International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (26 papers in press)
A Systemic Approach to Leveraging Student Engagement in Collaborative Learning to Improve Online Engineering Education
by Robin G. Qiu
Abstract: Online higher education is transformative and quite different from residential college education. Lacking effective and consistent pedagogical engagement has been criticized for a high drop-out rate in the online education in general. This study aims to find a solution to facilitate learning engagement in an online engineering education setting. By relying on the known knowledge in the pedagogies of engagement in college education, this paper proposes a systemic framework for promoting positive online students learning engagement. Different from empirical studies of conducting hypothesis tests, we show a practical and model-driven approach to assessing and enhancing problem-based collaborative teaching/learning practices. The proposed framework is explored through both a pilot test and a confirming test. Rules of thumb are identified and generalized, which could be used to help students/instructors retune their collaborative practices in a proactive manner for retaining positive and effective learning engagement in an online engineering education setting.
Keywords: online engineering education; collaborative learning; pedagogy of engagement; professional education.
The Use of TAM to Investigate University Students Acceptance of the Formal Use of Smartphones for Learning: A Qualitative Approach
by Al-Mothana Gasaymeh, Dima Waswas
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate, through the lens of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), university students acceptance of the formal use of smartphones for their learning. A survey research approach was followed. Sixteen students participated in four focus-group interviews. Each group had four participants. Most participants expressed positive attitudes toward the use of smartphones for their learning. In line with the TAM model, the students reported the reasons for their positive attitudes toward the formal use of smartphones in learning. These reasons were strongly related to their perceptions of ease of use and the usefulness of smartphones for their daily life tasks and for informal learning.
Keywords: smartphone; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); smartphone in education; university student.
The digital divide: Implications for the eSafety of children and adolescents
by Zilka Gila
Abstract: The digital divide is the gap between those who are digitally literate and those who are not, between those who do and do not have access to digital environments. The implications of the divide for the eSafety of children and adolescents are the topic of this paper. Three hundred forty-five Israeli children and adolescents participated in this mixed-method study. Safe browsing was found to be affected by the digital divide. Children and adolescents who have digital equipment at home displayed higher eSafety skills and computer literacy than did children who have no digital equipment or those who have only few such devices. Lack or limited access to a digital environment results in absence of eSafety skills and lower computer literacy. As a result, these children are at higher risk of being cyberbullied than are children with access to digital environments and those who have better eSafety skills.
Keywords: eSafety; cyberbullying; digital divide; children; adolescents; disadvantaged populations; e-readiness.
Technology, Attitude and Mathematics: A Descriptive Examination of the Literature Spanning Three Decades
by Jacqueline Huscroft-D'Angelo, Kristina Higgins, Lindy Crawford
Abstract: An extensive literature base exists on the use of technology in mathematics and its effect on student learning; however, no comprehensive reviews have been published on how affective characteristics specifically attitude might factor into these results. This review presents a thorough descriptive examination of the literature on attitude and achievement of elementary and middle school students when using technology in mathematics. The literature was examined from 1983-2013 to synthesise (a) populations, (b) settings, (c) types of technology used, (d) operational definitions of attitude, (e) assessment of attitude and mathematical content domains, (f) research designs used, and (g) length of interventions. Twenty-five datasets, representing 25 published manuscripts, were included in the review. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: technology; mathematics; affective characteristics; attitude; elementary; middle.
Next Learning Topic Prediction for Learners Guidance in Informal Learning Environment
by Mohammad Sadegh Rezaei, Mohammadmehdi Yaraghtalaie
Abstract: Estimating the learning needs of learners in a Social Learning Network (SLN) is very important in proper planning for improving learning space. This paper presented a predictor to estimate the learning needs of learners in SLNs. In Question & Answer Networks, estimating the need for learning means estimating the future subject of the question. The significance of the similarity of the sequence of previous learning subjects with the future subjects of learners is one of the most important areas for estimating the subject of future learning. Hence, this predictor estimates the next learning subject based on the similarity of the subjects about which the learner asks questions. The estimation method introduced in this study is based on the Bayesian solution method. The performance of this method was evaluated in the dataset extracted from one of the most widely used SLNs. The results showed that the proposed method was able to detect future tag of each learner with 78% precision in the informal learning environment using the tags of the questions asked by learners.
