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Middle East Journal of Management

 

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Middle East J. of Management (40 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Strategic agility in telecom industry: the effective factors on competitive advantages   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanaz Dehmolaee, Yaghub Rashnavadi 
    Abstract: Businesses from all industries need to monitor their environments and be strategically agile in their processes to be competitive in their respective industries. Strategic agility is defined as firms strategic intent to achieve agile operations which are driven by the management emphasis on improving its time-based competitive advantage. In this paper, we aimed to understand the role of strategic agility in promoting organizational performance in their competition in the telecom industry. Six hypotheses were developed. By using questionnaires, data were gathered from interviewing 384 practitioners in the telecom industry. SPSS and Lisrel were used to analyze the data. The results show that strategic agility positively influence technological capabilities and organizational innovation and these in turn positively influence competitive advantage of an organization in the telecom industry. We find no statistical proof neither for positive influence of strategic agility on organizational learning nor organizational learning on competitive advantage.
    Keywords: strategic agility; competitive advantage; telecom industry.

  • The Impact of Internal Marketing on Employee Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Restaurant Industry of Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Sadiq Sohail 
    Abstract: This study investigates the role of internal marketing (IM) on employees perceived job satisfaction and the consequent impact on customer satisfaction. A model is developed to explain the influence the factors of IM on employees job satisfaction. Data was collected from 401 frontline employees of several types of restaurants in Saudi Arabia. The results suggest that IM practices such as leadership commitment; internal communication and reward system has a significant effect on frontline employees perception of job satisfaction. Service training and development does not contribute to frontline employees perception of job satisfaction. Employees job satisfaction is a contributor to customer satisfaction. The findings broaden and deepen an understanding of how the factors of IM practices reinforce employees job satisfaction. The results have useful implications to the restaurant business, particularly in the Middle East nations to capture IM factors, which will provide job satisfaction to employees and ultimately increases customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: internal marketing; restaurant industry; job satisfaction; customer satisfaction; Saudi Arabia.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2018.10011142
     
  • The complexity of small business growth: A Saudi perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Hafedh Ibrahim, Mahmoud Mohammad Al-Ajlouni 
    Abstract: Drawing from complexity theory, the study takes a configurational approach towards small business growth and contributes to literature by demonstrating how three sets of causal conditions, that is, entrepreneurial orientation, firm resources, and the environment, combine to form configurations that affect small business growth. The study was conducted in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia) and analyzed data from a survey of 369 SMEs using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). The results corroborate the equifinality and the asymmetric nature of small business growth demonstrating that no single factor is key in initiating small business growth, and that there is no single exclusive causal path leading to that outcome and that the causal conditions of combinations that lead to small business growth are different from that lead to non-growth.
    Keywords: Small business growth; Entrepreneurial orientation; Firm resources; Environmental uncertainty; fsQCA; Complexity theory; Middle East.

  • Do Feelings of Trust/Distrust affect Employees Turnover Intentions? An Exploratory Study in the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Rachid Zeffane, Shaker Jamal Bani Melhem 
    Abstract: We examine the impact of trust, job satisfaction and perceived supervisor support on employee turnover intention. Data was gathered from 311 respondents employed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) service sector. Four main hypotheses are developed and tested. Statistical analysis using SMART-PLS confirmed that trust has significant effects on turnover intention, but job satisfaction has a more significant impact. Surprisingly, perceived supervisor support had no significant direct effect on turnover intention. However, further analysis (of the indirect effects) revealed that trust mediates the impact of perceived supervisor support on turnover intention. In other words, perceptions of supervisor support alone do not necessarily reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Unless such support is accompanied by feelings of trust, it would not be sufficient to reduce turnover intentions. Implications of these findings for future research and management practice are discussed.
    Keywords: Trust; Job Satisfaction; Perceived Supervisor Support; Turnover Intention; Service Sector; United Arab Emirates.

  • Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of Fast-Food Restaurant Staff in Ankara/Turkey:Some Strategies from Managerial Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Kerem Kaptangil, Mustafa Daskin 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge of foodservice staff in fast-food resaurants in a Turkish context. Data for this empirical investigation were gathered from a sample of full-time foodservice staff at the different fast-food restaurants in Ankara/Turkey. Respondents self-administered the questionnaires. A total number of 165 questionnaires were obtained in the research location. Results based on the descriptive statistics, staff works in fast food restaurants in Ankara are not knowledgeable on foodborne/food poisoning and the training rate is not at the satisfactory level. In addition, t-test result demonstrates that female respondents are more knowledgeable compared to males. This paper provides implications for managers in terms of minimizing the negative effects of foodborne diseases and maximizing the employees food safety knowledge in a servive setting where the food indusrty is increasing. Theoretically, the current study by examining the food safety knowledge of restaurant staff and providing insights into the foodborn disease in a developing touristic destination lends further contribution to the related literature.rnrn
    Keywords: Foodborne disease; Fast-food restaurants; Food handlers; Food safety; Turkey.

