Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning


These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in IJTEL, but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.


Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.


Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.


Articles marked with this Open Access icon are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.


Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues of IJTEL are published online.


We also offer RSS feeds which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.


International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (20 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Factors Related to Facebook Use for Academic Purposes: the Case for Social Studies Courses at the University Level   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Jawarneh 
    Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of Facebook on the behavior intentions of university students to use Facebook for academic purposes. Based on the TAM model, a path model with three links was developed. The results supported the hypothesized path model. The path model clearly revealed that university students\' usage intentions of Facebook for academic purposes was influenced by two factors. The results of the study indicated that perceived ease of use was a highly influential factor with direct effect impacting usage intentions of Facebook followed by perceived usefulness. The results also showed that perceived ease of use has a positive direct effect on perceived usefulness. Finally, this study provided some evidence that this path model is beneficial in determining usage intentions of Facebook for academic purposes at the university level.
    Keywords: Facebook; university students; social studies; usage intentions; academic purposes; ease of use; and usefulness.

  • Measuring E-Learning Readiness: The Case of Palestinian Public Secondary Schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Rami Isaa, Ayham Jaaron 
    Abstract: Despite its promise, numerous challenges have hampered the implementation of e-learning in developing countries. This study examines the e-learning readiness of public secondary schools in Palestine focusing on aspects that present as strengths and challenges. Following a review of the literature, an e-readiness instrument was developed which relied upon an assessment suggested by Akaslan and Law (2011). Teachers (n= 644) in public secondary schools in 11 directorates across the West Bank region completed the assessment and several e-learning and education experts and professionals were interviewed. The overall readiness was found to be at a Level 3, Ready but needs few improvements based on Aydin and Tascis (2005) assessment model. Perceived Usefulness was found to possess the highest level of readiness while Content Availability the lowest. The findings provide implications on the adoption of e-learning in public secondary schools including a conceptual framework for understanding e-readiness in developing countries.
    Keywords: student-centered learning; e-learning paradigm; e-readiness assessment; public secondary schools; Palestine.

  • Interactive evaluation of an e-learning course within the context of blended education   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitris Laskaris, Michail Kalogiannakis, Emmanuel Heretakis 
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is the evaluation of an online course designed and developed within the context of blended learning for the Department of Communication and Media of the University of Athens. The course was based on the principles of distance learning; it utilized the open source learning management system Moodle; and was implemented as an action-research project for three consecutive semesters (2014-2016). Its pedagogical aim was to investigate a prototype model of digital learning: the "Interactive Evaluation" that was embodied in the design of the e-course and in the cycles of action research. Acting as creators, teachers and researchers in order to investigate the student-evaluators perceptions of the e-course, we attempted to 'produce' wider knowledge of the assessment criteria within the context of blended education. In particular, the how and why specific learning criteria and critical approach to knowledge can be organized as more general constructivist and student-centered Indexes of the learning technology. As a case study, the research outcomes revealed factors related to expression of interest, encouragement for participation and motivation of students to infiltrate, evaluate the e-course and contribute to remodeling its educational material.
    Keywords: Action Research; Criteria – Indexes of assessing e-Learning; Case Study; Evaluation Methods of Digital Learning; Moodle;.

  • Chao: a framework for the development of orchestration technologies for Technology-Enhanced Learning activities using tablets in classrooms   Order a copy of this article
    by Patrick Wang, Pierre Tchounikine, Matthieu Quignard 
    Abstract: In Technology-Enhanced Learning, orchestration technologies refer to computer systems which support teachers in the orchestration of learning applications. Due to the specificity and diversity of each learning application, the use of these orchestration technologies is often not adequate in situations they were not designed for in the first place. In this article, we tackle this issue and present the software framework Chao. This framework has been designed to provide a set of classes, methods, and user interfaces to facilitate the development of orchestration technologies for tablets. The evaluation of this framework concerns its design, the usability of its user interfaces, and its ability to be adapted for various learning applications. The results suggest that teachers found the instances of the framework useful in assisting them during their orchestration tasks, and that little work is required to instantiate the framework.
    Keywords: framework; orchestration technologies; technology-enhanced learning; classroom orchestration; tablets.

