Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning


These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in IJTEL, but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.


Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.


Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.


Articles marked with this Open Access icon are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.


Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues of IJTEL are published online.


We also offer RSS feeds which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.


International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (32 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • The Use of TAM to Investigate University Students Acceptance of the Formal Use of Smartphones for Learning: A Qualitative Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Al-Mothana Gasaymeh, Dima Waswas 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate, through the lens of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), university students acceptance of the formal use of smartphones for their learning. A survey research approach was followed. Sixteen students participated in four focus-group interviews. Each group had four participants. Most participants expressed positive attitudes toward the use of smartphones for their learning. In line with the TAM model, the students reported the reasons for their positive attitudes toward the formal use of smartphones in learning. These reasons were strongly related to their perceptions of ease of use and the usefulness of smartphones for their daily life tasks and for informal learning.
    Keywords: smartphone; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); smartphone in education; university student.

  • Medical Student Question Answering Behaviour during High-Stakes Multiple Choice Examinations   Order a copy of this article
    by Tahra AlMahmoud, Dybesh Regmi, Margaret Elzubeir, Frank Christopher Howarth, Sami Shaban 
    Abstract: Background: Evaluating student answering behaviour during high-stakes assessments may help identify deficits in students efficiency or question answering effectiveness. Methods: We used electronic assessment logfiles to examine student answering behaviour during exams. We compared the time spent on questions based on student gender, question correctness, cognitive level and clinical discipline. Results: Male and female students spent the same amount of time on questions however, females performed significantly better. There were significant differences in average time spent on questions answered correctly versus incorrectly and in the amount of time examinees spent on questions per cognitive level. The percentage of questions that had answers changed by examinees was 13.65% of which 5.82% changed from incorrect to correct and 2.83% changed from correct to incorrect. On average, 16.3% of questions were placed under review by examinees at some time during the exam. Conclusions: Students spent significantly more time on questions that were answered incorrectly and on higher cognitive level questions. Reviewing and re-answering questions was more beneficial than harmful to student marks.
    Keywords: assessment; multiple choice question; medical student; question answering behaviour; big data; logfile analysis; assessment management system.

  • A socio-cultural model for orchestrating mobile learning activities   Order a copy of this article
    by Jalal Nouri 
    Abstract: Learning outdoors with mobile devices is associated with distinct challenges and constraints that needs to be taken into account when orchestrating formal mobile learning activities. In order to design pedagogically meaningful activities, we need to consider students scaffolding needs and have an understanding of the aspects that should be orchestrated for meeting those needs. This paper proposes an orchestration model for formal mobile learning activities across contexts that take such scaffolding needs into account. The model have been interatively developed based on empirical research conducted in three case-studies and have theoretical basis in socio-cultural perspectives on learning, particularly resting on the concept of scaffolding (Vygotsky, 1986) and on the learning design sequence model of Selander (2008). The model takes the orchestration of six scaffolding aspects into account, namely: the social (collaborative) aspects, the teachers, the technology, the physical context, the learning processes and tasks, and the modes and representations. rn
    Keywords: orchestration; mobile learning; model; framework; scaffolding.

  • Evaluating a course for teaching introductory programming with Scratch to pre-service kindergarten teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis 
    Abstract: A growing number of countries, in Europe and beyond have established clear policies and frameworks for introducing Computational Thinking and computer programming to young children. Researchers, educators, and key stakeholders believe that these skills should be taught and used in early childhood classrooms to initiate the cognitive development of students at an earlier age. The introduction of CT in the curriculum is creating a strong demand for preservice development, as many teachers did not learn about CT and computer programming in their initial education. In response to this identified need, new initiatives in Universities are underway seeking to bring CT and programming into preservice teachers education around the world. We adopted Scratch as the introductory programming language for a semester course in the department of Preschool Education in the University of Crete. The aim of using Scratch was to excite students interest and familiarize them with the basics of programming. For 13 weeks, students were introduced to the main Scratch concepts and, afterwards, were asked to prepare their projects. For the projects, they were required to develop a game to teach certain concepts about Mathematics or Physical Science and/or present an Aesop myth to preschool age students. The results we obtained were more satisfactory than expected and, in some regards, encouraging.
    Keywords: Scratch; preservice teachers; programming; Computational Thinking; Preschool Education.