Keywords: social learning network; learning topic prediction; Q&A website; online Informal learning.
A Case Study of Using the Smart Board as a Chinese Learning Application by Elementary School Students
by Lih-Ching Wang, Eddie T. C. Lam, Ya-Hua Chen
Abstract: It is estimated that 1,310 million people speak Chinese worldwide. The Smart Board is an interactive white board with a touch-screen, making it well-suited for learning Chinese. The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students perception of using the Smart Board to learn the four core skills of Chinese: reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Participants (N=172) were 2nd to 4th graders. A questionnaire was used to assess their perceptions toward the Smart Board class activities. Results indicated that there were no significant (p>.05) gender differences in all four core skills for 2nd graders as well as in reading, listening and speaking for 3rd graders. However, male 3rd graders had a significantly (F=7.816, p=.007) higher mean score in writing than females, while female 4th graders showed a significantly (F=5.597, p=.022) higher mean score in listening than their male counterparts. It is suggested that Chinese language learning activities should be tailored based on different genders and grade levels.
Keywords: language learning; instructional technology; gender difference.
Medical Student Question Answering Behaviour during High-Stakes Multiple Choice Examinations
by Tahra AlMahmoud, Dybesh Regmi, Margaret Elzubeir, Frank Christopher Howarth, Sami Shaban
Abstract: Background: Evaluating student answering behaviour during high-stakes assessments may help identify deficits in students efficiency or question answering effectiveness. Methods: We used electronic assessment logfiles to examine student answering behaviour during exams. We compared the time spent on questions based on student gender, question correctness, cognitive level and clinical discipline. Results: Male and female students spent the same amount of time on questions however, females performed significantly better. There were significant differences in average time spent on questions answered correctly versus incorrectly and in the amount of time examinees spent on questions per cognitive level. The percentage of questions that had answers changed by examinees was 13.65% of which 5.82% changed from incorrect to correct and 2.83% changed from correct to incorrect. On average, 16.3% of questions were placed under review by examinees at some time during the exam. Conclusions: Students spent significantly more time on questions that were answered incorrectly and on higher cognitive level questions. Reviewing and re-answering questions was more beneficial than harmful to student marks.
Keywords: assessment; multiple choice question; medical student; question answering behaviour; big data; logfile analysis; assessment management system.
A socio-cultural model for orchestrating mobile learning activities
by Jalal Nouri
Abstract: Learning outdoors with mobile devices is associated with distinct challenges and constraints that needs to be taken into account when orchestrating formal mobile learning activities. In order to design pedagogically meaningful activities, we need to consider students scaffolding needs and have an understanding of the aspects that should be orchestrated for meeting those needs. This paper proposes an orchestration model for formal mobile learning activities across contexts that take such scaffolding needs into account. The model have been interatively developed based on empirical research conducted in three case-studies and have theoretical basis in socio-cultural perspectives on learning, particularly resting on the concept of scaffolding (Vygotsky, 1986) and on the learning design sequence model of Selander (2008). The model takes the orchestration of six scaffolding aspects into account, namely: the social (collaborative) aspects, the teachers, the technology, the physical context, the learning processes and tasks, and the modes and representations. rn
Keywords: orchestration; mobile learning; model; framework; scaffolding.
Contribution to the multidimensional analysis of the success factors of the integration of the ICTE in higher education in Morocco: Case of the MOOC "Relational databases: understanding to master" students' point of view
by Bouchaib Riyami, Khalifa Mansouri, Franck Poirier
Abstract: In order to contribute to the successful integration of ICTE (Information and Communication Technologies for Education) in higher education in Morocco, a pilot experiment was carried out among university students (Master of Science in Computer Sciences at Hassan II University Casablanca).
In this article, we assume that the integration of ICTE is justified as shown by the multidimensional analysis adopted in the treatment of informants responses. Thus, through an observation and application analysis of the chi-square law statistical test, we aim to consider the dependency relationships between the various modalities in the questionnaires and the various ways of monitoring the MOOC. The analysis of the results of this experiment has led to four main dimensions: teacher coaching, collaboration between learners, prerequisites in the module element and the rate of MOOC follow-up. These dimensions represent the most important factors for the integration of ICTE from a student's point of view.