  • Cultural Tensions in the Late Ottoman Empire: A Romantic Nationalism Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Alf Walle 
    Abstract: In the 19th century, Romantic Nationalism provided an alternative to rational visions and universal strategies for mankind. Doing so involved affirming that cultures are products of their heritage and that people are emotionally connected to them. As a result, alternative ways of life should not be forced upon people. By adapting Romantic Nationalism to an analysis of tensions in the later years of the Ottoman Empire, a widely understood paradigm of cultural stability and change is applied to a crucial era in Middle Eastern history.
    Keywords: Ottoman Empire; Romantic Nationalism; Greek Independence; Arab uprising; Young Turks.

  • IT Efficiency and Communication Effectiveness in Crisis: Evidence from Security Sector Data in Yemen   Order a copy of this article
    by FUAD NASR 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of IT Efficiency (ITE) and Communication Effectiveness (CE) on Effectiveness of Crisis Management (ECM), and the impact of (ITE) on (CE). Hence, we proposed a method based on a second generation structural equation (PLS-SEM) to measure data of 143 Staff in operations room of security sector institutions (SSI) in Yemen, helping to understand and recognize the importance of developing technology systems and activate communication in the face of crises at all stages. The results obtained showed, that ITE items have significant influence ranging 0.14-0.23 on CE. Additionally, ITE items have significant influence ranging 0.15-0.31 on ECM. Moreover, it was found that CE items have significant influence ranging 0.19-0.31 on ECM. This study explored the direct impact of ITE and CE on ECM and the impact of ITE on CE. Previous studies rarely tested the effects of functional, administrative and technical service quality, simultaneously
    Keywords: IT Efficiency; Communication Effectiveness; Effectiveness of Crisis Management; Security Sector Institutions.

  • The Saudi Confidence Process towards a Store within Objective and Sensual Antecedents.   Order a copy of this article
    by Maher Toukabri 
    Abstract: Marketers have always been struggling for ways to heighten the consumers' confidence. The present study extends this perspective through an analysis of the confidence process occurring in a sales point. It hence aims at examining the effects of both emotions and hedonic constructs on confidence within the mediating role of implication. The conceptual model of this research integrates pleasure, activation, hedonic value and utilitarian value, and estimates the role of the mediator's involvement in the confidence process. A quantifiable survey involving 300 respondents from the Valley Mall in Saudi Arabia has been conducted to test the different hypotheses. Results have indicated that the Saudi consumer expresses confidence and commitment to the store through his immersion of atmospheric factors which constitute emotions and implication towards the shop. Therefore, marketers should concentrate on emotions and implication as well as on objective effects in the store. Academicians, on their part, can extend the scope of this research by integrating other socio-psychological factors.
    Keywords: Sale point; confidence,emotions; value; implication.

  • The Role of Organizational Socialization Tactics and Task Characteristics toward Turnover Intentions: Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajjad Ahmad, Qasim Ali Nisar, Khurram Aziz, Sohail Younus 
    Abstract: Employees turnover is deemed as crucial issue within the organizations as it leads towards negative consequences. Previous studies almost ignored the prompt factors that can tackle the employees turnover issue within knowledge intensive sector. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the role of work-life balance practices and organizational socialization tactics towards employees turnover intentions by concentrating the mediating role of job embeddedness. Data have been collected through survey questionnaire method by applying simple random sampling technique. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structure equation modeling (SEM) techniques have been used for statistical analysis. Results divulged that Organizational Socialization Tactics significantly and negatively related to employees turnover intentions. Moreover, work-life balance practices also have significant and negative association with employees turnover intentions. Findings also revealed that job embeddedness significantly and partially mediates the relationship between Organizational Socialization Tactics, work-life balance practices and turnover intentions. This study gives insight understanding regarding the crucial factors that leads to reduce turnover intentions.
    Keywords: Organizational Socialization Tactics;Task Characteristics; Job Embeddedness; Turnover Intentions.

  • Romantic Nationalism in the Post-Ottoman Era: A Continued Struggle of Tension and Unrest   Order a copy of this article
    by Alf Walle 
    Abstract: Romantic Nationalism involves peoples striving to live according to their heritage and traditions in lands under their control. This movement, originally emerging in the early 19th century West, exerted a significant impact during the final decades of the Ottoman Empire. After World War 1 President Woodrow Wilson of the United States advocated policies that were friendly to self-determinism in the Middle East. Ignoring these recommendations, Britain and France divided up the former Ottoman Empire with little regard to the will of the people who lived there. Since then, the reactions of effected ethnic groups, including the founding of Israel and its impacts upon indigenous Palestinians, have often been similar to Romantic Nationalism. Viewing these tensions with reference to Romantic Nationalism provides a useful tool of analysis, reflection, and policy formation.
    Keywords: Romantic Nationalism; Megali Idea; Turkish War of Independence; Arab Nationalism; The Kurds; irredentism; Israel.

  • The Role of Knowledge Management for long-term sustainability in Kuwait Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Maia Chiabrishvili, Halil Zaim 
    Abstract: KM is considered as a strategic component for organizations to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the long run. This research aims to investigate the effects of KM processes on organizational sustainability in Kuwaiti context. In order to test this relationship a regression analysis was conducted based on data collected from the service sector in Kuwait. Data analysis reveal that there is a direct linear correlation between KM processes and organizations sustainability. If we look at the comparative analysis of KM processes, knowledge storage appears to be the most significant factor for organizational sustainability followed by knowledge utilization and sharing. Knowledge generation is also positively correlated with sustainability but it has comparatively less impact.
    Keywords: knowledge management; competitiveness; sustainability; knowledge management processes; companies; Kuwait.

