International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems (16 papers in press)
A novel approach of remotely calibrating the active phased array antenna using pulse network analyser
by Momina Syed, M. Sandhana Mahalingam, B. Seetha Ramanjaneyulu
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach of remotely calibrating the active phased array antenna using the Pulse Network Analyser (PNA). Phased array antennas are usually calibrated at the factory, using near field range calibration. However, when these antennas are used in the field, owing to the presence of solid state components, their characteristics may change over time. Owing to these changes, the requirement arises to recalibrate the array in the field. Calibration is necessary to know the element-wise transmitting power, receiver gain, attenuation, element failures and characteristics of phase shifters. A proper calibration will ensure the desired antenna pattern and system accuracy. In this work, a technique that is suitable for calibration in both transmit and receive paths of phased array antennas, using the far field method, is developed. A suitable setup was established for implementing the above technique using the PNA. Remote control of the setup was done using Matlab software. Results obtained indicate the successful calibration of the system.
Keywords: active phased array antenna; transmit/receive modules; pulse network analyser; calibration of active array; recalibration; far-field calibration.
Prediction based next-hop forwarding strategy in vehicular ad hoc networks
by Ravindara Bhatt, Ishani Sharma
Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an emerging technology where inter-vehicle communication occurs in a highly dynamic environment. Vehicles moving at various speeds communicate with the help of a suitable data-forwarding strategy in VANET. This paper presents next-hop selection of the candidate node for a highway scenario in VANET. The next hop selection of candidate node is based on current position of the vehicle, predicted next-hop position of the vehicle, and transmission range of the vehicle. Further, the vehicles are heterogeneous in terms of transmission range and speed of the vehicles. We propose NHPS and NHPA prediction algorithms based on exponential smoothing and averaging methods, respectively. We then perform simulations for realistic vehicle distributions scenario in VANET. Results show the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
Keywords: vehicular ad-hoc networks; predication based scheme; forwarding strategy; vehicle distribution.
A study of geographical routing protocols in vehicular delay-tolerant networks
by Vishakha Chourasia, Sanjay Kumar, Sudhakar Pandey
Abstract: Over the past few years, vehicular delay-tolerant networks (VDTNs) have been exploited in those communications that do not take place through end-to-end connectivity. VDTNs framework is characterised by frequent disconnection, network partitioning, and high delay. A number of routing protocols have already been proposed for VDTN. These protocols attempt to achieve significant delivery potential with low network overhead. Geographic routing is an alternative. The protocols in geographic routing use the fact that the most vehicles are equipped with global positioning system (GPS). The major concern of geographical routing protocols (GRPs) is to enhance the delivery potential and to minimise the delay. This paper provides a comprehensive investigation of recently proposed GRPs. Additionally, open issues and future orientations are included in order to motivate further research.
Keywords: delay-tolerant networks; vehicular delay-tolerant networks; vehicular ad-hoc network; store-carry-forward; geographical routing protocols; global positioning system; time-to-live.
Probabilistic bundle relaying scheme in a multi-copy vehicular delay-tolerant network
by Nidhi Sonkar, Sudhakar Pandey, Sanjay Kumar
Abstract: Delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) enable communications where connectivity issues such as intermittent and sparse connection, variable and long delay, high latency and even no end-to-end connectivity exist. Vehicular delay-tolerant networks used the concept of DTNs where vehicles are used for data transmission. The specific class of vehicular DTNs include two types of node: stationary nodes and mobile nodes. Stationary nodes are deployed along roadsides and mobile nodes are restricted to move over the road. In this paper, we have proposed a new routing scheme which is an extension of a probabilistic bundle relaying scheme with multi-hop. In this routing we have used multi-copy, which allows multiple copies of message to be transmitted, and therefore the delivery ratio can be increased. We compared the two schemes to measure the benefits of multi-copy over the multi-hop routing scheme.
Keywords: delay-tolerant network; vehicular delay-tolerant network; probabilistic bundle relaying scheme; vehicular adhoc network.
