International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation (7 papers in press)
International technology transfer and the irruptive processes: an analysis model for the offset policy
by Myller Augusto Gomes, Joao Kovaleski
Abstract: The term "offset" refers to a set of mechanisms inserted in a modality of compensated trade that seeks to insert counterparts in the commercial transaction from the seller to the buyer. In developing countries, such practice is in some cases institutionalized as policies, which represent an outlet in the acquisition of technologies from developed countries. In this context, the international technology transfer occurs in an unstable way in certain populations, with the proposal of modifying work situations and increasing the performance of the organizations to which they are destined. Then, the anthropotechnological analysis can be an adequate field of analysis. The objective of this work is to propose a framework capable of analyzing the anthropotechnological perspective in the workplace, modified by the international technology transfer promoted by the offset policy.
Keywords: International technology transfer; Anthropotechnology; Offset Policy.
REGULATORY FOCUS AND GROWTH INTENTIONS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF AN OPPORTUNITY REGISTER
by Sharda Nandram, Puneet Bindlish
Abstract: In this study, the role that an individual entrepreneurs mode of self-regulation plays in the emergence of growth intentions has been examined. The mediated relationship between regulatory modes and growth intentions was tested. A stratified random sample from the client database of an existing bank was used. This resulted in 155 startup entrepreneurs. An online survey for data collection was conducted. Six hypotheses were tested using the Process data analyses approach for testing the mediating role of opportunity register.
Our results suggest that the use of an opportunity register mediates the relationship between a promotion mode and growth intentions. A chronic promotion focus directly influences an entrepreneurs growth intentions and also influences growth intentions indirectly, via the use of an opportunity register. The same holds for the relationship between a prevention mode and growth intentions, which is fully mediated by the use of an opportunity register.
The findings imply that entrepreneurs with a high promotion or prevention focus more actively evaluate opportunities for their current business activities, or a new start-up, than either those with a low promotion or prevention focus. Those that are driven by security goals and avoiding losses use an opportunity register more often than entrepreneurs with a lower prevention focus.
Educators who teach (future) entrepreneurs may want to emphasise the role of an opportunity register in the intention to own a growing business. The evaluation of opportunities is an ongoing process that continues after the business is set up because new opportunities may be used for expanding the company or revising the business model. Educators may also want to emphasise that a prevention focus can be of vital importance to the business. The influence of an entrepreneurs regulatory mode, via an opportunity register, on growth intentions, has not yet been investigated. Our study is a first step in measuring entrepreneurs use of opportunity registers and aims to stimulate future studies to further develop the empirical measurement of the construct.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Regulatory focus; Promotion orientation; Prevention orientation; Opportunity Register; Start ups.
Extending Pasteur's quadrant: university strategic groups and sources of heterogeneity in university technology transfer office activities
by Raja Roy
Abstract: We seek to understand how technology transfer offices (TTOs) help universities translate academic research into commercialised products. Building on the innovation literature that postulates that value capture from inventions depends on the nature of the technology, we theorise that the nature of research that the university pursues likely drives the activities within TTOs. We theoretically extend Pasteur's quadrant to the domain of TTO research and posit that TTOs of universities that belong to the same strategic group in 'Pasteur's cube' are likely to have similar activities. Our research suggests that, on the one hand, future investigations of TTOs need to take into account the heterogeneity in their activities rather than treating TTOs of all universities as homogenous and, on the other hand, universities planning to initiate technology transfer activities should look into the processes of the TTOs of universities that are in the same strategic group.
Keywords: Pasteur's quadrant; TTO value chain; TTO strategic groups.
Living cell technologies: finding a path to market for xenotransplantation therapy
by Lisa Callagher, Brian Karlson, Nadine France, Cristiano Bellavitis
Abstract: This case examines the research commercialisation process of biotech company living cell technologies (LCT). The case outlines the process of pre-clinical and clinical trials undertaken by the company as they moved towards commercialising their pig islet cell treatment for Type 1 diabetes including the R&D and manufacturing capabilities the firm has developed. Also, the case describes the challenges in bringing a sometimes controversial biotech product to market, including regulatory hurdles; rapid changes to legislation; the impact of public opinion; and the difficulties in raising capital, maintaining cash flow and developing a pipeline of opportunities over a long period of commercialisation.
Keywords: research commercialisation; entrepreneurial finance; joint venture; R&D; case study.
The complementarity of academic and commercial research output in funded research teams: evidence from a survey of publicly funded Irish researchers
by Jane Bourke, Declan Jordan
Abstract: Using data from a census of Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) funded researchers, this paper explores the determinants of academic and commercial research outputs in publicly funded research teams. Using a conditional mixed process model, the paper estimates the effect on research output of national and international academic collaboration, industry collaboration and team size on research outputs. The paper also examines the extent to which academic and commercial research outputs are complements or substitutes. The paper finds that collaboration with both domestic and international academics increases the likelihood of academic research outputs. Interaction with SMEs and MNCs increases the likelihood of academic research outputs, but has no direct effect on commercial research outputs. There is evidence of a complementary relationship between academic and commercial outputs. This suggests that greater emphasis on commercial impact for funded research is not at the expense of lower bibliometric output.
Keywords: academic research; science policy; university-industry collaboration; conditional mixed-process model.
Illuminating blind spots and skewness in leadership
by Puneet K. Bindlish, Sharda S. Nandram
Abstract: We explore the topic of leadership through a novel approach of analysing social science research literature called computer assisted research profiling (CARP) for ontological profiling. Our review revealed a domination by western approaches and perspectives, leading to some blind spots and skewness in understanding leadership processes, perspectives and research designs. There is a scope of organising leadership research and refining the conceptualisation of leadership in order to adequately include various differential aspects and perspectives of leadership. Often driven by existentialist positioning and unclear objectives, a synthetic integration of approaches result in more confusion. Furthermore, positivist paradigms emanating from the dominant worldview hardly leave space for indigenous approaches and perspectives. The paper suggests to bring 'leadership research' philosophically closer to advances in 'fundamental research' in physical sciences to benefit from each other. It suggests an integrative paradigm led multi-paradigmatic approach for leadership development by tapping into ancient traditions of the world.
Keywords: leadership; ontological profiling; definition profiling; leaders; followers; computer assisted research profiling; CARP.
Special Issue on: VINC'17-BRAINSTORM Business Analytics and Technology
An econometric study of dynamic relationships of regional integrations across the globe
by Namita Rajput, Sufiya Usman, Shoeba Usman
Abstract: With the emergence of globalisation, this paper investigates time series data of index prices from 2011 to 2016, to analyse dynamic inter-linkages of indices of seven regional integrations, ASEAN, BRICS, EFTA, EU, LAFTA, NAFTA and SAARC comprising of 53 countries including India and its interlinkages with BRICS and SAARC. Price discovery is confirmed for all regional integrations using Johnson's co-integration test, while VECM signifies the short-term adjustments made by various combinations of regional integrations. The results of Granger causality/block exogeneity shows bi-directional relationships in 11 combinations, and uni-directional relationships in ten combinations of regional integrations and in six combinations of countries with India. Volatility spill-over is confirmed for all combinations of regional integration and countries except ASEAN and EU and EFTA and NAFTA. Existence of efficient risk transfer system among markets is relevant for policy makers, hedgers, traders and investors and it may provide diversification benefits for potential investors.
Keywords: interlinkages; regional integration; price discovery; Granger causality; VECM.