Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning


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International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (22 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Factors Related to Facebook Use for Academic Purposes: the Case for Social Studies Courses at the University Level   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Jawarneh 
    Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of Facebook on the behavior intentions of university students to use Facebook for academic purposes. Based on the TAM model, a path model with three links was developed. The results supported the hypothesized path model. The path model clearly revealed that university students\' usage intentions of Facebook for academic purposes was influenced by two factors. The results of the study indicated that perceived ease of use was a highly influential factor with direct effect impacting usage intentions of Facebook followed by perceived usefulness. The results also showed that perceived ease of use has a positive direct effect on perceived usefulness. Finally, this study provided some evidence that this path model is beneficial in determining usage intentions of Facebook for academic purposes at the university level.
    Keywords: Facebook; university students; social studies; usage intentions; academic purposes; ease of use; and usefulness.

  • Effects of Concept Map Approach on Students' Attitude and Motivation towards Documenting Computing Capstone Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayman Al-Dmour, Al-Mothana Gasaymeh, Mohammed Abuhelaleh, Muder Almi’ani 
    Abstract: Given their importance in assessing the objectives of computing programs, capstone projects have been included in the present curriculum. Through these projects, the issues in software development practice are directly experienced by the students. This paper provided students with a full picture of these issues by using concept maps. To present a comprehensive rubrics-based documentation of this project, this paper employs a conceptual map instructional approach and finds a significant overlap between the management issues associated with the project management life cycle and the technical issues associated with the software development life cycle. Although these issues must be treated separately, they must be related with each other in software project reporting. A questionnaire survey is employed to measure the students' attitude and motivation (i.e., drivers of teaching ) toward using proposed concept map to support project documentation. The survey findings indicate that the learning motivation and attitude of students can be improved by employing the proposed teaching approach.
    Keywords: Concept Maps; Capstone Project; Technical Reporting.

  • Awareness of ICT capabilities, digital literacy, and use of reflective processes in children who received their first home computer   Order a copy of this article
    by Zilka Gila 
    Abstract: Desktop PCs and tablets were distributed to children who did not have a computer at home to allow them equal opportunity. The objectives of the study were to examine whether children showed awareness of the potential of ICT after receiving a computer; whether it awakened in them a need for information and for searching for it; whether they prepared school assignments on the home computer; whether reflective processes were integrated in their computer work etc. 1248 respondents were assessed in two rounds. During the second round, 128 interviews were conducted with the children. Findings of this mixed-method study showed that digital literacy and children's awareness of the potential of ICT have increased considerably while the computer was accessible to them. Significant differences were found in the work children performed on the computer, in reflective processes, in preparing homework, and in searching the, more so among children who received tablets.
    Keywords: information and communication technology (ICT); digital divide; computer; technology; constructivism; children; digital literacy; reflection; ICT awareness; disadvantaged populations; desktop computer; tablet; e-Readiness; equal opportunity.

  • Middle School Mathematics Teachers Experiences with Student Learning Using the Hands-On Equations iPad Application: A Narrative Inquiry   Order a copy of this article
    by Jamy Lea Juhan, Daphne Halkias 
    Abstract: This study fills a gap in the research on students classroom experiences with specific iPad apps such as the Hands-On Equations app to better understand the its value as a teaching tool within a mathematics curriculum. To achieve this, a narrative inquiry approach was employed to examine middle school mathematics teachers stories of student learning experiences with mobile technology through use of the iPad app Hands-On Equations. The studys results and conclusions support prior research on the potential for mobile technologies to introduce potential new ways of learning mathematics and motivating students to learn mathematics.
    Keywords: Mobile technologies; mathematics; middle school; Hands-On Equations; student learning; teaching.

  • Measuring E-Learning Readiness: The Case of Palestinian Public Secondary Schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Rami Isaa, Ayham Jaaron 
    Abstract: Despite its promise, numerous challenges have hampered the implementation of e-learning in developing countries. This study examines the e-learning readiness of public secondary schools in Palestine focusing on aspects that present as strengths and challenges. Following a review of the literature, an e-readiness instrument was developed which relied upon an assessment suggested by Akaslan and Law (2011). Teachers (n= 644) in public secondary schools in 11 directorates across the West Bank region completed the assessment and several e-learning and education experts and professionals were interviewed. The overall readiness was found to be at a Level 3, Ready but needs few improvements based on Aydin and Tascis (2005) assessment model. Perceived Usefulness was found to possess the highest level of readiness while Content Availability the lowest. The findings provide implications on the adoption of e-learning in public secondary schools including a conceptual framework for understanding e-readiness in developing countries.
    Keywords: student-centered learning; e-learning paradigm; e-readiness assessment; public secondary schools; Palestine.