    by Huilong Zheng, Nicoletta Adamo, Tim McGraw, Rosanne Griggs 
    Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of animation for emergency medicine education. Two groups of participants were assessed on their ability to respond to three medical emergency situations in simulated test scenarios. The control group received instruction in traditional lecture/demo format whereas the experimental group received instruction from a computer animation. Participants knowledge of the medical emergencies response procedures was assessed according to speed and accuracy of the treatment, and ability to complete every step and execute the steps in the correct order. Results revealed no statistically significant difference in procedural knowledge between the control and experimental groups.
    Keywords: emergency medicine; computer animation; medical education; animation-assisted education; educational technologies; e-learning; online training; technology-assisted learning.

  • Automatic summary of teachers error feedback based on a taxonomy   Order a copy of this article
    by Hakim Mokeddem, Cyrille Desmoulins, Nadine Mandran, Rachid Chalal 
    Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm that computes the most common error types reported by teachers on students lab reports in LabBook system. These common error types aim to improve students learning by helping teachers to take necessary corrective actions. Computing the most common error types is not obvious because of their taxonomic structure. Thus, using frequencies of error types leads to select the uppermost type as the most common one. For this reason, two other parameters are taken into account in addition to the type frequency: a type generality level and a number of type subtypes. To define a computing algorithm, the most common error types are formalised with three rules where each rule uses one parameter. The algorithm proposed is based on a ranking function that respects the three rules. It assigns a score to an error type by multiplying its frequency with a weight function based on information content.The feature that provides common error types to teachers was implemented using semantic web technologies. The results of a qualitative study conducted with teachers showed that experienced teachers used and combined the algorithm rules to select the most common error types that can help them take corrective actions efficiently.
    Keywords: Error types; formative assessment; semantic web; taxonomy.

  • Comparing novice programming environments for use in secondary education: App Inventor for Android vs. Alice.   Order a copy of this article
    by Stamatios Papadakis, Vasilleios Orfanakis 
    Abstract: Coding is part of logical thinking and is one of the basic skills which are known as 21st-century skills. Coding acquisition is necessary as it is used in a wide range of occupations. However, computer programming is difficult to learn and programming courses often have high dropout rates. Novice programmers suffer from a wide range of difficulties and deficits. Research in teaching and learning programming across different countries and educational contexts, reveal that novice programmers face the same challenges in their efficiency of writing, debugging and running programs. These difficulties have led those involved in the teaching of programming to further consider the most effective ways that can facilitate novice programmers in learning the basic programming concepts. Visual programming environments which support the construction of programs through a drag-and-drop interface are among the most popular coding tools for teaching novice programmers. In this paper, we investigate the use of Alice and App Inventor for Android, with regards to their effectiveness for teaching and learning programming in secondary education students.
    Keywords: Alice; App Inventor for Android; novice programmers; visual programming environments.