Keywords: Integration of ICTE; MOOC; Multidimensional Analysis; Success Factors; Hybrid Learning.
Evaluating a course for teaching introductory programming with Scratch to pre-service kindergarten teachers
by Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis
Abstract: A growing number of countries, in Europe and beyond have established clear policies and frameworks for introducing Computational Thinking and computer programming to young children. Researchers, educators, and key stakeholders believe that these skills should be taught and used in early childhood classrooms to initiate the cognitive development of students at an earlier age. The introduction of CT in the curriculum is creating a strong demand for preservice development, as many teachers did not learn about CT and computer programming in their initial education. In response to this identified need, new initiatives in Universities are underway seeking to bring CT and programming into preservice teachers education around the world. We adopted Scratch as the introductory programming language for a semester course in the department of Preschool Education in the University of Crete. The aim of using Scratch was to excite students interest and familiarize them with the basics of programming. For 13 weeks, students were introduced to the main Scratch concepts and, afterwards, were asked to prepare their projects. For the projects, they were required to develop a game to teach certain concepts about Mathematics or Physical Science and/or present an Aesop myth to preschool age students. The results we obtained were more satisfactory than expected and, in some regards, encouraging.
Keywords: Scratch; preservice teachers; programming; Computational Thinking; Preschool Education.
VALIDITY, PRACTICALITY, AND EFFECTIVENESS DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY TEXT BOOKS INTEGRATED WITH AUGMENTED REALITY ON HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
by Muhammad Mustami, Siti Syamsudduha, Safei Safei, Muhammad Ismail
Abstract: The aim of this research was to produce a valid, practical, and effective biology textbook integrated with Augmented Reality. The textbook development used the Define, Design, Development, and Dissemination (4D) model and the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (ADDIE) model. The instruments used an expert verification sheet, teacher and student response sheets, and a learning outcomes test. Data analysis for the 4D and ADDIE model showed that the average validity rate were 4.24 and 4.3, respectively (valid). The practicality of the product as measured by the teacher and student responses were high; in 4D were of 4.4 and 4.1, respectively and 4.4 and 4.27, in ADDIE model. Product effectiveness value toward the learning comprehension was 89% in 4D and 88% in ADDIE model. Thus, it can be concluded that the development of biology textbook integrated with Augmented Reality can be used in biology learning activities because it has a validity, practicality, and high effectiveness.
Keywords: 4D; ADDIE; Model; Textbook Development.
Epistemic Video Game for Education in Wildfire Response: a Pilot Study
by Jaime Caroca, Mario Bruno, Roberto Aldunate, Carlos Arancibia
Abstract: A priority for sustainable development is education in the reduction of the risk of a disaster. Disasters have a profound effect in societies and their economies. Undergraduate students are seldom trained to engage in authentic emergencies. Video game technology may provide an educational tool for promoting the acquisition of new knowledge. Epistemic video games are educational video games that facilitate the development of knowledge through simulated scenarios relevant to the professional practice. This article presents the design and evaluation of an epistemic video game developed to simulate the emergency management of a disaster scenario (wildfires). The learning outcomes are analyzed regarding cognitive processes. The results of this pilot study would indicate that this video game technology has a significant role in the education of undergraduate students in disaster risk management.
Keywords: Game-based learning; epistemic video games; disaster risk reduction; e-learning; pilot study; sustainable development; simulated scenarios; cognitive processes; emergency management; wildfire response.
Development Process of Instructional Mobile Application for Special Needs Children
by Emrah Soykan, Fezile Özdamlı
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to use the design-based research method developed for students and teachers in teaching concept skills to developmentally disabled students and to examine the process of developing software based on the infrastructure of operant conditioning theory.The developed software was applied to participants and was reengineered based on their ongoing feedback.In the study, semi-structured interview forms and observation forms were used as data collection tools in order to reveal the opinions of teachers during the material development process as well as the employability after they had used the software. In summary, the important results which were found after the application was developed can be summarised as: (i) software to be developed for individuals with special educative needs must be plain and understandable (ii) objects to be used must consist of the visuals of real objects; (iii) objects that the students are familiar with and have in their environments must be used.
Keywords: mobile application; development; design-based research; special needs children.
