International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion (7 papers in press)
Mother-Friendly Companies, Work-Life Balance, and Emotional Well-Being: Is there a Relationship to Financial Performance and Risk Level?
by Janell Blazovich, Katherine Smith, L. Murphy Smith
Abstract: Research in philosophy, sociology, history, and business indicates that the family is the key building block of a nation or culture. In families, parents often struggle with time allocation between their jobs and family life. The pursuit of career and wealth can easily become over-prioritized to the detriment of family. Even in ancient times, this was a problem, as indicated by the wise king Solomon, who warned: Those who love money will never have enough. In recent decades, the proportion of women in the labor force has greatly increased. Being mother-friendly may be ethically right and socially desirable, but what is the financial impact on companies with human resource policies that facilitate the mother role of female employees? Findings of this study provide support that mother-friendly firms experience better financial performance; specifically, higher market value of equity. This is a notable finding, suggesting that the capital markets value firms with mother friendly attributes. This affirms prior research that shows enhancing work-life balance, which facilitates emotional well-being, is associated with improved job performance, which in turn is associated with better company financial performance.
Keywords: CSR; Family Friendly; Emotional well-being; Work-Life Balance; Job Satisfaction; Human Resource Development.
Work Symbolic Motive Scale (Work-SMS): Development and Validation of a measure of Affective Investment at work
by Chiara Fregonese, Andrea Caputo, Viviana Langher
Abstract: The general aim of this paper is to propose a conceptualisation and an operational measure for affective investment and symbolic motives at work. The Work-Symbolic Motive Scale (Work-SMS) score provides a general measure of affective investment, conceived as an endowing process of gratifying qualities to the work context, sustained by the four symbolic motives of achievement, affiliation, power and autonomy. Two studies were conducted (N=632) suggesting a final 12-item scale with a second-order factor model. Evidence for construct and convergent validity was collected and overall good internal consistency, test-retest reliability estimates and predictive validity after one month were verified.
Keywords: affective investment; affective symbolisation; career adaptability; validation; adjective scale; work self-efficacy; professional development; achievement; affiliation; power; autonomy; symbolic motive.
Physical, Emotional & Spiritual Health of Faculty: An Exploratory Study
by Amit Jain, Shruti Mishra, Gajendra Yadav
Abstract: This Study is sought to better understand the Physical, Spiritual and Emotional health of Faculties in Educational Institutions. The current study explores the work/ Job-related health problems and difficulties which are faced by the faculties of educational institutions. These above-mentioned dimensions comprise of Physical comfort/discomfort, emotional instability and spiritual health of employees. An exploratory study was conducted with the help of a structured interview schedule on a sample of 70 faculties & teachers. Results extracted with the help of content analysis indicated that faculties irrespective of gender have several physical discomforts which sometimes lead to emotional instability. Most of the faculties are negative for their overall health experience. To Cope-up with this issue, this paper suggests suitable physical exercises & meditation to ensures better Physical, Spiritual and Emotional health.
Keywords: Physical Health; Emotional Health; Spiritual Health; Sedentary Lifestyle; Work-stress; Work-life balance; Physical activity; Yoga.
Personal resources and selected employees outcomes does performing emotional labour moderate the relationship?
by Agnieszka Springer, Sylwester Bialowas
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between personality traits, core self-evaluation, emotional intelligence and positive outcomes (PO) in the context of specific demands of emotional labour. Relating to the principles of the Job Demands - Resources model, the article poses a question whether performing emotional labour is a moderator between personal resources and PO. Research sample consisted of 309 workers, 170 of whom performed emotional labour. The following tools were used in the study: the Polish adaptation of the NEO-FFI, the core self-evaluation scale, the INTE questionnaire for assessing the level of emotional intelligence and an own tool for the measurement of positive individual and organisational outcomes. From among the analyzed variables, all of them proved to be significantly correlated to achieving positive individual or organizational outcomes. The most important result of the conducted analyses is demonstrating the moderation effect that performing EL has on certain relationships. Moderation can be observed only in the case of PO connected with organization, regarding: neuroticism, openness to experience and conscientiousness. The main research limitation stems from the adopted research method, which does not take into account the measurement of the intensity of the performed emotional labour or the strategies for coping with it. Both these variables should be included in analyses in further research. The obtained results may be used in recruitment, where in the case of workers performing emotional labour, emotional stability, and in the case of other workers - conscientiousness should be taken into account. It was confirmed in the study that the indicated individual traits constitute considerable personal resources also for Polish workers. These resources are universal to a great extent, and the character of the performed labour differentiates their significance for achieving positive results only to a limited extent.
Keywords: emotional labour; satisfaction; personality traits; emotional intelligence; core self-evaluation; job demands-resource model.
How Entrepreneurial Leaders Use Emotional Labor to Improve Employee Attitudes and Firm Performance
by John Batchelor, Ronald Humphrey, Jerry Burch
Abstract: This study takes a deep look at how entrepreneurial leaders use all three forms of emotional labor. The results from this analysis of 147 dyadic pairs of entrepreneurial leaders and their subordinates are presented herein. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between emotional labor strategy and the display of discrete genuine emotions (enthusiasm, liking, irritation). Leader genuine emotional labor and leader displays of positive discrete emotions were positively correlated with employee job satisfaction, affective commitment, and lower intentions to quit. Additionally, this study provides empirical evidence that the display of discrete emotions moderates the effects of leader genuine emotion on firm performance. From a practical standpoint this study benefits entrepreneurs by outlining emotionally healthy methods to display the appropriate emotions when interacting with stakeholders to enhance firm performance.
Keywords: Emotion; emotional labor; leadership; entrepreneurship.
Emotional Labor in Non-Governmental Organizations: Narrative Analysis and Theory Expansion
by Sharon Mastracci, Ian Adams
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore emotional labor in the context of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) using word data from interviews of five NGO directors on their recruitment criteria when hiring staff. We analyze interview transcripts using semiotic clustering. First-order concepts are organized into second-order themes which are summarized as aggregate dimensions to develop a proposition and expand emotional labor theory. We find evidence of emotional labor in NGOs: Modeling behavior for clients, serving as mentors to new staff members, maintaining boundaries between self and clients, suppressing panic in crisis, cognitive reframing, and compartmentalization. We provide evidence of emotional labor in NGOs, which contributes to emotional labor theory by focusing solely on this important sector of public service. Little research has been done on emotional labor in such organizations, and consistent with prior findings, we find aspects of emotional labor in NGOs can be rewarding and fulfilling as well.
Keywords: Emotional Labor; Nongovernmental Organizations; Human Resource Management.
Special Issue on: ERPBSS-2018 Diversity and Inclusion in the Workplace
The Effect of Demographics on the Psychological Contract of Employees.
by Lawal Yesufu
Abstract: The psychological contract provides a framework for understanding employee-employer relationships within an organisation. This paper is based on research on Canadian academics and aims to determine the effect demographic characteristics, such as the age, gender and educational background, have on the psychological contract of academics working in higher education institutions. The research contributes to the literature by investigating the psychological contract from the perspectives of the relational, transactional and balanced contract types. The research also combines two existing tools - psychological contract inventory and the HR Practice Scale - to gather data on the types of psychological contract developed by academics and the perception academics have on the HR practices of their employers. The study was based on quantitative analysis of a cross-sectional survey in addition to a literature review. Overall the findings suggest that, while gender and age had a positive impact on the transactional psychological contract of academics, there was no predictive relationship between education and type of psychological contract.
Keywords: organisational psychology; psychological contract; higher education institutions; human resource management practices.