Performance analysis of clustering for message classification and congestion control in DSRC/WAVE based vehicular ad hoc networks
by Rajeswar Reddy G, R. Ramanathan
Abstract: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) play a significant role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The vehicles exchange awareness and safety information with surrounding vehicles using IEEE 802.11p (DSRC or Dedicated Short Range Communications) and IEEE 1609 (WAVE or Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment) based short-range communication networks in the 5.9 GHz band. These safety messages include periodic beacon messages and event-driven emergency messages that are shared in the Control Channel (CCH). By collecting these messages and applying clustering we can facilitate new applications such as network congestion control, traffic control etc. The partitioning based clustering methods such as k-means and the Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM) are well known in data science. This paper focuses on understanding the message clustering intuitively. The clustering quality is measured using silhouette plot and average silhouette width. The simulation is carried out in OMNeT++ and SUMO based veins framework. A simple approach using a package called RInside is explored for fast prototyping of machine learning algorithms in OMNeT++ simulations.
Keywords: clustering; k-means; partitioning around medoids; silhouette width; RInside; Omnet++; veins; IEEE 802.11p; IEEE 1609.
Implementation of MAC protocol with enhanced security features in VANET
by Amrit Suman, Chiranjeev Kumar
Abstract: Vehicular area network (VANET) is essential to reduce road accidents and to efficiently control large numbers of vehicles on the highways. Methods of establishing secure connection between vehicular nodes present in a VANET is the first priority of researchers, and various protocols have been developed and implemented. There is still a lot of scope of refinement in the currently implemented protocols. The most prominent issue is packet drop due to unsynchronised packet transmission, which results in delay and collision in the VANET. Apart from packet drop, authenticity of packets is also an important issue. This paper analyses security issues in VANET and proposes a secure MAC protocol. Four salient features of the proposed protocol are:(i) automatic size adjustment of contention window according to network capacity; (ii) channel allocation for each node based on TDMA and SDMA; (iii) priority assigning for each type of message; and (iv)security checking for each packet using CRC.
Keywords: VANET; MAC; security in VANET; collision avoidance.
Special Issue on: Impacts of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems
Range frequency based distance computation technique for positioning in vehicular ad-hoc network
by P. Mohamed Shakeel, S. Baskar
Abstract: The intent of VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is to allow efficient information dissemination aimed at the safety and comfort of passengers and drivers and to safeguard them from risk. Several fascinating and wide ranging potential applications that aid travellers are driver assistance, collision detection, internet access, map location and so on. The most precarious one is collision detection and avoidance. A collision happens when the distance between neighboring vehicles rapidly decreases. Thus, a precise and accurate knowledge about the distance between vehicles has to be determined to allow a robust collision avoidance service. Hence, in this paper, a Range Frequency based Distance Computation (RFDC) technique is proposed to provide distance estimation between every vehicle that approximates to the actual distance. The performance of the proposed approach is analysed in terms of delay, energy used, accuracy and received signal strength, and compared with the existing MDS (multi beacon signal).
Keywords: VANET; distance; range frequency; received signal strength.
Special Issue on: Big Data Innovation For Sustainable VANET Management
QoS-based routing for free space optical mobile ad hoc networks
by Salma Fauzia, Kaleem Fatima
Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning during routing in mobile ad-hoc networks has long been an exigent task for researchers. The challenges such as node mobility and route maintenance during topology changes and link characteristics become more sophisticated if the scenario requires maintaining a clear Line of Sight (LOS) between the transmitter and receiver. Similar is the case of a Free Space Optical Mobile Ad Hoc network (FSO MANET), which was originally designed for military applications and delay-tolerant networks. Routing for successful delivery of data and efficient use of network bandwidth remains a challenging issue in such networks. A routing protocol should take care of the directional nature of transmission and LOS requirement in a transceiver pair in FSO MANET. In this work, the traditional routing protocol Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is implemented in an FSO MANET to satisfy the QoS bandwidth requirement. The results showed an improvement in throughput if bandwidth is pre-specified as a QoS parameter. The performance is evaluated by varying node speeds and varying the number of nodes in the network.
Keywords: routing protocols; AODV; QoS; FSO.