    by Muhammad Mustami, Siti Syamsudduha, Safei Safei, Muhammad Ismail 
    Abstract: The aim of this research was to produce a valid, practical, and effective biology textbook integrated with Augmented Reality. The textbook development used the Define, Design, Development, and Dissemination (4D) model and the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (ADDIE) model. The instruments used an expert verification sheet, teacher and student response sheets, and a learning outcomes test. Data analysis for the 4D and ADDIE model showed that the average validity rate were 4.24 and 4.3, respectively (valid). The practicality of the product as measured by the teacher and student responses were high; in 4D were of 4.4 and 4.1, respectively and 4.4 and 4.27, in ADDIE model. Product effectiveness value toward the learning comprehension was 89% in 4D and 88% in ADDIE model. Thus, it can be concluded that the development of biology textbook integrated with Augmented Reality can be used in biology learning activities because it has a validity, practicality, and high effectiveness.
    Keywords: 4D; ADDIE; Model; Textbook Development.

  • Epistemic Video Game for Education in Wildfire Response: a Pilot Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaime Caroca, Mario Bruno, Roberto Aldunate, Carlos Arancibia 
    Abstract: A priority for sustainable development is education in the reduction of the risk of a disaster. Disasters have a profound effect in societies and their economies. Undergraduate students are seldom trained to engage in authentic emergencies. Video game technology may provide an educational tool for promoting the acquisition of new knowledge. Epistemic video games are educational video games that facilitate the development of knowledge through simulated scenarios relevant to the professional practice. This article presents the design and evaluation of an epistemic video game developed to simulate the emergency management of a disaster scenario (wildfires). The learning outcomes are analyzed regarding cognitive processes. The results of this pilot study would indicate that this video game technology has a significant role in the education of undergraduate students in disaster risk management.
    Keywords: Game-based learning; epistemic video games; disaster risk reduction; e-learning; pilot study; sustainable development; simulated scenarios; cognitive processes; emergency management; wildfire response.

  • Development Process of Instructional Mobile Application for Special Needs Children   Order a copy of this article
    by Emrah Soykan, Fezile Özdamlı 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to use the design-based research method developed for students and teachers in teaching concept skills to developmentally disabled students and to examine the process of developing software based on the infrastructure of operant conditioning theory.The developed software was applied to participants and was reengineered based on their ongoing feedback.In the study, semi-structured interview forms and observation forms were used as data collection tools in order to reveal the opinions of teachers during the material development process as well as the employability after they had used the software. In summary, the important results which were found after the application was developed can be summarised as: (i) software to be developed for individuals with special educative needs must be plain and understandable (ii) objects to be used must consist of the visuals of real objects; (iii) objects that the students are familiar with and have in their environments must be used.
    Keywords: mobile application; development; design-based research; special needs children.

  • Learner in the role of instructor: promoting student peer-collaboration in learning management systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Nancy Alajarmeh, Abdullah Rashed 
    Abstract: Recent advances in collaborative and distant learning, enabled through Learning Management Systems (LMSs), have changed conventional practices towards delivering educational content to learners. These advances ultimately aim at fostering the engagement of students in the learning process. In this paper, we investigate the effect of On-the-fly Notes on learners. Onthe- fly Notes is an application that facilitates the capture and transfer of inclass instructors notes instantly to students, thus promoting collaboration between learners and instructors. The obtained results after implementing Onthe- fly Notes show that students participated more often than they usually do in collaborative discussions with each other when in-class notes were transferred, using On-the-fly Notes, to a free LMS adopted in several classes taught at TTU. Results corroborate with the hypothesis that peer-to-peer collaboration in a monitored session tends to provide more accurate information to the instructor on how well students do in different aspects in the subject.
    Keywords: e-learning; education; instruction; collaborative learning; class notes; smart devices; cloud services; learning management systems; blended instruction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2018.10013383
  • A new recommendation method for pertinent collaborative learners based on their intelligence and a fuzzy measure   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This paper considers learners intelligence as an influencing factor for collaborative learning. We propose a novel recommendation approach for pertinent collaborative learners. This approach is based on the learners collaboration according to the multiple and triarchic intelligence theories. Our contribution is mainly a two-fold proposition: (1) We adopt the conceptual model of learners intelligence, that we have proposed in other paper, and which we enhance by adding multiple intelligence and triarchic intelligence as sub-classes of the intelligence class. (2) We adopt a process that aims at (a) acquiring knowledge of an individual learners intelligence according to the multiple and triarchic intelligence theories, (b) recommending pertinent collaborators using a mathematical aggregation operator that relies on a fuzzy measure that facilitates consideration of the importance of each criterion as well as its interaction with others. An illustrative example shows the effect of this interaction.
    Keywords: E-learning; Bloom’s objectives; Intelligence; Collaborative learning; Learners recommendation; Fuzzy measure.

