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International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning

 

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International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (29 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessStudents Academic Achievement Performance and Satisfaction in Flipped Classroom in Saudi Arabia
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Mahdi M. Alamri 
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a flipped classroom for students academic performance and satisfaction. A mixed-methods research design was used to compare the two approaches of a traditional lecture and flipped classroom. Data were gathered via an achievement test, survey questionnaire and interviews, and then analysed. The results indicated a statistically significant difference in students academic performance for the flipped classroom group. Additionally, almost all students had a high level of satisfaction in the flipped classroom and generally enjoyed learning in the flipped classroom environment. Online materials, peer discussions and the instructors role were fundamental elements that produced high-quality learning and active learners. However, few students reported some issues that considered as the main obstacles encountered by some students, which were the week computer skills and time-consuming tasks. This studys implications and recommendations for further research are discussed.
    Keywords: Academic Achievement Performance; Satisfaction; Flipped Classroom; Higher Education.

  • A Systemic Approach to Leveraging Student Engagement in Collaborative Learning to Improve Online Engineering Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Robin G. Qiu 
    Abstract: Online higher education is transformative and quite different from residential college education. Lacking effective and consistent pedagogical engagement has been criticized for a high drop-out rate in the online education in general. This study aims to find a solution to facilitate learning engagement in an online engineering education setting. By relying on the known knowledge in the pedagogies of engagement in college education, this paper proposes a systemic framework for promoting positive online students learning engagement. Different from empirical studies of conducting hypothesis tests, we show a practical and model-driven approach to assessing and enhancing problem-based collaborative teaching/learning practices. The proposed framework is explored through both a pilot test and a confirming test. Rules of thumb are identified and generalized, which could be used to help students/instructors retune their collaborative practices in a proactive manner for retaining positive and effective learning engagement in an online engineering education setting.
    Keywords: online engineering education; collaborative learning; pedagogy of engagement; professional education.

  • The Use of TAM to Investigate University Students Acceptance of the Formal Use of Smartphones for Learning: A Qualitative Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Al-Mothana Gasaymeh, Dima Waswas 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate, through the lens of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), university students acceptance of the formal use of smartphones for their learning. A survey research approach was followed. Sixteen students participated in four focus-group interviews. Each group had four participants. Most participants expressed positive attitudes toward the use of smartphones for their learning. In line with the TAM model, the students reported the reasons for their positive attitudes toward the formal use of smartphones in learning. These reasons were strongly related to their perceptions of ease of use and the usefulness of smartphones for their daily life tasks and for informal learning.
    Keywords: smartphone; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); smartphone in education; university student.

  • The digital divide: Implications for the eSafety of children and adolescents   Order a copy of this article
    by Zilka Gila 
    Abstract: The digital divide is the gap between those who are digitally literate and those who are not, between those who do and do not have access to digital environments. The implications of the divide for the eSafety of children and adolescents are the topic of this paper. Three hundred forty-five Israeli children and adolescents participated in this mixed-method study. Safe browsing was found to be affected by the digital divide. Children and adolescents who have digital equipment at home displayed higher eSafety skills and computer literacy than did children who have no digital equipment or those who have only few such devices. Lack or limited access to a digital environment results in absence of eSafety skills and lower computer literacy. As a result, these children are at higher risk of being cyberbullied than are children with access to digital environments and those who have better eSafety skills.
    Keywords: eSafety; cyberbullying; digital divide; children; adolescents; disadvantaged populations; e-readiness.

  • Technology, Attitude and Mathematics: A Descriptive Examination of the Literature Spanning Three Decades   Order a copy of this article
    by Jacqueline Huscroft-D'Angelo, Kristina Higgins, Lindy Crawford 
    Abstract: An extensive literature base exists on the use of technology in mathematics and its effect on student learning; however, no comprehensive reviews have been published on how affective characteristics specifically attitude might factor into these results. This review presents a thorough descriptive examination of the literature on attitude and achievement of elementary and middle school students when using technology in mathematics. The literature was examined from 1983-2013 to synthesise (a) populations, (b) settings, (c) types of technology used, (d) operational definitions of attitude, (e) assessment of attitude and mathematical content domains, (f) research designs used, and (g) length of interventions. Twenty-five datasets, representing 25 published manuscripts, were included in the review. Implications of the findings are discussed.
    Keywords: technology; mathematics; affective characteristics; attitude; elementary; middle.