Reconfigurable hardware architecture of public key crypto processor for VANET and wireless sensor nodes
by Leelavathi Gopalakrishna, Shaila Kalanath, K.R. Venugopal
Abstract: This work proposes encryption of text and image data, embedding as elliptic curve point. Finite field arithmetic is used efficiently in this reconfigurable crypto system. Pre-computation for text data and image input conversion is done using MATLAB. This architecture is tailored for cryptographic applications and VANET using Xilinx Spartan-xc3s100e-4-fg320 FPGA with Verilog coding. Total encryption and decryption time results around 10.09021 microsecond for 100 x 100 image, 22.091 microsecond for 256 x 256 image and 0.029 microsecond for a message. The message size varies with different stream size, and dynamic mapping of input data and a cipher image with high randomness indicate good security, i.e., less vulnerable to attacks. An entropy statistical analysis is performed on plain and encrypted images to assess the strength of the proposed method. The encryption throughput rate is 450 Mbps and area throughput is 3.63, which is a good improvement over previous implementations.
Keywords: elliptic curve cryptography; entropy; ElGamal; FPGA; mapping; public key cryptography; VANET.
Queue size estimation of nodes in a heterogeneous ocean network with multiple priority traffic
by Simi Surendran, Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh, Ushakumari P V
Abstract: Fishing is a major occupation for millions of people in coastal states of India and other developing countries. Fishing vessels go beyond 100 km from the shore in search of fish and the existing offshore communication technologies can provide connectivity only up to 20 km. Ocean network is a heterogeneous wireless network of fishing vessels at sea to provide low-cost communication to the shore. The information exchange between fishing vessels involves many types of message with varying priorities. We consider prioritisation of emergency data, normal data, voice and video messages between fishing vessels. As the connectivity is intermittent, it is necessary to select the most appropriate message from the transmission queue for forwarding. This paper focuses on designing a queuing model with multiple priorities to estimate the queue size of each type of message in a node. Solving the steady state equations give the number of emergency packets, data packets, audio packets and video packets waiting in the node to be transmitted. Hence the message dissemination algorithm can select the appropriate queue for transmitting the message to maximise the available resources with fairness.
Keywords: wireless network; queuing model; message prioritisation; quasi birth death process; data dissemination.
Special Issue on: Intelligent Technology for the Internet of Vehicles
Study on internet of vehicle traffic congestion detection algorithm based on big data
by Minglei Song, Lihua Liu, Rongrong Li, Binghua Wu
Abstract: In order to improve the traffic congestion detection capability of the vehicle network, a vehicle network congestion detection algorithm based on big data is proposed. The algorithm uses the Small-World model to construct a traffic distributed internet, and uses RFID tag reading technology to sample and fuse big data in the vehicle network, and to extract the inherent modal feature quantity of the vehicle traffic big data internet and the road traffic network. The overall state information is reorganised, according to the modal feature extraction results inherent in the vehicle traffic data interconnection network. The vehicle path is optimally scheduled, and according to the big data analysis results, the linear traffic planning algorithm is used to detect the vehicle traffic congestion network. The simulation results show that the proposed method has higher accuracy in vehicle traffic jam detection, and the detection time is below 10 s, and the efficiency is higher. The method can improve the anti-congestion capability of the vehicle and has a strong traffic diversion capability, thereby effectively improving the traffic effect of the vehicle in the network environment.
Keywords: big data; internet of vehicles; traffic; congestion detection.
Intelligent matching method of vehicle navigation map information based on vehicle networking technology
by Qun Le, Kun Jiang, Feng Zhang
Abstract: In order to improve the intelligent matching of vehicle navigation map information, an intelligent matching method of vehicle navigation map information based on vehicle networking technology is proposed, in order to construct an intelligent matching and information scheduling algorithm of vehicle navigation map information in vehicle networking based on information fusion and correlation matched filtering detection and a data transmission channel model for intelligent matching of vehicle navigation map information in vehicle networking, and analyse the multi-path characteristics of vehicle navigation map information transmission channel. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better intelligence in vehicle navigation map information matching, better channel equalisation and better adaptive performance in vehicle networking communication.