  • Students' conceptions of learning approaches and their engagement in blended learning environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Haruni Machumu, Chang Zhu 
    Abstract: Students employ diverse learning approaches when they are engaged in learning activities. Their choices on the type of approach to use are affected by many factors, including learning environments, instructional design and types of learning activities assigned. This study examines students conceptions of learning approaches and their engagement in blended learning environments (BLEs). The study involved students from two universities in Tanzania. The study used descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple linear regression analyses. The results indicate that students hold compelling conceptions of surface approach compared to deep and strategic approaches in BLEs with a high level of engagement in BLE learning activities. The results further reveal that there was a significant negative relationship between students conceptions of learning approaches and their engagement in BLE learning activities. The deep approach was a significant negative predictor for BLE learning activities while the surface approach was an insignificant negative predictor for BLE learning activities. The study proposes an appropriate redesign of BLE learning activities to encourage a deep learning approach by students.
    Keywords: blended learning; blended learning activities; traditional learning; blended learning environments; learning approaches; e-learning implementation.

  • Psychosocial determinants of information technology usage among students   Order a copy of this article
    by Joshua Ebere Chukwuere, Ufuoma Patience Ejoke 
    Abstract: Information technology (IT) literacy is linked to student academic preformation in tertiary institutions. Institutions of learning are clouded with a host of psychosocial factors that may impede learning. However, little is known about the interrelationship between psychosocial factors and information technology. To address this gap, this present study was undertaken to investigate the psychosocial determinants of information technology usage among students. In conceptualising this concern, the study employed the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and through a quantitative research methodology, primary data was collected by means of questionnaires from purposively selected 216 tertiary students from the North-West University (Mahikeng), South Africa. The following results were found; firstly, learning environment, benefits, and perception towards computer significantly impacted the IT usage of students. Secondly, access to resources, knowledge of the computer, social interaction, personal attributes (traits), quality of the application, and trends predicted IT usage. Lastly, social determinants of IT usage are significant to social pressure. Based on the study findings, it was recommended that IT should be actively infused into school curricula at tertiary institutions, as this will equip student knowledge on IT usage.
    Keywords: Psychosocial; information technology; tertiary students; South Africa; Internet; determinants.

  • Flipped Learning Enhance Technical and Professional Skills Facilitating Employability: A Review of the Evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Ismail 
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge and practice, and the impact flipped learning - intertwined with education technology has on engineering education. Result of the study indicates that flipped learning blended with education technology, brings about a highly collaborative and activity-based environment with indirect evidence of: improved academic performance, team-based learning, communication skills and group participation skill, critical thinking, that are important traits for employability. The study also provides empirical evidence about the use of education technology in flipped learning, but is not to the desired levels to offer the intended benefits. Flipped learning offers several challenges to the instructor and the students, but the benefits outweigh the challenges. The future scope for researchers would be to focus on the integration of the in-class and out-of-class activities.
    Keywords: flipped learning; engineering education; education technology.