  • Towards Balanced Discussions in the Classroom Using Ambient Information Visualisations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sven Charleer, Joris Klerkx, Erik Duval, Katrien Verbert 
    Abstract: In a collaborative learning environment, the promotion and support of well-balanced student participation is an important step towards the achievement of learning outcomes. Ambient information visualisations can help raise awareness of the balance of distribution in meetings and small learner groups. This paper explores the use of ambient information in the classroom, where we attempt to encourage a proper balance of feedback between student groups during design critique studio sessions. The contribution of the paper is two-fold: (1) we present necessary design choices for ambient visualisations that promote feedback balance in classrooms, motivating under-participators while limiting over-participation (2) we show the effects on student perception and feedback participation through the actual deployment of such visualisations in real classroom sessions.
    Keywords: learning analytics; ambient displays; ambient information visualisation; discussion participation; design critique; participation balance; awareness; classroom learning activities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10002503
  • Interactive evaluation of an e-learning course within the context of blended education   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitris Laskaris, Michail Kalogiannakis, Emmanuel Heretakis 
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is the evaluation of an online course designed and developed within the context of blended learning for the Department of Communication and Media of the University of Athens. The course was based on the principles of distance learning; it utilized the open source learning management system Moodle; and was implemented as an action-research project for three consecutive semesters (2014-2016). Its pedagogical aim was to investigate a prototype model of digital learning: the "Interactive Evaluation" that was embodied in the design of the e-course and in the cycles of action research. Acting as creators, teachers and researchers in order to investigate the student-evaluators perceptions of the e-course, we attempted to 'produce' wider knowledge of the assessment criteria within the context of blended education. In particular, the how and why specific learning criteria and critical approach to knowledge can be organized as more general constructivist and student-centered Indexes of the learning technology. As a case study, the research outcomes revealed factors related to expression of interest, encouragement for participation and motivation of students to infiltrate, evaluate the e-course and contribute to remodeling its educational material.
    Keywords: Action Research; Criteria – Indexes of assessing e-Learning; Case Study; Evaluation Methods of Digital Learning; Moodle;.

  • Effects of visual mapping placed game-based learning on students learning performance in defence-based courses   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditya Khamparia, Babita Pandey 
    Abstract: Many recent studies have reported that improper integration of learning strategies with digital gaming scenarios, affect or might even worsen the effectiveness of digital computer games used for educational purposes when compared to the traditional or technology enabled instructional systems. In this study, a visual mapping game- based learning environment is developed to reduce student students anxiety and cognitive load, thereby enhancing their motivation level to learn a concept, overall personality to foster interpersonal skills and knowledge on life skills to encourage practical application of technology, in learning defence and military-based courses. The proposed approach efficacy has been evaluated by conducting an experiment on defence-based courses. On the basis of experimental results, it is concluded that the gaming approach based on embedded visual map can significantly improve a students composite grooming. Students who adopt the visual mapping approach can easily understand the usage of technology in educational systems as compared to those who employ traditional learning approach for the same.
    Keywords: Motivation; anxiety; personality; usefulness; e-learning; cognitive.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10002787
  • The relationship among pre-service teachers computer competence, attitude towards computer-assisted education, and intention of technology acceptance   Order a copy of this article
    by Meltem Huri Baturay, Şahin Gökçearslan, Fengfeng Ke 
    Abstract: Use of technology takes time and requires a paradigm change for teachers to adopt it. Teachers readiness, how they behave and perceive technology integration or adoption process is particularly critical. The current study investigates the relationship among pre-service teachers computer competence, attitude towards computer-assisted education, and intention of technology acceptance. The results indicate that computer ownership, the internet access and amount of daily computer use do not correlate with the attitude towards computer-assisted education (CAE). The internet access and computer ownership variables do not seem to have any relationship with the intention to technology acceptance. There is a significant and positive relationship among computer competence, attitude towards CAE, and intention to technology acceptance. Perceived usefulness and enjoyment have positive relationship with attitude towards CAE. Although perceived ease of use similarly has significant positive relationship with the attitude towards CAE, it does not predict the attitude towards it.
    Keywords: computer competence; technology acceptance; attitude; computer-assisted education; gender.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10003119
  • Chao: a framework for the development of orchestration technologies for Technology-Enhanced Learning activities using tablets in classrooms   Order a copy of this article
    by Patrick Wang, Pierre Tchounikine, Matthieu Quignard 
    Abstract: In Technology-Enhanced Learning, orchestration technologies refer to computer systems which support teachers in the orchestration of learning applications. Due to the specificity and diversity of each learning application, the use of these orchestration technologies is often not adequate in situations they were not designed for in the first place. In this article, we tackle this issue and present the software framework Chao. This framework has been designed to provide a set of classes, methods, and user interfaces to facilitate the development of orchestration technologies for tablets. The evaluation of this framework concerns its design, the usability of its user interfaces, and its ability to be adapted for various learning applications. The results suggest that teachers found the instances of the framework useful in assisting them during their orchestration tasks, and that little work is required to instantiate the framework.
    Keywords: framework; orchestration technologies; technology-enhanced learning; classroom orchestration; tablets.

