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Middle East Journal of Management

 

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Middle East J. of Management (39 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Influence of Transformational Leadership on Innovative Work Behavior, and mediating role of Teachers Self Efficacy and Innovative Climate: Insight from Engineering Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajid Khan, Asma Imran, Muhammad Nafees 
    Abstract: ABSTRACTrnPurpose - The primary aim of this research is to examine the influence of Transformational Leadership (TL) on Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) and mediating effect of Teachers Self Efficacy (TSE) and Innovative Climate (IC). All variables of this study are studied at the level of individual university employees. This insight can provide the instruction to the institutions regarding how to execute the effective leadership in creating the IC and TSE in order to make innovative behavior (IB) possible that helps out the academic organizations to remain innovative in their research work in a rapidly changing environment. Design/Methodology/Approach - A quantitative research paradigm was employed using a questionnaire survey method, the data was collected from 112 academicians of engineering schools in the universities. Data has been analyzed through Pearson correlation and linear regression tests. Findings in the engineering institutions the author found that a positive relationship existed between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior. The analysis of the results also supported the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior via one mediating variable Teachers Self Efficacy, but the results of the current study do not support the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior via second mediating variable Innovative Climate. Originality Value This study investigated the relationship of Transformational Leadership to Innovative Work Behavior by empirically testing the mediating role of Teachers Self Efficacy and Innovative Climate. rn
    Keywords: Transformational Leadership; Innovative Work Behavior; Teachers Self Efficacy; Innovative Climate.

  • Impact of CRM Components System on Customer Retention in the Telecom Industry: A Case of Y-Telecom in Yemen   Order a copy of this article
    by Wail Alhakimi, Abdulsalam Ghaleb 
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify customer relationship management components (call center, service center, and data mining) and their role in influencing customer retention through customer satisfaction in Telecom Industry. The study used a descriptive analytical method to answer the questions of the study. A questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The sample consists of 317 Y-Telecoms subscribers. The study showed that there is an effect of CRM system components in achieving customer retention. Data mining is deemed the highest component of the technological elements in CRM, which contributed in achieving customer retention. However, the call center is the lowest component, which requires more work and development. Customer satisfaction - the intervening variable - showed no correlation with customer retention. The study recommends the call center staff to improve their communication skills and focusing on data mining process to make better services for clients and employ them in marketing to target customers individually.
    Keywords: Customer relationship management; CRM components; call center; service center; data mining; customer satisfaction; customer retention; Y-Telecom; Yemen.

  • Planning under Uncertainty using Chess Principles, Strategies and Tactics   Order a copy of this article
    by Isam Al-Filali, Ahmed Attia, Abdo Husseiny, Asma Alhamadi 
    Abstract: The uncertainty and volatility of oil prices and the rise of political uncertainty in the Middle East region have shifted the ground beneath the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies in recent years. The traditional planning methods are strategically blind and inherently short sighted when used by firms under uncertainty. This study provides concepts, analytic tools, and examples of the four levels of uncertainty. The study draws a parallel between the uncertainty in chess game and business and tailored chess principles, processes, strategies and tactics to be used by businesses under uncertainty situations. This study contributes to current knowledge of using chess as metaphor to describe business, finding a connection to the dynamics of chess given the use of its principles, strategy and tactics.
    Keywords: Keywords: chess; strategic planning; uncertainty; strategies; tactics; analytic tools; uncertainty levels; principles of planning; planning under uncertainty; decision-making; competition; Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC); the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

  • The Effects of Perceived Organizational Justice And Ethical Climate on Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intention, and Job Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ozgur Kokalan, Umit Sevik 
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the moderator role of the organisational justice and the ethical climate perceived by employees on job satisfaction, intention on ceasing the employment, and performance levels. In the light of this aim, questionnaires were used by using the convenience sampling method with 347 employees in stanbul and Afyonkarahisar. The performance levels of 347 employees were evaluated by their administrators. The results of the questionnaires and the performance evaluation were analysed and interpreted by using descriptive analyses and regression analyses. According to the results obtained in the analyses, the perceived organisational justice was high when the job satisfaction, and performance levels were high when the perceived ethical climate was high; however, there were no significant relations between the turnover intention. It was determined that the perceived ethical climate had a moderator effect only in the relation between the perceived organisational justice, job satisfaction and performance.
    Keywords: perceived ethical climate; job satisfaction; turnover intention; job performance; perceived organisational justice.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10014477
     
  • Providing a framework for evaluating the advertising efficiency using data envelopment analysis technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Armin Ejlal, Maysam Shafiee Roodposhti 
    Abstract: Advertising plays an important role in the marketing strategy and a considerable amount of budgets has been allocated for advertising every year. However, the proportion of advertisement campaign achievements to those designated for their design, or in other words, its efficiency, is questionable. This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of the food industrys advertising brands using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The duration of the campaign and budget as input and brand familiarity, attractiveness of implementation and sale were used as an output for the evaluation. The results of the study indicated that there are inefficiencies in this industry, thus in an attempt to improve the situation of the advertising efficiency, some solutions was provided to managers. Also, the most important variables affecting the efficiency of the food industry was identified by Sensitivity analysis.
    Keywords: Advertising; efficiency; Data envelopment analysis.