  • Scaffolding Reflection: Prompting Social Constructive Metacognitive Activity in Non-Formal Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Tracie Farrell-Frey, Karolina Iwa, Alexander Mikroyannidis 
    Abstract: The study explores the effects of three different types of nonadaptive, metacognitive scaffolding on social, constructive metacognitive activity and reflection in groups of non-formal learners. Six triads of nonformal learners were assigned randomly to one of the three scaffolding conditions: structuring, problematising or epistemological. The triads were then asked to collaboratively resolve an ill-structured problem and record their deliberations. Evidence from think-aloud protocols was analysed using conversational and discourse analysis. Findings indicate that epistemological scaffolds produced more social, constructive metacognitive activity than either of the two other scaffolding conditions in all metacognitive activities except for task orientation, as well as higher quality interactions during evaluation and reflection phases. However, participants appeared to be less aware of their activities as forming a strategic, self-regulatory response to the problem. This may indicate that for learning transfer, it may be necessary to employ an adaptive, facilitated reflection on learners activities.
    Keywords: reflection; scaffolding metacognition; self-regulated learning; non-formal learning; social constructive metacognition; intra group metacognition; metacognitive prompts; ill-structured problems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10004360
  • Discussion-Facilitator: Towards Enabling Students with Hearing Disabilities to Participate in Classroom Discussions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Alzubaidi, Mwaffaq Otoom 
    Abstract: Class participation plays a vital role in the learning process during classroom instruction. Deaf students often have difficulty participating in class discussions. Several studies have shown that deaf people are better able to interpret speech when they can view the lip movements of a speaker. This paper proposes an assistive device, called the Discussion-Facilitator, which aims to enable deaf students to better participate in classroom discussions. This is done by combining the speech-recognized text of the lecture with a live video stream that is zoomed-in on the lecturer's face. The student is also able to write a text response and play it on loud speakers. Nine deaf students conducted a usability test. The results show that viewing lip movements combined with the speech-recognized text of the lecturer contributed to the understanding of the lecturers speech, and that our prototype makes the engagement of deaf students in classroom discussion more effective.
    Keywords: Lip Reading; Class Participation and Discussion; Assistive Technology; Deaf/Hard of Hearing; Image Processing and Computer Vision.

  • A multi-agents system to compute human learning indicators activities based on model driven engineering approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Tarek Djouad, Benmohammed Mohammed 
    Abstract: This paper presents a multi-agent architecture and its implementation for facilitating the evaluation of learners activities in real learning situations mediated by a Technology Enhanced Learning systems. Our proposal is based on model driven engineering using modeled activity traces to compute human learning indicators. We claim this approach facilitates the computation, the management and the reuse of learning indicators independently of any learning platform.
    Keywords: Technology Enhanced Learning systems; Multi-agents systems; Model driven engineering; Activity traces; Human learning indicators.

  • Challenges concerning deep learning in SPOCs   Order a copy of this article
    by Renee M. Filius, Renske A.M. De Kleijn, Sabine G. Uijl, Frans J. Prins, Harold V.M. Van Rijen, Diederick E. Grobbee 
    Abstract: Higher education institutions aim for deep learning and are increasingly providing their education through an online medium. SPOCs are a specific form of online education that has rapidly grown in the last decade. In this study 11 SPOC-instructors have been interviewed about the challenges they face when the aim is to promote deep learning. Five main challenges in achieving deep learning in SPOCs were identified: 1.) Alignment in learning activities, 2.) Insight into students needs, 3.) Adaptivity in teaching strategy, 4.) Social cohesion, and 5.) Creating dialogue. These results indicate that SPOCs have distinctive challenges compared to other forms of online education. Instructors may have to place more emphasis on the social and teaching activities compared to the cognitive activities of the course. Instructors can take the results into account while developing and teaching SPOCs. Consequently, it shows the need for training in how to design and teach SPOCs.
    Keywords: Deep learning; SPOCs; challenges; MOOCs; online education; online learning; teaching/ learning strategies; Community of Inquiry.

  • Students Perception of Quizlet as a Chinese Learning Tool: A Preliminary Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Eddie T. C. Lam, Lih-Ching Wang, Xiao Wan Zhao 
    Abstract: Since its depute in 2010, the Quizlet has grown to become a popular multi-purpose language learning tool. The purpose of the study was to examine the perception of the Quizlet as a tool to learn Chinese. Participants were 7th grade (n=15) and 8th grade (n=17) students enrolled in the Chinese language programs of a middle school. The measuring instrument consisted of 18 items. Item respond was based on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was .913, indicating its high internal consistency. Results of the one sample t-tests showed that there were three significant items among each of the 7th and 8th graders. Overall, students are reluctant to use the Quizlet every day or use it at home. The students also do not like the printed Quizlet and paper flashcards. Nevertheless, future studies should include a larger sample and compare the effectiveness of different language learning software.
    Keywords: student performance; vocabulary learning; flashcards; instructional technology.

