International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation (13 papers in press)
Antecedents of R&D Performance at Small and Medium Enterprises
by Bowon Kim, Sunghak Kim
Abstract: To examine what factors determine R&D performance at small and medium enterprises (SMEs), we propose a research framework, consisting of antecedents of R&D performance. We put forward two types of antecedents, organizational factors and R&D input factors. In our framework, there are three organizational factors, i.e., formal R&D organization unit, R&D incentive mechanism, and technology protection unit, and two R&D input factors, i.e., R&D investment per R&D person and R&D personnel ratio (R&D personnel to the total number of employees). In addition, we use two control variables, firm size and firm age. Analyzing 2,807 SME manufacturing companies in Korea, we conclude as follows. Controlling for firm size and age, SME's R&D performance is positively affected by SME's having a formal organizational unit for protecting proprietary technology and the two R&D input factors. SME's having a formal R&D organization unit has a significant effect on R&D performance when either uncontrolled or controlled for firm age only. It turns out that SME's having a formal R&D incentive mechanism does not have any significant effect on R&D performance. We discuss the managerial implications of the analysis results.
Keywords: small and medium enterprise (SME); R&D performance; innovation; entrepreneurial spirit; technology protection; R&D investment.
Government financial incentives and their role in developing electronic technological capabilities in Guadalajara, Mexico
by Gustavo M. Guillemin Franco, Alvaro Pedroza Zapata
Abstract: The electronics industry in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA), Mexico experienced significant growth during the 1990s. However, development of electronic design capabilities in the GMA is reduced compared to this growth. Furthermore, in small and medium businesses, few employees are performing design compared to the sector size. To increase the value added and optimize the multinational corporations potential in the GMA, understanding how the inhibitors and enablers participate in the development of these activities is key. This report presents a multiple case study of seven businesses performing electronic design in the GMA. One enabler by which they access financial support was through government financial incentives. Although these incentives are an asset, they do not incite electronic design activities due to their short-term impact, considering activities in electronic design requires long-term financial mechanisms. Thus, we suggest that policies in electronic design activities should be reviewed to provide long-term financial support.
Keywords: electronic design; technological capabilities; government financial incentives; electronics industry; Guadalajara Metropolitan Area; GMA; Mexico.
Government Policies for Transfer of Technology Projects in Indian Defence PSUs
by Lakshman Singh, Aplana Srivastava
Abstract: Indian DPSUs are the backbone for manufacturing of Defence Article for our defence forces. But to compete the Global market they need massive transformation which can be achieved very well by Transfer of Technology (TOT). The in-house precision manufacturing expertise, stringent quality control mechanisms and highly skilled manpower accumulated by the Indian industry are being complemented by an enabling policy environment and economic growth, which could fuel the foray of the industry in to the defence manufacturing space through diversification or new entry. This paper point out the guideline of DPP for TOT implementation and derive a generalized model for TOT of Defence Article manufacturing in Indian DPSUs. With this paper researcher define TOT implementation via Stage-Gate model of TOT and generate model for TOT implementation. The two dimensional model for bid evaluation is a unique finding for selection of Vender/Seller for TOT project in Indian Defence PSUs. Author conclude this research paper by pointing out use of Indian Government Offset policy in TOT project in the economic benefit of Indian DPSUs and decision of TOT in different category.
Keywords: Avionics ;Transfer of Technology ;Bid Evaluation; Offset.
Was the Indian Stock Market Really Nudged by the Demonetization Jolt?
by Isha Rawal, Renu Vashisth
Abstract: Stock market pattern has been an imperative area of research for the academicians, stock brokers, investors and policy makers. This paper explores the impact of announcement certain significant triggering events like Demonetization of Rs. 500 and Rs. 1,000 notes on S&P CNX Nifty of National Stock Exchange of India and SENSEX of Bombay Stock Exchange of India. The study has attempted to identify the difference in the impact of said event on the aforementioned major stock indices of India for short, medium and long term ending on 18th November 2016, 30th December 2016 and 31st January 2017, respectively. Event study methodology has been deployed for the purpose of analysis. It has been revealed that there is no significant difference in the expected and actual returns of Sensex and Nifty in all the time durations after the announcement of demonetization news.
Keywords: Demonetization; S&P CNX Nifty; BSE Sensex; Event study; Gold & Dollarrn.
Short and Long run Inter Linkages of Market Returns of Indian Stock Market with Developed Stock Markets
by Raman Preet Singh, Nawal Kishor
Abstract: The paper attempts to establish the linkages and relationship among the returns of these developed Stock Exchanges and examines the effect of the stock index of one country on the stock index of other country. The daily Index returns of all the five stock exchanges are taken from 2007 to 2015. Long term relationship has been tested by Johansen Co-integration test to show long run association among developed stock exchange indices. ADF, Unit Root Test and Granger Causality have been applied to find out the cause and effect relationship among the Nifty Index and leading Stock Exchanges Indices. Further Vector Auto Regression in the form of Impulse response function and Variance Decomposition Model are applied to validate the results obtained from Granger Causality Test. The study shows that there is a significant and positive correlation among Nifty and other developed stock market indices. However long run association was not found among Nifty and rest of the stock indices. The results reveal that there are visible effects of stock exchanges indices return on each others stock returns.