    by Huilong Zheng, Nicoletta Adamo, Tim McGraw, Rosanne Griggs 
    Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of animation for emergency medicine education. Two groups of participants were assessed on their ability to respond to three medical emergency situations in simulated test scenarios. The control group received instruction in traditional lecture/demo format whereas the experimental group received instruction from a computer animation. Participants knowledge of the medical emergencies response procedures was assessed according to speed and accuracy of the treatment, and ability to complete every step and execute the steps in the correct order. Results revealed no statistically significant difference in procedural knowledge between the control and experimental groups.
    Keywords: emergency medicine; computer animation; medical education; animation-assisted education; educational technologies; e-learning; online training; technology-assisted learning.

  • Awareness and Reflection in Virtual and Remote Laboratories: the case of Computer Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Julien Broisin, Rémi Venant, Philippe Vidal 
    Abstract: Virtual and remote laboratories are of most importance when students have to acquire professional skills and competencies. Also, educational sciences establish reflection as a central concern for learners' engagement in deep learning. As research showed that self- and social awareness promote reflection, the present research investigates how the design of awareness tools could leverage reflective thinking and peer support during a practical activity. We designed a set of tools including social comparison, reflection-on- and -in- action tools. They have been integrated into the Lab4CE system, our remote laboratory environment for computer education. An experimentation showed that awareness and reflection tools had small but positive impact on students' perception of learning, and that learners significantly used these tools and highly rated the system. These results suggest additional studies to investigate tools able to increase students' perception of reflection, interactivity and peer support, and to understand how technology can enhance refection.
    Keywords: self-awareness; social awareness; reflection; virtual and remote laboratory; computer education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10003509
  • Automatic summary of teachers error feedback based on a taxonomy   Order a copy of this article
    by Hakim Mokeddem, Cyrille Desmoulins, Nadine Mandran, Rachid Chalal 
    Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm that computes the most common error types reported by teachers on students lab reports in LabBook system. These common error types aim to improve students learning by helping teachers to take necessary corrective actions. Computing the most common error types is not obvious because of their taxonomic structure. Thus, using frequencies of error types leads to select the uppermost type as the most common one. For this reason, two other parameters are taken into account in addition to the type frequency: a type generality level and a number of type subtypes. To define a computing algorithm, the most common error types are formalised with three rules where each rule uses one parameter. The algorithm proposed is based on a ranking function that respects the three rules. It assigns a score to an error type by multiplying its frequency with a weight function based on information content.The feature that provides common error types to teachers was implemented using semantic web technologies. The results of a qualitative study conducted with teachers showed that experienced teachers used and combined the algorithm rules to select the most common error types that can help them take corrective actions efficiently.
    Keywords: Error types; formative assessment; semantic web; taxonomy.