  • Towards balanced discussions in the classroom using ambient information visualisations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sven Charleer, Joris Klerkx, Erik Duval, Tinne De Laet, Katrien Verbert 
    Abstract: In a collaborative learning environment, the promotion and support of well-balanced student participation is an important step towards the achievement of learning outcomes. Ambient information visualisations can help raise awareness of the balance of distribution in meetings and small learner groups. This paper explores the use of ambient information in the classroom, where we attempt to encourage a proper balance of feedback between student groups during 'design critique' studio sessions. The contribution of the paper is two-fold: (1) we present necessary design choices for ambient visualisations that promote feedback balance in classrooms, motivating under-participators while limiting over-participation (2) we show the effects on student perception and feedback participation through the actual deployment of such visualisations in 'real classroom sessions'.
    Keywords: ambient displays; AIV; ambient information visualisation; awareness; classroom learning activities; design critique; discussion participation; learning analytics; participation balance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10002503
  • Awareness and reflection in virtual and remote laboratories: the case of computer education   Order a copy of this article
    by Julien Broisin, Rémi Venant, Philippe Vidal 
    Abstract: Virtual and remote laboratories are of most importance when students have to acquire professional skills and competencies. Also, educational sciences establish reflection as a central concern for learners' engagement in deep learning. As research showed that self- and social awareness promote reflection, the present research investigates how the design of awareness tools could leverage reflective thinking and peer support during a practical activity. We designed a set of tools including social comparison, reflection-on- and -in-action tools. They have been integrated into the Lab4CE system, our remote laboratory environment for computer education. An experimentation showed that awareness and reflection tools had small but positive impact on students' perception of learning and that learners significantly used these tools and highly rated the system. These results suggest additional studies to investigate tools are able to increase students' perception of reflection, interactivity and peer support and to understand how technology can enhance refection.
    Keywords: computer education; reflection; self-awareness; social awareness; virtual and remote laboratory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10003509