  • Teaching practical information technology skills through cloud computing services.   Order a copy of this article
    by Washington Luna Encalada, Jose Luis Castillo 
    Abstract: Education is in a constant state of evolution, focused on better educating more students at the lowest possible cost. In this context, the role of online education is fundamental to effectively link content with pedagogical and technological aspects TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge). Cloud computing is influencing education as its adoption becomes more widespread, making it possible for a virtual community to share and collaborate on all kinds of on-demand resources and services with massive, ubiquitous, and open access. In order to teach practical information technology (IT) skills online, such as what occurs in a computer lab on a university campus, we must utilize multiple technological tools that meet new concepts of immersive and global education. In this article, we present a methodological approach to link tools from the three models of cloud computing services, known as: Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), using the five fundamental principles of instruction and contents of information technology studies.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Information Technology; Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge; SaaS; PaaS; IaaS.

  • Applying game based learning at the South African Military Academy: an experimental study   Order a copy of this article
    by Adriaan M.F. Dreyer, Wayne O. Dalton, Nicole Dodd 
    Abstract: The contemporary military environment is characterised by new technologies, advances in computer usage, and a generation of young students who have the expectation that the use of technology within education will increase over the next few years. Research suggests games within education to be a feasible solution for positively supplementing traditional teaching practices, making learning more interactive and enjoyable. Despite this, there is mixed empirical support for the successful use thereof. The aim of this study was to investigate if using Game-Based Learning (GBL) compared to traditional teaching methods when teaching JavaScript to undergraduate Computer Information Systems (CIS) students at the South African Military Academy (MA), would result in statistically significant higher learning gains. A research experiment was conducted to investigate this aim using a sample of 47 (n=47) residential students. Participants were tested on their JavaScript knowledge using a pre- and post-test experimental design. The variables and results in learning gains from the two experimental groupings showed no significant statistical difference, but significant learning gains resulted when compared to the control group.
    Keywords: Game-Based Learning; technology in education; ANOVA; experiment; Military Academy.

  • Time to focus on the temporal dimension of learning: A learning analytics study of the temporal patterns of students interactions and self-regulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Saqr, Jalal Nouri, Uno Fors 
    Abstract: This study included four courses over a full year duration. All the courses were problem-based, each week, students have to work collaboratively on a new online problem, typically in small groups. Interactions were classified according to the source student to two equal groups, as interaction by high and low achievers. The temporality was studied on daily, weekly, course-wise and year wise. The patterns of each group in each period were visually plotted and compared. Correlation with performance was done. Visualizing the activities have highlighted a certain pattern. On the week level, early participation was a consistent predictor of high achievement. This finding was consistent from course to course and during most periods of the year. On an individual course level, high achievers were also likely to participate early and consistently. Using temporality, we were able to predict high achievers with a reasonable accuracy in each course.
    Keywords: Learning analytics; Temporality; Time; Problem Based Learning; collaborative learning; Social network analysis; Self-regulation.

  • Critical Reflections on introducing e-learning within a blended education context   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitris Laskaris, Emmanuel Heretakis, Michail Kalogiannakis, Maria Ampartzaki 
    Abstract: For three consecutive semesters (2014-2016), we conducted an action research project attempting for the first time to introduce in blended education context an e-course, in the Faculty of Communication and Media of Athens University. The first author constructed the e-course by utilising the open source learning management system Moodle, the prototype model of digital learning called Interactive Evaluation that was embodied in the design of the e-course and in the cycles of action research. The third author, whose notes and bibliography of the conventional course have been transformed to meet our social constructionist approach to distance learning, acted as critical friend for the research projects. This paper summarises our answers to the following questions: (1) How have we dealt with the 'expressed' interest of students? (2) What were the critical events that occurred during the course and how have we responded to them? (3) What are the factors that affected students' participation in the various modules of the e-course? Our intention is to explore the ways in which the management of the e-courses has come to interconnect with built pedagogy through the implementation of interactive evaluation.
    Keywords: Action Research; Assessing e-Learning; Evaluation Methods of Digital Learning; Moodle; Case Study; Blended Education.