  • Cognition-Based and Experience-Based Trust and Risk in Social Commerce in Egypt   Order a copy of this article
    by Emad Abou-Elgheit 
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of cognition (rational factor) and experience on consumers trust and risk in a social electronic commerce context in Egypt. It also examines the impact of these factors on consumers intention to purchase online. Data was collected through an online survey distributed to a sample of 599 online shoppers in Egypt. Three electronic vendors supported the research by promoting the survey to their customers. The study argues that electronic vendors perceived reputation and integrity play a significant role in shaping consumers trust, while security protection and third-party seals help to reduce perceived risk. The study also has significant theoretical implications for the legacy theories of trust and social impact.
    Keywords: Social commerce; trust; consumer behaviour; cognition; experience; digital marketing.

  • Total Quality Management and the Quality of Service provided: Case Study of Jordanian Public Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Sahem Nawafleh, Anan Abu Hummour 
    Abstract: A vital quality improvement process, known as Total Quality Management (TQM), is being utilised by numerous organisations worldwide with its success being displayed with increases in service quality. This paper aimed to measure the level of this success by measuring the improvement in service quality in the Civil Status and Passport Department within the Jordanian Public Sector. The influence of TQM on four separate criteria was measured. These were the level of response, the accuracy of the response, the employees empathy towards the service recipient and the availability of the service within a given time or place. Data was gathered via questionnaire response from 390 randomly selected personnel working within the Jordans Public Sector. The analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between TQM and service quality within the Jordanian Public Sector (α≤0.05). Further research in field can be rolled out across all Jordanian government institutions are recommended.
    Keywords: Total Quality Management; Quality of Service; Public-Sector; Public Employees; Jordan.

  • Building E-Loyalty for E-retailers: Role of Justice Perception and Consumer Forgiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatma Ozge Baruonu Latif, Aypar Uslu 
    Abstract: This study aims at exploring e-loyalty in the ecommerce context by emphasising the mediating roles of customer forgiveness with respect to the perceived fairness of recovery efforts and customers e-loyalty towards e-retailers. The data were collected from 380 respondents who experienced an online failure and had a recovery through a self- report survey. This study demonstrates that the customers who experienced a service failure and received recovery evaluated functional justice (distributive, procedural and informational), and relational justice (interpersonal justice) in a different way since functional justice only has a significant positive effect on customer forgiveness following an online failure. On the other hand, this research shows whilst emotional forgiveness mediates the relationship between functional justice and e-loyalty, forgiveness is affected by a religious commitment as well as fairness perception of customers. On the contrary, customers empathy is not an indicator of forgiveness in the commercial context. The results help e-commerce providers to focus on the perceived functional justice of recovery, such as fair monetary compensation primarily which empowers the interactional role of virtual assistants to help build a more empathetic relationship with the victims and through an apology and retribution system.
    Keywords: forgiveness; e-commerce; fairness theory; recovery; e-loyalty.

  • Assessing Agile Project Management Practices: The Case of Palestinian Software Development Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdalla Alhroub, Ayham A.M. Jaaron 
    Abstract: Software development sector in Middle East countries has been relying on agile project management (APM) approaches as a way to adapt to the global competitive environment. However, there seems to be scarcity in the current literature of empirical studies to assess the APM practices in this sector. This paper analyses the readiness of APM implementation in software development companies in the context of Palestine, a Middle East country, by assessing changes required for transforming projects into agile and challenges and risks involved in the transformation, in addition to exploring twelve agile principles and success factors for APM implementation. A case study methodology using mixed methods technique was adopted. The tools used for data collection were semi-structured interviews and questionnaire data from 67 different companies. Although data analysis shows that there is a high degree of implementation of APM practices, the results show that software development companies have a moderate level of ability to deal with challenges and risks of the APM processes. A managerial framework was developed to enhance software development companies working in the context of a Middle East country to properly adopt the practices of APM. The developed managerial model identifies the determinants of a successful APM process realization that will help software development companies maintain a sustainable growth.
    Keywords: Agile; agile project management practices; agile principles; agile implementation; agile success factors; agile software development; Middle East; managerial framework.

  • Linking Emotional intelligence to knowledge Sharing Behavior: Mediating Role of job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Shumaila Naz, Cai Li, Qasim Ali Nisar, Muhammad Rafiq 
    Abstract: The main objective of the research is to investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and knowledge sharing behavior and its underlying mechanism. In knowledge intensive era, knowledge sharing behavior is contemplated as an inevitable factor to foster organizational success. Response has been taken from 340 call center employees located in Pakistan through questionnaires while employing stratified sampling technique. To analyze the measurement and structure model, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and partial least square method to structure equation modeling (PLS-SEM) have been utilized. The findings infer that emotional intelligence is positively associated with Knowledge sharing behaviour. Furthermore, job satisfaction and organizational commitment mediates the relation between emotional intelligence and knowledge sharing behavior. The study suggests that management must induce such human resource management programs that develop positive employees job attitudes and behavior and devise selection tool to identify employees emotional intelligence. The limitations are demarcated implying future research directions.
    Keywords: Keywords: emotional intelligence; knowledge sharing behavior; job satisfaction; organizational commitment.