Keywords: vehicle networking technology; vehicle navigation; map information; intelligent matching.
Modelling and analysis of factors affecting information perception quality of intelligent vehicle visual environment
by Zichao Huang, Bin Li, Yulin Ma, Xianghui Song, Ling Sun
Abstract: When the existing methods are used to analyse the factors affecting the perception quality of visual environment information of intelligent vehicles, the rationality of the quality evaluation index is poor and the accuracy of the evaluation result is low. A modelling method is proposed to analyse the influencing factors of information perception quality of intelligent vehicle visual environment, and the process of intelligent vehicles acquiring information through visual perception technology. The hierarchical structure model is established based on the selected information quality assessment index, and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to calculate the weight of the influencing factors, and the impact model of the perception information quality of the intelligent vehicle visual environment is constructed based on the calculation results. The experimental results show that the reasonability of the quality evaluation index of the proposed method is high and the accuracy of the evaluation results is high.
Keywords: intelligent vehicle; visual perception technology; information quality; influencing factors; impact modeling.
Intelligent acquisition model of traffic congestion information in the vehicle networking environment based on multi-sensor fusion
by Kun Jiang, Dan Su, YanFu Zheng
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of low bandwidth, poor anti-interference ability and low detection accuracy of the traditional multi-path coherent vehicle network model, an intelligent acquisition model of traffic congestion information in vehicle network environment based on multi-features is proposed.The model clusters the traffic congestion information in the vehicle network and uses the multi-sensor fusion identification method to mine the traffic flow. In the vehicle networking environment, the vehicle traffic congestion information is analysed by information fusion theory, cross-fusion, text information, location information, image, audio, video and other information-aware technologies, and the coherent matching filter detector is used to realise the traffic detection of traffic congestion information. Data collection is combined with knowledge base and database construction, to achieve intelligent collection and storage of traffic congestion information. The simulation results show that the model has high traffic congestion information acquisition accuracy and good feature matching ability, improves the intelligent acquisition ability, and detects the traffic congestion information in the vehicle network environment, thus guiding traffic scheduling.
Keywords: vehicle networking; traffic congestion information; acquisition; information fusion; data mining.
Control method for communication information transmission rate in passive cluster vehicles of vehicular networking
by Rui Zhang, Zhiwei Guan, Xiaofeng Liu, Tingting Gao
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of high energy consumption and packet loss rate, long delay and poor fault tolerance of existing information transmission rate control methods, a practical vehicle-based passive vehicle communication information transmission rate control method is proposed. The average relative speed of vehicles and the number of neighbouring vehicle nodes are selected as input parameters. The cluster head is selected by using fuzzy logic, and the cluster stability is set to the long duration of the cluster. The effective connection time model of the cluster vehicles communication link is constructed. Taking the effective connection time model and channel capacity as constraints, the Shannon information concept and the maximum utility function are used to obtain the optimal information transmission rate of the current node. Experimental results show that the proposed method has lower energy consumption and delay, less packet loss, and better fault-tolerant performance than the current research results.
Keywords: vehicular networking; communication information; transmission rate; control.
Cooperative collision avoidance algorithm for multi-vehicle based on vehicle networking technology
by Jie Luo, Baichuan Lu, Jin Xu, Zhongping Yang
Abstract: This paper tries to solve the problem of the low success rate of the traditional algorithms for collision avoidance and poor control of parking distance. The vehicle network system is established and the vehicle kinematics model is developed. Accurate estimation of the vehicle driving state in tunnel intranet is based on vehicle sensors and vehicle GPS data. Constraints are established for fast response disturbances, rapid stabilisation, reduced braking acceleration and deceleration, and safe distances in the shop. From the energy point of view, we consider the relative kinetic energy of any two vehicles in the vehicle network, measure the collision risk, establish the objective function, and analyse the relative kinetic energy of all vehicles approaching the preceding vehicle. In this way, a multi-vehicle cooperative collision avoidance method based on vehicle network technology is realised. The experimental results show that the algorithm has strong collision avoidance performance, and the parking distance control is better, which can ensure safety.
Keywords: vehicle networking technology; multi-vehicle; collision avoidance.