International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation (9 papers in press)
Extending Pasteurs Quadrant: University strategic groups and sources of heterogeneity in university technology transfer office activities
by Raja Roy
Abstract: We seek to understand how Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) help universities translate academic research into commercialized products. Building on the innovation literature that postulates that value capture from inventions depends on the nature of the technology, we theorize that the nature of research that the university pursues likely drives the activities within TTOs. We theoretically extend Pasteurs Quadrant to the domain of TTO research and posit that TTOs of universities that belong to the same strategic group in Pasteurs Cube are likely to have similar activities. Our research suggests that, on the one hand, future investigations of TTOs need to take into account the heterogeneity in their activities rather than treating TTOs of all universities as homogenous and, on the other hand, universities planning to initiate technology transfer activities should look into the processes of the TTOs of universities that are in the same strategic group.
Keywords: Pasteur’s quadrant; TTO value chain; TTO strategic groups.
Living Cell Technologies: Finding a path to market for xenotransplantation therapy
by Lisa Callagher, Brian Karlson, Nadine France, Cristiano Bellavitis
Abstract: This case examines the research commercialisation process of biotech company Living Cell Technologies (LCT). The case outlines the process of pre-clinical and clinical trials undertaken by the company as they moved towards commercialising their pig islet cell treatment for Type I diabetes including the R&D and manufacturing capabilities the firm has developed. Also, the case describes the challenges in bringing a sometimes controversial biotech product to market, including: regulatory hurdles; rapid changes to legislation; the impact of public opinion; and the difficulties in raising capital, maintaining cash flow and developing a pipeline of opportunities over a long period of commercialisation.
Keywords: research commercialisation; entrepreneurial finance; joint venture; R&D; case study.
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An Econometric Study of Dynamic Relationships of Regional Integrations Across Globe
by Namita Rajput, Sufiya Usman, Shoeba Usman
Abstract: With the emergence of Globalization, this paper investigates dynamic inter-linkages of indices of seven Regional Integrations, ASEAN, BRICS, EFTA, EU, LAFTA, NAFTA and SAARC comprising of 53 countries including India and also its interlinkages with two Regional Integrations BRICS and SAARC. Time series data relating to Index Prices has been taken for the period ranging from 1st April, 2011 to 31st March, 2016. Price discovery is confirmed for all Regional Integrations using Johnsons Co-integration test confirming long term relationship in all combinations. VECM signifies the short-term adjustments made by various combinations of Regional Integrations to reach towards equilibrium. The results of VECM are encouraging exhibiting establishment of strong market information mechanism. To add robustness to this result Variance Decomposition Analysis is employed. The results of Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Test are mixed, showing bi-directional relationships in 11 combinations of Regional Integration, and uni-directional relationships in 10 combinations of Regional Integrations and in 6 combinations of countries with India. Volatility spill-over is confirmed for all combinations of regional integration and countries except ASEAN & EU and EFTA & NAFTA. This implies the market has evolved as an efficient risk transfer system for all combinations. The findings are relevant for policy makers, hedgers, traders and investors and it may provide diversification benefits for potential investors.
Keywords: Interlinkages; Regional Integration; Price discovery; Granger Causality; VECM.
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University knowledge transfer: Exploring organisational structures to create strategic alignment
by Allen Alexander, Kristel Miller
Abstract: Whilst knowledge and technology transfer unarguably present an important source of wealth for a nation and an important component of a modern Universitys offering to society, the management of this activity is complex and as a result many economies struggle to realise their expectations. Academics and commercial organisations are quick to blame inflexible and bureaucratic university transfer offices and administrators for this shortfall. This paper takes an approach of exploring the structural arrangements of knowledge transfer offices across various countries to identify if different structures help overcome different strategic and operational challenges involved in university-industry knowledge transfer. The findings identify that interdependent and complex management practices coupled with equally complex organisational architectures lead to issues of conflicting pressures and ambiguous governance. Furthermore, this research illustrates a number of structural solutions that universities have adopted to try to side-step some of the problems.
Keywords: Knowledge transfer; University-industry collaboration; Subsidiary; Strategy; Technology Transfer; Operational Alignment.