  • What Missing the Internet Means for E-business: A Case from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Varsha Jain, Amrita Bansal, Peng Hwa Ang, Ganesh B.E 
    Abstract: Comprehensively, around 40% of the general E-commerce business houses are associated through internet for various business exercises. This network has an exceedingly high degree of confidence and dependence on the internet. At the point when this internet is disrupted, it affects the organizations. To address this issue, we could not discover any examination on the impact of internet on the organizations, particularly MNCs (multi-national organizations). Subsequently, this investigation was completed to see how these organizations are dependent on the internet. It also studies the means and measures adopted by organizations in the case of internet interruption to limit the negative effects. To accomplish these targets, TOE (Technology-Organization-Environment) system and self-determination theory were utilized. 36 semi-structure in-depth interviews were taken with the representatives and entrepreneurs of various e-businesses. The finding of the examination has broadened the TOE structure and self-determination theory as political variables and condition factors, for example, scientific, social connectedness and limited time exercises were included as they played a noteworthy part in the internet disruption.
    Keywords: Missing Internet; E-Businesses; India.

  • Influence of Transformational Leadership on Innovative Work Behavior, and mediating role of Teachers Self Efficacy and Innovative Climate: Insight from Engineering Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajid Khan, Asma Imran, Muhammad Nafees 
    Abstract: ABSTRACTrnPurpose - The primary aim of this research is to examine the influence of Transformational Leadership (TL) on Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) and mediating effect of Teachers Self Efficacy (TSE) and Innovative Climate (IC). All variables of this study are studied at the level of individual university employees. This insight can provide the instruction to the institutions regarding how to execute the effective leadership in creating the IC and TSE in order to make innovative behavior (IB) possible that helps out the academic organizations to remain innovative in their research work in a rapidly changing environment. Design/Methodology/Approach - A quantitative research paradigm was employed using a questionnaire survey method, the data was collected from 112 academicians of engineering schools in the universities. Data has been analyzed through Pearson correlation and linear regression tests. Findings in the engineering institutions the author found that a positive relationship existed between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior. The analysis of the results also supported the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior via one mediating variable Teachers Self Efficacy, but the results of the current study do not support the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior via second mediating variable Innovative Climate. Originality Value This study investigated the relationship of Transformational Leadership to Innovative Work Behavior by empirically testing the mediating role of Teachers Self Efficacy and Innovative Climate. rn
    Keywords: Transformational Leadership; Innovative Work Behavior; Teachers Self Efficacy; Innovative Climate.

  • Impact of CRM Components System on Customer Retention in the Telecom Industry: A Case of Y-Telecom in Yemen   Order a copy of this article
    by Wail Alhakimi, Abdulsalam Ghaleb 
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify customer relationship management components (call center, service center, and data mining) and their role in influencing customer retention through customer satisfaction in Telecom Industry. The study used a descriptive analytical method to answer the questions of the study. A questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The sample consists of 317 Y-Telecoms subscribers. The study showed that there is an effect of CRM system components in achieving customer retention. Data mining is deemed the highest component of the technological elements in CRM, which contributed in achieving customer retention. However, the call center is the lowest component, which requires more work and development. Customer satisfaction - the intervening variable - showed no correlation with customer retention. The study recommends the call center staff to improve their communication skills and focusing on data mining process to make better services for clients and employ them in marketing to target customers individually.
    Keywords: Customer relationship management; CRM components; call center; service center; data mining; customer satisfaction; customer retention; Y-Telecom; Yemen.

  • Planning under Uncertainty using Chess Principles, Strategies and Tactics   Order a copy of this article
    by Isam Al-Filali, Ahmed Attia, Abdo Husseiny, Asma Alhamadi 
    Abstract: The uncertainty and volatility of oil prices and the rise of political uncertainty in the Middle East region have shifted the ground beneath the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies in recent years. The traditional planning methods are strategically blind and inherently short sighted when used by firms under uncertainty. This study provides concepts, analytic tools, and examples of the four levels of uncertainty. The study draws a parallel between the uncertainty in chess game and business and tailored chess principles, processes, strategies and tactics to be used by businesses under uncertainty situations. This study contributes to current knowledge of using chess as metaphor to describe business, finding a connection to the dynamics of chess given the use of its principles, strategy and tactics.
    Keywords: Keywords: chess; strategic planning; uncertainty; strategies; tactics; analytic tools; uncertainty levels; principles of planning; planning under uncertainty; decision-making; competition; Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC); the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

  • The Effects of Perceived Organizational Justice And Ethical Climate on Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intention, and Job Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ozgur Kokalan, Umit Sevik 
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the moderator role of the organisational justice and the ethical climate perceived by employees on job satisfaction, intention on ceasing the employment, and performance levels. In the light of this aim, questionnaires were used by using the convenience sampling method with 347 employees in stanbul and Afyonkarahisar. The performance levels of 347 employees were evaluated by their administrators. The results of the questionnaires and the performance evaluation were analysed and interpreted by using descriptive analyses and regression analyses. According to the results obtained in the analyses, the perceived organisational justice was high when the job satisfaction, and performance levels were high when the perceived ethical climate was high; however, there were no significant relations between the turnover intention. It was determined that the perceived ethical climate had a moderator effect only in the relation between the perceived organisational justice, job satisfaction and performance.
    Keywords: perceived ethical climate; job satisfaction; turnover intention; job performance; perceived organisational justice.
    DOI: 10.1504/MEJM.2019.10014477
     