  • Next Learning Topic Prediction for Learners Guidance in Informal Learning Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Sadegh Rezaei, Mohammadmehdi Yaraghtalaie 
    Abstract: Estimating the learning needs of learners in a Social Learning Network (SLN) is very important in proper planning for improving learning space. This paper presented a predictor to estimate the learning needs of learners in SLNs. In Question & Answer Networks, estimating the need for learning means estimating the future subject of the question. The significance of the similarity of the sequence of previous learning subjects with the future subjects of learners is one of the most important areas for estimating the subject of future learning. Hence, this predictor estimates the next learning subject based on the similarity of the subjects about which the learner asks questions. The estimation method introduced in this study is based on the Bayesian solution method. The performance of this method was evaluated in the dataset extracted from one of the most widely used SLNs. The results showed that the proposed method was able to detect future tag of each learner with 78% precision in the informal learning environment using the tags of the questions asked by learners.
    Keywords: social learning network; learning topic prediction; Q&A website; online Informal learning.

  • A Case Study of Using the Smart Board as a Chinese Learning Application by Elementary School Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Lih-Ching Wang, Eddie T. C. Lam, Ya-Hua Chen 
    Abstract: It is estimated that 1,310 million people speak Chinese worldwide. The Smart Board is an interactive white board with a touch-screen, making it well-suited for learning Chinese. The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students perception of using the Smart Board to learn the four core skills of Chinese: reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Participants (N=172) were 2nd to 4th graders. A questionnaire was used to assess their perceptions toward the Smart Board class activities. Results indicated that there were no significant (p>.05) gender differences in all four core skills for 2nd graders as well as in reading, listening and speaking for 3rd graders. However, male 3rd graders had a significantly (F=7.816, p=.007) higher mean score in writing than females, while female 4th graders showed a significantly (F=5.597, p=.022) higher mean score in listening than their male counterparts. It is suggested that Chinese language learning activities should be tailored based on different genders and grade levels.
    Keywords: language learning; instructional technology; gender difference.

  • Medical Student Question Answering Behaviour during High-Stakes Multiple Choice Examinations   Order a copy of this article
    by Tahra AlMahmoud, Dybesh Regmi, Margaret Elzubeir, Frank Christopher Howarth, Sami Shaban 
    Abstract: Background: Evaluating student answering behaviour during high-stakes assessments may help identify deficits in students efficiency or question answering effectiveness. Methods: We used electronic assessment logfiles to examine student answering behaviour during exams. We compared the time spent on questions based on student gender, question correctness, cognitive level and clinical discipline. Results: Male and female students spent the same amount of time on questions however, females performed significantly better. There were significant differences in average time spent on questions answered correctly versus incorrectly and in the amount of time examinees spent on questions per cognitive level. The percentage of questions that had answers changed by examinees was 13.65% of which 5.82% changed from incorrect to correct and 2.83% changed from correct to incorrect. On average, 16.3% of questions were placed under review by examinees at some time during the exam. Conclusions: Students spent significantly more time on questions that were answered incorrectly and on higher cognitive level questions. Reviewing and re-answering questions was more beneficial than harmful to student marks.
    Keywords: assessment; multiple choice question; medical student; question answering behaviour; big data; logfile analysis; assessment management system.

  • A socio-cultural model for orchestrating mobile learning activities   Order a copy of this article
    by Jalal Nouri 
    Abstract: Learning outdoors with mobile devices is associated with distinct challenges and constraints that needs to be taken into account when orchestrating formal mobile learning activities. In order to design pedagogically meaningful activities, we need to consider students scaffolding needs and have an understanding of the aspects that should be orchestrated for meeting those needs. This paper proposes an orchestration model for formal mobile learning activities across contexts that take such scaffolding needs into account. The model have been interatively developed based on empirical research conducted in three case-studies and have theoretical basis in socio-cultural perspectives on learning, particularly resting on the concept of scaffolding (Vygotsky, 1986) and on the learning design sequence model of Selander (2008). The model takes the orchestration of six scaffolding aspects into account, namely: the social (collaborative) aspects, the teachers, the technology, the physical context, the learning processes and tasks, and the modes and representations. rn
    Keywords: orchestration; mobile learning; model; framework; scaffolding.