Learner in the role of instructor: promoting student peer-collaboration in learning management systems
by Nancy Alajarmeh, Abdullah Rashed
Abstract: Recent advances in collaborative and distant learning, enabled
through Learning Management Systems (LMSs), have changed conventional
practices towards delivering educational content to learners. These advances
ultimately aim at fostering the engagement of students in the learning process.
In this paper, we investigate the effect of On-the-fly Notes on learners. Onthe-
fly Notes is an application that facilitates the capture and transfer of inclass
instructors notes instantly to students, thus promoting collaboration
between learners and instructors. The obtained results after implementing Onthe-
fly Notes show that students participated more often than they usually do
in collaborative discussions with each other when in-class notes were
transferred, using On-the-fly Notes, to a free LMS adopted in several classes
taught at TTU. Results corroborate with the hypothesis that peer-to-peer
collaboration in a monitored session tends to provide more accurate
information to the instructor on how well students do in different aspects in the
Keywords: e-learning; education; instruction; collaborative learning; class
notes; smart devices; cloud services; learning management systems; blended
A new recommendation method for pertinent collaborative learners based on their intelligence and a fuzzy measure
by SAIDA HANK, AZEDDINE CHIKH
Abstract: This paper considers learners intelligence as an influencing factor for collaborative learning. We propose a novel recommendation approach for pertinent collaborative learners. This approach is based on the learners collaboration according to the multiple and triarchic intelligence theories. Our contribution is mainly a two-fold proposition: (1) We adopt the conceptual model of learners intelligence, that we have proposed in other paper, and which we enhance by adding multiple intelligence and triarchic intelligence as sub-classes of the intelligence class. (2) We adopt a process that aims at (a) acquiring knowledge of an individual learners intelligence according to the multiple and triarchic intelligence theories, (b) recommending pertinent collaborators using a mathematical aggregation operator that relies on a fuzzy measure that facilitates consideration of the importance of each criterion as well as its interaction with others. An illustrative example shows the effect of this interaction.
Keywords: E-learning; Bloom’s objectives; Intelligence; Collaborative learning; Learners recommendation; Fuzzy measure.
Methodological proposal of financial modelling using dynamic scenarios from multivariable data tables
by J.D. González-Ruiz, Eduardo Duque, Alejandro Peña, Jovani Jiménez, Héctor Alejandro Patiño
Abstract: This paper aims at proposing a methodological strategy for teaching the modelling of dynamic scenarios from Multivariable Data Tables using Microsoft Excel as a technological tool. It provides a step-by-step guide for improving the teaching-learning method on the development of financial models, which could also be used in other areas. The methodology allows identifying the most important aspects of developing financial models so students-professors could be guided towards a more pedagogical approach promoting the incorporation of technological tools in the classroom. This work plays a pivotal role in financial modelling teaching since it provides relevant elements leading to the development of systematic thinking among university students based on cognitive activities. Also, various contributions to research on the teaching-learning process in modelling are discussed. For validating the proposal, an airport's financial valuation was used as a case study. As a result, this paper contributes to increasing the role of computational tools and students-professors involvement in the development of systemic thinking and cognitive skills.
Keywords: financial modelling; learning-teaching; Excel; cognitive skills; project finance; dynamic scenarios.
An agent-based approach for personalised and adaptive learning
by Smain Nasr-Eddine Bouzenada, Olivier Boissier, Nacer Eddine Zarour
Abstract: Most of learning systems deliver the same learning materials when targeting the same learning unit. It turned out that the learning process could significantly be improved if learning content could be specifically personalised and adapted to individual learners' domain knowledge and capabilities. Few learning systems introduce teaching strategies to satisfy individual learners' requirements. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, we propose a multi-agent system, which is based on learning styles for its adaptability and on domain knowledge for its personalisation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of this multi-agent based learning system. In particular we discuss the learning resources collecting process, the personalised process and the adaptive process. The system has been tested through several functional experiments, and the analysis of the simulation study indicates that the approach is able to handle personalised and adaptive learning.
Keywords: multi-agent; e-learning; learning styles; teaching styles; learner's profile; adaptive learning; personalised learning.