  • Kuwaiti Female University Students Acceptance of the Integration of Smartphones in their Learning: An Investigation Guided by a Modified Version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)   Order a copy of this article
    by Budour Almisad, Monirah Alsalim 
    Abstract: This study employed a modified and extended version of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to examine female Kuwaiti university students acceptance of the use of smartphones in their learning. A quantitative research method was used. The results show that the great majority of the students used their smartphones on a daily basis and they had more than five years of experience with the use of smartphones. A regression analysis found that the six independent variables explained 46% of the variance in students attitudes toward the use of smartphones to support their learning. However, only four independent variables were individually significant in predicting students attitudes toward the use of smartphones to support their learning. Based on the findings, a set of recommendations related to the use of smartphones to support students learning is provided.
    Keywords: Kuwait; female; smartphone; learning; acceptance; UTAUT; unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

  • Designing and Implementing Constructionist Learning in a Blended Advertising Photography Course   Order a copy of this article
    by Suthin Rojprasert, Jariya Neanchaleay, Surapon Boonlue, Paitoon Sinlarat 
    Abstract: This study involved designing and implementing constructionist learning in an undergraduate advertising photography course. The design and implementation involved face-to-face learning blended with a course application that provided access to online tools such as a Facebook group, Google classroom and Moodle. The first objective involved the creation of a framework to guide the design of constructionist learning in the course. The second objective involved designing learning activities with technology and implementing the learning in the course over a five-week period. The third objective involved measuring students achievement and satisfaction. Results related of the design highlighted the centrality of students artefact creation and of collaborative learning by doing and making. Implications for practice relate to the value of use of new and emerging technologies to engage students not only in active forms of learning but in the production of artefacts of their learning.
    Keywords: Constructionism. Moodle. Facebook. Higher Education. Instructional design.

  • Blended Learning of Physics in the Context of the Professional Development of Teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Lyubov Krasnova, Viktor Shurygin 
    Abstract: In line with the improvement of traditional teaching methods, the new ones are intensively introduced at all levels of education. Usually, these are the methods tied with e-learning. Essentially, teachers must be able and ready to create an innovation-driven learning environment contributing to the effective individualization of the learning process. At the same time, each student should achieve the highest possible outcomes standing behind the personality development. This paper introduces the refresher courses designed for the physics teachers. These courses are based on the blended learning technology combining traditional full-time education with the elements of distance learning supported by LMS Moodle. The courses were tested at the Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University in 2016-2018. This paper describes the module-based course structure and methods for applying the e-learning modules. The distinctive feature of the course is that the content of the learning modules was designed to deliver different methods for teaching physics and to improve the general cultural competence of a teacher. The analysis of polling results (poll included 89 physics teachers) allowed assessing the efficiency of designed courses in the context of teachers professional development, his/her readiness to work in modern learning environment. The research outcomes will be also useful for foreign educational establishments implementing the teacher professional development programs.
    Keywords: learning technologies; distance learning; e-learning; LMS Moodle; physics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2018.10017856
  • Leveraging Learners' Activity Logs for Course Reading Analytics Using Session-Based Indicators   Order a copy of this article
    by Madjid Sadallah, Benoît Encelle, Azze-Eddine Maredj, Yannick Prié 
    Abstract: A challenge that course authors face when reviewing their contents is to detect how to improve their courses in order to meet the expectations of their learners. rnIn this paper, we propose an analytical approach that exploits learners' logs of reading to provide authors with insightful data about the consumption of their courses. rnWe first model reading activity using the concept of reading-session and propose a new and efficient session identification. We then elaborate a list of indicators computed using learners' reading sessions that allow to represent their behaviour and to infer their needs. We evaluate our proposals with course authors and learners using logs from a major e-learning platform. Interesting results were found. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach in identifying aspects and parts of a course that may prevent it from being easily read and understood, and for guiding the authors through the analysis and review tasks.
    Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Web-based interaction; Learning Management Systems (LMS); Learning analytics; Reading monitoring; Reading indicators; Revisions; Web log mining; Reading sessions; Session identification.

