Moreover, it was found that CE items have significant influence ranging 0.19-0.31 on ECM. This study explored the direct impact of ITE and CE on ECM and the impact of ITE on CE. Previous studies rarely tested the effects of functional, administrative and technical service quality, simultaneously
Keywords: IT Efficiency; Communication Effectiveness; Effectiveness of Crisis Management; Security Sector Institutions.
The Saudi Confidence Process towards a Store within Objective and Sensual Antecedents.
by Maher Toukabri
Abstract: Marketers have always been struggling for ways to heighten the consumers' confidence. The present study extends this perspective through an analysis of the confidence process occurring in a sales point. It hence aims at examining the effects of both emotions and hedonic constructs on confidence within the mediating role of implication. The conceptual model of this research integrates pleasure, activation, hedonic value and utilitarian value, and estimates the role of the mediator's involvement in the confidence process. A quantifiable survey involving 300 respondents from the Valley Mall in Saudi Arabia has been conducted to test the different hypotheses. Results have indicated that the Saudi consumer expresses confidence and commitment to the store through his immersion of atmospheric factors which constitute emotions and implication towards the shop. Therefore, marketers should concentrate on emotions and implication as well as on objective effects in the store. Academicians, on their part, can extend the scope of this research by integrating other socio-psychological factors.
Keywords: Sale point; confidence,emotions; value; implication.
The Role of Organizational Socialization Tactics and Task Characteristics toward Turnover Intentions: Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness
by Sajjad Ahmad, Qasim Ali Nisar, Khurram Aziz, Sohail Younus
Abstract: Employees turnover is deemed as crucial issue within the organizations as it leads towards negative consequences. Previous studies almost ignored the prompt factors that can tackle the employees turnover issue within knowledge intensive sector. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the role of work-life balance practices and organizational socialization tactics towards employees turnover intentions by concentrating the mediating role of job embeddedness. Data have been collected through survey questionnaire method by applying simple random sampling technique. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structure equation modeling (SEM) techniques have been used for statistical analysis. Results divulged that Organizational Socialization Tactics significantly and negatively related to employees turnover intentions. Moreover, work-life balance practices also have significant and negative association with employees turnover intentions. Findings also revealed that job embeddedness significantly and partially mediates the relationship between Organizational Socialization Tactics, work-life balance practices and turnover intentions. This study gives insight understanding regarding the crucial factors that leads to reduce turnover intentions.
Keywords: Organizational Socialization Tactics;Task Characteristics; Job Embeddedness; Turnover Intentions.
Romantic Nationalism in the Post-Ottoman Era: A Continued Struggle of Tension and Unrest
by Alf Walle
Abstract: Romantic Nationalism involves peoples striving to live according to their heritage and traditions in lands under their control. This movement, originally emerging in the early 19th century West, exerted a significant impact during the final decades of the Ottoman Empire. After World War 1 President Woodrow Wilson of the United States advocated policies that were friendly to self-determinism in the Middle East. Ignoring these recommendations, Britain and France divided up the former Ottoman Empire with little regard to the will of the people who lived there. Since then, the reactions of effected ethnic groups, including the founding of Israel and its impacts upon indigenous Palestinians, have often been similar to Romantic Nationalism. Viewing these tensions with reference to Romantic Nationalism provides a useful tool of analysis, reflection, and policy formation.
Keywords: Romantic Nationalism; Megali Idea; Turkish War of Independence; Arab Nationalism; The Kurds; irredentism; Israel.
The Role of Knowledge Management for long-term sustainability in Kuwait Companies
by Maia Chiabrishvili, Halil Zaim
Abstract: KM is considered as a strategic component for organizations to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the long run. This research aims to investigate the effects of KM processes on organizational sustainability in Kuwaiti context. In order to test this relationship a regression analysis was conducted based on data collected from the service sector in Kuwait.
Data analysis reveal that there is a direct linear correlation between KM processes and organizations sustainability. If we look at the comparative analysis of KM processes, knowledge storage appears to be the most significant factor for organizational sustainability followed by knowledge utilization and sharing. Knowledge generation is also positively correlated with sustainability but it has comparatively less impact.
