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International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing

 

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International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing (30 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Design and development of customized split insole using additive manufacturing technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Sivakumar Ganesan, Rajesh Ranganathan 
    Abstract: Medical researchers are seeking innovative manufacturing methods to produce health care products alike; prosthetics, implants, diabetic foot care product, etc., faster and more accurately. This research focuses on exploring the current technical challenges and provides a unique solution through additive manufacturing method in the development of customized split insole. Custom foot insole is developed by considering the essential anatomical study on bio-mechanics, anthropometric data of the human foot, gait analysis and plantar pressure. A new product custom body fitted product was developed considering the various mechanical and human parameters and the results are discussed with the possible improvements that the developed insoles have provided. The developed insole increases contact area and redistributes average peak plantar pressure, reduces at Zones 2 and 3 by 27.78 % and 76.92% respectively. This research work provides the methodology to manufacture a customized split insole using an additive manufacturing technique.
    Keywords: Anthropometry; foot biomechanics; plantar pressure and 3D Printing /additive manufacturing.

  • Trends of Machine Learning in Additive Manufacturing   Order a copy of this article
    by Felix Baumann, André Sekulla, Michael Hassler, Benjamin Himpel, Markus Pfeil 
    Abstract: In this work, the influence on and application of Machine Learning tornthe domain of Additive Manufacturing or synonymously 3D printing is reviewed.rnExisting literature is identified by a literature search and grouped according to its application in 3D printing. We provide insight into this research and thernpotential of Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and other related computationalrnlearning methods on Additive Manufacturing and its potential future developmentrnand embedding, such as Cloud Manufacturing or Industry 4.0. The applicationrnof Machine Learning is discussed to aid solving numerous problems fromrnAdditive Manufacturing, such as process control, process monitoring, and qualityrnenhancement of manufactured objects. Furthermore, literature covering therngeneralities of the intersection of Additive Manufacturing and Machine Learning,rnreviews and future research questions are identified and presented herein. Thisrnwork provides an overview of the benefits and drawbacks of combining AdditivernManufacturing with Machine Learning.
    Keywords: Survey; Review; Additive Manufacturing; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Artificial Neural Network.

  • Adopting Additive-Hybrid Manufacturing: The Role of Capacity in Implementation Decision   Order a copy of this article
    by Danielle Strong, Michael Kay, Tom Wakefield, Issariya Sirichakwal, Brett Conner, Guha Manogharan 
    Abstract: The integration of Additive Manufacturing (AM) with traditional manufacturing methods (e.g. machining) into hybrid manufacturing has increased the potential uses of AM in the manufacturing industry. This paper explores the role of production resources in a traditional manufacturing facility and economic effects on the adoption of AM via hybrid manufacturing. The motivation for this study stems from the growing interest among traditional manufacturing firms to offer post-processing AM parts as hybrid manufacturing services and the unknown risks associated with such implementation. A price competition model is used to analyze the effects of introducing hybrid manufacturing on the market structure of a standard product with regard to prices, quantities, and profits. Numerical results show that for products manufactured in a resource constrained environment, an adoption of hybrid manufacturing into one firms portfolio, in addition to improving its own profitability, may potentially improve the profitability of its competitor who chooses not to adopt hybrid manufacturing. An adoption in two firms may indirectly benefit the first firm that adopts hybrid AM due to collectively decreased resource availability. Firms can use this price competition model to help with decision making and strategizing, whether they wish to be the first in the market to offer hybrid-AM services or to compete with firms already offering such services.
    Keywords: Hybrid Manufacturing; Additive Manufacturing; Bertrand Competition; Supply Chain; Manufacturing Flexibility; Resource Constraints.

  • Design and Development of a prosthetic leg for an amputated peacock using additive manufacturing   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Ranganathan, Pradeep Mohan S K, Arivazhagan Pugalendhi, Sivasankar Arumugam 
    Abstract: Prosthetics is widely seen as an option for static and dynamic situations, in this work an attempt was made in developing prosthetic product for static, dynamic and for flight mode. Following a deep understanding on the current load bearing and dynamic abilities, this work proposed to design and fabricate a prosthetic leg for an amputated peacock. The bird could not mobilize much due to wrecked leg. To overcome, computational design and additive manufacturing are adopted to fabricate the prosthetic leg. The combinations of Clay mould casting, 3D scanner, haptic arm device and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) are employed to design, fabricate and install the prosthetic body part. The ultimate tensile stress of the Prosthetic leg is 0.1811 MPa and the compressive stress of the assembly is 10.806MPa is less compared to the actual requirements. The final weight of the prosthetic leg is 85 grams that aid in mobility of the peacock. Upon, utilizing the prosthetic leg, the peacock is able to undergo its static, dynamic and flight modes of mobility. This work provides the knowledge about the development of healthcare products for birds with the application of additive manufacturing technology. This is along with the potential application of engineering design for development of prosthetic products.
    Keywords: Additive Manufacturing (AM); Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM); ABS; Prosthetic Limb; amputation.