  • Technology enhanced collaborative learning using a project-based learning management system   Order a copy of this article
    by Gabriele Frankl 
    Abstract: Social software is changing the ways students and instructors share information and is increasingly used a part of a collaborative learning process. Collaborative learning improves engagement and is particularly effective when introduced as part of project-based learning (PBL) for teams. However, project-based learning for teams also introduces social dilemmas where less motivated students engage in social loafing, allowing more motivated students to do most of the collaborative work. This paper presents an approach to collaborative learning using an experimental learning management system (LMS) designed specifically for team based PBL. This LMS assists instructors to counteract the negative effects of social dilemmas. The novel approach presented has undergone testing with Masters and senior cycle Undergraduates who engaged in team projects in the field of innovation management and strategic planning. Results presented in this paper from three real use cases show high student engagement high satisfaction, and low social loafing.
    Keywords: Collaborative learning; project-based learning; technology enhanced learning; social dilemmas; learning management systems; LMS; innovation management; social software; student engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10004161
  • Comparing novice programming environments for use in secondary education: App Inventor for Android vs. Alice.   Order a copy of this article
    by Stamatios Papadakis, Vasilleios Orfanakis 
    Abstract: Coding is part of logical thinking and is one of the basic skills which are known as 21st-century skills. Coding acquisition is necessary as it is used in a wide range of occupations. However, computer programming is difficult to learn and programming courses often have high dropout rates. Novice programmers suffer from a wide range of difficulties and deficits. Research in teaching and learning programming across different countries and educational contexts, reveal that novice programmers face the same challenges in their efficiency of writing, debugging and running programs. These difficulties have led those involved in the teaching of programming to further consider the most effective ways that can facilitate novice programmers in learning the basic programming concepts. Visual programming environments which support the construction of programs through a drag-and-drop interface are among the most popular coding tools for teaching novice programmers. In this paper, we investigate the use of Alice and App Inventor for Android, with regards to their effectiveness for teaching and learning programming in secondary education students.
    Keywords: Alice; App Inventor for Android; novice programmers; visual programming environments.

  • Scaffolding Reflection: Prompting Social Constructive Metacognitive Activity in Non-Formal Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Tracie Farrell-Frey, Karolina Iwa, Alexander Mikroyannidis 
    Abstract: The study explores the effects of three different types of nonadaptive, metacognitive scaffolding on social, constructive metacognitive activity and reflection in groups of non-formal learners. Six triads of nonformal learners were assigned randomly to one of the three scaffolding conditions: structuring, problematising or epistemological. The triads were then asked to collaboratively resolve an ill-structured problem and record their deliberations. Evidence from think-aloud protocols was analysed using conversational and discourse analysis. Findings indicate that epistemological scaffolds produced more social, constructive metacognitive activity than either of the two other scaffolding conditions in all metacognitive activities except for task orientation, as well as higher quality interactions during evaluation and reflection phases. However, participants appeared to be less aware of their activities as forming a strategic, self-regulatory response to the problem. This may indicate that for learning transfer, it may be necessary to employ an adaptive, facilitated reflection on learners activities.
    Keywords: reflection; scaffolding metacognition; self-regulated learning; non-formal learning; social constructive metacognition; intra group metacognition; metacognitive prompts; ill-structured problems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.10004360


  • Monitoring, Awareness and Reflection in Blended Technology Enhanced Learning: a Systematic Review   Order a copy of this article
    by María Jesús Rodriguez-Triana, Luis P. Prieto, Andrii Vozniuk, Mina Shirvani Boroujeni, Beat A. Schwendimann, Adrian Holzer, Denis Gillet 
    Abstract: Education is experiencing a paradigm shift towards blended learning models in technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Despite the potential benefits of blended learning, it also entails additional complexity in terms of monitoring, awareness and reflection, as learning happens across different spaces and modalities. In recent years, literature on Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM) has gained momentum and started to address the issue. To provide a clear picture of the current state of the research on the topic and to outline open research gaps, this paper presents a systematic literature review of the state-of-the-art of research in LA and EDM on monitoring, awareness and reflection in blended TEL scenarios. The search included six main academic databases in TEL that were enriched with the proceedings of the workshop on Awareness and Reflection in TEL (ARTEL), resulting in 1089 papers out of which 40 papers were included in the final analysis.
    Keywords: monitoring; awareness; reflection; learning analytics; educational data mining; blended learning.

Special Issue on: Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning

  • The Known Universe of Reflection Guidance: a Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Angela Fessl, Oliver Blunk, Michael Prilla, Viktoria Pammer 
    Abstract: Reflective learning has been established as a process that deepens learning in both educational and work-related settings. We present a literature review on various approaches and tools (e.g. prompts, journals, visuals) providing guidance for facilitating reflective learning. Research considered in this review coincides common understanding of reflective learning, has applied and evaluated a tool supporting reflection and presents corresponding results. Literature was analysed with respect to timing of reflection, reflection participants, type of reflection guidance, and results achieved regarding reflection. From this analysis, we were able to derive insights, guidelines and recommendations for the design of reflection guidance functionality in computing systems: (i) ensure that learners understand the purpose of reflective learning, (ii) combine reflective learning tools with reflective questions either in form of prompts or with peer-to-peer or group discussions, (iii) for work-related settings consider the time with regard to when and how to motivate to reflect.
    Keywords: Reflective Learning; Reflective Learning Tools; Guidance for Reflection; Literature Review;.