Keywords: knowledge management; competitiveness; sustainability; knowledge management processes; companies; Kuwait.
Cognition-Based and Experience-Based Trust and Risk in Social Commerce in Egypt
by Emad Abou-Elgheit
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of cognition (rational factor) and experience on consumers trust and risk in a social electronic commerce context in Egypt. It also examines the impact of these factors on consumers intention to purchase online. Data was collected through an online survey distributed to a sample of 599 online shoppers in Egypt. Three electronic vendors supported the research by promoting the survey to their customers. The study argues that electronic vendors perceived reputation and integrity play a significant role in shaping consumers trust, while security protection and third-party seals help to reduce perceived risk. The study also has significant theoretical implications for the legacy theories of trust and social impact.
Keywords: Social commerce; trust; consumer behaviour; cognition; experience; digital marketing.
Total Quality Management and the Quality of Service provided: Case Study of Jordanian Public Management
by Sahem Nawafleh, Anan Abu Hummour
Abstract: A vital quality improvement process, known as Total Quality Management (TQM), is being utilised by numerous organisations worldwide with its success being displayed with increases in service quality. This paper aimed to measure the level of this success by measuring the improvement in service quality in the Civil Status and Passport Department within the Jordanian Public Sector. The influence of TQM on four separate criteria was measured. These were the level of response, the accuracy of the response, the employees empathy towards the service recipient and the availability of the service within a given time or place. Data was gathered via questionnaire response from 390 randomly selected personnel working within the Jordans Public Sector. The analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between TQM and service quality within the Jordanian Public Sector (α≤0.05). Further research in field can be rolled out across all Jordanian government institutions are recommended.
Keywords: Total Quality Management; Quality of Service; Public-Sector; Public Employees; Jordan.
Special Issue on: Leadership and Management Challenges and Issues Facing Organisations in Developing Countries
THE INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT INNOVATION, BRAND IMAGE, AND PHYSICAL EVIDENCE TO PURCHASE DECISION AND WOM OF STARBUCKS IN JAKARTA
by Sri Wahyuni
Abstract: Purchase decision and Word of Mouth of product were essential parts of marketing. Once a customer decides to buy a product then shares positive WOM towards the product. The purchase decision and WOM conducted by the customers create some advantages for the company. The customers of Starbucks Jakarta are the object of this study. Questionnaires, as the primary data used in this study, were disseminated to 120 customers of Starbucks in Jakarta. The data collection method used purposive sampling method. While AMOS 20.0 program was used to test the hyphotheses. This study had six research hyphotheses; four of them showed positive and significant effects, only two of the hyphotheses showed no positive influence. Product innovation and physical evidence gived significant influence towards purchase decision and WOM. However, brand image did not influence purchase decision and WOM. This study was expected to give implication towards the company and the marketers to develop the brand image by creating marketing activities.
Keywords: product innovation; brand image; physical evidence; purchase decision; and WOM.
Linking Leaders Emotional Labor Strategies with Leaders Attitude: An Effective Approach towards Leadership
by Sajjad Ahmad, Qasim Ali Nisar, Asma Imran, Summaira Malik, Waqas Chaudhary
Abstract: Emotions are important part of ones life and job. Emotions are always ready for feisty attack on individuals attitudes at workplace. These also affect a leaders attitudes. Thereby, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of leaders emotional labor strategies on leaders attitudes by considering the mediating role of leaders job satisfaction. The data were collected from teachers of universities in Punjab Pakistan by using simple random sampling. Data from the university teachers of Punjab have been made use to examine the impact of different emotional strategies like deep acting, surface acting, and genuine emotional aspects impacting the teachers loyalty and commitment outputs. In order to evaluate the results, Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structure Equation Modeling had been used to evaluate the appropriate results. Results divulged that emotional labor strategies significantly influence the leaders attitudes. Moreover, surface acting is significantly and negatively associated with leaders organizational commitment and leaders loyalty. Similarly, deep acting and display of genuine emotions significantly and positively correlated with leaders organizational commitment and leaders loyalty. Path analysis results indicated that leaders job satisfaction partially mediate the relationship between emotional labor strategies and leaders attitudes. The study contributes to the current knowledge regarding emotional labor strategies and leaders attitudes.