  • Finite Element Analysis of the Stress and Strain Patterns in Pyramidal Hopper   Order a copy of this article
    by T. Sathish, R. Jayarajeswaran, S. Karthick 
    Abstract: An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) device is used mainly for particulate collection, which removes the particles present in the flowing gas. This precipitator uses the principle of induced electrostatic charge force. Here, two electrodes is used for carrying out the precipitation process, where one is a collector and other is an emitter. The ashes or the dust collected from the gases is collected at a hopper, which contains electric heaters at its bottom. This avoids moisture condensation that may lead to clogging of the hoppers. To avoid effectively the moisture condensation, pyramidal hopper with specific angle is designed. The main aim of this paper is to study the optimization of a 1/3rdpyramidal hopper plate. The modeling is carried out with pro-e and the analysis is carried out with Ansys simulation tool. Here, the optimization is carried out in the form of a standardized model and that reduces the efforts for design. The pyramidal hopper is optimized with the help of channel elimination and increasing the plate thickness that improves the plate stiffness. The valley angle of the hopper is kept at 55 degree that facilitates the free fall of the dust inside the hopper from the precipitator. The simulation experiments prove that the proposed design is good enough to carry the stress and strain during the exhaust process.
    Keywords: Electrostatic Precipitator; Pyramidal Hopper; Simulation design; Moisture condensation and Clogging.

  • Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Al6061 Composites and its Prediction Using KNN-ALO Algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Thirumoorthy, T.V. Arjunan, K.L. Senthil Kumar 
    Abstract: Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) are widely practicing material for improving the surface property. Stir casting is one of the most straightforward processes of manufacturing MMC and attains higher advantages on material processing cost, more comfortable handling of material, size, design and excellent stability of matrix structure. In this research work, MMC of Al6061 with blended MgO and Si3N4 composite mixtures is produced using stir casting process. One of the factors affecting the material homogeneity in the casted material is the tensile rupture, where the proposed composite material subjected to tensile stress and yielding. The structural property of the material tested under Universal Testing Machine and Brinell hardness tester. This paper proposes a novel hybrid approach to evaluate the tensile property of composites. The prediction of the tensile property of the MMC performed by the K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm (KNN) and Ant Lion Optimization (ALO) algorithm, which is numerically modelled and experimented in the running platform of MATLAB and compared with Decision Tree (DT) classifier algorithm for better performance outcome. Predicted test results show that the proposed KNN-ALO is an efficient method for predicting the tensile and hardness properties of stir cast aluminium composites.
    Keywords: Metal Matrix Composites; Stir Casting; Tensile Strength; Brinell Hardness; K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm.

  • Fabrication and micro-hardness properties of nano-Al2O3 reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite by Field-assisted sintering technique (FAST)/Spark plasma sintering (SPS) Processing Route.   Order a copy of this article
    by Pranav Dev Srivyas, M.S. Charoo 
    Abstract: Aluminum metal matrix composites are the advanced composites materials which are developed using different micro/nano reinforcements and metal matrix. The reinforcement may be ceramic or any other material which provides outstanding properties to those composite materials for various structural and functional applications. In this research work spark plasma sintering fabrication route was used for consolidation of pre-alloyed Al-Si alloy reinforced with different concentration of nano-Al2O3 i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt%. The powder was ball milled in high energy planetary ball mill for 12 hours and then the fabrication was done at the optimum temperature of 450˚c with heating rate of 100˚c/min at normal loading pressure of 50 MPa and holding time of 10 min. SEM, EDS, XRD and Optical Microscopy was done for micro-structural analysis of the powder and the sample. Density measurement and micro-hardness of the sintered samples were also done using digital densimeter and micro-hardness tester respectively. It is concluded that the FAST/SPS fabrication route is an outstanding technique for the processing of aluminum matrix composites with better properties.
    Keywords: SPARK PLASMA SINTERING (SPS); MECHANICAL ALLOYING (MA); MICRO-HARDNESS; REINFORCEMENT.

  • Effect of hardness and CNC milling roughness behaviour of A6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with TiC metal matrix composite   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Alagarsamy, M. Kathiresan 
    Abstract: Titanium Carbide (TiC) is added to Aluminium Alloy (Al6061) with various weight proportion of 3%, 6% and 9% using stir casting method. This work investigates hardness and CNC milling surface roughness for three different weight proportion of AA6061 Metal Matrix Composite with 3%, 6% & 9% of TiC. CNC milling operation is carried out with the cutting speed 75 m/min, 85 m/min, 105 m/min (2500, 3000, 3500 rpm), feed rate (0.3, 0.7, 0.9 mm/rev) and constant depth of cut (0.1mm) for the 10 mm slot in three places and it average roughness value were calculated. Finally it is concluded that the result not only the cutting parameters are given the minimum value, but percentage of material contribution also inovlved in surface roughness value indicated by the experimental result. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX) spectrum also crried out for the AA6061alloy and other 3% TiC with AA6061 composite.
    Keywords: MMC; Hardness; Surface Roughness; SEM.