  • Multidimensional Structure for the Effect of Innovation Culture and Knowledge Sharing on the New Product Development Process with Emphasis on Improving New Product Development Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi, Ali Shahrokhnia 
    Abstract: The main goal of the paper is to study the effect of innovation culture and knowledge sharing on the New-Product Development (NPD) process with emphasis on improving new-product development performance." The research has been implemented in software developer or producer companies as well as information technology companies in Tehran, Iran. This study is an applied research in the goal view, and contains qualitative variables; also, it is a descriptive-survey and casual-correlation research in the data-gathering view. The validity of the content of the questionnaire posited in this study was confirmed by academic and industrial experts and constructive validity indices. Moreover, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using Cronbachs Alpha and Composite Reliability indicators. Findings have shown that appropriate infrastructure for innovation has the most effect on creating an innovation culture; it was also revealed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between innovation culture and new-product development performance which is made by the mediation of knowledge sharing and NPD process.
    Keywords: Innovation Culture; Knowledge Sharing; New Product Development process; New Product Development Performance.

  • Firm-level investment, Financing Choices, and Corporate Taxation Management: Evidence from panel of Non-Financial Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul Haque, Ammar Abid, Saira Sundas, Ali Qamar Jibran 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between firms financing choices, taxation benefits and investment in Pakistani listed firms where firms are reliant on bank financing to finance their investment, as financial markets are not well developed. We apply the system Generalized Method of Moments regression estimation on a sample of firms listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange during the period from 2001-2014 to deal with the endogeneity concerns. Our findings are that there is a positive relationship between leverage and investment accruing from the use of tax shield benefits which also are positively and significantly associated with the firm-level investment. Equity is also positively related to investment but the effect of leverage is more pronounced than equity. When we classify the firms according to their level of debt, we find that the positive and significant relation between leverage and investment is stronger in firms with a medium level of debt, consistent with the trade-off theory argument of the existence of an optimal level of debt. Overall our results are consistent with the hypothesis that firms utilize debt to supplement their investment in circumstances where alternate mechanisms of finance are not well developed deriving tax shield benefits in the process as long as such benefits outweigh the financial distress costs. An important implication of the findings is that the debt holders might not perform the traditional disciplinary role to restrict over investment bias in economies where the relationship between debt holders and borrowers are complex and firms are financially constrained.
    Keywords: Firm-level investment; Taxation; Financial Expenses; Debt and Equity Financing.

  • The Islamic Perspective of Environmental Sustainability and Management   Order a copy of this article
    by M.M. Sulphey 
    Abstract: The study examines the Islamic perspective of Islamic environmental sustainability based on the Holy text the Quran, and the sayings of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) the hadith. The paper conducts a thorough review of the above two texts and presents the Islamic perspective of the behaviour expected from humans to address environmental sustainability issues. It also attempts to present the duties and responsibilities desired of human beings towards having a self sustaining environment that will be an ideal place for the future generations too. The presentation of the paper is such that it will act as a trigger for further research in this challenging and marvellous area.
    Keywords: Environmental sustainability; Environment management; Islam; Islamic perspective; Quran; Hadith.

  • The Impact of Job Crafting on Work Engagement: Evidence from Jordanian Universities   Order a copy of this article
    by Yahya Melhem 
    Abstract: Job crafting has emerged as a theoretical approach that expands perspectives on job design to include proactive changes that employees make to their own jobs. This study examines the impact of job crafting on work engagement mediated by autonomy and task independence among university academics in Jordan. Data for this study were collected from 264 academics to explore the effect of job crafting on work engagement. Results indicated that job crafting has positive significant impact on work engagement, and that autonomy and task independence facilitate and enhance job crafting behaviors. Recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.
    Keywords: Job crafting; Job Engagement; Autonomy; Task Independence; Academics; Jordan_.

  • The impact of emotional intelligence on employee performance and employee engagement: Mediating role of job satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Shumaila Naz, Cai Li, Hira Salah Ud Din Khan, Muhammad Rafiq 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to explore the impact of emotional intelligence on employee engagement, employee performance. It also investigated the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship of emotional intelligence-employee engagement, and emotional intelligence-employee performance. Data was obtained from 233 employees working in manufacturing sector of the Lahore, Pakistan using convenience sampling through self-administered survey. Theories of ability model of emotional intelligence, affective events theory, and conservation of resources COR theory was underpinned to support proposed research model. Convergent validity of studied variables and relationships were measured through measurement model and structural model of PLS-SEM respectively. The findings revealed that emotional intelligence is significantly and positively associated with employee performance and engagement directly and indirectly through job satisfaction.
    Keywords: emotional intelligence; employee engagement; job satisfaction; employee performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10015961
     
