International Journal of Society Systems Science (10 papers in press)
INFLUENCE OF POLICE STATIONS LOCATION ON CRIME INCIDENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LIKE NIGERIA
by Banji Owabumoye, Olayinka Ajala
Abstract: Studies on crime incidence believed that presence of police station in an area could reduce crime incidence. Without spatially based study, it might be erroneous to agree with their belief. This study was to ascertain or otherwise of this belief. Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used to analyze both primary and secondary data acquired in the study area Akure; Southwestern Nigeria. It was shown that crime incidence continued to increase as distance from police stations increased and started to decrease as distance increased to 2 kilometers due to reduction in police coverage. Also, the results showed that there was clustered pattern of crime, the clustering was located at the central part of the study area where the police stations are located. The study concluded that spatial distribution of police stations could influence the pattern of crime incidence in cities.
Keywords: Akure; Cities; Coldspot; Crime incidence; Geographical Information System (GIS); Hotspot; Insecurity; Location; Nigeria; Police Station.
Messaging Techniques (MPI) in Grid Environment: A Survey
by Mansour Esmaeilpour
Abstract: The newfangled phenomenon of Grid, meaning to share the heterogeneous calculative sources and data between the independent organizations which are geographically disjoined, nowadays has been considered as a vital technology for applying the programs with a high level of functioning. Grid functional programs usually need a great volume of distributed data or calculative sources for applying which doesn`t usually exist in a single organization. Nevertheless, due to the existence of the heterogeneous sources and the dynamic nature of Grid, reaching a high level of functioning in this environment is so difficult. Several methods have been offered for programming in Grid, such as: programming by the basic technology of Grid (using the web services), using the prevalent technology in distributed programming meaning message exchange in Grid environment and promoting the programming languages parallel to the present high level for using in Grid. Using MPI can`t be considered a high level programming language , because the programmers should perform complicated acts like sharing works between different processes and contact them by themselves . Regarding the Grid environment`s being heterogeneous and dynamic performing, these acts are not easy at all. In conclusion we need programming models at higher levels which conceal the complication of Grid environment from the view of the programmer. Applying a MPI functional program on calculative Grids needs fault tolerance and designing a middleware which conceals the nodes` being dynamic in Grid for the programmer. Applying the functional programs under Grid is extremely susceptible of errors. So in this article all the methods of tolerance including diagnosing the fault and improving the fault have been surveyed as a key feature in grid contexts.
Keywords: Grid; Distributed computing; MPI; fault toleranc.
THE EFFECT OF BAD ROAD ON CRIME REPORTAGE IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA: AKURE
by Banji Owabumoye, Olayinka Ajala
Abstract: This study examined the impact of roads conditions (good and or bad) on reduction of crime reportage by t to the police in Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. Coordinate points of crime scenes and information from key informants were the primary data. Secondary data used were administrative map and SPOT 6 satellite imagery. The results revealed that roads that were good or fair were found at the central part of the study area while roads that were bad were found towards the outskirts. Crime incidences were highly significant in areas where good roads were and insignificant in areas where bad roads were. This implied that victims were able to report crime incidence to police quickly and police were able to respond to distress call and thereby to high rate of apprehension of offenders in areas with good roadspatrol areas with good roads frequently. While opposite is the situation in areas with bad roads. The study concluded that governments at all levels in Nigeria (federal, state and Local Governments) need to do more in road reconstruction and rehabilitation to help security agencies to perform better.. Inversely, victims were unable to report to police quickly in areas with bad roads, this contributed to low crime reportage and low rate of offenders' apprehension in these areas.
Keywords: Akure; Coldspot; Crime; Geodatabase; Geographic Information System (GIS); Hotspot; Nigeria; Accessibility; Police; Remote Sensing; Road.
Qualitative Data Analysis and its Nature: Debates and Discussion
by Pratap Chandra Mandal
Abstract: Qualitative data analysis (QDA) involves data collection and data analysis which comprises of coding, sorting, and sifting of qualitative data. QDA involves a style of data collection and analysis which is considered as non-scientific by some critics. It is believed that this challenges or weakens the robustness and the reliability of qualitative research. Critics frequently ignore the extraordinary set of strengths and potentiality that QDA has in the field of social science research. This paper aims to address this debate by analyzing the nature and quality of the methods employed in qualitative research. It analyzes and evaluates the different approaches and perspectives of QDA. The paper argues and establishes that QDA has significantly broader perspectives and research capacity, and involves more than coding, sorting, and sifting of qualitative data.
Keywords: qualitative data analysis; coding; sorting; sifting.
Discovering the optimal set of ratios to use in accounting-based models
by Duarte Trigueiros, Carolina Sam
Abstract: Ratios are the prime tool of financial analysis. In predictive modelling tasks, however, the use of ratios raises difficulties, the most obvious being that, in arnmultivariate setting, there is no guarantee that the collection of ratios eventually selected as predictors will be optimal in any sense. Using, as starting-point, a formal characterization of cross-sectional accounting numbers, the paper shows how the Multilayer Perceptron can be trained to create internal representations which are an optimal set of ratios for a given modelling task. Experiments suggest that, when such ratios are utilised as predictors in well-known modelling tasks, performance improves on that reported by the extant literature.