  • Contribution to the multidimensional analysis of the success factors of the integration of the ICTE in higher education in Morocco: Case of the MOOC "Relational databases: understanding to master" students' point of view   Order a copy of this article
    by Bouchaib Riyami, Khalifa Mansouri, Franck Poirier 
    Abstract: In order to contribute to the successful integration of ICTE (Information and Communication Technologies for Education) in higher education in Morocco, a pilot experiment was carried out among university students (Master of Science in Computer Sciences at Hassan II University Casablanca). In this article, we assume that the integration of ICTE is justified as shown by the multidimensional analysis adopted in the treatment of informants responses. Thus, through an observation and application analysis of the chi-square law statistical test, we aim to consider the dependency relationships between the various modalities in the questionnaires and the various ways of monitoring the MOOC. The analysis of the results of this experiment has led to four main dimensions: teacher coaching, collaboration between learners, prerequisites in the module element and the rate of MOOC follow-up. These dimensions represent the most important factors for the integration of ICTE from a student's point of view.
    Keywords: Integration of ICTE; MOOC; Multidimensional Analysis; Success Factors; Hybrid Learning.

  • Evaluating a course for teaching introductory programming with Scratch to pre-service kindergarten teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis 
    Abstract: A growing number of countries, in Europe and beyond have established clear policies and frameworks for introducing Computational Thinking and computer programming to young children. Researchers, educators, and key stakeholders believe that these skills should be taught and used in early childhood classrooms to initiate the cognitive development of students at an earlier age. The introduction of CT in the curriculum is creating a strong demand for preservice development, as many teachers did not learn about CT and computer programming in their initial education. In response to this identified need, new initiatives in Universities are underway seeking to bring CT and programming into preservice teachers education around the world. We adopted Scratch as the introductory programming language for a semester course in the department of Preschool Education in the University of Crete. The aim of using Scratch was to excite students interest and familiarize them with the basics of programming. For 13 weeks, students were introduced to the main Scratch concepts and, afterwards, were asked to prepare their projects. For the projects, they were required to develop a game to teach certain concepts about Mathematics or Physical Science and/or present an Aesop myth to preschool age students. The results we obtained were more satisfactory than expected and, in some regards, encouraging.
    Keywords: Scratch; preservice teachers; programming; Computational Thinking; Preschool Education.

  • VALIDITY, PRACTICALITY, AND EFFECTIVENESS DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY TEXT BOOKS INTEGRATED WITH AUGMENTED REALITY ON HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Mustami, Siti Syamsudduha, Safei Safei, Muhammad Ismail 
    Abstract: The aim of this research was to produce a valid, practical, and effective biology textbook integrated with Augmented Reality. The textbook development used the Define, Design, Development, and Dissemination (4D) model and the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (ADDIE) model. The instruments used an expert verification sheet, teacher and student response sheets, and a learning outcomes test. Data analysis for the 4D and ADDIE model showed that the average validity rate were 4.24 and 4.3, respectively (valid). The practicality of the product as measured by the teacher and student responses were high; in 4D were of 4.4 and 4.1, respectively and 4.4 and 4.27, in ADDIE model. Product effectiveness value toward the learning comprehension was 89% in 4D and 88% in ADDIE model. Thus, it can be concluded that the development of biology textbook integrated with Augmented Reality can be used in biology learning activities because it has a validity, practicality, and high effectiveness.
    Keywords: 4D; ADDIE; Model; Textbook Development.