  • A TEST OF MARKET EFFICIENCY USING STOCK MARKET ANOMALIES (A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH).   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Syed Zain Ul Abdin, Muhammad Waqas, Mumtaz Ahmad 
    Abstract: Previous researchers study the presence of anomalies in the stock market but very least studies identify the causes that generate anomalies. This study tests the efficient market hypothesis in the context of prospect theory. The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of behavioral factors on different classes of anomalies. Further, investigate the differential effect of prospects components on different classes of anomalies. Data collected from 324 real individual investors of Pakistani stock exchange. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized model using smart PLS 3.0. The results show that mental accounting has a positive significant effect on all anomalies. In short, investors use their own mental account in their decision-making. Loss aversion has a positive significant effect on technical anomalies and regret has a positive significant effect on fundamental anomalies. However, Self-control does not have a significant effect on technical and calendar anomalies.
    Keywords: Prospect Theory; Behavioral Finance; Stock Market Anomalies; Fundamental Anomalies; Technical Anomalies. Calendar Anomalies.

  • Factors Affecting Buyers' Trust in E-Commerce in Palestine   Order a copy of this article
    by Rania Abduallah, Yahya Saleh 
    Abstract: Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is relatively a new concept and research topic in developing countries including Palestine. In this form of commerce, the first impression that users create about an organisation is often based on the organisations websites trustworthiness. This has motivated many researchers to investigate the factors that influence buyers trust in such websites. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the potential factors affecting buyers trust in e-commerce in Palestine. More specifically, the study embraces a multi-dimensional construct of trust (integrity, benevolence, ability) rather than examining each single dimension of trustworthiness individually. In addition, the effect of independent variables including website design attitudes, reliability, privacy and security attitudes, customer satisfaction and governmental factors on e-commerces trust dimensions have been mathematically investigated. To this end, relevant data from a random sample of 354 Palestinian citizens who have experienced the online shopping, or who have interest in online purchasing, were collected. Statistical analyses revealed significant effects of all independent variables except reliability on buyers trust in e-commerce in Palestine. Also, four linear regression models relating the independent variables with e-commerces trust and its three dimensions (integrity, benevolence, ability) have been built and statistically validated.
    Keywords: electronic commerce; e-commerce; trust; integrity; ability; online purchasing; regression; benevolence.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10017834
     
  • How will Increasing the Competitiveness of Energy Sector Stimulate the Economic Growth of Saudi Arabia: 2030 Vision   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadia Yusuf 
    Abstract: The study has identified main factors associated with the increase in competitiveness of energy sector to benefit the countrys economy. Quantitative research design was opted to investigate the association between oil prices, carbon emissions, electricity consumption, natural gas production, wind and solar energy, and energy supply of Saudi Arabia. GDP was the variable used to represent economic. The results have shown positive and significant impact of competitiveness of oil production (p = 0.044) and consumption (p = 0.000) on GDP. The competitiveness of gas production is significant and positive on economic growth of the country (p = 0.000). There is 5.8% increase in economic growth of Saudi Arabia. There is a significant impact of new work strategies and creating employment on the economic development of the state, along with the deducing the harmful factors of the growth and progress.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide emission; economic growth; energy consumption; energy prices; energy sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10015971
     
  • Do Family Firms Pay More to Their CEOs?   Order a copy of this article
    by Anam Tasawar, Mian Sajid Nazir, Farooq Anwar 
    Abstract: The present study sheds light on the potential dominance of family ownership and its control on CEO compensation in Pakistani family and non-family firms by using data of 132 firms during 2009 to 2015. This study contributes toward new milestone in prior research regarding to developing eastern economies with family dominance in businesses, with respect to impact of family control on CEO compensation. The literature in corporate finance points out that the family firms scrub the level of compensation, which reveals that larger family shareholders play active monitoring role as well as regulate the pay structures of top management. The current study establishes a support for alignment hypothesis of agency theory and does not support the corroboration of managerial rent extracting behavior in family firms. Moreover, the financial institutions have positive effect on CEO compensation; however, the role of institutions in deciding CEO perks becomes negative in case of family firms as compared to non-family firms.
    Keywords: CEO compensation; family ownership; firm performance; board independence; institutional ownership.

  • Testing for Temperature Anomaly in Capital Markets of Pakistan and India   Order a copy of this article
    by Mian Sajid Nazir, Hammad Hassan Mirza, Arslan Shaukat, Ayesha Liaqat 
    Abstract: This study shows temperature-based indicator impact on trading decision and stock returns to financial investors. By using disaggregated data, we showed that stock markets deviate (anomalies) from fundamentals and contradicts the rule of efficient market hypothesis. Among other anomalies, temperature anomaly is said to be driven through psychological factor of investors moods which can influence their trading decisions. We find a statistically significant but negative relationship between Karachi temperature and KSE-100 index returns for the period of January 02, 2006 to Dec 31, 2015. However, Mumbai temperature seems to have no impact on BSE-100 index for the period of our research. Using GARCH methodology, the study incorporates daily temperature data from two South Asian financial hubs and their respective impact on stock returns. The findings of this paper can be further extended to analyze whether other economic sectors are influenced by the temperature based stock market anomalies.
    Keywords: temperature anomaly; weather; moods; Pakistan Stock Exchange; Mumbai Stock Exchange.

