International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation (17 papers in press)
BEHAVIORAL IMPACT ON INTERNET USAGE AND INTERNET ADVERTISEMENTS PREFERENCE ON YOUNG INDIVIDUALS
by Shanthi Parasuraman, Thiyagarajan S
Abstract: Advertisements over Internet can be seen as a boon or bane for the internet users especially youth who are contributing to majority of internet usage. Any advertisement if noticed can lead to a particular behavior or action. And internet advertisements are no exceptions. Most reviews with respect to internet advertisements indicate that it is disturbing for the genuine users and distracting to the youth. The five types of advertisements considered in this study are: social advertisements, sexy advertisements, celebrity advertisements, personal advertisements and promotional advertisements. This paper thus focuses on the behavior of the youth with respect to the viewing of advertisements. The sample size of the study was 700 with schools and universities in Pondicherry and Chennai. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. A SEM model was developed based on the responses collected to find the influence of advertisements on the positive and negative behaviours. Findings and suggestions were made based on the results. This study stands unique in the fact that there are no direct empirical studies based on the influence of positive and negative behaviours of youth on internet advertisements especially in the regions (Pondicherry and Chennai) considered in the study.
Keywords: Internet: behavior; internet advertisements; social advertisements; sexy advertisements; celebrity advertisements; personal and promotional advertisements.
Identifying the key processes for technology transfer through spin-offs in academic institutions: A case study in Flanders and The Netherlands
by Jasmine Meysman, Sven H. De Cleyn, Johan Braet
Abstract: The position and role of technology transfer offices within universities and academic institutions have changed under influence of todays society, with diminishing government subsidies and technology transfer related policies having their impact on the technology transfer processes. In order to find out what the effect of this impact is, we performed a multiple-case study on six technology transfer offices in Flanders and the Netherlands. As a result of the study, we identified two categories of findings: Processes related to technology transfer and general conditions for technology transfer. These findings lead us to believe that due to the outside pressure, technology transfer offices are creating new business models and quality control mechanisms to optimise their processes.
Keywords: TTO; TTO Process; TTO Processes; Technology Transfer; Technology Transfer Office; Technology Transfer Process; Spin-off; Academic Institutions; Flanders; Netherlands; Business Models; Commercialisation of university research.
Educational Data Mining: A Review to its Future Vision
by Kriti Dhingra, Kanika Dhingra Sardana
Abstract: Data Mining is a technique of extracting useful and hidden patterns from huge databases that were previously unknown. It is a very promising and effective technique for the process of decision making. Educational Data Mining is an emerging field which concerns with development of new methods for revealing useful information from data that comes from the education sector in order to improvise the learning experience and improve the standard of education. This paper provides a systematic review on the studies done over educational data mining in the past years. Research gaps in the current literature and further opportunities for research are presented.
Keywords: Educational Data Mining; Decision tree; Classification; Clustering.
A Study of Factors Influencing the Shift towards M-Commerce in Indian Context
by Mukul Arora, Harshit Jain
Abstract: One can observe the faster acceptance of technology and usage of smartphone for buying daily wants for which people earlier travel to buy or used to sit on personal computers for placing orders. With faster and wider wireless network, India is experiencing a very fast shift from electronic-commerce towards mobile-commerce. This quick expansion brings to find the factors responsible for this shift and the difference between the factors responsible for females and males to shift to m-commerce. And finding whether the market is ready for m-commerce only model by dropping off their desktop website or not. Factor analysis on a sample of 320 online shoppers revealed that mobile-friendliness, storage and security, app-friendliness and convenience is leading the shift to m-commerce and app- friendliness is the primary factor of shift for female online consumers, while, mobile friendliness is primary factors of shift for male online consumers. But right now, the market is not ready for adopting the m-commerce model only as the preference of people for placing orders shift to desktop website for expensive products through a considerable percentage from mobile apps. The findings suggest that marketers need to make their customers build trust over mobile platforms.
Keywords: electronic-commerce; electronic-retail; mobile-retail; mobile-commerce.
The impact of trust on online shopping attitude among women shoppers in India
by Nupur Arora, Manmohan Rahul
Abstract: Purpose The growth and development of internet is playing a key tool for exchanging goods, services and information in Indian retail market. The purpose of this paper is to examine the important antecedents of trust in ecommerce- website quality, website reputation and electronic word of mouth(Ewom). It proposes a model explaining how trust in online shopping impacts attitude and what is the impact of online shopping attitude on online shopping intention. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling was employed on a sample of 508 online women shoppers. An online questionnaire was administered at internet users who had previously made an online purchase. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the research constructs, validity and composite reliability. Findings Results show that Trust impacts significantly on Online Shopping Attitude. The results also indicated that all three constructs of the study- website quality, website reputation and electronic word of mouth (Ewom) have a positive impact on Trust in Ecommerce and online shopping. Also there was a significant positive impact of trust on online shopping attitude. The study also supports the findings of previous studies that Online Shopping Attitude has a positive impact on Online Shopping Intention. Originality/value This study is one of the first to suggest an integrative model that studies in detail the three main antecedents of trust and responses of women customers for understanding their online buying behaviour.