  • Epistemic Video Game for Education in Wildfire Response: a Pilot Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaime Caroca, Mario Bruno, Roberto Aldunate, Carlos Arancibia 
    Abstract: A priority for sustainable development is education in the reduction of the risk of a disaster. Disasters have a profound effect in societies and their economies. Undergraduate students are seldom trained to engage in authentic emergencies. Video game technology may provide an educational tool for promoting the acquisition of new knowledge. Epistemic video games are educational video games that facilitate the development of knowledge through simulated scenarios relevant to the professional practice. This article presents the design and evaluation of an epistemic video game developed to simulate the emergency management of a disaster scenario (wildfires). The learning outcomes are analyzed regarding cognitive processes. The results of this pilot study would indicate that this video game technology has a significant role in the education of undergraduate students in disaster risk management.
    Keywords: Game-based learning; epistemic video games; disaster risk reduction; e-learning; pilot study; sustainable development; simulated scenarios; cognitive processes; emergency management; wildfire response.

  • Development Process of Instructional Mobile Application for Special Needs Children   Order a copy of this article
    by Emrah Soykan, Fezile Özdamlı 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to use the design-based research method developed for students and teachers in teaching concept skills to developmentally disabled students and to examine the process of developing software based on the infrastructure of operant conditioning theory.The developed software was applied to participants and was reengineered based on their ongoing feedback.In the study, semi-structured interview forms and observation forms were used as data collection tools in order to reveal the opinions of teachers during the material development process as well as the employability after they had used the software. In summary, the important results which were found after the application was developed can be summarised as: (i) software to be developed for individuals with special educative needs must be plain and understandable (ii) objects to be used must consist of the visuals of real objects; (iii) objects that the students are familiar with and have in their environments must be used.
    Keywords: mobile application; development; design-based research; special needs children.

  • Learner in the role of instructor: promoting student peer-collaboration in learning management systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Nancy Alajarmeh, Abdullah Rashed 
    Abstract: Recent advances in collaborative and distant learning, enabled through Learning Management Systems (LMSs), have changed conventional practices towards delivering educational content to learners. These advances ultimately aim at fostering the engagement of students in the learning process. In this paper, we investigate the effect of On-the-fly Notes on learners. Onthe- fly Notes is an application that facilitates the capture and transfer of inclass instructors notes instantly to students, thus promoting collaboration between learners and instructors. The obtained results after implementing Onthe- fly Notes show that students participated more often than they usually do in collaborative discussions with each other when in-class notes were transferred, using On-the-fly Notes, to a free LMS adopted in several classes taught at TTU. Results corroborate with the hypothesis that peer-to-peer collaboration in a monitored session tends to provide more accurate information to the instructor on how well students do in different aspects in the subject.
    Keywords: e-learning; education; instruction; collaborative learning; class notes; smart devices; cloud services; learning management systems; blended instruction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2018.10013383
     
  • A new recommendation method for pertinent collaborative learners based on their intelligence and a fuzzy measure   Order a copy of this article
    by SAIDA HANK, AZEDDINE CHIKH 
    Abstract: This paper considers learners intelligence as an influencing factor for collaborative learning. We propose a novel recommendation approach for pertinent collaborative learners. This approach is based on the learners collaboration according to the multiple and triarchic intelligence theories. Our contribution is mainly a two-fold proposition: (1) We adopt the conceptual model of learners intelligence, that we have proposed in other paper, and which we enhance by adding multiple intelligence and triarchic intelligence as sub-classes of the intelligence class. (2) We adopt a process that aims at (a) acquiring knowledge of an individual learners intelligence according to the multiple and triarchic intelligence theories, (b) recommending pertinent collaborators using a mathematical aggregation operator that relies on a fuzzy measure that facilitates consideration of the importance of each criterion as well as its interaction with others. An illustrative example shows the effect of this interaction.
    Keywords: E-learning; Bloom’s objectives; Intelligence; Collaborative learning; Learners recommendation; Fuzzy measure.

  • Students' conceptions of learning approaches and their engagement in blended learning environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Haruni Machumu, Chang Zhu 
    Abstract: Students employ diverse learning approaches when they are engaged in learning activities. Their choices on the type of approach to use are affected by many factors, including learning environments, instructional design and types of learning activities assigned. This study examines students conceptions of learning approaches and their engagement in blended learning environments (BLEs). The study involved students from two universities in Tanzania. The study used descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple linear regression analyses. The results indicate that students hold compelling conceptions of surface approach compared to deep and strategic approaches in BLEs with a high level of engagement in BLE learning activities. The results further reveal that there was a significant negative relationship between students conceptions of learning approaches and their engagement in BLE learning activities. The deep approach was a significant negative predictor for BLE learning activities while the surface approach was an insignificant negative predictor for BLE learning activities. The study proposes an appropriate redesign of BLE learning activities to encourage a deep learning approach by students.
    Keywords: blended learning; blended learning activities; traditional learning; blended learning environments; learning approaches; e-learning implementation.

