International Journal of Water (9 papers in press)
Groundwater quality assessment and mapping using multivariate statistics and analytic hierarchy process in Bhubaneswar city, Odisha, India
by Madhumita Das, Ashok K. Nayak, Bishnupriya Das, O.P. Verma
Abstract: Groundwater, the major drinking water source in urban areas, is vulnerable to deterioration of its quality due to population pressure and developmental activities. Assessment and understanding of the groundwater chemistry is therefore imperative. Using multivariate statistics and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the groundwater quality of Bhubaneswar, an ever-growing city in eastern India, is assessed and elaborated in this paper. Samples collected from the city were found to be dominated by NaClHCO3, NaCaClHCO3, NaCl and mixed hydrochemical facies through Piper trilinear diagrams. Silicate weathering had come up as a dominating process for influencing ionic constituents in bore well (>20 m depth), while anthropogenic intervention was responsible for excess nitrate, potassium, sulphate and chloride contents in the dug well (≤310 m depth) water. Samples were classified into four clusters using hierarchical cluster analyses, and cluster-wise discriminating variables were identified through discriminant function. The discriminating variables (turbidity, Fe, Mn, NO3-, K and pH) that determine the drinkability of water were then ranked through the AHP, and a hierarchy was prepared and used to generate the vulnerability map distinguishing low to high quality groundwater localities in the study area.
Keywords: groundwater quality; hydrochemical facies; hierarchical cluster analyses; discriminant functions; analytic hierarchy process; vulnerability map.
Spatio-temporal analysis of the Karun River water quality
by Mojtaba Moravej, Iman Karimirad, Kumars Ebrahimi
Abstract: In recent years, the water quality of the Karun River has been degraded by different pollutant loads, from agricultural drainages and municipal and industrial wastewaters. This paper aims to analyse spatio-temporal variations of the water quality of the Karun River using National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI), time series analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS). Monthly data, including pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, five-day biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, PO43-, NO3-, turbidity and fecal coliform, were analysed during 2007-2012. Calculated NSFWQI time series during the study period shows that the water quality of the river lies in the medium class, which implies that the use of the Karun river water is subjected to advanced treatment. The results of time series analysis show that periodicity and trend are not significant in the majority of stations. The spatial analysis results demonstrate that the water quality in Ahwaz urban area is slightly poorer than in the rest of the river. Overall, the spatio-temporal distribution of the NSFWQI values indicates that changes are negligible and show a balance between the pollutant input and self-purification capacity of the river.
Keywords: Karun River; NSFWQI; spatio-temporal analysis; time series analysis; water quality.
A new equation to predict the total potential longshore sediment transport rate in the beach ocean area
by Saeed Khorram, Mahede Vahedi
Abstract: In such coastal engineering applications, such as the sediment budget derivation for coastal regions (with/without structures, breakwaters, groynes) and long-term beach stability (without/with nourishments or coarse-grained protections), a reliable estimate of the longshore sand transport is of considerable practical importance.
An effort has been made in this paper to propose a novel predictive formula for the estimation of the TLSTR (total longshore sediment transport rate) using the ISS (incomplete self-similarity) and sediment transport physics principles with the assumption that sediments are mobilised by breaking waves that occur in the coastal environment at spatio-temporal scales and multiple interacting forces (porosity, wave conditions at breaking, water/sediment density, K-value, breaker index, etc.). The key factor in this study is the use of dimensional analysis and self-similarity concepts based on the number of independent variables to develop an integrated classical formula for the non-cohesive TLSTR in marine coastal regions. To assess the prediction capability of the proposed formula, high-quality sediment transport and hydrodynamics datasets were gathered, and six well-known formulae were employed for both the field and laboratory test conditions. Results show that the novel formula agrees well with both the flume and field data, and it is quite suitable both for practical applications in coastal regions and for the numerical modelling of sediment transport and nearshore variations.
Keywords: dimensional analysis; longshore sediment transport; incomplete self-similarity; combined wave-current; sediment transport.
Application of global precipitation dataset for drought monitoring and forecasting over the Lake Urmia basin with the GA-SVR model
by Edris Ahamdebrahimpour, Babak Aminnejad, Keivan Khalili
Abstract: Drought monitoring and forecasting are known as the key components of water resource management; however, in developing countries, one of the major impediments to carrying out studies in this field is a deficiency of required data. Therefore, in the present study, the accuracy of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) precipitation data was assessed as an alternative source instead of in situ data for monitoring the drought in the Lake Urmia basin area of Iran during the period from 1984 to 2013. Drought monitoring was performed based on SPI and in 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Later, a genetic algorithm-support vector regression (GA-SVR) model, which is a data-driven model, was used to forecast drought conditions up to four months ahead. The results demonstrated that the CRU data had acceptable accuracy in drought monitoring so that, in at least 75% of the cases, there was no difference between the monitored drought classed through observed data and CRU data. In the forecasting section, the results showed two general patterns. The first pattern indicated a descending trend of forecast accuracy with an increase in the lead-times ahead of forecasts; the second pattern revealed the ascending trend of forecast accuracy, with an increase in the SPI scale. As an example, the CC values in the one-month-ahead forecasts of SPI-3 and SPI-24 have been 0.52 and 0.86, respectively; whereas, in the four-month-ahead forecasts, these values have been 0.02 and 0.31, respectively.