Keywords: knowledge extraction; financial analysis; financial ratios; financial technology; fintech; accounting models; bankruptcy prediction; financial misstatement detection; earnings forecasting.
Comparison of regimes of policies for urban development: a social welfare approach
by Shih-Kung Lai, Ching-Pin Chiu
Abstract: Tit for Tat is normally conceived of as being a winner that enhances the personal well-being among interactive strategies in the setting of repeated prisoner's dilemma games. Here we prove deductively that, under some conditions, Tit for Tat also outperforms other commonly adopted strategies in terms of enhancing the social welfare, the total of the personal well-beings. The implication is that we might want to seek better interactive strategies, or policies, that contribute most not only to the personal well-being, but also to the social welfare as well. Explanations can be drawn from this analysis on why zoning of a land control measure gives rise to mixed use in urban development.
Keywords: game theory; Tit for Tat; TFT; prisoner's dilemma; policies; zoning.
Factors affecting long-term economic growth-consistency and stability by soft regression estimation
by Eli Shnaider, Arthur Yosef, Nava Haruvy
Abstract: This study demonstrates a challenge of building and validating a model of factors associated with long-term economic success of economies, as reflected by measures of their aggregate value of output/income per capita. We use two quantitative modelling techniques including multiple linear regression (MLR) and a newer technique of soft regression, a modelling tool based on fuzzy information processing technology. The objective of this study is to test and compare the two information-processing tools to find the more reliable and potentially helpful tool for policy decision making. The conclusions of this study are: 1) the soft regression tool generated more consistent and comprehensible results in comparison to the MLR method; 2) based on soft regression tool, the model displayed solid stability over extensive period under study; 3) based on MLR method, we could interpret the results as supporting the validity of the model; however, some of the results were contradictory, thus undermining the reliability of conclusions.
Keywords: multiple linear regression; MLR; soft regression; fuzzy information processing; economic growth; international competitiveness.
Population size and urban health advantage: scaling analyses of four major diseases for 417 US counties
by SungSup Brian Choi, Yong Joo Lee, Yu Sang Chang
Abstract: In order to test the validity of urban health penalty versus urban health advantage, we have selected four major non-communicable diseases, cancer, circulatory, respiratory, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic (ENM), to determine their scaling relationship between death counts and population size for nearly 400 large urban counties in the US during 1999 to 2010. We discover that there is a super-linear scaling relationship for the total counties for each of the four diseases categories, indicating urban health penalty. However, the results from our analysis by the subgroups of counties with different population sizes yield a U-shaped scaling curve where the most pronounced sub-linear relationship occurs at the subgroup of top 40 most populous counties. In short, both super-linear and sub-linear scaling relationships are observed depending on the subgroups with varying population sizes. Incorporating additional control variables do not materially alter our findings.
Keywords: urban health penalty; urban health advantage; super-linearity; sub-linearity; scaling relationship.
Assessment of fuel choices in a hilly region of Uttarakhand, India
by Rajni Dhyani, Niraj Sharma
Abstract: In India, nearly 86% of rural households use biomass for cooking. Easy availability of fuel wood and prolonged winters increases its amount and usage in hilly regions. In the present study, to identify the current status of fuel consumption pattern of rural areas in a hilly region, three villages namely Naugaon, Mawana and Kota from the Pauri district of Uttarakhand were selected. A questionnaire was prepared comprising of queries related to socio-economic status, choice of fuels for cooking, health and social awareness among women. Estimation and comparison between greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of LPG and fuel wood were made. It was observed that monthly expenditure on LPG and fuel wood use per household was almost similar. The biomass energy is the fuel of choice in the region as sustainable fuel type. The fuel choices in rural and hilly regions of developing countries have also been discussed in brief.
Keywords: hilly region; fuel wood; indoor air quality; health impacts; socio-economic factors; forest management; India.
Performance in stock transactions by gender: an application with quantile regression models
by Robson Braga, Luis Paulo Lopes Fávero, Talles Vianna Brugni, Joanilia Neide De Sales Cia
Abstract: Our study tries to identify if there are performance differences between men and women in stock investment decisions. We use experimental methodology and count on the participation of 1,050 volunteers who took decisions in virtual environment, similar to a real online home broker for stock trading. Through quantile regression models, we have found evidence that women get results lower than men when decisions involve gains when decisions involve losses, women lose as much as men. These results demonstrate behavioural biases associated with disposition and endowment effects, as well as aspects related to loss aversion. As a result, we present a contribution on the field of behavioural finance, especially on the literature of gender diversity, which presents a controversial debate in several studies.
Keywords: investment behaviour; investment decisions; gender diversity; quantile regression; stock trading platform.