  • Psychosocial determinants of information technology usage among students   Order a copy of this article
    by Joshua Ebere Chukwuere, Ufuoma Patience Ejoke 
    Abstract: Information technology (IT) literacy is linked to student academic preformation in tertiary institutions. Institutions of learning are clouded with a host of psychosocial factors that may impede learning. However, little is known about the interrelationship between psychosocial factors and information technology. To address this gap, this present study was undertaken to investigate the psychosocial determinants of information technology usage among students. In conceptualising this concern, the study employed the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and through a quantitative research methodology, primary data was collected by means of questionnaires from purposively selected 216 tertiary students from the North-West University (Mahikeng), South Africa. The following results were found; firstly, learning environment, benefits, and perception towards computer significantly impacted the IT usage of students. Secondly, access to resources, knowledge of the computer, social interaction, personal attributes (traits), quality of the application, and trends predicted IT usage. Lastly, social determinants of IT usage are significant to social pressure. Based on the study findings, it was recommended that IT should be actively infused into school curricula at tertiary institutions, as this will equip student knowledge on IT usage.
    Keywords: Psychosocial; information technology; tertiary students; South Africa; Internet; determinants.

  • Flipped Learning Enhance Technical and Professional Skills Facilitating Employability: A Review of the Evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Ismail 
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge and practice, and the impact flipped learning - intertwined with education technology has on engineering education. Result of the study indicates that flipped learning blended with education technology, brings about a highly collaborative and activity-based environment with indirect evidence of: improved academic performance, team-based learning, communication skills and group participation skill, critical thinking, that are important traits for employability. The study also provides empirical evidence about the use of education technology in flipped learning, but is not to the desired levels to offer the intended benefits. Flipped learning offers several challenges to the instructor and the students, but the benefits outweigh the challenges. The future scope for researchers would be to focus on the integration of the in-class and out-of-class activities.
    Keywords: flipped learning; engineering education; education technology.

  • Teaching practical information technology skills through cloud computing services.   Order a copy of this article
    by Washington Luna Encalada, Jose Luis Castillo 
    Abstract: Education is in a constant state of evolution, focused on better educating more students at the lowest possible cost. In this context, the role of online education is fundamental to effectively link content with pedagogical and technological aspects TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge). Cloud computing is influencing education as its adoption becomes more widespread, making it possible for a virtual community to share and collaborate on all kinds of on-demand resources and services with massive, ubiquitous, and open access. In order to teach practical information technology (IT) skills online, such as what occurs in a computer lab on a university campus, we must utilize multiple technological tools that meet new concepts of immersive and global education. In this article, we present a methodological approach to link tools from the three models of cloud computing services, known as: Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), using the five fundamental principles of instruction and contents of information technology studies.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Information Technology; Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge; SaaS; PaaS; IaaS.

  • Applying game based learning at the South African Military Academy: an experimental study   Order a copy of this article
    by Adriaan M.F. Dreyer, Wayne O. Dalton, Nicole Dodd 
    Abstract: The contemporary military environment is characterised by new technologies, advances in computer usage, and a generation of young students who have the expectation that the use of technology within education will increase over the next few years. Research suggests games within education to be a feasible solution for positively supplementing traditional teaching practices, making learning more interactive and enjoyable. Despite this, there is mixed empirical support for the successful use thereof. The aim of this study was to investigate if using Game-Based Learning (GBL) compared to traditional teaching methods when teaching JavaScript to undergraduate Computer Information Systems (CIS) students at the South African Military Academy (MA), would result in statistically significant higher learning gains. A research experiment was conducted to investigate this aim using a sample of 47 (n=47) residential students. Participants were tested on their JavaScript knowledge using a pre- and post-test experimental design. The variables and results in learning gains from the two experimental groupings showed no significant statistical difference, but significant learning gains resulted when compared to the control group.
    Keywords: Game-Based Learning; technology in education; ANOVA; experiment; Military Academy.