Keywords: Online shopping attitude; online purchase intention; E-commerce; Ewom; electronic word of mouth; Trust; Website quality; website reputation.
Extending Pasteurs Quadrant: University strategic groups and sources of heterogeneity in university technology transfer office activities
by Raja Roy
Abstract: We seek to understand how Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) help universities translate academic research into commercialized products. Building on the innovation literature that postulates that value capture from inventions depends on the nature of the technology, we theorize that the nature of research that the university pursues likely drives the activities within TTOs. We theoretically extend Pasteurs Quadrant to the domain of TTO research and posit that TTOs of universities that belong to the same strategic group in Pasteurs Cube are likely to have similar activities. Our research suggests that, on the one hand, future investigations of TTOs need to take into account the heterogeneity in their activities rather than treating TTOs of all universities as homogenous and, on the other hand, universities planning to initiate technology transfer activities should look into the processes of the TTOs of universities that are in the same strategic group.
Keywords: Pasteur’s quadrant; TTO value chain; TTO strategic groups.
University knowledge transfer: Exploring organisational structures to create strategic alignment
by Allen Alexander, Kristel Miller
Abstract: Whilst knowledge and technology transfer unarguably present an important source of wealth for a nation and an important component of a modern Universitys offering to society, the management of this activity is complex and as a result many economies struggle to realise their expectations. Academics and commercial organisations are quick to blame inflexible and bureaucratic university transfer offices and administrators for this shortfall. This paper takes an approach of exploring the structural arrangements of knowledge transfer offices across various countries to identify if different structures help overcome different strategic and operational challenges involved in university-industry knowledge transfer. The findings identify that interdependent and complex management practices coupled with equally complex organisational architectures lead to issues of conflicting pressures and ambiguous governance. Furthermore, this research illustrates a number of structural solutions that universities have adopted to try to side-step some of the problems.
Keywords: Knowledge transfer; University-industry collaboration; Subsidiary; Strategy; Technology Transfer; Operational Alignment.
Knowledge Sharing Practices Supporting Continuous Incremental Innovation
by Mikko Mäntyneva, Vesa Salminen
Abstract: This paper studies knowledge sharing practices and their effect on success in incremental innovation activity in large Finnish companies. The empirical study is based on a quantitative internet-based survey targeted to the representatives of largest 50 companies in Finland. Out of these 50 targeted companies, 36 (72 %) participated in the survey. All in all, the questionnaire was sent to 135 persons representing targeted companies and out of them 37 persons (27 %) responded. A conceptual model on how knowledge sharing practices affect companys success in its incremental innovation activity was created. The conceptual model includes three research hypotheses that were tested empirically. The paper also provides guidance on managerial implications covering how the management of a company may take an active role to support knowledge sharing related practices and culture and thus improve companys success in its incremental innovation activity.
Keywords: Knowledge Sharing; Incremental Innovation; Continuous Innovation; Value Proposition.
Government policies for transfer of technology projects in Indian defence PSUs
by Lakshman Singh, Alpana Srivastava
Abstract: Indian DPSUs are the backbone for manufacturing of defence article for our defence forces. But to compete the global market they need massive transformation which can be achieved very well by transfer of technology (TOT). Effective TOT project implementation using government policies is the main thought of this research paper. This paper points out the guideline of defence procurement policy (DPP) for TOT implementation and derive a generalised model for TOT of defence article manufacturing in Indian DPSUs. With this paper researcher defines TOT implementation via stage-gate model of TOT and generate model for TOT implementation. The two dimensional model for bid evaluation is a unique finding for selection of vendor/seller for TOT project in Indian Defence PSUs. Author conclude this research paper by pointing out use of Indian Government offset policy in TOT project in the economic benefit of Indian DPSUs and decision of TOT in different category.
Keywords: avionics; defence procurement policy; transfer of technology; TOT model; bid evaluation; stage-gate model of TOT; offset.