  • Leadership Competencies of Middle Managers and Employees' Job Performance: Evidence from a Palestinian Media Channel   Order a copy of this article
    by Wasim Al-Habil, Mohammed Aboramadan, Essam Zaqout 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine the relationship between leadership competencies and job performance at Al-Aqsa TV channel. A descriptive analytical design was adopted in this study. A total number of two hundred and eighty-eight questionnaires were distributed to Al-Aqsa TV channel employees. One hundred and eighty-one questioners were returned and were usable for statistical analysis. In this study, the Leadership Competency Model was used to measure the leadership competencies at Al-Aqsa TV channel. The results showed that middle managers at Al-Aqsa TV possess leadership competencies at a medium level. The results also demonstrated a positive relationship between leadership competences and performance at Al-Aqsa TV channel. Job performance was mainly influenced by three competencies which are: building coalitions or communications, business acumen and leading change. The paper suggests that building coalitions/communications, business acumen, and leading change, leading people, results driven competencies must be considered while developing job performance development plans. Finally, this paper contributes to the media management empirical literature as the topic is not well developed in developing countries and especially in Palestine.
    Keywords: Media Management; Leadership Competencies; Job Performance.

  • Compensation systems attributes and teachers performance: Mediating effect of Psychological contract fulfillment   Order a copy of this article
    by Rana Nadir Idrees, Imran Haider Naqvi, Asma Imran, Muhammad Ismail 
    Abstract: Higher education institutions (HEIs) play a role in building a knowledge economy, but doing so requires dedicated, well-educated and well-performing teachers, so teachers performance (TP) has become an issue for developing countries. This research evaluates the impact of compensation system schemes on teachers performance in the universities of Pakistan in order to explain the mediating role of psychological contract fulfilment (PCF). A nationwide survey of 52 HEIs in Pakistan was conducted using the random sampling probability technique. After the data collection, mediation was checked using quantitative research methods, including correlation, regression, multiple mediation, and process. This study analyses the importance of psychological contract fulfilment in mediating the relationship between compensation systems attributes (CSAs) and teachers performance and suggests that psychological contract fulfilment mediates the relationship between compensation system attributes and teachers performance. This study confirms and extends existing empirical evidence concerning the basis of the CSAs-PCF-TP relationships. The current study helps higher-education authorities and other policymakers to realign their compensation systems to create stronger relationships between compensation and psychological contract fulfilment to teachers performance, which will help them to attain their sustainable development plans.
    Keywords: tenure track system; TTS; performance; appraisal; psychological contract fulfilment; PCF; higher education; socio-economic indicators; university; faculty; human Resource; human capital; ranking.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10016936
     
  • Eco-friendly and Healthy Consumption of Young Saudis: Its Stimuli and Welfare.   Order a copy of this article
    by Maher Toukabri, Odai Falah Mohammad AlGhaswyneh 
    Abstract: This study intends to discover the determinants of healthy consumption in the Saudi market. It equally intends to fill the rift caused by the absence of studies investigating the healthy consumption process and the benefit brought to the Saudi youth. The literature background allows us to design a model of the healthy consumption of young Saudis, and the hypotheses to test. The quantitative part presents two samples of young consumers in the Saudi market. For this, we interviewed consumers, visitors of four restaurants in Arar Mall, located in KSA. The first sample was used in the exploratory study and the second one was collected to confirm the measurements, test the hypotheses, and validate and specify the developed model. This study aimed at providing deeper insights into the healthy consumption of young Saudis. Hence, we specifically concentrated on youth healthy intention purchase antecedents, their willingness to pay mediation, and past behavior moderation.
    Keywords: Health consciousness; Subjective norm; Perceived behavioral control; Past healthy eating behavior ; Willingness to pay for green; Healthy eating intention.

  • Linking Ability-enhancing HR practices, Customer Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence: Insight from Banking Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Imran Naqvi, Sarah Azhar, Asma Imran 
    Abstract: Purpose This study defines and expound the relationship between ability-enhancing HR practices (A-HRM) and customer satisfaction (CS).Ability-enhancing HR practices comprise recruitment &selection (R&S) and training (TR).The mediating role of emotional intelligence (EI) is tested within the relationship of A-HRM and CS. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted on a group of 467 employees and same number of customers from 126 banks branches operating in Punjab,Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used in the process of statistical analysis. Findings The research confirmed a significant statistical relationship between all studied variables: A-HRM, EI and CS. It was concluded, on the basis of the analysis, using SEM, that A-HRM have an indirect influence on CS, through EI. Research limitations/implications A cross-sectional design and use of self-reported questionnaire data are limitations of this study. Originality/value This study theoretically confirms that emotional intelligence has a positive impact on customer satisfaction and a mediating effect on the relationships between ability-enhancing HR practices and customer satisfaction. The results of this research extend the knowledge in the area of customer service outcomes, with aspects of HR practices and emotional intelligence in the organizations.
    Keywords: Ability-enhancing HR practices; Emotional intelligence; Structural equation modeling; Customer satisfaction.