  • Time to focus on the temporal dimension of learning: A learning analytics study of the temporal patterns of students interactions and self-regulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Saqr, Jalal Nouri, Uno Fors 
    Abstract: This study included four courses over a full year duration. All the courses were problem-based, each week, students have to work collaboratively on a new online problem, typically in small groups. Interactions were classified according to the source student to two equal groups, as interaction by high and low achievers. The temporality was studied on daily, weekly, course-wise and year wise. The patterns of each group in each period were visually plotted and compared. Correlation with performance was done. Visualizing the activities have highlighted a certain pattern. On the week level, early participation was a consistent predictor of high achievement. This finding was consistent from course to course and during most periods of the year. On an individual course level, high achievers were also likely to participate early and consistently. Using temporality, we were able to predict high achievers with a reasonable accuracy in each course.
    Keywords: Learning analytics; Temporality; Time; Problem Based Learning; collaborative learning; Social network analysis; Self-regulation.

  • Critical Reflections on introducing e-learning within a blended education context   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitris Laskaris, Emmanuel Heretakis, Michail Kalogiannakis, Maria Ampartzaki 
    Abstract: For three consecutive semesters (2014-2016), we conducted an action research project attempting for the first time to introduce in blended education context an e-course, in the Faculty of Communication and Media of Athens University. The first author constructed the e-course by utilising the open source learning management system Moodle, the prototype model of digital learning called Interactive Evaluation that was embodied in the design of the e-course and in the cycles of action research. The third author, whose notes and bibliography of the conventional course have been transformed to meet our social constructionist approach to distance learning, acted as critical friend for the research projects. This paper summarises our answers to the following questions: (1) How have we dealt with the 'expressed' interest of students? (2) What were the critical events that occurred during the course and how have we responded to them? (3) What are the factors that affected students' participation in the various modules of the e-course? Our intention is to explore the ways in which the management of the e-courses has come to interconnect with built pedagogy through the implementation of interactive evaluation.
    Keywords: Action Research; Assessing e-Learning; Evaluation Methods of Digital Learning; Moodle; Case Study; Blended Education.

  • Kuwaiti Female University Students Acceptance of the Integration of Smartphones in their Learning: An Investigation Guided by a Modified Version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)   Order a copy of this article
    by Budour Almisad, Monirah Alsalim 
    Abstract: This study employed a modified and extended version of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to examine female Kuwaiti university students acceptance of the use of smartphones in their learning. A quantitative research method was used. The results show that the great majority of the students used their smartphones on a daily basis and they had more than five years of experience with the use of smartphones. A regression analysis found that the six independent variables explained 46% of the variance in students attitudes toward the use of smartphones to support their learning. However, only four independent variables were individually significant in predicting students attitudes toward the use of smartphones to support their learning. Based on the findings, a set of recommendations related to the use of smartphones to support students learning is provided.
    Keywords: Kuwait; female; smartphone; learning; acceptance; UTAUT; unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

  • Designing and Implementing Constructionist Learning in a Blended Advertising Photography Course   Order a copy of this article
    by Suthin Rojprasert, Jariya Neanchaleay, Surapon Boonlue, Paitoon Sinlarat 
    Abstract: This study involved designing and implementing constructionist learning in an undergraduate advertising photography course. The design and implementation involved face-to-face learning blended with a course application that provided access to online tools such as a Facebook group, Google classroom and Moodle. The first objective involved the creation of a framework to guide the design of constructionist learning in the course. The second objective involved designing learning activities with technology and implementing the learning in the course over a five-week period. The third objective involved measuring students achievement and satisfaction. Results related of the design highlighted the centrality of students artefact creation and of collaborative learning by doing and making. Implications for practice relate to the value of use of new and emerging technologies to engage students not only in active forms of learning but in the production of artefacts of their learning.
    Keywords: Constructionism. Moodle. Facebook. Higher Education. Instructional design.