Keywords: Nifty Index; Co-integration; Stock Exchanges; Volatility.
BEHAVIORAL IMPACT ON INTERNET USAGE AND INTERNET ADVERTISEMENTS PREFERENCE ON YOUNG INDIVIDUALS
by Shanthi Parasuraman, Thiyagarajan S
Abstract: Advertisements over Internet can be seen as a boon or bane for the internet users especially youth who are contributing to majority of internet usage. Any advertisement if noticed can lead to a particular behavior or action. And internet advertisements are no exceptions. Most reviews with respect to internet advertisements indicate that it is disturbing for the genuine users and distracting to the youth. The five types of advertisements considered in this study are: social advertisements, sexy advertisements, celebrity advertisements, personal advertisements and promotional advertisements. This paper thus focuses on the behavior of the youth with respect to the viewing of advertisements. The sample size of the study was 700 with schools and universities in Pondicherry and Chennai. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. A SEM model was developed based on the responses collected to find the influence of advertisements on the positive and negative behaviours. Findings and suggestions were made based on the results. This study stands unique in the fact that there are no direct empirical studies based on the influence of positive and negative behaviours of youth on internet advertisements especially in the regions (Pondicherry and Chennai) considered in the study.
Keywords: Internet: behavior; internet advertisements; social advertisements; sexy advertisements; celebrity advertisements; personal and promotional advertisements.
Identifying the key processes for technology transfer through spin-offs in academic institutions: A case study in Flanders and The Netherlands
by Jasmine Meysman, Sven H. De Cleyn, Johan Braet
Abstract: The position and role of technology transfer offices within universities and academic institutions have changed under influence of todays society, with diminishing government subsidies and technology transfer related policies having their impact on the technology transfer processes. In order to find out what the effect of this impact is, we performed a multiple-case study on six technology transfer offices in Flanders and the Netherlands. As a result of the study, we identified two categories of findings: Processes related to technology transfer and general conditions for technology transfer. These findings lead us to believe that due to the outside pressure, technology transfer offices are creating new business models and quality control mechanisms to optimise their processes.
Keywords: TTO; TTO Process; TTO Processes; Technology Transfer; Technology Transfer Office; Technology Transfer Process; Spin-off; Academic Institutions; Flanders; Netherlands; Business Models; Commercialisation of university research.
Educational Data Mining: A Review to its Future Vision
by Kriti Dhingra, Kanika Dhingra Sardana
Abstract: Data Mining is a technique of extracting useful and hidden patterns from huge databases that were previously unknown. It is a very promising and effective technique for the process of decision making. Educational Data Mining is an emerging field which concerns with development of new methods for revealing useful information from data that comes from the education sector in order to improvise the learning experience and improve the standard of education. This paper provides a systematic review on the studies done over educational data mining in the past years. Research gaps in the current literature and further opportunities for research are presented.
Keywords: Educational Data Mining; Decision tree; Classification; Clustering.
A Study of Factors Influencing the Shift towards M-Commerce in Indian Context
by Mukul Arora, Harshit Jain
Abstract: One can observe the faster acceptance of technology and usage of smartphone for buying daily wants for which people earlier travel to buy or used to sit on personal computers for placing orders. With faster and wider wireless network, India is experiencing a very fast shift from electronic-commerce towards mobile-commerce. This quick expansion brings to find the factors responsible for this shift and the difference between the factors responsible for females and males to shift to m-commerce. And finding whether the market is ready for m-commerce only model by dropping off their desktop website or not. Factor analysis on a sample of 320 online shoppers revealed that mobile-friendliness, storage and security, app-friendliness and convenience is leading the shift to m-commerce and app- friendliness is the primary factor of shift for female online consumers, while, mobile friendliness is primary factors of shift for male online consumers. But right now, the market is not ready for adopting the m-commerce model only as the preference of people for placing orders shift to desktop website for expensive products through a considerable percentage from mobile apps. The findings suggest that marketers need to make their customers build trust over mobile platforms.
Keywords: electronic-commerce; electronic-retail; mobile-retail; mobile-commerce.
The impact of trust on online shopping attitude among women shoppers in India
by Nupur Arora, Manmohan Rahul
Abstract: Purpose The growth and development of internet is playing a key tool for exchanging goods, services and information in Indian retail market. The purpose of this paper is to examine the important antecedents of trust in ecommerce- website quality, website reputation and electronic word of mouth(Ewom). It proposes a model explaining how trust in online shopping impacts attitude and what is the impact of online shopping attitude on online shopping intention. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling was employed on a sample of 508 online women shoppers. An online questionnaire was administered at internet users who had previously made an online purchase. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the research constructs, validity and composite reliability. Findings Results show that Trust impacts significantly on Online Shopping Attitude. The results also indicated that all three constructs of the study- website quality, website reputation and electronic word of mouth (Ewom) have a positive impact on Trust in Ecommerce and online shopping. Also there was a significant positive impact of trust on online shopping attitude. The study also supports the findings of previous studies that Online Shopping Attitude has a positive impact on Online Shopping Intention. Originality/value This study is one of the first to suggest an integrative model that studies in detail the three main antecedents of trust and responses of women customers for understanding their online buying behaviour.