  • The antecedents of student-university identification: An investigation into the Egyptian higher education sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Hisham Hawass 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the quality of interaction between students and professors, and university reputation on student-university identification in the public Egyptian higher education context. It also examines the mediating effect of the student\'s passion to learn on the above mentioned relationships. The study uses a questionnaire which consists of valid and reliable measurement scales. A structure equation modeling has been conducted in order to empirically examine the hypothesized relationships. The findings reveal that university reputation is directly associated with student-university identification. The student\'s passion to learn partially mediates the relationship between reputation and identification. Moreover, the passion to learn fully mediates the association between the quality of interaction and identification.
    Keywords: Student-university identification; quality of interaction between academics and students; university reputation; and the passion to learn.

  • Developing Entrepreneurial Intentions: What Matters?   Order a copy of this article
    by Saaed Mujahid, Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik, Navaz Naghavi 
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the major personality traits and their impact on entrepreneurial intentions of Pakistani business students, specifically in terms of perceived support and perceived barriers. The study used a close ended questionnaire adopted from previous studies to collect data from 200 business students studying in business schools of Karachi, Pakistan, and applied the Partial Least Square (PLS) method to analyze the relationships. Results revealed that attitude, innovativeness and risk taking ability have a profound effect on entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, study analyzed results by dividing students into two categories education system i.e. matric system and Cambridge system. Interestingly, risk taking ability and innovativeness were high among those students who studied from matric system which is contrary to perceived wisdom. Based on these findings, our study suggests devising awareness programs aimed at fostering students attitude toward entrepreneurship and nurturing their creativity. For an in-depth analysis, study suggests focusing on high risk taking, innovative individuals to further understand what drives them.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention; Partial Least Square (PLS); Attitude towards entrepreneurship; Psychological formation; Risk taking; Innovativeness; Creativity ; Perceived wisdom; Awareness.

  • Examining the Indirect Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Performance: An Empirical Study in Lebanon   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamara Kasamani, Rania Mostafa 
    Abstract: The current study examines a mediated model to understand the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm performance (FP). Based on the research findings from a sample of 110 respondents from Lebanese firms, the results suggest that the CSR and FP association is an entirely mediated relationship. In particular, CSR is positively linked to firm financial performance indirectly through the enhancement of reputation, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage. Hence, the findings reduce ambiguity around CSRs direct role, and reveal that CSR promotes firm performance indirectly through building intangible assets (reputation, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage) that are essential to the survival of a firm.
    Keywords: competitive advantage; corporate social responsibility; customer satisfaction; firm performance; Lebanon; reputation.

  • AN ANALYSIS ON SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING PRACTICES OF THE TURKISH BANKING SECTOR   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmet Mentes 
    Abstract: Stakeholders increasingly expect firms to disclose their activities and the effects of these activities on environment and society. Banks and other financial institutions are no exception and face similar pressure from all stakeholders to be more transparent. This study uses Global Reporting Initiative guidelines to explore the sustainability reporting practices of the Turkish banking sector. All of the fifty two banks that operate in Turkey as of 2015 are included in the study. Results exhibit that only nine banks release sustainability reports. The economic (EC) dimension indicators of sustainability reports have the highest disclosure rate among reporting banks. On the other hand Financial Services Sector (FS) supplement has the lowest disclosure rate among reporting banks compared to other dimensions of sustainability reporting. Findings also indicate that the asset size of sustainability report releasing banks add up to more than seventy five percent of the banking sector in Turkey.
    Keywords: Finance; Banking; Sustainability; Sustainability Reporting; Banking; Turkey; Global Reporting Initiative; Governance; Voluntary Disclosure; Corporate Strategy.

  • Linking Elements of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance: Examining the Moderation of Environmental Dynamism   Order a copy of this article
    by Imran Shafique, Munazza Saeed 
    Abstract: This research is designed to examine the impact of elements of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firm performance by considering environmental dynamism as a potential moderator. Data was gathered from 143 textile and leather manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan. Partial least square (PLS) was employed to analyze the hypotheses. The findings reveal that EO elements positively affect firm performance directly, except in the case of proactiveness. However, the nexus between the elements of EO and firm performance are also positively moderated by the environmental dynamics. Managers can exploit the EO elements according to the environmental situation of the industry. Further, scholars can comprehend better the EO-firm performance link by considering the environmental dynamism of the industry. Innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking as distinctive EO elements are hypothesized and their individual effects on firm performance analyzed considering the environmental dynamism as a potential moderator.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation (EO); innovativeness; proactiveness; risk-taking; environmental dynamism; firm performance,.

  • Local decision-making within the concept of governance in Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Anan Abu Hummour 
    Abstract: Present study determines how public policy is made at local level in the countrys public sector. The primary data was gathered in the form of questionnaire responses from 281 randomly selected personnel working in local administration within the Kingdom of Jordans public sector. The findings indicate that there are various actors involved in the public policy process in Jordan. These actors include local councils, municipal councils, governorate councils, and executive councils as well as citizens, local donors, foreign aid, and civil society organizations. Furthermore, inflexibility, mystery, unresponsiveness, and centralization are the most common characteristics that overwhelmingly dominate local planning in Jordan. The finding also shows that there is a significant association between roles of actors on local decision-making at ( 0.05). The existence of the effect is statistically significant at the level of significance = ( 0.05) for the actors roles (local citizens, local donors, foreign aid, and civil society organization) related to roles affecting local decisions-making
    Keywords: Keywords: governance; public policy; decision-making process; local administration; Jordanian public sector; councillor.