Special Issue on: Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning

  • The known universe of reflection guidance: a literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Angela Fessl, Oliver Blunk, Michael Prilla, Viktoria Pammer 
    Abstract: Reflective learning has been established as a process that deepens learning in both educational and work-related settings. We present a literature review on various approaches and tools (e.g., prompts, journals, visuals) providing guidance for facilitating reflective learning. Research considered in this review coincides common understanding of reflective learning, has applied and evaluated a tool supporting reflection and presents corresponding results. Literature was analysed with respect to timing of reflection, reflection participants, type of reflection guidance, and results achieved regarding reflection. From this analysis, we were able to derive insights, guidelines and recommendations for the design of reflection guidance functionality in computing systems: (i) ensure that learners understand the purpose of reflective learning, (ii) combine reflective learning tools with reflective questions either in form of prompts or with peer-to-peer or group discussions, (iii) for work-related settings consider the time with regard to when and how to motivate to reflect.
    Keywords: guidance for reflection; literature review; reflective learning; reflective learning tools.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10005148
  • Let's talk about reflection at work   Order a copy of this article
    by Viktoria Pammer, Birgit Krogstie, Michael Prilla 
    Abstract: Reflective learning is a mechanism to turn experience into learning. As a mechanism for self-directed learning, it has been found to be critical for success at work. In the workplace, reflective learning is relevant to everyone - the knowledge workers, teams, and the organisation as a whole. In this paper, we lay out the terminology and a process model of computer-supported reflective learning at work. The model has been developed in parallel to observing reflection in practice, designing information and communication technology for reflective learning at work, and trialling developed technology in multiple field trials. The model emphasises aspects that are in particular relevant in the workplace: In the terminology this is visible by clarification of reflection scopes (who should learn? An individual, a group, or the organisation), learning processes (individual vs. collaborative), and learning by different social entities (an individual, a group or an organisation). In the process representation this is visible by the emphasis on information that is handed over between stages, and the explicit modelling of triggers for follow-up reflection cycles. This paper also discusses the relevance of these theoretical considerations for designing information and communication technology, and the role of data and materials in the reflection process.
    Keywords: designing for reflective learning; reflective design; reflective learning theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10005175
  • Effects of isolated versus combined learning enactments in an online course   Order a copy of this article
    by Dominique Verpoorten, Wim Westera, Marcus Specht 
    Abstract: In a controlled experiment on the effects of frequent and local digital annotations, 137 volunteers covered an online course under three possible conditions: no/free/question-based digital annotations. Results show no difference in performance between groups when annotation behaviour is considered in isolation. However, analyses conducted within treatments provide indications of a positive impact on performance when annotation rates are taken into consideration, and coupled with other enactments tracked in the course. Combined in engagement profiles ('Learning DNAs'), these enactments suggest that what makes active learning efficient might be an on-going crisscrossing between a first-order learning activity (the study of the course) and a series of second-order activities, such as making notes. Students who manage to coordinate these activities at a higher rate perform better. This observation opens a line of reasoning about what determines the quality of a mental engagement in a learning task, in terms of balance and rotation of cognitive and meta-cognitive operations.
    Keywords: annotations; reflection amplifiers; split screen learning; students set the test; widgets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10005187
  • The development of the reflective practitioner through digital storytelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Jane Challinor, Victoria I. Marín, Gemma Tur 
    Abstract: This paper presents a multiple case study on the use of digital storytelling to support the development of reflection and digital skills in professional education. Students from two universities, one group studying health and social care, the other training to be teachers, were asked to produce two artefacts, at the beginning and end of their respective modules, in which they reflected on the aspects of professional and personal learning. The artefacts, some of which were produced in groups, others by individual students, were analysed for recurring themes, levels of reflection and digital competence, particularly in the use of open educational resources. Findings from the analysis support the use of digital storytelling methods to develop a range of key skills pertinent to professional education in general but concluded that the deeper levels of reflection may be most evident in individual artefacts produced in the later stages of professional education. The study provides some important insights for teaching and learning in professional education as it suggests that digital storytelling provides a highly engaging way of introducing both reflective and open educational practices.
    Keywords: digital artefacts; digital competence; digital storytelling; higher education; lifelong learning; open educational resources; professional development; professional identity; reflection; reflective practitioner.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10005186
  • Supporting awareness and self-regulation in project-based learning through personalised dashboards   Order a copy of this article
    by Christine Michel, Elise Lavoué, Sébastien George, Min Ji 
    Abstract: Project-based learning (PBL) enables learners to carry out challenging and authentic projects through investigations. However, PBL is difficult to implement successfully because learners often lack the self-regulation skills required to monitor, reflect, manage and assess their project activities and learning. Furthermore, most learning systems rarely offer possibilities to monitor and reflect on their project and learning processes. Hence, in this paper, we propose a general architecture of project-based learning management system. It enhances learners' reflective processes by supporting them in creating customisable indicators by exploring their traces. We developed an implementation named DDART and conducted an experiment in order to evaluate its usability and perceived utility. We found that this system supports learners to reflect and regulate their activities and learning, even if the indicator creation could be difficult for the novices.
    Keywords: activity trace; dashboard; project-based learning; project-based learning management system; reporting trace; self-regulated learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10005188


  • Monitoring, awareness and reflection in blended technology enhanced learning: a systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by María Jesús Rodríguez-Triana, Luis P. Prieto, Andrii Vozniuk, Mina Shirvani Boroujeni, Beat A. Schwendimann, Adrian Holzer, Denis Gillet 
    Abstract: Education is experiencing a paradigm shift towards blended learning models in technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Despite the potential benefits of blended learning, it also entails additional complexity in terms of monitoring, awareness and reflection, as learning happens across different spaces and modalities. In recent years, literature on learning analytics (LA) and educational data mining (EDM) has gained momentum and started to address the issue. To provide a clear picture of the current state of the research on the topic and to outline open research gaps, this paper presents a systematic literature review of the state-of-the-art of research in LA and EDM on monitoring, awareness and reflection in blended TEL scenarios. The search included six main academic databases in TEL that were enriched with the proceedings of the workshop on 'Awareness and Reflection in TEL' (ARTEL), resulting in 1089 papers out of which 40 papers were included in the final analysis.
    Keywords: awareness; blended learning; educational data mining; learning analytics; monitoring; reflection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10005147