Antecedents of R&D performance at small and medium enterprises
by Bowon Kim, Sunghak Kim
Abstract: To examine what factors determine R&D performance at small and medium enterprises (SMEs), we propose a research framework, consisting of antecedents of R&D performance. We put forward two types of antecedents, organisational factors and R&D input factors. In our framework, there are three organisational factors, i.e., formal R&D organisation unit, R&D incentive mechanism, and technology protection unit, and two R&D input factors, i.e., R&D investment per R&D person and R&D personnel ratio (R&D personnel to the total number of employees). In addition, we use two control variables, firm size and firm age. Analysing 2,807 SME manufacturing companies in Korea, we conclude as follows. Controlling for firm size and age, SME's R&D performance is positively affected by SME's having a formal organisational unit for protecting proprietary technology and the two R&D input factors. SME's having a formal R&D organisation unit has a significant effect on R&D performance when either uncontrolled or controlled for firm age only. It turns out that SME's having a formal R&D incentive mechanism does not have any significant effect on R&D performance. We discuss the managerial implications of the analysis results.
Keywords: small and medium enterprise; SME; R&D performance; innovation; entrepreneurial spirit; technology protection; R&D investment.
Government financial incentives and their role in developing electronic technological capabilities in Guadalajara, Mexico
by Gustavo M. Guillemin Franco, Alvaro Pedroza Zapata
Abstract: The electronics industry in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA), Mexico experienced significant growth during the 1990s. However, development of electronic design capabilities in the GMA is reduced compared to this growth. Furthermore, in small and medium businesses, few employees are performing design compared to the sector size. To increase the value added and optimise the multinational corporation's potential in the GMA, understanding how the inhibitors and enablers participate in the development of these activities is key. This report presents a multiple case study of seven businesses performing electronic design in the GMA. One enabler by which they access financial support was through government financial incentives. Although these incentives are an asset, they do not incite electronic design activities due to their short-term impact, considering activities in electronic design requires long-term financial mechanisms. Thus, we suggest that policies in electronic design activities should be reviewed to provide long-term financial support.
Keywords: electronic design; technological capabilities; government financial incentives; electronics industry; Guadalajara Metropolitan Area; GMA; Mexico.
Short and long run inter linkages of market returns of Indian stock market with developed stock markets
by Raman Preet Singh, Nawal Kishor
Abstract: The paper attempts to establish the linkages and relationship among the returns of these developed stock exchanges and examines the effect of the stock index of one country on the stock index of other country. The daily index returns of all the five stock exchanges are taken from 2007 to 2016. Long-term relationship has been tested by Johansen co-integration test to show long run association among developed stock exchange indices. ADF, unit root test and Granger causality have been applied to find out the cause and effect relationship among the nifty index and leading stock exchanges indices. There is a unidirectional causality relationship with Japanese, UK and Hong Kong stock markets, Indian stock market influence the Japanese and Hong Kong markets but Indian stock market is influenced by both the USA and UK stock markets. However long run association was not found among nifty and rest of the stock indices.
Keywords: nifty index; co-integration; stock exchanges; volatility; India.
Was the Indian stock market really nudged by the demonetisation jolt?
by Isha Rawal, Renu Vashisth
Abstract: Stock market pattern has been an imperative area of research for the academicians, stock brokers, investors and policy makers. This paper explores the impact of announcement certain significant triggering events like demonetisation of Rs. 500 and Rs. 1,000 notes on S&P CNX Nifty of National Stock Exchange of India and SENSEX of Bombay Stock Exchange of India. The study has attempted to identify the difference in the impact of said event on the aforementioned major stock indices of India for short, medium and long-term ending on 18th November 2016, 30th December 2016 and 31st January 2017, respectively. Event study methodology has been deployed for the purpose of analysis. It has been revealed that there is no significant difference in the expected and actual returns of Sensex and Nifty in all the time durations after the announcement of demonetisation news.
Keywords: demonetisation; S&P CNX Nifty; BSE Sensex; event study; gold and dollar; volatility spill-over; event's impact; asset classes.
Special Issue on: VINC'17-BRAINSTORM Business Analytics and Technology
Impact of perceived usability and perceived information quality on Indian consumer purchase intentions in online shopping: implication of TAM and S-O-R theory
by Aanchal Aggarwal, Manmohan Rahul
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explicate a comprehensive model explaining the impact of perceived usability and perceived information quality on consumer purchase intentions and how does it contribute to trust and satisfaction towards an e-retailer in an online shopping context. Through an extensive literature review, we found two attributes of website personality that are constituents of perceived usability, i.e., shopping convenience and site design and four constituents of perceived information quality, i.e., customer communication, delivery, product value and special content information. Thus, we attempted to explore the relationships between perceived usability, perceived information quality, trust, satisfaction and purchase intentions with the help of technology acceptance model or TAM and stimulus organism response model or S-O-R model. In all, 500 Indian consumers online shoppers were surveyed to conduct the above research agenda by structural equation modelling. Perceived usability and perceived information quality had positive effect on satisfaction and trust. Trust and satisfaction had a positive effect on consumer purchase intentions. The paper theoretically extends the applicability TAM along with S-O-R model which will fill the gap in the current literature available. The paper additionally provides valuable information to online retailers so as to maximise customer satisfaction and trust and generate positive intentions to buy online.