  • Providing a framework for evaluating the advertising efficiency using data envelopment analysis technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Armin Ejlal, Maysam Shafiee Roodposhti 
    Abstract: Advertising plays an important role in the marketing strategy and a considerable amount of budgets has been allocated for advertising every year. However, the proportion of advertisement campaign achievements to those designated for their design, or in other words, its efficiency, is questionable. This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of the food industrys advertising brands using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The duration of the campaign and budget as input and brand familiarity, attractiveness of implementation and sale were used as an output for the evaluation. The results of the study indicated that there are inefficiencies in this industry, thus in an attempt to improve the situation of the advertising efficiency, some solutions was provided to managers. Also, the most important variables affecting the efficiency of the food industry was identified by Sensitivity analysis.
    Keywords: Advertising; efficiency; Data envelopment analysis.

  • Multidimensional Structure for the Effect of Innovation Culture and Knowledge Sharing on the New Product Development Process with Emphasis on Improving New Product Development Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi, Ali Shahrokhnia 
    Abstract: The main goal of the paper is to study the effect of innovation culture and knowledge sharing on the New-Product Development (NPD) process with emphasis on improving new-product development performance." The research has been implemented in software developer or producer companies as well as information technology companies in Tehran, Iran. This study is an applied research in the goal view, and contains qualitative variables; also, it is a descriptive-survey and casual-correlation research in the data-gathering view. The validity of the content of the questionnaire posited in this study was confirmed by academic and industrial experts and constructive validity indices. Moreover, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using Cronbachs Alpha and Composite Reliability indicators. Findings have shown that appropriate infrastructure for innovation has the most effect on creating an innovation culture; it was also revealed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between innovation culture and new-product development performance which is made by the mediation of knowledge sharing and NPD process.
    Keywords: Innovation Culture; Knowledge Sharing; New Product Development process; New Product Development Performance.

  • Firm-level investment, Financing Choices, and Corporate Taxation Management: Evidence from panel of Non-Financial Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul Haque, Ammar Abid, Saira Sundas, Ali Qamar Jibran 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between firms financing choices, taxation benefits and investment in Pakistani listed firms where firms are reliant on bank financing to finance their investment, as financial markets are not well developed. We apply the system Generalized Method of Moments regression estimation on a sample of firms listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange during the period from 2001-2014 to deal with the endogeneity concerns. Our findings are that there is a positive relationship between leverage and investment accruing from the use of tax shield benefits which also are positively and significantly associated with the firm-level investment. Equity is also positively related to investment but the effect of leverage is more pronounced than equity. When we classify the firms according to their level of debt, we find that the positive and significant relation between leverage and investment is stronger in firms with a medium level of debt, consistent with the trade-off theory argument of the existence of an optimal level of debt. Overall our results are consistent with the hypothesis that firms utilize debt to supplement their investment in circumstances where alternate mechanisms of finance are not well developed deriving tax shield benefits in the process as long as such benefits outweigh the financial distress costs. An important implication of the findings is that the debt holders might not perform the traditional disciplinary role to restrict over investment bias in economies where the relationship between debt holders and borrowers are complex and firms are financially constrained.
    Keywords: Firm-level investment; Taxation; Financial Expenses; Debt and Equity Financing.

  • The Islamic Perspective of Environmental Sustainability and Management   Order a copy of this article
    by M.M. Sulphey 
    Abstract: The study examines the Islamic perspective of Islamic environmental sustainability based on the Holy text the Quran, and the sayings of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) the hadith. The paper conducts a thorough review of the above two texts and presents the Islamic perspective of the behaviour expected from humans to address environmental sustainability issues. It also attempts to present the duties and responsibilities desired of human beings towards having a self sustaining environment that will be an ideal place for the future generations too. The presentation of the paper is such that it will act as a trigger for further research in this challenging and marvellous area.
    Keywords: Environmental sustainability; Environment management; Islam; Islamic perspective; Quran; Hadith.

  • The Impact of Job Crafting on Work Engagement: Evidence from Jordanian Universities   Order a copy of this article
    by Yahya Melhem 
    Abstract: Job crafting has emerged as a theoretical approach that expands perspectives on job design to include proactive changes that employees make to their own jobs. This study examines the impact of job crafting on work engagement mediated by autonomy and task independence among university academics in Jordan. Data for this study were collected from 264 academics to explore the effect of job crafting on work engagement. Results indicated that job crafting has positive significant impact on work engagement, and that autonomy and task independence facilitate and enhance job crafting behaviors. Recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.
    Keywords: Job crafting; Job Engagement; Autonomy; Task Independence; Academics; Jordan_.