  • Blended Learning of Physics in the Context of the Professional Development of Teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Lyubov Krasnova, Viktor Shurygin 
    Abstract: In line with the improvement of traditional teaching methods, the new ones are intensively introduced at all levels of education. Usually, these are the methods tied with e-learning. Essentially, teachers must be able and ready to create an innovation-driven learning environment contributing to the effective individualization of the learning process. At the same time, each student should achieve the highest possible outcomes standing behind the personality development. This paper introduces the refresher courses designed for the physics teachers. These courses are based on the blended learning technology combining traditional full-time education with the elements of distance learning supported by LMS Moodle. The courses were tested at the Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University in 2016-2018. This paper describes the module-based course structure and methods for applying the e-learning modules. The distinctive feature of the course is that the content of the learning modules was designed to deliver different methods for teaching physics and to improve the general cultural competence of a teacher. The analysis of polling results (poll included 89 physics teachers) allowed assessing the efficiency of designed courses in the context of teachers professional development, his/her readiness to work in modern learning environment. The research outcomes will be also useful for foreign educational establishments implementing the teacher professional development programs.
    Keywords: learning technologies; distance learning; e-learning; LMS Moodle; physics.

  • Leveraging Learners' Activity Logs for Course Reading Analytics Using Session-Based Indicators   Order a copy of this article
    by Madjid Sadallah, Benoît Encelle, Azze-Eddine Maredj, Yannick Prié 
    Abstract: A challenge that course authors face when reviewing their contents is to detect how to improve their courses in order to meet the expectations of their learners. rnIn this paper, we propose an analytical approach that exploits learners' logs of reading to provide authors with insightful data about the consumption of their courses. rnWe first model reading activity using the concept of reading-session and propose a new and efficient session identification. We then elaborate a list of indicators computed using learners' reading sessions that allow to represent their behaviour and to infer their needs. We evaluate our proposals with course authors and learners using logs from a major e-learning platform. Interesting results were found. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach in identifying aspects and parts of a course that may prevent it from being easily read and understood, and for guiding the authors through the analysis and review tasks.
    Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Web-based interaction; Learning Management Systems (LMS); Learning analytics; Reading monitoring; Reading indicators; Revisions; Web log mining; Reading sessions; Session identification.

  • Toward Enhancing Collaborative Learning Groups Formation in Q&A Website Using Tag-based Next Questions Predictor   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammadsadegh Rezaei, Hossein Bobarshad, Kambiz Badie 
    Abstract: The advent of informal social learning environment has provided the necessary platform for realizing of lifelong learning. The basic platform of learning in an informal environment is the learning groups called online Community of Practice (oCoP). This study proposes a predictor for predicting the topics that most suitable for the formation of oCoPs for the users adopting the roles of co-learner and mentor in a shared domain perspective. Proposed predictor operates based on Naive Bayes prediction and collaborative filtering and uses educational social tags for realizing the learners roles and behavior. The predictor is evaluated with the dataset of the website StackOverflow. The results show that the proposed predictor can predict the next question of learners with high accuracy. Therefore, the system can facilitate the formation of suitable learning groups around the predicted users interest topics.
    Keywords: Social Learning Network; Q&A website; Online community of practice; Informal learning; Learning topic prediction; Collaborative filtering; Collaborative Learning; Educational social tag.

  • Impact of used programming language for K-12 students understanding of the loop concept   Order a copy of this article
    by Monika Mladenović, Saša Mladenović, Žana Žanko 
    Abstract: Block-based programming languages are becoming a favourite learning tool for programming novices while the traditional way of teaching programming mostly uses text-based programming languages. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of used visual and textual programming languages on K-12 students understanding of the loop concept. Participants were 312 elementary school students from 5th to 8th grade using visual programming language Scratch (n=59), and textual programming languages Logo (n=185) and Python (n=68). Tests for all languages were equivalent, differing only in the used programming language. Results showed that students achieved statistically significant higher scores when using block-based programming language compared to students using textual programming languages. These results show that K-12 students need concrete experience to understand abstract concepts, as the loop concept, which Scratch as a block-based programming language provides.
    Keywords: programming; loop; elementary school; Scratch; text-based programming languages.