Keywords: web site quality; technology acceptance model; TAM; perceived usability; stimulus organism response model; perceived information quality; trust; satisfaction; purchase intentions; B2C marketplace.
Special Issue on: ,,
A Comparative Study of Stress & Job Satisfaction among Teachers at the College and School Level
by Parul Kumar, Neha Kumar, Shivam Agarwal, Rupal Saini
Abstract: This study tried to analyze the factors responsible for stress, kinds of stress & job satisfaction among the school and college teachers. Along with the division in terms of school & college, we also compared the factors importance in terms of male & female. The results concluded that Role Stagnation was the major stress causing factors amongst school teachers while Role erosion amongst college teachers. Both male and female respondents considered Role stagnation as the major stress causing factor. For job satisfaction, we came to the conclusion that job satisfaction revolves around five factors i.e. nature of work, work environment, growth, personal satisfaction & lack of motivation in both schools & colleges. Schools combine growth & nature of work as one major factor in deciding whether the individual is satisfied in the job or not.On the other hand, college teachers hold nature of work as the major & most important factor which defines their job satisfaction levels. Likewise for male teachers, Growth is the most important criteria in job satisfaction & for female teachers, nature work is more important.
Keywords: Factor Analysis; Stagnation; Stress; promotion; incentives.
Can Stock Market Time the FPIs: A Study of Seasonality?
by Parul Kumar, R.K. Sharma, Sunil Kumar, Deepali Ratra
Abstract: The purpose of paper is to analyze the presence of the days of the week effect, quarter effect, and month effect on the net investment of Foreign Portfolio Investors (FPI) in India. For this purpose, research has been conducted for the time period from 4th January, 2000 till 30th November, 2016. FPIs daily net inflows have been analyzed for occurrence & existence of month effect along with day of the week and quarter effect. Interaction effect between the quarter, month & nifty returns has been also analyzed. Augmented Dummy Regression with ARIMA and GARCH has been used to analyze presence of seasonal anomalies in FPIs. Results confirmed the presence of calendar effect i.e. month of the year (December) effect on the FPIs. Also Friday effect and the Quarter 4 effect were present in the investing pattern of FPIs. Study concluded that FPIs were more biased towards trading more on Fridays and in the month of December in the overall analysis. Also the presence of quarter effect was seemed to be caused by the presence of month effect along with the nifty returns of those specific months. Hence there exists the strong interaction effect among the anomalies in the FPI net investment to India. Thus the stock market can time the major inflow of FPIs during these months, on few days and in quarter to take advantage of the market movement.
Keywords: ARIMA; GARCH; Quarter effect; Calendar effect; Dummy Regression; Monthly effect; Day effect.
An Econometric Study of Dynamic Relationships of Regional Integrations Across Globe
by Namita Rajput, Sufiya Usman, Shoeba Usman
Abstract: With the emergence of Globalization, this paper investigates dynamic inter-linkages of indices of seven Regional Integrations, ASEAN, BRICS, EFTA, EU, LAFTA, NAFTA and SAARC comprising of 53 countries including India and also its interlinkages with two Regional Integrations BRICS and SAARC. Time series data relating to Index Prices has been taken for the period ranging from 1st April, 2011 to 31st March, 2016. Price discovery is confirmed for all Regional Integrations using Johnsons Co-integration test confirming long term relationship in all combinations. VECM signifies the short-term adjustments made by various combinations of Regional Integrations to reach towards equilibrium. The results of VECM are encouraging exhibiting establishment of strong market information mechanism. To add robustness to this result Variance Decomposition Analysis is employed. The results of Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Test are mixed, showing bi-directional relationships in 11 combinations of Regional Integration, and uni-directional relationships in 10 combinations of Regional Integrations and in 6 combinations of countries with India. Volatility spill-over is confirmed for all combinations of regional integration and countries except ASEAN & EU and EFTA & NAFTA. This implies the market has evolved as an efficient risk transfer system for all combinations. The findings are relevant for policy makers, hedgers, traders and investors and it may provide diversification benefits for potential investors.
Keywords: Interlinkages; Regional Integration; Price discovery; Granger Causality; VECM.