  • Role of leaders in the development and maintenance of organizational culture through artifacts   Order a copy of this article
    by Asma Khalid, Bakhtawar Bibi, Ch. Shoaib Akhtar 
    Abstract: The present research explores the role of leaders in the development and maintenance of organizational culture by studying artifacts a part of organizational culture. To understand the culture of organizations, ethnographic approach is used. Primary data was gathered through twenty-eight semi-structured interviews, non-participant observation and studying and analyzing of different documents. For the study, two organizations belonging to insurance sector of Rawalpindi, Pakistan were taken as case studies. Data analysis included primarily with simple coding, followed by line by line coding and then themes were generated. Artifacts of organizational culture are discussed according to Schein Model of Culture (1990; 2004). Findings of this research suggest that artifacts such as tangible assets, logo, employees as asset, respect are important in organizations to be successful in the market. The other important finding is that leaders play a significant role in the development and maintenance of organizational culture through artifacts and bring success to the organizations.
    Keywords: Leaders; organizational culture; artifacts; ethnographic research; Schein model of culture.

  • IMPACT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS ON JOB ATTITUDES IN HEALTH SECTOR OF PAKISTAN: THE MODERATING ROLE OF ISLAMIC WORK ETHIC   Order a copy of this article
    by Hira Khan, Ma Zhiqiang, ABDUL AZIZ IBN MUSA, Thomas UDIMAL 
    Abstract: This research study investigated two manifold objectives. The first objective is to inspect the impact of perceived organizational politics on Job attitudes (job satisfaction, job Involvement and organizational commitment) and second objective aims to explore the moderating impact of Islamic work ethic on the association between perceived organizational politics and Job attitudes. Data was collected from 310 nurses employed in health division of different cities in Pakistan through systematic random sampling. This was done through a self-administered Questionnaire. Convergent validity of studied constructs and associations were tested through measurement model and structural equation modelling respectively. The results revealed that perceived organizational politics is significantly and negatively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. However, the findings did not support the negative affect of perceived organizational politics and job involvement. Moreover, the result indicated that Islamic work ethic weakens the negative association between perceived organizational politics and both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The current study provides a new perspective for employees attitude that result in organizations accomplishment. Limitations and suggestion for future research are discussed.
    Keywords: Perceived Organizational Politics (POP); Islamic work ethic (IWE); Job attitudes (Job satisfaction; Job Involvement; Organizational Commitment).

  • Debunking the Myths of Workplace Fun   Order a copy of this article
    by Elif Bilginoğlu 
    Abstract: Some of the myths of workplace fun which are formed in the minds of some people either get in the way of creating a fun work environment or cause people to feel guilty or judge others, when they are having fun at work. In order to eliminate these myths, this paper explains why conclusions that appear to be facts can truly be myths about workplace fun. Each myth presented in this paper is followed by a discussion of related research on workplace fun and its implications for organizations, managers and employees. Thus, this paper attempts to clarify a number of issues about this concept and aims to offer a factual report which corrects the myths surrounding workplace fun by making us become more aware of what research has to say about it. A number of widely held beliefs about workplace fun are examined in the context of research findings and a literature review that demythologize them with alternative perspectives. The key to understanding that the workplace fun has positive organizational effects, than most of us have been led to believe; is to dispel these myths, so that we have a better understanding of the concept.
    Keywords: Workplace fun; myths; fun at work.

  • Perceived Non-work Social Support and Employee Engagement: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Azim, Faisal Al-Halawani 
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the relationship among perceived non-work social supports (NWSS), self-efficacy, and employee job engagement. It is a cross-sectional, quantitative study based on a survey among the Saudi male and female Nurses through a structured questionnaire. The sample size was 146. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0. The study findings indicate an absence of a statistically significant relationship between perceived NWSS and employee job engagement. However, it is revealed that NWSS indirectly contributes to the higher level of engagement through increased self-efficacy. The result suggests that the support from family and friends increases employees self-efficacy, which in turn motivates them to engage in work. It bridges the gap in research on non-work social support and organizational issues, viz. job engagement, in this case. The study points to the fact that the organizations have to adopt family-friendly policies so that the employees can maintain work-life balance and ensure an approving relationship with their social networks. It also implies that organizations should enhance employee self-efficacy through organizational arrangements, such as training, mentoring, transformational leadership and positive feedback.
    Keywords: Employee Engagement; Nursing; Self-efficacy; Social support; Organizational support.