  • The impact of emotional intelligence on employee performance and employee engagement: Mediating role of job satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Shumaila Naz, Cai Li, Hira Salah Ud Din Khan, Muhammad Rafiq 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to explore the impact of emotional intelligence on employee engagement, employee performance. It also investigated the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship of emotional intelligence-employee engagement, and emotional intelligence-employee performance. Data was obtained from 233 employees working in manufacturing sector of the Lahore, Pakistan using convenience sampling through self-administered survey. Theories of ability model of emotional intelligence, affective events theory, and conservation of resources COR theory were underpinned to support proposed research model. Convergent validity of studied variables and relationships were measured through measurement model and structural model of PLS-SEM respectively. The findings revealed that emotional intelligence is significantly and positively associated with employee performance and engagement directly and indirectly through job satisfaction. rnrn
    Keywords: Emotional intelligence; employee engagement; job satisfaction; and employee performance.

  • A TEST OF MARKET EFFICIENCY USING STOCK MARKET ANOMALIES (A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH).   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Syed Zain Ul Abdin, Muhammad Waqas, Mumtaz Ahmad 
    Abstract: Previous researchers study the presence of anomalies in the stock market but very least studies identify the causes that generate anomalies. This study tests the efficient market hypothesis in the context of prospect theory. The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of behavioral factors on different classes of anomalies. Further, investigate the differential effect of prospects components on different classes of anomalies. Data collected from 324 real individual investors of Pakistani stock exchange. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized model using smart PLS 3.0. The results show that mental accounting has a positive significant effect on all anomalies. In short, investors use their own mental account in their decision-making. Loss aversion has a positive significant effect on technical anomalies and regret has a positive significant effect on fundamental anomalies. However, Self-control does not have a significant effect on technical and calendar anomalies.
    Keywords: Prospect Theory; Behavioral Finance; Stock Market Anomalies; Fundamental Anomalies; Technical Anomalies. Calendar Anomalies.

  • Factors Affecting Buyers' Trust in E-Commerce in Palestine   Order a copy of this article
    by Rania Abduallah, Yahya Saleh 
    Abstract: Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is relatively a new concept and research topic in developing countries including Palestine. In this form of commerce, the first impression that users create about an organization is often based on the organization's websites trustworthiness. This has motivated many researchers to investigate the factors that influence buyers' trust in such websites. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the potential factors affecting buyers' trust in e-commerce in Palestine. More specifically, the study embraces a multi-dimensional construct of trust (integrity, benevolence, ability) rather than examining each single dimension of trustworthiness individually. In addition, the effect of independent variables including website design attitudes, reliability, privacy and security attitudes, customer satisfaction and governmental factors on e-commerces trust dimensions have been mathematically investigated. To this end, relevant data from a random sample of 354 Palestinian citizens who have experienced the online shopping, or who have interest in on line purchasing, were collected. Statistical analyses revealed significant effects of all independent variables except reliability on buyers trust in e-commerce in Palestine. Also, four linear regression models relating the independent variables with e-commerces trust and its three dimensions (integrity, benevolence, ability) have been built and statistically validated.
    Keywords: E-commerce; trust; integrity; benevolence; ability; online purchasing; regression.

  • How will Increasing the Competitiveness of Energy Sector Stimulate the Economic Growth of Saudi Arabia: 2030 Vision   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadia Yusuf 
    Abstract: The study has identified main factors, which are associated with the increase in competitiveness of energy sector to benefit the countrys economy. This study has adopted quantitative research design to investigate the association between oil prices, carbon emissions, electricity consumption, natural gas production, wind and solar energy, and energy supply of Saudi Arabia. The database has been collected from BP statistical review of world energy. GDP was the variable used to represent economic growth of Saudi Arabia. The results have shown positive and significant impact of competitiveness of oil production (p= 0.044) and consumption (p= 0.000) on GDP. The competitiveness of gas production is significant and positive on economic growth of the country (p=0.000); for instance, 1 unit increase in gas production results in 7.5% increase in economic growth of the country. The results also showed that there is 5.8% increase in economic growth of Saudi Arabia when there is 1 unit increase in CO2 emissions. There is a positive and significant impact of competitiveness of primary energy consumption on economic growth of the country (p=0.000). There is a significant impact of new work strategies and creating employment on the economic development of the State, along with the deducing the harmful factors of the growth and progress.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide emission; economic growth; energy consumption; energy prices; energy sector.

  • Do Family Firms Pay More to Their CEOs?   Order a copy of this article
    by Anam Tasawar, Mian Sajid Nazir, Farooq Anwar 
    Abstract: The present study sheds light on the potential dominance of family ownership and its control on CEO compensation in Pakistani family and non-family firms by using data of 132 firms during 2009 to 2015. This study contributes toward new milestone in prior research regarding to developing eastern economies with family dominance in businesses, with respect to impact of family control on CEO compensation. The literature in corporate finance points out that the family firms scrub the level of compensation, which reveals that larger family shareholders play active monitoring role as well as regulate the pay structures of top management. The current study establishes a support for alignment hypothesis of agency theory and does not support the corroboration of managerial rent extracting behavior in family firms. Moreover, the financial institutions have positive effect on CEO compensation; however, the role of institutions in deciding CEO perks becomes negative in case of family firms as compared to non-family firms.
    Keywords: CEO compensation; family ownership; firm performance; board independence; institutional ownership.