  • Toward Enhancing Collaborative Learning Groups Formation in Q&A Website Using Tag-based Next Questions Predictor   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammadsadegh Rezaei, Hossein Bobarshad, Kambiz Badie 
    Abstract: The advent of informal social learning environment has provided the necessary platform for realizing of lifelong learning. The basic platform of learning in an informal environment is the learning groups called online Community of Practice (oCoP). This study proposes a predictor for predicting the topics that most suitable for the formation of oCoPs for the users adopting the roles of co-learner and mentor in a shared domain perspective. Proposed predictor operates based on Naive Bayes prediction and collaborative filtering and uses educational social tags for realizing the learners roles and behavior. The predictor is evaluated with the dataset of the website StackOverflow. The results show that the proposed predictor can predict the next question of learners with high accuracy. Therefore, the system can facilitate the formation of suitable learning groups around the predicted users interest topics.
    Keywords: Social Learning Network; Q&A website; Online community of practice; Informal learning; Learning topic prediction; Collaborative filtering; Collaborative Learning; Educational social tag.

  • Impact of used programming language for K-12 students understanding of the loop concept   Order a copy of this article
    by Monika Mladenović, Saša Mladenović, Žana Žanko 
    Abstract: Block-based programming languages are becoming a favourite learning tool for programming novices while the traditional way of teaching programming mostly uses text-based programming languages. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of used visual and textual programming languages on K-12 students understanding of the loop concept. Participants were 312 elementary school students from 5th to 8th grade using visual programming language Scratch (n=59), and textual programming languages Logo (n=185) and Python (n=68). Tests for all languages were equivalent, differing only in the used programming language. Results showed that students achieved statistically significant higher scores when using block-based programming language compared to students using textual programming languages. These results show that K-12 students need concrete experience to understand abstract concepts, as the loop concept, which Scratch as a block-based programming language provides.
    Keywords: programming; loop; elementary school; Scratch; text-based programming languages.

    by Eliza Sharma 
    Abstract: Current study aims to develop an ICT adoption model based on the perceived awareness, perceived usefulness and intention to use ICT. Researcher has measured the opinions of the telecom users towards ICT using a well-structured questionnaire, distributed to 1080 telecom users equally from rural and urban areas of the North and Central India. It was found from the study that the ICT is useful for acquiring information, entertainment, safety and security, maintaining e-repository, managing digital money & payments and for skill or knowledge enhancement. ICT adoption model developed in the study suggests that perceived awareness and perceived usefulness both are significant predictors of the intention to use ICT. Further, the model shows that the area and generation gap both are significant predictors of the ICT adoption. The study is limited to telecom users only and geographical area of the survey is limited to North and Central India.
    Keywords: Information and Communication Technology; Perceived Awareness; Perceived Usefulness; Generation Gap; Residential Area; Information; Digital Money and Payments; Telecom Users; Mobile Value Added Services; North India; Central India; Internet; Technology Adoption Model; Knowledge & Skills; E-Repository and Entertainment.

  • Role of Technology in Science Classrooms: An Exploratory Study of Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Zeeshan Iqbal, Aisha Sami 
    Abstract: Knowledge of science has its own demanding place in the current competitive world. Students have shown lack of interest and sufficient knowledge about the science subjects including Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Multimedia audio-visual aids play an important role in enhancing the classroom learning. Even though, these multimedia audio-visual aids are not being fully utilized in Pakistani education system. This study was conducted to illustrate the importance of using multimedia audio-visual aids in the classrooms especially during teaching physics, chemistry and biology at secondary schools of Pakistan. The researchers employed purposive sampling technique for this study and the sample size was 240 students. Primary data was collected by using observation method and conducting interviews. Collected data were analysed by using both quantitative and qualitative data analyse methods and presented in a descriptive way. Findings revealed that using multimedia audio-visual aids in the classrooms is an effective strategy that makes students active, maintains a high level of interest in the lesson and encourages students to participate in the classrooms and thus leads towards better learning.
    Keywords: Technology; Audio-Visual Aids; Education; Secondary Schools; Pakistan.