Keywords: Online shopping attitude; online purchase intention; E-commerce; Ewom; electronic word of mouth; Trust; Website quality; website reputation.
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A Comparative Study of Stress & Job Satisfaction among Teachers at the College and School Level
by Parul Kumar, Neha Kumar, Shivam Agarwal, Rupal Saini
Abstract: This study tried to analyze the factors responsible for stress, kinds of stress & job satisfaction among the school and college teachers. Along with the division in terms of school & college, we also compared the factors importance in terms of male & female. The results concluded that Role Stagnation was the major stress causing factors amongst school teachers while Role erosion amongst college teachers. Both male and female respondents considered Role stagnation as the major stress causing factor. For job satisfaction, we came to the conclusion that job satisfaction revolves around five factors i.e. nature of work, work environment, growth, personal satisfaction & lack of motivation in both schools & colleges. Schools combine growth & nature of work as one major factor in deciding whether the individual is satisfied in the job or not.On the other hand, college teachers hold nature of work as the major & most important factor which defines their job satisfaction levels. Likewise for male teachers, Growth is the most important criteria in job satisfaction & for female teachers, nature work is more important.
Keywords: Factor Analysis; Stagnation; Stress; promotion; incentives.
Impact of Perceived usability and Perceived information quality on Indian consumer purchase intentions in online shopping: Implication of TAM and S-O-R theory
by Aanchal Aggarwal
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explicate a comprehensive model explaining the impact of Perceived usability and Perceived Information quality on consumer purchase intentions and how does it contribute to trust and satisfaction towards an e-retailer in an online shopping context. Through an extensive literature review we found two attributes of website personality that are constituents of perceived usability i.e. shopping convenience and site design and four constituents of perceived information quality i.e. customer communication, delivery, product value and special content information. Thus we attempted to explore the relationships between site design, shopping convenience, perceived usability, customer communication, delivery, product value and special content information, perceived information quality trust, satisfaction and purchase intentions with the help of Technology acceptance model or TAM and Stimulus Organism Response Model or S-O-R model. Design/methodology/approach - in all, 500 Indian consumers online shoppers were surveyed to conduct the above research agenda by structural equation modelling.
Findings Perceived usability and Perceived Information Quality had positive effect on satisfaction. Perceived usability and Perceived Information Quality has a positive impact on trust. Both trust and satisfaction had a positive effect on consumer purchase intentions. Originality/value The paper theoretically extends the applicability of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) from perceived usability constituting site design and shopping convenience along with Stimulus Organism Response Model from Perceived Information Quality constituting customer communication, delivery, product value and special content information to satisfaction, trust and online purchase intentions which will fill the gap in the current literature available. The paper additionally provides valuable information to on-line retailers so as to maximise customer satisfaction and trust and generate positive intentions to buy online with website design and shopping convenience customer communication, delivery, product value and special content information as web site quality attributes.
Keywords: Keywords: Web site quality; Technology Acceptance Model; Perceived usability; Stimulus Organism Response Model; Perceived Information Quality; Trust; Satisfaction; Purchase Intentions; B2C marketplace.
Can Stock Market Time the FPIs: A Study of Seasonality?
by Parul Kumar, R.K. Sharma, Sunil Kumar, Deepali Ratra
Abstract: The purpose of paper is to analyze the presence of the days of the week effect, quarter effect, and month effect on the net investment of Foreign Portfolio Investors (FPI) in India. For this purpose, research has been conducted for the time period from 4th January, 2000 till 30th November, 2016. FPIs daily net inflows have been analyzed for occurrence & existence of month effect along with day of the week and quarter effect. Interaction effect between the quarter, month & nifty returns has been also analyzed. Augmented Dummy Regression with ARIMA and GARCH has been used to analyze presence of seasonal anomalies in FPIs. Results confirmed the presence of calendar effect i.e. month of the year (December) effect on the FPIs. Also Friday effect and the Quarter 4 effect were present in the investing pattern of FPIs. Study concluded that FPIs were more biased towards trading more on Fridays and in the month of December in the overall analysis. Also the presence of quarter effect was seemed to be caused by the presence of month effect along with the nifty returns of those specific months. Hence there exists the strong interaction effect among the anomalies in the FPI net investment to India. Thus the stock market can time the major inflow of FPIs during these months, on few days and in quarter to take advantage of the market movement.
Keywords: ARIMA; GARCH; Quarter effect; Calendar effect; Dummy Regression; Monthly effect; Day effect.