  • Designing Jihadi Management Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Alireza Naderifar, Masoud Pourkiani, Mohsen Zayandeh Roodi, Ayoub Sheikhi 
    Abstract: This study attempts to propose a new model of management (jihadi management model). The statistical population includes knowledgeable experts and senior staff and managers of organizations. The sample size (n=50) is determined based on the Snowball method. To collect information, library studies and semi-structured interviews are carried out. Moreover, Delphi method is used along with the researcher-made questionnaire. Likewise, to evaluate the research questions, the statistical methods of single sample t-test and confirmatory factor analysis are used. For data analysis, SPSS version 23 is also used. Based on the results, the Jihadi management model includes 76 indicators categorized in four sub- components of the roles, the duties, the skills, and the abilities of the manager and in two aspects (behavioral and cultural). The indicators of the behavioral dimension emphasize the type of manager's behavior, and his / her failures to follow them signalize his/ her weakness in individual management, so that in general, all managers of the modern age should equipped with such features. On the other hand, the cultural dimension indicators have a cultural, value, and spiritual significance, which should be obeyed and practiced by a jihadi manager, and their ignorance, would in turn weaken the jihadi character of the management.
    Keywords: Management; Jihad; Jihadi Management; Management Model; Jihadi Management Model.

  • Proposing a Model for Work Meaningfulness Concept at Business and Technology Incubators   Order a copy of this article
    by Gholamreza Malekzadeh, Alireza Khorakian, Mohhamad Amin Malekzadeh 
    Abstract: This article considers conceptualizing work meaningfulness at business and technology incubators as a fundamental solution for the expansion of knowledge-based businesses, in order to contribute to the building of a broader and more balanced theoretical framework for job crafting in this kind of organizations despite its complexity. Data are reported from semi-structured interviews with twenty managers of business and technology incubators and analyzed by using a grounded theory approach. The article recognizes central phenomenon dimensions, causal, contextual and intervening conditions, strategies and consequences, and proposes a theoretical model for work meaningfulness at these incubators. These findings contribute to both academic research and practical implications, such as redesign, development of plans and supporting the programs of enterprises and management styles, redefine jobs at business and technology incubators, and theoretical approaches from academic disciplines are linked to the dominant viewpoints in the literature.
    Keywords: Emerging organizations; Work meaningfulness; Work attitude; Business and Technology Incubator.

  • Customer engagement in collaborative innovation: investigating consumer motivation for participating in value co-creation   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Sadiq Sohail 
    Abstract: Firms engage customers to tap into product-related innovative ideas for future product development. This engagement of customers in co-creation activity provides unprecedented opportunities to create value offerings to customers. However, there is a dearth of understanding on what motivates customers to participate in co-creation activity. Based on the self-determination theory, this study proposes a model and investigates consumers intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to participate in co-creation. The model was tested on a survey data from 235 respondents from Saudi Arabia. Results reveal that the intrinsic motivator, enjoyment, predicted attitudes towards co-creation as well as willingness to participate in co-creation. The extrinsic motivators, showcasing of personal ideas and monetary reward also predicted attitudes towards co-creation and willingness to participate. An interesting finding is that gaining knowledge is not directly associated with willingness to participate, unless it is also associated at the same time with attitude towards co-creation.
    Keywords: co-creation; intrinsic; extrinsic; motivation; willingness to engage; attitude.

  • The influence of brand romance on Iranian youths loyalty towards Fast-Moving Consumer Goods   Order a copy of this article
    by Amir Khazaei, Farhad Hanifi, Mohammad Javad Taghipourian, Vahid Reza Mirabi 
    Abstract: Brand romance is considered as an important construct in marketing especially in brand area leading to the occurrence of some behaviors in consumers; however, a few types of research have been conducted on the importance of brand romance in fast-moving consumer goods. This study aim to identify sub dimensions of brand romance through depth interview and then analyzing the data by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Iin qualitative phase, depth interview have been conducted by consumers (48 samples) and in quantitative phase questionnaire have been distributed among consumers of fast-moving consumer goods (400 samples) in Mazandaran province (north of Iran). Data were analyzed using SPSS to measure exploratory factor analysis and Lisrel to test the hypotheses. This study has presented a 38-item scale with seven distinct dimensions, including pleasure, uniqueness, intimacy, arousal, liking, connection and indifference. Also, structural equation modelling shows that brand romance has positive effect on cognitive, affective, conative and behavioural loyalty. So, brand romance is a good predictor for customer loyalty.
    Keywords: brand romance; cognitive; affective; conative; behavioral; loyalty.

  • Romantic nationalism in the post-Ottoman era: a continued struggle of tension and unrest   Order a copy of this article
    by Alf H. Walle 
    Abstract: Romantic nationalism involves peoples striving to live according to their heritage and traditions in lands under their control. This movement, originally emerging in the early 19th century West, exerted a significant impact during the final decades of the Ottoman Empire. After World War 1 President Woodrow Wilson of the US advocated policies that were friendly to selfdeterminism in the Middle East. Ignoring these recommendations, Britain and France divided up the former Ottoman Empire with little regard to the will of the people who lived there. Since then, the reactions of effected ethnic groups, including the founding of Israel and its impacts upon indigenous Palestinians, have often been similar to Romantic Nationalism. Viewing these tensions with reference to Romantic Nationalism provides a useful tool of analysis, reflection, and policy formation.
    Keywords: romantic nationalism; Megali idea; Turkish War of independence; Arab nationalism; The Kurds; irredentism; Israel.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10019261
     