  • Testing for Temperature Anomaly in Capital Markets of Pakistan and India   Order a copy of this article
    by Mian Sajid Nazir, Hammad Hassan Mirza, Arslan Shaukat, Ayesha Liaqat 
    Abstract: This study shows temperature-based indicator impact on trading decision and stock returns to financial investors. By using disaggregated data, we showed that stock markets deviate (anomalies) from fundamentals and contradicts the rule of efficient market hypothesis. Among other anomalies, temperature anomaly is said to be driven through psychological factor of investors moods which can influence their trading decisions. We find a statistically significant but negative relationship between Karachi temperature and KSE-100 index returns for the period of January 02, 2006 to Dec 31, 2015. However, Mumbai temperature seems to have no impact on BSE-100 index for the period of our research. Using GARCH methodology, the study incorporates daily temperature data from two South Asian financial hubs and their respective impact on stock returns. The findings of this paper can be further extended to analyze whether other economic sectors are influenced by the temperature based stock market anomalies.
    Keywords: temperature anomaly; weather; moods; Pakistan Stock Exchange; Mumbai Stock Exchange.

  • Leadership Competencies of Middle Managers and Employees' Job Performance: Evidence from a Palestinian Media Channel   Order a copy of this article
    by Wasim Al-Habil, Mohammed Aboramadan, Essam Zaqout 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine the relationship between leadership competencies and job performance at Al-Aqsa TV channel. A descriptive analytical design was adopted in this study. A total number of two hundred and eighty-eight questionnaires were distributed to Al-Aqsa TV channel employees. One hundred and eighty-one questioners were returned and were usable for statistical analysis. In this study, the Leadership Competency Model was used to measure the leadership competencies at Al-Aqsa TV channel. The results showed that middle managers at Al-Aqsa TV possess leadership competencies at a medium level. The results also demonstrated a positive relationship between leadership competences and performance at Al-Aqsa TV channel. Job performance was mainly influenced by three competencies which are: building coalitions or communications, business acumen and leading change. The paper suggests that building coalitions/communications, business acumen, and leading change, leading people, results driven competencies must be considered while developing job performance development plans. Finally, this paper contributes to the media management empirical literature as the topic is not well developed in developing countries and especially in Palestine.
    Keywords: Media Management; Leadership Competencies; Job Performance.

  • Compensation systems attributes and teachers performance: Mediating effect of Psychological contract fulfillment   Order a copy of this article
    by Rana Nadir Idrees, Imran Haider Naqvi, Asma Imran, Muhammad Ismail 
    Abstract: Higher education institutions (HEIs) play a role in building a knowledge economy, but doing so requires dedicated, well-educated and well-performing teachers, so teachers performance has become an issue for developing countries. This research evaluates the impact of compensation system schemes on teachers performance in the universities of Pakistan in order to explain the mediating role of psychological contract fulfilment. A nationwide survey of fifty-two HEIs in Pakistan was conducted using the random sampling probability technique. After the data collection, mediation was checked using quantitative research methods, including correlation, regression, multiple mediation, and PROCESS. rnThis study analyses the importance of psychological contract fulfilment in mediating the relationship between compensation systems and teachers performance and suggests that psychological contract fulfilment mediates the relationship between compensation system attributes and teachers performance.
    Keywords: Tenure track system. Performance. Appraisal. Psychological contract fulfilment. Higher education. Socio-Economic Indicators. University. Faculty. Human resource. Human capital; Ranking.

Special Issue on: Leadership and Management Challenges and Issues Facing Organisations in Developing Countries

  • THE INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT INNOVATION, BRAND IMAGE, AND PHYSICAL EVIDENCE TO PURCHASE DECISION AND WOM OF STARBUCKS IN JAKARTA   Order a copy of this article
    by Sri Wahyuni 
    Abstract: Purchase decision and Word of Mouth of product were essential parts of marketing. Once a customer decides to buy a product then shares positive WOM towards the product. The purchase decision and WOM conducted by the customers create some advantages for the company. The customers of Starbucks Jakarta are the object of this study. Questionnaires, as the primary data used in this study, were disseminated to 120 customers of Starbucks in Jakarta. The data collection method used purposive sampling method. While AMOS 20.0 program was used to test the hyphotheses. This study had six research hyphotheses; four of them showed positive and significant effects, only two of the hyphotheses showed no positive influence. Product innovation and physical evidence gived significant influence towards purchase decision and WOM. However, brand image did not influence purchase decision and WOM. This study was expected to give implication towards the company and the marketers to develop the brand image by creating marketing activities.
    Keywords: product innovation; brand image; physical evidence; purchase decision; and WOM.

  • Linking Leaders Emotional Labor Strategies with Leaders Attitude: An Effective Approach towards Leadership   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajjad Ahmad, Qasim Ali Nisar, Asma Imran, Summaira Malik, Waqas Chaudhary 
    Abstract: Emotions are important part of ones life and job. Emotions are always ready for feisty attack on individuals attitudes at workplace. These also affect a leaders attitudes. Thereby, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of leaders emotional labor strategies on leaders attitudes by considering the mediating role of leaders job satisfaction. The data were collected from teachers of universities in Punjab Pakistan by using simple random sampling. Data from the university teachers of Punjab have been made use to examine the impact of different emotional strategies like deep acting, surface acting, and genuine emotional aspects impacting the teachers loyalty and commitment outputs. In order to evaluate the results, Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structure Equation Modeling had been used to evaluate the appropriate results. Results divulged that emotional labor strategies significantly influence the leaders attitudes. Moreover, surface acting is significantly and negatively associated with leaders organizational commitment and leaders loyalty. Similarly, deep acting and display of genuine emotions significantly and positively correlated with leaders organizational commitment and leaders loyalty. Path analysis results indicated that leaders job satisfaction partially mediate the relationship between emotional labor strategies and leaders attitudes. The study contributes to the current knowledge regarding emotional labor strategies and leaders attitudes.
    Keywords: Emotional Labor Strategies; Surface Acting; Deep Acting; Display of Genuine Emotion; Organizational Commitment; Loyalty; Job Satisfaction.