  • Evaluating a game-development approach to teach introductory programming concepts in Secondary Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Stamatios Papadakis 
    Abstract: Due to the development of multimedia and computer technologies, many scholars have attempted to employ digital learning content to improve students\' learning motivation and learning achievement in CS courses. In this pedagogical design, students interact and create their own content related to curricular areas with several advantages, such as motivation, fun, commitment, and enthusiasm, showing improvements related to computational thinking and computational practices. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the combined use of App Inventor and a game-development approach in school lessons, as an example of constructionist learning in an introductory programming course for novices. This study was conducted in a public secondary school in Greece. It used a quasi- experimental control group design. The results of the study showed that the combined use of App Inventor programming environment and a game development approach has a positive effect on students\' basic programming skills achievements and motivation in a CS course.
    Keywords: Novice programmers; Secondary education; App Inventor; game development approach.

  • Game Based Learning Approach to Improve Self-Learning Motivated Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Akour, Hiba Alsghaier, Samah Diabat 
    Abstract: some of the best educational apps have been created to serve as an additional resource for students participating in more structured education programs .Our project aims to provide self-motivated students with options for learning in gaming environment. The proposed application allow students to ask and answer questions, answering more and more questions will allow the student to get higher level and marked with some distinguished badges. The application aims to achieve 6 main attractive factors studied by conducting a survey distributed to 90 students to ensure that the mobile game learning enhance the educational skills for the students rather than the traditional teaching. Hence, we are studying students college attitude as they represent a sample of Yarmouk University during Fall 2017/2018 semester. The results show that our developed application provides students with a friendly educational mobile application, provide an entertainment educational environment, provide rich database that contain diverse courses questions and answers and enhance students learning skills.
    Keywords: Mobile Application; Smart Education; Game educational Style; M-learning.

  • Behavioural intention of Pacific Island pre-service teachers to use digital portfolios   Order a copy of this article
    by C.A. DeCoursey, P.I. Perkins 
    Abstract: The behavioural intention (BI) to use a new digital affordance remains a challenge in twenty-first century life. As teachers introduce youth to new technologies, their attitudes are significant. The theories and instruments for assessing this intention reflect western contexts. Pre-service teachers in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) face developing-world challenges when learning to use conventional digital tools such as portfolios. This study used content and Appraisal analysis to identify frequently-realised themes and attitudes in the writing of pre-service teachers across one semester. Results show that attitudes were increasingly positive, but the portfolio task was still perceived as complex at the end of the semester. Frequently-realised themes, and positive co-frequencies between subunits and attitudes, showed that participants found performance expectancy high. But they felt that the effort required also remained high, indicating that one semesters use is not sufficient to achieve BI, for portfolios, in developing world contexts.
    Keywords: Republic of the Marshall Islands; Pacific Islands; teacher education; portfolio; computer self-efficacy; behavioural intention; content analysis; Appraisal analysis; developing world education; colonialism.

  • Acceptance of Learning Management System in University Students: An integrating framework of Modified UTAUT2 and TTF Theories   Order a copy of this article
    by Arshian Sharif, Sahar Afshan, Muhammad Asif Qureshi 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the unused (behavioural and technological) scopes of learning management system acceptance by succeeding an extra inclusive method to address learning management intention adoption. CFA and SEM analyses have been used to examine the data gathered from university students. The study attempts to investigate the part of technological variables in explaining behavioural intention of individuals to adopt learning management by integrating two pre-established frameworks of UTAUT2 (modified) and TTF. The empirical outcomes proven the significant impact of task (TAC) and technology characteristics (TEC) in simplifying task technology fit (TTF). The outcomes of this study also support the significant relationship of task technology fit (TTF) and facilitating condition (FC) with intention to adopt learning management system. The current study offers an allinclusive method to explain the acceptance of learning management system by joining two recognised theories of technology acceptance. The strength of current study is based on combining behavioural and technological features of learning management system. The explanatory power of our research model suggests the very best explanatory power that described 60.1% of the behavioural intention to adopt learning management.
    Keywords: UTAUT2; learning value; learning management system; e-learning; TTF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2018.10017608
  • Evaluation of e-learning system on higher education institutions in KSA: a survey at Saudi Electronic University   Order a copy of this article
    by Slim Hadoussa 
    Abstract: A review on previous e-learning research suggests a focused evaluation approach to measure the success of the system and its contribution to knowledge share in educational institutions. This paper provides an empirical test of e-learning system success model in the context of higher education in Saudi Arabia. The research examines the effects of the e-learning system at Saudi Electronic University on knowledge management, by analysing the relationships between the system use and knowledge transfer through DeLone and McLean IS model (2003). The quantitative study was done by administering the survey to 300 students and we obtain 196 effective responses. Applying Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method, the results show the significant effects of system quality, information quality and service quality on e-learning system use and user satisfaction. Thus, the educational tool use and user satisfaction have a positive impact on net benefits in terms of knowledge share, transfer, learning and achieving educational goals.
    Keywords: e-learning system; knowledge; Higher Education; Saudi Electronic University; SEM Method.

