International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion (9 papers in press)
Exploring the direct and indirect effects of emotional intelligence and frequency of customer contact on organisational citizenship behaviours among hotel employees in Mexico
by Angeli Santos, Michael Mustafa, Ana Ayala Cantu
Abstract: In the hotel industry, organisational effectiveness and service quality are highly dependent on front-of-house employees positive interactions with customers, and their willingness to engage in organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB). Various studies have identified the ability of employees to manage their own emotions and those of others as a key means of understanding how and why employees engage in OCB. The present study seeks to shed light on how the underlying mechanisms of emotional intelligence (EI) and the nature of job role, through the frequency of interactions with customers could be of benefit to service orientated organisations. Empirical evidence was drawn from a sample of 179 front-of-house employees from a 4-star Mexican hotel chain. A series of multiple hierarchical regressions revealed that when employees experience high levels of customer contact and engage in high levels of emotion regulation, this can have a detrimental effect on their OCB. The findings underscore the importance of the role of work and job context in influencing the EI and OCB relationship.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; OCB; Hotels; Service Sector.
Hope and patience as coping mechanisms of food managers in the face of challenges: The Turkish case
by Mehmet Ali TURKMENOGLU
Abstract: This research aims to examine how managers in the food sector coped with the challenges that the Gezi Park protests caused in Istanbul, Turkey in 2013. Recent Gezi Park protests in Istanbul triggered a multi-layered crisis. These protests lasted more than two months, having long-term effects on Turkeys social, cultural and economic life. This study considers the Gezi Park protests as a crisis for food sector businesses in the neighbourhood around the park. By drawing on interviews with 40 managers in the food sector, this paper examines how managers in the food sector coped with the challenges. Based on thematic analysis of qualitative data, two coping mechanisms emerged including being hopeful about the future, being patient against multiple challenges.
Keywords: Hope; Patience; Coping Mechanisms; Positive Emotions; Food Managers; Gezi Park; Protests.
Where does positive engagement come from? Employee perceptions of success at work in Nokia
by Salla Karima, Satu Uusiautti
Abstract: Global business environment, characterized by rapid changes and uncertainty, brings new requirements to individuals and organizations to understand various factors behind the success, they are meaningful for companies competitiveness and employees engagement. This study concentrated on employees who have been selected in the High Potential and International Graduate Trainee programs in Nokia. First, research participants (N=15) wrote empathy-based stories (EMBS), which was followed by semi-structured theme interviews (SSI) for selected employees (N=6). Positive attitudes and engagement were prerequisites for success. Likewise, having the ability to lead own development and learning were seen essential. It is crucial for organizations to understand factors connected to positive work engagement and the role of positive emotions at work. This study strengthened the understanding that engaged employees perceive their work positively and are proactive and motivated to continuously look for new challenges.
Keywords: success at work; positive engagement; positive psychology; work motivation; multimethod case study; positive emotions; Nokia.
Comparing Apples and Manzanas: Instrument Development for Cross-National Analysis of Emotional Labor in Public Service Jobs
by Seung-Bum Yang, Mary Guy, Aisha Azhar, Chih-Wei Hsieh, Hyun Jung Lee, Xiaojun Lu, Sharon Mastracci
Abstract: This paper contributes to research on emotional labor by offering a measurement instrument that is suitable for making comparisons across nations. Comparative research is hampered by questions of measurement equivalence across languages and cultures. We address this problem by reporting survey items that achieve configural and partial metric invariance across seven nations. Survey items for each of three emotional labor constructs emotive capacity, deep acting, and surface acting (more accurately called pretending) were developed by analyzing pilot data from a sample of eastern and western nations. After variables were developed, full data collection was conducted by surveying employees from seven countries. Using the resulting data, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis tested for cross-national invariance. Results confirm both configural and partial metric invariance of the items, enabling comparison of emotional labor demands and its consequences across nations.
Keywords: emotional labor survey; comparative research; measurement invariance; organizational behavior; emotive capacity; deep acting; surface acting; emotive pretending; international research; partial metric invariance; emotion work.
Exploring the Relationship between High-involvement Human Resource Practices and Affective Commitment within Non-western Service Context
by Cahit Ali Bayraktar, Gaye Karacay, Ozlem Araci, Fethi Calisir
Abstract: This paper aims to examine the effect of high-involvement human resource (HR) practices on employees affective commitment. Survey data were collected from 300 front-line employees working in a Turkish holding company providing financial services. Data were analysed by structural equation modelling. In contrast to the findings of previous research, this study found that the sub-components of high-involvement HR practices do not collectively influence employees affective commitment, but employees perceptions regarding the fairness of rewards mediate the joint effect of recognition, empowerment, and competence development practices on employees' affective commitment. This study contributes to the literature by examining the causal relationship between high-involvement HR practices and employee affective commitment within non-western service context. Although the significant effect of high-involvement HR practices on employee commitment has already been demonstrated by previous research, testing this relationship in a different cultural context is important for understanding the universality of this association.