  • Lets Talk About Reflection at Work   Order a copy of this article
    by Viktoria Pammer, Birgit Krogstie, Michael Prilla 
    Abstract: Reflective learning is a mechanism to turn experience into learning. As a mechanism for self-directed learning, it has been found to be critical for success at work. In the workplace, reflective learning is relevant to everyone the knowledge workers, teams, and the organisation as a whole. In this paper, we lay out the terminology and a process model of (computer-supported) reflective learning at work that we have developed in parallel to observing reflection in practice, designing information and communication technology for reflective learning at work, and trialling developed technology in multiple field trials. The model emphasises aspects that are in particular relevant in the workplace: In the terminology this is visible by clarification of reflection scopes (who should learn? An individual, a group, or the organisation), learning processes (individual vs. collaborative), and learning by different social entities (an individual, a group or an organisation). In the process representation this is visible by the emphasis on information that is handed over between stages, and the explicitly modelling of triggers for follow-up reflection cycles. This paper also discusses the subtleties of differentiating between reflection participants, reflection scope, and who actually learns; the specificity of our research for workplace learning, the relevance of these theoretical considerations for designing information and communication technology, and the role of data and materials in the reflection process.
    Keywords: reflective learning; theory; designing for reflective learnin.

  • The Development of the Reflective Practitioner through Digital Storytelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Jane Challinor, Victoria I. Marín, Gemma Tur 
    Abstract: This paper presents a multiple case study on the use of digital storytelling to support the development of reflection and digital skills in professional education. Students from two universities, one group studying health and social care, the other training to be teachers, were asked to produce two artefacts, at the beginning and end of their respective modules, in which they reflected on aspects of professional and personal learning. The artefacts, some of which were produced in groups, others by individual students, were analysed for recurring themes, levels of reflection and digital competence, particularly in the use of Open Educational Resources. Findings from the analysis support the use of digital storytelling methods to develop a range of key skills pertinent to professional education in general but concluded that the deeper levels of reflection may be most evident in individual artefacts produced in the later stages of professional education. The study provides some important insights for teaching and learning in professional education as it suggests that digital storytelling provides a highly engaging way of introducing both reflective and open educational practices.
    Keywords: reflection; digital storytelling; digital competence; higher education; open educational resources; professional development; digital artefacts; reflective practitioner; professional identity; lifelong learning.

  • Effects of isolated versus combined learning enactments in an online course   Order a copy of this article
    by Dominique Verpoorten, Wim Westera, Marcus Specht 
    Abstract: In a controlled experiment on the effects of frequent and local digital annotations, 137 volunteers covered an online course under three possible conditions: no/free/question-based digital annotations. Results show no difference in performance between groups when annotation behaviour is considered in isolation. However, analyses conducted within treatments provide indications of a positive impact on performance when annotation rates are taken into consideration, and coupled with other enactments tracked in the course. Combined in engagement profiles (Learning DNAs), these enactments suggest that what makes active learning efficient might be an ongoing crisscrossing between a first-order learning activity (the study of the course) and a series of second-order activities, such as making notes. Students who manage to co-ordinate these activities at a higher rate perform better. This observation opens a line of reasoning about what determines the quality of a mental engagement in a learning task, in terms of balance and rotation of cognitive and meta-cognitive operations.
    Keywords: annotations; reflection amplifiers; students set the test; widgets; split screen learning.

  • Supporting Awareness and Self-Regulation in Project-Based Learning through Personalized Dashboards   Order a copy of this article
    by Christine Michel, Elise Lavoue, Sebastien George, Min Ji 
    Abstract: Project-based Learning (PBL) enables learners to carry out challenging and authentic projects through investigations. However, PBL is difficult to implement successfully because learners often lack of the self-regulation skills required to monitor, reflect, manage and assess their project activities and learning. Furthermore, most learning systems rarely offer possibilities to monitor and reflect on their project and learning processes. Hence, in this paper, we propose a general architecture of Project-based Learning Management System (PBLMS). It enhances learners reflective processes by supporting them in creating customizable indicators by exploring their traces. We developed an implementation named DDART and conducted an experiment in order to evaluate its usability and perceived utility. We found that this system supports learners to reflect and regulate their activities and learning, even if the indicator creation could be difficult for the novices.
    Keywords: Project-based Learning; Self-Regulated Learning; Project-based Learning Management System; Activity Trace; Reporting Trace; Dashboard.