User interface preferences of young Jordanians using tablet devices
by Ahmed Al-Sa'di, Dave Parry, Philip D. Carter
Abstract: We aimed to establish Arabic user interface (UI) guidelines for tablet PCs (tablets). This paper presents the findings of two studies with 21 Arabic-speaking Jordanian students to gauge their preferences. Initial UI design guidelines were formulated for font type, size, colour, text alignment, menu and button type. Gender differences were found in font type preferences as well as the desire to customise the application's appearance. Sensibilities around religious symbols were also discovered. The use of coaching and think-aloud in the usability approach assisted in allowing the research to be appropriately sensitive to the beliefs and culture of the subjects. It is anticipated that the research findings will help software companies in Jordan and other Arabic-speaking nations to enhance UI for Arabic mobile and tablet applications.
Keywords: user interface; Arabic users; usability; tablet PCs; gender; educational application.
Influence of online retailers' social media marketing strategies on students' perceptions towards e-shopping: a qualitative study
by Marcos Komodromos, Tap Papaioannou, Mohammed Alhaji Adamu
Abstract: The usage of the internet-based technologies, particularly social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter as business platforms can be a critical strategy in enhancing an online retail outlet's reach and operational efficiency. This study employs a qualitative study with 20 in-depth interviews to explore the factors/strategies that influence students' acceptance of e-shopping. The objectives of the study were to examine students' perceptions of e-shopping via the social media fan pages of Konga and Jumia online stores and their perceptions about the difference in the influence of the online marketing strategies on acceptance of e-shopping between Konga and Jumia online stores. The results highlight students' perceptions of e-shopping via the social pages and they find e-shopping experience very interesting and fun. The most important motivating factor which influenced the online shopping in Konga and Jumia online stores are the marketing strategies that companies use and convenience followed by time saving and price for consumers.
Keywords: e-shopping; social media; Facebook; Twitter; online retail shops; consumers; engagement.
Using blogs to promote reflective dialogue in vocational education
by María Concepción Bort Albarracín, Manoli Pifarré
Abstract: This paper investigates how blogs can be used to support reflective dialogue in vocational education and how such dialogue can be characterised. This paper claims that a dialogic approach, where reflection is conceived as a voice immersed in a social interaction dialogue, is necessary when using blogs. Based on literature review, this study defined key higher-order thinking skills that indicate the presence of reflective dialogue on students' blog contributions. The current study states that these thinking skills can shed some light on patterns of behaviour in order to engage vocational students in reflective dialogue. The thinking skills have been clustered in four dimensions or dialogues attending to their function among the bloggers interaction: caring, critical, regulatory and creative thinking skills. These thinking skills were embedded in a blog learning project, implemented in two real classrooms settings and evaluated in two studies. Our experimental data support the claim that blogs' affordances play a key role in reflective dialogue development.
Keywords: blogs; reflexive dialogue; thinking skills; educational project.
An analysis of the permeability of Moroccan higher education to e-learning and simulation based e-learning
by El Hassan Laaziz, Elmustapha Elkhouzai
Abstract: The integration of e-learning into the educational and training landscape of developed and emerging countries has become an important issue since the beginning of the millennium. The sophistication of associated information technologies tends to replicate all the virtues formerly associated with the face-to-face. Recent advances in interfacing and integration between Learning Management Systems (LMS) and simulators are an example. In Morocco, e-learning is still in a basic level of both practice by practitioners and the place granted to it by governments. Accordingly, the degree of penetration of e-learning is fairly basic both in sophisticated devices and in the sophisticated content that can be able to change the situation. The aim of this article is to study the permeability of Moroccan higher education to e-learning devices and interactive content in particular. The degree of penetration of e-learning and interactive and simulation-based content will be analysed, benchmarked and discussed.
Keywords: e-learning; distance learning; information technologies; higher education; simulation; moodle; e-learning standards; learning management systems; Morocco.
Does ICT affect the understanding of ellipsoids, cylinders and cones among students from University of Applied Sciences?
by Nicholas Zaranis, George M. Exarchakos
Abstract: Our research compares the improvement of the students' stereometry competence of ellipsoids, cylinders and cones using two teaching approaches. The first one employs our ICT-oriented learning method specifically targeting the Van Hiele model for stereometry concepts. The second method is based on the traditional approach of teaching university students. The study deals with second year undergraduate students form the Department of Civil Engineering at Piraeus University of Applied Sciences. The sample was divided into two groups (experimental and control). The results showed that the teaching approaches of our intervention, with the additional use of ICT using the background of the Van Hiele model, contribute significantly more to the development of university students' stereometry competence as compared to other traditional methods.