Keywords: Emotional Labor Strategies; Surface Acting; Deep Acting; Display of Genuine Emotion; Organizational Commitment; Loyalty; Job Satisfaction.
Transformational Leadership And Work Engagement: Exploring The Black Boxes By Looking Into The Lense of Intentional Change Theory
by Muhammad Waqas, Raheema Zubair, Atif Mahmood
Abstract: Purpose - This study was conducted to determine the effect of transformational leadership(TL) on work engagement (WE) of nurses in Lahore-Pakistan. Previous studies showed that some job demands had positive connection with WE while some reviews declared negative influence of job demands on WE. This study intended to find out the role of leadership in defining job demands as challenges and their further relationship with WE.Research-Design/methodology/approach -Primary data and snowball sampling technique was used. Data was analysed on Smart PLS3.Findings -Test analysis showed that TL has significant relationship with WE. Practical implications In hospitals, transformational leaders reduced the stress of nurses which lead to self-confidence and caused them to perceive job demands as a challenge. Originality/value - This study obtained TL as positive leadership style in hospitals as there was more risk involved regarding human health, and nurses must ask from their leaders before giving any treatments to the patients.
Keywords: Job demands; Job resources; Transformational leadership; Job challenges; Work engagement.
Organizational politics and task performance: The intervening role of affective organizational commitment in a public sector organization
by Muhammad Butt, Atif Mahmood, Sara Kanwal, Farooq Bajwa
Abstract: Organizational politics is one of the pervasive but overlooked domains, particularly in public sector organizations who serve citizens. In this context, a conceptual model was proposed to empirically consider the intervening role of affective organizational commitment between the infrequently studied relationship of perception of organizational politics and task performance among the employees of a large public organization in the capital city of Punjab, Pakistan. Accordingly, to test the presumed predictions of current study, we employed Preacher and Hayes mediation analysis in SPSS.22. The findings of multiple regression, with 10000 bootstraps demonstrated the effect of perceived organizational politics on employees task performance was transmitted only through affective organizational commitment. Therefore, it provides the empirical support for an argument that extant literature has not tested before in a public sector organization, who protects the citizens. The data collection from single source using self-reported measures might have raised the chances of common method biased and also, cross-sectional design of current study limits its ability to draw sound conclusions. Overall the findings of this study contributes towards our understanding of how politics in workplace impact civil servants task performance.
Keywords: organizational politics; organizational commitment and employee performance.
Effects of external prestige on emotional labor: mediation by organizational identification and moderation by perceived organizational support
by Farooq Anwar, Ishfaq Ahmed, Muhammad Waqas, Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail, Talat Islam
With the shift from manufacturing to services economies, the need of customer management has increased. The shift has also increased the role of frontline employees in managing their emotions, as they may directly influence customers responses towards organizations, their products and services. Based on this premise, this study values emotional labor (as source of gaining customers positive outcomes) and role of external prestige in predicting it. Furthermore, it also entails the investigation of organizational identification as mediator and perceived organizational support as moderator.
This study is aimed at investigating the emotional labor and its explanatory mechanism, the employees from service organizations were the most suitable population. For this, data was collected from 314 services employees through structured questionnaire. Sample was selected on the basis of both random and referral sampling techniques, and questionnaire was adopted from already well-developed measures.
Findings of the study empirically prove that external prestige of organization influences employees emotional responses (surface acting and deep acting), while organizational identification partially mediates the relation. Perceptions of organizational support, on the other hand, influences the strength of relation between external prestige and organizational identification.
This study adds value in existing literature on service organizations by highlighting the factors influencing emotional labor (surface & deep acting) of front line employees. Moreover, it covers the moderated mediating mechanism explaining both forms of employee acting for customers.
Keywords: external prestige; organizational identification; emotional labor; perceived organizational support; surface acting; deep acting.