  • Transformational Leadership And Work Engagement: Exploring The Black Boxes By Looking Into The Lense of Intentional Change Theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Waqas, Raheema Zubair, Atif Mahmood 
    Abstract: Purpose - This study was conducted to determine the effect of transformational leadership(TL) on work engagement (WE) of nurses in Lahore-Pakistan. Previous studies showed that some job demands had positive connection with WE while some reviews declared negative influence of job demands on WE. This study intended to find out the role of leadership in defining job demands as challenges and their further relationship with WE.Research-Design/methodology/approach -Primary data and snowball sampling technique was used. Data was analysed on Smart PLS3.Findings -Test analysis showed that TL has significant relationship with WE. Practical implications In hospitals, transformational leaders reduced the stress of nurses which lead to self-confidence and caused them to perceive job demands as a challenge. Originality/value - This study obtained TL as positive leadership style in hospitals as there was more risk involved regarding human health, and nurses must ask from their leaders before giving any treatments to the patients.
    Keywords: Job demands; Job resources; Transformational leadership; Job challenges; Work engagement.

  • Organizational politics and task performance: The intervening role of affective organizational commitment in a public sector organization   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Butt, Atif Mahmood, Sara Kanwal, Farooq Bajwa 
    Abstract: Organizational politics is one of the pervasive but overlooked domains, particularly in public sector organizations who serve citizens. In this context, a conceptual model was proposed to empirically consider the intervening role of affective organizational commitment between the infrequently studied relationship of perception of organizational politics and task performance among the employees of a large public organization in the capital city of Punjab, Pakistan. Accordingly, to test the presumed predictions of current study, we employed Preacher and Hayes mediation analysis in SPSS.22. The findings of multiple regression, with 10000 bootstraps demonstrated the effect of perceived organizational politics on employees task performance was transmitted only through affective organizational commitment. Therefore, it provides the empirical support for an argument that extant literature has not tested before in a public sector organization, who protects the citizens. The data collection from single source using self-reported measures might have raised the chances of common method biased and also, cross-sectional design of current study limits its ability to draw sound conclusions. Overall the findings of this study contributes towards our understanding of how politics in workplace impact civil servants task performance.
    Keywords: organizational politics; organizational commitment and employee performance.

  • Effects of external prestige on emotional labor: mediation by organizational identification and moderation by perceived organizational support   Order a copy of this article
    by Farooq Anwar, Ishfaq Ahmed, Muhammad Waqas, Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail, Talat Islam 
    Abstract: Purpose With the shift from manufacturing to services economies, the need of customer management has increased. The shift has also increased the role of frontline employees in managing their emotions, as they may directly influence customers responses towards organizations, their products and services. Based on this premise, this study values emotional labor (as source of gaining customers positive outcomes) and role of external prestige in predicting it. Furthermore, it also entails the investigation of organizational identification as mediator and perceived organizational support as moderator. Methodology/Design This study is aimed at investigating the emotional labor and its explanatory mechanism, the employees from service organizations were the most suitable population. For this, data was collected from 314 services employees through structured questionnaire. Sample was selected on the basis of both random and referral sampling techniques, and questionnaire was adopted from already well-developed measures. Findings Findings of the study empirically prove that external prestige of organization influences employees emotional responses (surface acting and deep acting), while organizational identification partially mediates the relation. Perceptions of organizational support, on the other hand, influences the strength of relation between external prestige and organizational identification. Originality This study adds value in existing literature on service organizations by highlighting the factors influencing emotional labor (surface & deep acting) of front line employees. Moreover, it covers the moderated mediating mechanism explaining both forms of employee acting for customers.
    Keywords: external prestige; organizational identification; emotional labor; perceived organizational support; surface acting; deep acting.

  • THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ON ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING   Order a copy of this article
    by Jamshid Ali Turi, Shahryar Sorooshian 
    Abstract: Focus of the research was to find out the impact of organizational structure on organizational learning and to find out which type of organization provides better learning opportunities. Data was collected from 130 universities operating in public and private sector of Pakistan. The approach used for research was formative conceptualization for organizational learning. The framework makes clear that organizational learning varies according to the kind of structure. The study of the different design variables allows us to expand our understanding of different organizational learning implications. Study shows that organic structural profile helps organizational learning and greater knowledge creation rather than mechanic profile. The critical variables that facilitate learning are centralization and indoctrination. The study further responds to the need to provide empirical evidence about the influence of organizational structure on organizational learning, advancing the measure of this emergent field of management research using formative conceptualization.
    Keywords: Organizational learning; organizational structure; formative measure.