Keywords: ICT; ellipsoids; cylinders; cones; higher education.
Evaluation at scale: an approach to evaluate technology for informal workplace learning across contexts
by Stefan Thalmann, Tobias Ley, Ronald Maier, Tamsin Treasure-Jones, Christina Sarigianni, Markus Manhart
Abstract: The implicit, spontaneous and hidden nature of informal learning in addition to the large and less predictable number of application scenarios challenge the evaluation of learning technology. A further challenge for evaluation is added if a user-centred design method had been employed that already had involved users in large numbers and has led to a high level of expectations regarding the potential of the tool to fulfil their needs. We propose an evaluation approach based on the ideas of active involvement of stakeholders, an iterative planning process, a continuous, open and collaborative interpretation of the data collected on the basis of representations shared across cases plus a pluralism of methods for evaluating learning technology and is particularly intended for large scale evaluations in workplace settings. We present a case, in which we applied the proposed evaluation approach in the context of a large scale research project on technology-enhanced-learning.
Keywords: participatory evaluation; informal learning; workplace learning; participatory design.
The design and application of a digital storytelling process model to enhance teachers' understanding of TPACK and foster positive attitudes toward teaching with technologies
by Daniah Alabbasi
Abstract: The study seeks to investigate teachers' perceptions of the process of creating digital stories using a process model (DSPM). The researchers explored how this model fostered effective technology integration skills among teachers as depicted in the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect participants' reflections on creating digital stories, their perceptions of how that process affects their TPACK skills, and their views about the pedagogical benefits of using digital stories as a strategy for effective teaching. Eighty-five pre-service and in-service teachers enrolled in a graduate instructional technology program participated in this study. Generally, the results showed a very strong connection between creating digital stories following the proposed process model and acquiring a positive perception toward technology integration in teachers. The results also revealed a general consensus among teachers on the effective use of digital stories in teaching.
Keywords: digital storytelling; TPACK; digital storytelling process model; teacher preparation programs; instructional technology programs; effective technology integration.
Using the flipped classroom model to enhance problem-based learning in a practicum course
by Safaa Mohammad Al-Hebaishi
Abstract: The purpose of this self-study project was to examine whether or not the use of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach enhanced with Flipped Classroom Model (FCM) has an effect on student teachers' learning achievement in a Practicum course. In particular, it investigated if PBL enhanced with FCM had an effect on student teachers' performance in self-study, team interaction and collaboration, and public presentation. The participants were 70 student teachers divided into two groups; the treatment group (n = 35), and the control group (n = 35). The performance of student teachers was measured by a rubric consisting of three criteria: self-study, team interaction and collaboration, and public presentation. The results indicated that there was a statistical significant difference between the two groups of student teachers and this difference was in favour of student teachers who received PBL enhanced with FCM. Statistical significant differences were found in the treatment group performance of self-study and team interaction and collaboration. No statistical significant difference was found between the two groups in public presentation performance. Consequently, the study recommended the integration of student-centred learning methods in teacher education programs to train student teachers apply them in their future profession.
Keywords: problem-based learning; flipped classroom model; student teachers; practicum.
Using the graphic tablet projection technology: improving students' learning through action research
by Rakesh Belwal, Shweta Belwal
Abstract: Students' comprehension and understanding in classes have always been a contentious issue, affected most of the time by the pedagogy, technology, and culture. This paper introduces and assesses a pedagogy that integrates graphic tablet and projective tools (GTPT) in classroom deliveries. A class of 123 undergraduate business students was given lectures and tutorials using graphic tablet. After the completion of the course, students were asked to reflect on their experience of GTPT. Students appreciated the contribution of GTPT in different courses. GTPT, to their belief, provided them with not only better understanding and learning but also an opportunity to collaborate with their peers. The findings illustrated the importance of activity theory and action research methodology for iterative improvement in teaching and learning. Based on the outcomes of this research, educators can plan, experience, experiment, and build appropriate and cost-effective in-class delivery mechanisms that are innovative and open to new ideas.
Keywords: teaching and learning; projection technology; pedagogy; higher education; learning management system.