International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation (5 papers in press)
Extending Pasteurs Quadrant: University strategic groups and sources of heterogeneity in university technology transfer office activities
by Raja Roy
Abstract: We seek to understand how Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) help universities translate academic research into commercialized products. Building on the innovation literature that postulates that value capture from inventions depends on the nature of the technology, we theorize that the nature of research that the university pursues likely drives the activities within TTOs. We theoretically extend Pasteurs Quadrant to the domain of TTO research and posit that TTOs of universities that belong to the same strategic group in Pasteurs Cube are likely to have similar activities. Our research suggests that, on the one hand, future investigations of TTOs need to take into account the heterogeneity in their activities rather than treating TTOs of all universities as homogenous and, on the other hand, universities planning to initiate technology transfer activities should look into the processes of the TTOs of universities that are in the same strategic group.
Keywords: Pasteur’s quadrant; TTO value chain; TTO strategic groups.
Living Cell Technologies: Finding a path to market for xenotransplantation therapy
by Lisa Callagher, Brian Karlson, Nadine France, Cristiano Bellavitis
Abstract: This case examines the research commercialisation process of biotech company Living Cell Technologies (LCT). The case outlines the process of pre-clinical and clinical trials undertaken by the company as they moved towards commercialising their pig islet cell treatment for Type I diabetes including the R&D and manufacturing capabilities the firm has developed. Also, the case describes the challenges in bringing a sometimes controversial biotech product to market, including: regulatory hurdles; rapid changes to legislation; the impact of public opinion; and the difficulties in raising capital, maintaining cash flow and developing a pipeline of opportunities over a long period of commercialisation.
Keywords: research commercialisation; entrepreneurial finance; joint venture; R&D; case study.
The Complementarity of Academic and Commercial Research Output in Funded Research Teams: Evidence from a survey of publicly funded Irish researchers
by Jane Bourke, Declan Jordan
Abstract: Using data from a Census of Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) funded researchers, this paper explores the determinants of academic and commercial research outputs in publicly funded research teams. Using a conditional mixed process model, the paper estimates the effect on research output of national and international academic collaboration, industry collaboration and team size on research outputs. The paper also examines the extent to which academic and commercial research outputs are complements or substitutes. The paper finds that collaboration with both domestic and international academics increases the likelihood of academic research outputs. Interaction with SMEs and MNCs increases the likelihood of academic research outputs, but has no direct effect on commercial research outputs. There is evidence of a complementary relationship between academic and commercial outputs. This suggests that greater emphasis on commercial impact for funded research is not at the expense of lower bibliometric output.
Keywords: Academic research; Science policy; University-Industry collaboration; Conditional Mixed-Process Model.
Illuminating Blind Spots and Skewness in Leadership
by Puneet Kumar Bindlish, Sharda Nandram
Abstract: We explore the topic of leadership through literature review and a novel approach called Computer Assisted Research Profiling (CARP) for getting insights on the ontological and definition profiling of leadership. Our review revealed that most research was dominated by Western approaches and perspectives leading to blind spots and skewness in understanding leadership processes, perspectives and research designs. There is a lack of definition of leadership manifested in research which is unorganized, and which does not contain the differential aspects of leadership, leader, follower, the leader as observer, the situation to which leaders are exposed, interactions and relationship of leaders, leadership as a process and perspectives of leadership. Furthermore the research is often driven by existentialist positioning, unclear objectives and it attempts synthetically integration of approaches resulting in more confusion. It strives for positivistic paradigms emanating from the dominant worldview hardly leaving space for alternative and indigenous approaches and perspectives. The paper suggests to bring leadership research philosophically closer to advances in fundamental research and in physical sciences to benefit from each other. It suggests a Multi-observer approach for the self-development of leadership. It also suggests an integrative paradigm by tapping into ancient traditions of the world. With this article we have introduced Computer Assisted Research Profiling (CARP) as a new way of analyzing in addition to literature review.
Keywords: Leadership; Ontological profiling; Definition profiling; Leaders; Followers; Computer Assisted Research Profiling.
Special Issue on: ,,
An Econometric Study of Dynamic Relationships of Regional Integrations Across Globe
by Namita Rajput, Sufiya Usman, Shoeba Usman
Abstract: With the emergence of Globalization, this paper investigates dynamic inter-linkages of indices of seven Regional Integrations, ASEAN, BRICS, EFTA, EU, LAFTA, NAFTA and SAARC comprising of 53 countries including India and also its interlinkages with two Regional Integrations BRICS and SAARC. Time series data relating to Index Prices has been taken for the period ranging from 1st April, 2011 to 31st March, 2016. Price discovery is confirmed for all Regional Integrations using Johnsons Co-integration test confirming long term relationship in all combinations. VECM signifies the short-term adjustments made by various combinations of Regional Integrations to reach towards equilibrium. The results of VECM are encouraging exhibiting establishment of strong market information mechanism. To add robustness to this result Variance Decomposition Analysis is employed. The results of Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Test are mixed, showing bi-directional relationships in 11 combinations of Regional Integration, and uni-directional relationships in 10 combinations of Regional Integrations and in 6 combinations of countries with India. Volatility spill-over is confirmed for all combinations of regional integration and countries except ASEAN & EU and EFTA & NAFTA. This implies the market has evolved as an efficient risk transfer system for all combinations. The findings are relevant for policy makers, hedgers, traders and investors and it may provide diversification benefits for potential investors.
Keywords: Interlinkages; Regional Integration; Price discovery; Granger Causality; VECM.