Keywords: high-involvement human resource practices; affective commitment; financial services; Turkey.
The impact of emotional intelligence on employee motivation in the construction industry in South Africa
by Ridwaan Essop, Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate employee motivation and emotional intelligence and their interdependencies. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 60 employees from a construction company. The pertinent factors of employee motivation and emotional intelligence were identified based on a dissection of the levels of emotional intelligence and employee motivation. Age, marital status, tertiary education and authority were identified as salient categorical components that affected emotional intelligence and employee motivation. The predominant determinants discovered were remuneration, purposeful job, and feeling of accomplishment. The study yielded a significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence and employee motivation at 0.732 (p < 0.001) and a coefficient of determination of 0.5358. It was also subsequently discovered that there is a more significant correlation between emotional intelligence and intrinsic employee motivation. The level of an individual's emotional intelligence had greater dominance over intrinsic employee motivation than on extrinsic employee motivation. Therefore, the organisation should use the predominant factors of motivation as part of a strategic plan to augment employee motivation. The organisation needs to consider employment of employee wellness programs, succession planning, skills development and monetary incentives as part of their policies.
Keywords: construction industry; emotional intelligence; employee motivation; feeling of accomplishment; remuneration; purposeful job; South Africa.
Building better teams: enhancing positive psychological capital by increasing awareness of innate characteristics
by Geoffrey R. Chapman
Abstract: Recent developments in the field of positive psychology have been applied to the study of work organisation, culminating in the concept of positive psychological capital (PPC). While numerous studies examine the measurement of PPC within organisations, few studies examine methods of improving PPC, and even fewer examine this across different industry and national contexts. Concurrent literature demonstrates positively-framed benefits of profiling tools, specifically where the emphasis is on increasing awareness of affective and innate characteristics. Accordingly, this study aims to determine whether it may be possible to increase levels of PPC within organisational teams through the use of profiling tools that focus on innate characteristics. The methodology utilised a case research approach, examining three organisations operating in different industry contexts. The results suggest that PPC was increased in all of the teams, highlighting the benefits that such profiling tools may have for organisations. Implications for researchers and managers are presented.
Keywords: teams; positive psychological capital; PPC; innate characteristics; profiling tools; positive psychology; work organisation; self-efficacy; hope; optimism; resilience; case research.
Emotional labour of rural women in difficult geographies of an emerging economy: narratives of community healthcare workers of India
by Jatin Pandey, Manjari Singh, Shrihari Suresh Sohani
Abstract: This study attempts to find the existence, execution and outcome of emotional labour in the work of community healthcare workers. Through a ten-month field study comprising in-depth interviews with 26 accredited social health workers (ASHAs), we found that their work requires emotional labour. Our study shows that they use 'attached approach', which is similar to deep acting, and 'detached approach', which is similar to surface acting, to perform emotional labour. We also found that surface acting resulted in minimal negative effect in case of negative situation and in well-being due to attenuation of work benefits in case of positive situation at the workplace. Deep acting in a positive situation led to emotional permeability between work and personal life, whereas in the event of a negative situation, it led to stress. Furthermore, deep acting decreases their effectiveness and efficiency due to associated stress that could have detrimental effects on the beneficiaries of healthcare.
Keywords: emotional labour strategies; deep acting; surface acting; lay healthcare workers; affective demands; rural India; difficult geographies; emotions at work.
Emotions in the cloud: a framework architecture for managing emotions with an example of emotional intelligence management for cloud computing organisations
by Issam Kouatli
Abstract: In spite of the rational reasoning of the low financial impact of cloud computing, clients (other businesses) lack the desire to join the cloud due to a number of determinants that will be reviewed in this paper. Emotional feelings on the top of rational thinking can be factors towards improving the 'desire' of businesses joining the cloud. This paper highlights emotional intelligence (EI) influence in the cloud-specific business environment. To achieve this objective, this paper proposes a framework to implement the steps of managing emotions in cloud environment termed as 'framework architecture for managing emotions' (FAME). FAME organised in three phases, the self-ism phase, the EI/SI Workplace phase and the relationship implementation phase. In each one of these phases, a suitable tool(s) identified to smoothen the emotional and social intelligence steps. Cloud computing environment was used as a vehicle to explain the FAME mechanism.
Keywords: cloud computing management; emotion intelligence; workplace social intelligence.