Keywords: climatic research unit; genetic algorithm; support vector regression; gridded precipitation.
Evaluating uncertainty in nonlinear hydrological models using VIC-3D model on the Ume
by Saeed Khorram, Mahedeh Vahedi
Abstract: A considerable environmental and developmental challenge that the water resources management is now facing is the climate change for the evaluation of which a macro-scale model (physically based with high resolution) has been designed to be tested on the Ume
Keywords: physically based macro-scale; simulation; variable infiltration capacity model; water resources management.
Reaping socioeconomic blessings of flowing water: evidence from hydropower initiatives of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor
by Ejaz Gul
Abstract: More than 76% of the total budget of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is allocated to energy parks, which include both renewable and non-renewable energy initiatives. This paper elucidates the socioeconomic impacts of three hydropower projects envisaged under the umbrella of CPEC. The Suki Kinari, Karot and Kohala hydropower projects will generate 2690 megawatts of energy that will substantially reduce the existing gap between supply and demand of energy in Pakistan. Besides energy generation, the optimum utilisation of runoff water by these projects is expected to render other blessings for the surrounding inhabitants. This paper investigates how the construction of these hydropower projects will impact the life of the common people in terms of earnings, and how the socioeconomic status of the households will change. For this purpose, primary data on selected socioeconomic variables (SVs) was collected from respondents of the areas where these three projects are located. The same was analysed statistically to ascertain the existing trends before construction of these projects. Then changes in socioeconomic variables (SVs) after construction of these projects were calculated using Khewas model. To get representative equations for socioeconomic indexes of households before and after construction of these projects, digital analysis of data was carried out with the help of computer assisted quantitative data analysis software (CAQDAS). After this, socioeconomic indexes (SEIs) of households were calculated before and after construction of these hydropower projects using Newton-Leibniz Integration Process (NLIP). Results indicated that there is a substantial increase in the socioeconomic status of the households after construction of these hydropower projects.
Keywords: water; hydro-power; energy; socioeconomic; index; households; CAQDAS; NLIP.
Development of water information communication framework
by Zarina Othman, Azizah Ya'acob, Wan Nur’ashiqin Wan Mohamad, Rozmel Abdul Latiff
Abstract: Information is the first step to solutions towards awareness of the need for improved water management. Recognising the right information to be communicated well to the community and the public is invaluable to change behaviour and attitude for better and sustainable water quality and supply. The paper aims to develop a water communication framework that focuses on the prioritised information, and on the relevant communication methods that are needed to raise water information awareness among the community. The findings reveal the prioritised information that includes the level of awareness, the water quality and quantity, as well as the communication and information. Public television appears as one major source of information most preferred prior to internet sources. These findings have contributed to the development of the water communication framework that was adopted for a water carnival held with the aim to educate and promote water information awareness to the community.
Keywords: water; information; communication; framework; channel; awareness; carnival; community.
Water treatment methods for the needs of spatial planning in Kosovo
by Ibrahim Ramadani, Dedë P. Nrecaj, Ferim Gashi
Abstract: In this paper, the hydrological potential and the challenges in the social, economic, ecological and management context will be addressed. In this case, the model of the Klina river basin in Kosovo has been selected, while the study is based on the quantity, ecological status of running waters, subterranean water and anthropogenic influences that endanger this irreplaceable resource. The amount of water differs from country to country, where in many cases water shortages represent the main challenge of contemporary social, economic, and ecological developments. Therefore, bad management of water resources presents barriers or obstacles to the development of settlements, industry and agriculture, while on the other hand, it also causes flooding, drought, etc. Poor river management is accompanied by severe consequences, and lack of river care and poor management in many cases has caused the frequent flooding of agricultural land and endangering of settlements.
Keywords: river basin; water resources; management; degradation; pollution.
Continuous and remote monitoring of ground water level measurement in a well
by X. Anitha Mary, Lina Rose, K. Rajasekaran
Abstract: Water is a primary resource and plays significant role in human existence. All living organisms need water for their survival. About 98% of the Earth's fresh water is groundwater. To avoid scarcity, proper rain water harvesting structures need to be built in rain-fed areas. However, the effectiveness of such structures can be assessed only by measuring the water recharge rate of the groundwater sources such as open wells and bore wells. The current work envisages to provide a low cost, long term, continuous measurement and data logging of groundwater level. In order to measure the groundwater recharge, a pipe of thinner diameter is immersed into the water body (well) with a pressure sensor mounted at the top. The back pressure developed in the small tube is proportional to the height of the water column inside the tube. This is measured at regular intervals and a Raspberry Pi webserver is used as data logger for long term storage. The data analysis of the stored data facilitates the water recharge capability of the well or bore well, thereby indirectly measuring the efficacy of the water-harvesting structures in the nearby areas.
Keywords: digital pressure sensor; Raspberry Pi; level measurement; ground water recharge.