  • Motivating Teachers to Use Information Technology in Educational Process within Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Almutairi, Adnan Gutub, Nouf Awad Al-Juaid 
    Abstract: This study seeks specific strategies to motivate teachers within Saudi Arabia to use Information Technology (IT) in the educational process. The work evaluated using IT considering particular concerns within the Saudi region. It, then, suggests the possible tuning strategies making teachers motivated to adopt IT in their educational job. The research surveys 100 different schools to identifying the impact of using IT on the students, teachers, principals, and students' parents. The surveys are build utilizing different paragraphs specifically designed according to the region situations as well as group categorization, i.e. of students, teachers, principals and parents. The research questionnaires of every category have been distributed and completed electronically by more than 10,000 users within schools of Saudi Arabia. The study used the statistics to show the expected IT impact on the educational process including the administrative influence as well as student family life. The work used means and standard deviations to analyse the results and build specific recommendations geared toward teachers' motivation. The study proved specific urgency for improvement tuning need within the schooling system. Its main advises are found urgently essential to be considered in order to motivate the teachers via specific strategies leading to interesting educational improvements.
    Keywords: Educational process; Technology integration; Information Technology (IT); Training teachers.

    by Prince Y.O. Amoako, Isaac Osunmakinde 
    Abstract: Authentication plays a significant role in security during the non-venue-based examination, as it verifies the identity of online students. Existing authentication techniques have not yet provided an optimal cheating-free, non-venue-based assessment. This research proposes an emerging biometrics technology model of facial recognition and keystroke dynamics (FRAKD) to minimise the problems of malpractice during examinations significantly. Detailed experiments conducted on the Moodle learning management system (LMS), using a client-server platform of 100 diverse students who were captured as a positive data set, produced an average recognition rate of 85%, while for 20 imposter students, an average rejection rate of 93% was realised. When benchmarked with related solutions, this result shows that using the FRAKD biometrics model in non-venue-based assessment demonstrates reliable security and minimises impersonation more than state-of-the-art practices such as portfolio-based distance assessment without supervision. This improved solution will obviously have great value for ODeL institutions and examination bodies.
    Keywords: Emerging technology; distance learning; agent; authentication; biometrics; learning management system; security; assessment.

  • Enhancing Modern Greek Teaching with Android Programming!
    by Vaios Papaioannou, Argyroula Alexandropoulou, Georgia Pierrou 
    Abstract: The wide range of education curricula in the subjects of Secondary - high school - Education in conjunction with the suffocating timeframe that is defined by the instructions for the teaching courses, which is dictated by the competent Ministry each school year, as well as the “encumbrance” of teachers belonging to different specialties in their own “scientific environment”, often act as a deterrent to the development of didactic collaborations between different disciplines and consequently to the holistic educational approach to knowledge. The aim of the present work is to develop students' programming skills using as a motivation a Theoretical subject, that is Modern Greek Literature, namely N. Vrettakos' poem “The Child with the Matches” and vice versa. Through the designed interdisciplinary educational approach, it is expected to awaken the interest of students who are indifferent to theoretical lessons, as well as to solve in a substantial way the problems that beginners encounter in learning programming.
    Keywords: modern Greek, informatics, interdisciplinary educational approach, computer programming, android, app inventor, experiential learning