Knowledge Sharing Practices Supporting Continuous Incremental Innovation
by Mikko Mäntyneva, Vesa Salminen
Abstract: This paper studies knowledge sharing practices and their effect on success in incremental innovation activity in large Finnish companies. The empirical study is based on a quantitative internet-based survey targeted to the representatives of largest 50 companies in Finland. Out of these 50 targeted companies, 36 (72 %) participated in the survey. All in all, the questionnaire was sent to 135 persons representing targeted companies and out of them 37 persons (27 %) responded. A conceptual model on how knowledge sharing practices affect companys success in its incremental innovation activity was created. The conceptual model includes three research hypotheses that were tested empirically. The paper also provides guidance on managerial implications covering how the management of a company may take an active role to support knowledge sharing related practices and culture and thus improve companys success in its incremental innovation activity.
Keywords: Knowledge Sharing; Incremental Innovation; Continuous Innovation; Value Proposition.
Knowledge Transfer in the Context of Frugal Innovation
by Lukas Neumann, Jonas Böhm, Chr Christoph
Abstract: In this paper, we explore knowledge transfer in the context of Frugal Innovation (i.e. a specific form of resource-constraint innovation). Based on original data from 11 case studies, we observe two distinct cluster. Firms in the cluster Active are signified by their direct experience in the target market. Companies in the cluster Non-active were not physically present in the target market prior to the Frugal initiative. Further, three distinct phases emerged along the value creation process: (a) Market research, (b) Development and (c) Go-to-market. It became evident that firms from the cluster Non-Active are confronted much more with an influx and outflow of knowledge. Transfer in both directions requires significantly more effort. With this research we contribute to the growing body of literature on Frugal Innovation and the emerging middle class. We conclude this study with a discussion of the implications of our findings for management practice and research.
Keywords: Frugal Innovation; Knowledge transfer; Emerging markets; Resource-constraint innovation; BoP; Emerging middle class.
Bridging the gap from research to high-technology ventures with experienced entrepreneurs
by Karen Murdock, Majken Overgaard, Monika Luniewska, Jes Broeng
Abstract: The paper explores an alternative approach to the traditional transfer of university research output. This approach proposes a systematic search and matching of external experienced entrepreneurs with university researchers to stimulate spinning out university-developed technology. Bridging the gap (BtG) is a model for combining the experiences, market insight and network connections of experienced entrepreneurs and the technical knowledge and capabilities of university researchers to create a stronger basis for spin-outs. Inserting market knowledge and competences in the research domain of scientists optimizes the selection of technology applications, which accelerates the spin-out process and generally strengthens the prospects for the emerging firm to achieve and sustain growth. Application of the model to two departments at the Technical University of Denmark provides empirical evidence for the models usefulness.
Keywords: technology transfer; university spin-out; researchers’ skills gap; experienced entrepreneurs; bridging the gap.
Innovation Opportunities Emerging from Leading-Edge Art/Science/Technology Interaction
by Erich Prem
Abstract: This paper examines results from recent initiatives (FEAT) in the area of art/science/technology interaction. We study cases of artistic residencies with research projects in the area of future and emerging technologies. The results show that artistic interaction with scientists and engineers can lead to new forms of impact for technology-oriented research projects with important long-term effects in public relation of research projects by means of the materiality of artworks. In addition, artists become early adopters of technology based on their acquisition of new competencies and experimentation with research technology. The results from our analysis also indicate a long-term effect on the social networks of both artists and researchers and suggest durable collaboration emerging from longer-term artistic residencies in technoscientific research projects.
Keywords: art; science; philosophy; creativity; ethics; future and emerging technologies.
Developing Absorptive Capacity for Midstream Science in Open Innovation Contexts
by Urs Daellenbach, Sally Davenport, Katharina Ruckstuhl
Abstract: Open innovation and absorptive capacity research address similar issues related to the transfer of knowledge in settings where a broader perspective can yield benefits through collaboration between organisations and individuals. Both, however, have traditionally emphasised a firm and commercial focus. Here, we argue that these literatures can be fruitfully combined, particularly when considering the relatively under-researched partnering of public-sector researchers within mid-stream science research collaborations with commercial firms in a cross-cultural context.
Keywords: absorptive capacity; open innovation; science-industry collaboration; academic engagement; New Zealand; National Science Challenges.