  • Cognition-based and experience-based trust and risk in social commerce in Egypt   Order a copy of this article
    by Emad Abou-Elgheit 
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of cognition (rational factor) and experience on consumers' trust and risk in a social electronic commerce context in Egypt. It also examines the impact of these factors on consumers' intention to purchase online. Data was collected through an online survey distributed to a sample of 599 online shoppers in Egypt. Three electronic vendors supported the research by promoting the survey to their customers. The study argues that electronic vendors' perceived reputation and integrity play a significant role in shaping consumers' trust, while security protection and third-party seals help to reduce perceived risk. The study also has significant theoretical implications for the legacy theories of trust and social impact.
    Keywords: social commerce; trust; consumer behaviour; cognition; experience; digital marketing.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10019262
     
  • Total quality management and the quality of service provided: case study of Jordanian public management   Order a copy of this article
    by Sahem Nawafleh, Anan Abu Hummour 
    Abstract: A vital quality improvement process, known as total quality management (TQM), is being utilised by numerous organisations worldwide with its success being displayed with increases in service quality. This paper aimed to measure the level of this success by measuring the improvement in service quality in the Civil Status and Passport Department within the Jordanian Public Sector. The influence of TQM on four separate criteria was measured. These were the level of response, the accuracy of the response, the employee's empathy towards the service recipient and the availability of the service within a given time or place. Data was gathered via questionnaire response from 390 randomly selected personnel working within the Jordan's Public Sector. The analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between TQM and service quality within the Jordanian Public Sector (α ≤ 0.05). Further research in field can be rolled out across all Jordanian government institutions are recommended.
    Keywords: TQM; total quality management; quality of service; public-sector; public employees; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10019263
     
  • Building e-loyalty for e-retailers: role of justice perception and consumer forgiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatma Özge Baruönü Latif, Aypar Uslu 
    Abstract: This study aims at exploring e-loyalty in the e-commerce context by emphasising the mediating roles of customer forgiveness with respect to the perceived fairness of recovery efforts and customers' e-loyalty towards eretailers. The data were collected from 380 respondents who experienced an online failure and had a recovery. This study demonstrates that the customers who experienced a service failure and received recovery evaluated functional justice (distributive, procedural and informational), and relational justice (interpersonal justice) in a different way. On the other hand, this research shows whilst emotional forgiveness mediates the relationship between functional justice and e-loyalty, forgiveness is affected by a religious commitment as well as fairness perception of customers. However, customers' empathy is not an indicator of forgiveness in e-commerce context. The results help e-commerce providers to develop effective recovery strategies and to empower the interactional role of virtual assistants to build a more empathetic relationship with the victims.
    Keywords: empathy; religious commitment; perceived fairness; justice; Turkey; e-retailer; online shopping; online retailer.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10018619
     
  • Linking emotional intelligence to knowledge sharing behaviour: mediating role of job satisfaction and organisational commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Shumaila Naz, Cai Li, Qasim Ali Nisar, Muhammad Rafiq 
    Abstract: The main objective of the research is to investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and knowledge sharing behaviour and its underlying mechanism. In knowledge intensive era, knowledge sharing behaviour is contemplated as an inevitable factor to foster organisational success. Response has been taken from 340 call centre employees located in Pakistan through questionnaires while employing stratified sampling technique. To analyse the measurement and structure model, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and partial least square method to structure equation modelling (PLS-SEM) have been utilised. The findings infer that emotional intelligence is positively associated with Knowledge sharing behaviour. Furthermore, job satisfaction and organisational commitment mediates the relation between emotional intelligence and knowledge sharing behaviour. The study suggests that management must induce such human resource management programs that develop positive employees' job attitudes and behaviour and devise selection tool to identify employees' emotional intelligence. The limitations are demarcated implying future research directions.
    Keywords: emotional intelligence; knowledge sharing behaviour; job satisfaction; organisational commitment.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10019264
     
  • What missing the internet means for e-business: a case from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Varsha Jain, Amrita Bansal, Peng Hwa Ang, B.E. Ganesh 
    Abstract: Comprehensively, around 40% of the general E-commerce business houses are associated through internet for various business exercises. This network has an exceedingly high degree of confidence and dependence on the internet. At the point when this internet is disrupted, it affects the organisations. To address this issue, we could not discover any examination on the impact of internet on the organisations, particularly multi-national organisations (MNCs). Subsequently, this investigation was completed to see how these organisations are dependent on the internet. It also studies the means and measures adopted by organisations in the case of internet interruption to limit the negative effects. To accomplish these targets, technology-organisation-environment (TOE) system and self-determination theory were utilised. 36 semi-structure in-depth interviews were taken with the representatives and entrepreneurs of various e-businesses. The finding of the examination has broadened the TOE structure and self-determination theory as political variables and condition factors, for example, scientific, social connectedness and limited time exercises were included as they played a noteworthy part in the internet disruption.
    Keywords: missing internet; e-businesses; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10016926