  • Surface Modification of AZ61 Magnesium alloy with nano-Al2O3 using Laser Cladding Technique: Optimization of wear properties through Hybrid GRA-PCA   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Sundaraselvan, N. Senthilkumar 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate the wear behaviour of surface modified AZ61 Magnesium alloy with nanoceramic reinforcement (Al2O3), done by laser cladding technique. Nano Al2O3 is added in three different weight proportions viz., 5%, 10% and 15% on to the surface of AZ61 using Nd:YAG laser. Dry sliding wear behaviour of the surface modified AZ61 material is studied considering various reinforcement of nanoceramic particles and by varying the speed and axial load in the pin-on-disc apparatus. Experiments were designed using Taguchis design of experiments and the measured outputs viz., wear, coefficient of friction and frictional force were analyzed using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for multi-variate optimization by calculating multi-response performance index (MRPI). Using SEM image, distribution of particles in the magnesium alloy matrix is studied. It is observed that the % reinforcement of nanoceramic particles on the surface of AZ61 alloy is the most critical factor that contributes by 79.30% towards the MRPI, followed by 9.91% contribution by load and speed by 7.94%, as determined from Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). From confirmation experiment, the optimized condition shows an improved wear resistance obtained from the surface modified magnesium alloy.
    Keywords: AZ 61 Magnesium alloy; Laser Cladding; Grey Relational Analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Pin-on-disc.

  • Soft computational modeling and regression analysis for thermal properties of nanofluids   Order a copy of this article
    by Kavitha Sridhar, P. C. Mukesh Kumar 
    Abstract: An emerging feature of nanofluids is thermo physical properties, which leads to develop an enormous applications in various fields. The enhancement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids, induce to use as an engine coolant in air conditioning, automobile radiators and in refrigeration. Thermal properties of nanofluids were found by experimental models and by various mathematical models. There is no accordance between these two models. To ease the process of prediction and for better accuracy soft computing tools were utilized. To enhance accurate prediction, various machine learning algorithms were used. In this paper to predict the thermal conductivity ratio of CNT/H2O, Gaussian process regression (GPR) methods with different kernel functions otherwise called as co-variance functions were proposed. The predictions were evaluated by various evaluation criterion. The present modeling has been carried out using MATLAB 2017 b. Among all other kernel functions, squared exponential co-variance function, rational quadratic co-variance function possesses accurate prediction and good generalization behavior. To optimize the proposed GPR model, hyper parameters were used. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value of squared exponential co-variance function with hyper parameter is 0.014926, and Regression coefficient value (R2) for overall data is 0.98. The prediction of thermal conductivity ratio values by using GPR model and the experimental values possess very good agreement between them. GPR model with fewer data set, possess generalization behavior, accurate prediction and low computational complexity. The outcome of the predicted model will reduce the experimental test runs and ease to predict the thermal conductivity ratio of nanofluids and helps to increase the usage of it in various fields especially in automotive sector.
    Keywords: Nanofluids;thermal conductivity;soft computation;gaussian process regression; co-variance function.

  • Experimental investigations on optimization of parameters to produce W-TiC composites using powder metallurgy route   Order a copy of this article
    by SUKUMAR SELVARAJ, ELATHARASAN G 
    Abstract: In this research work, the effect of Titanium Carbide (TiC) in Tungsten (W) matrix to be analyzed. The W matrix composites contain different weight percentage (0, 4 & 8) TiC particles were produced by ball milling and powder metallurgy methods. The required quantity of powders were milled and compacted in a hydraulic press with a suitable punch and die. The sintering was done at a temperature of 1400
    Keywords: Microstructure; Ball milling; Sintering; Powder metallurgy; Taguchi analysis.

  • Krill Herd Based Optimal Neural Network (KHNN) For Analyzing Safety and Quality Performance at Construction Site   Order a copy of this article
    by Balamurugan S. 
    Abstract: In construction exertion, an organization's capacity to convey a quality item in a protected way is the way to business achievement. In order to better comprehend what adds to productive quality and safety programs in construction. The vast majority of the researchers have focused on examining optimization models to create optimal construction site format offered inspired algorithms. In this paper analyzed the safety measures in a construction site for high-quality. Here two distinctive soft computing methodologies are Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and optimization model. This expectation investigation considers two distinct parameters like reworkers and defects in a construction site. For improving the performance enhance hidden layer and neurons in ANN structure utilizing Krill herd optimization strategy so the proposed model as Krill Heard Neural Network (KHNN). From this examination get least Mean Square Error (MSE) and maximum accuracy as 88, 95.26% compared with our existing techniques.
    Keywords: Construction; safety; neural network; optimization.

  • ANALYSIS OF COMPLIANT DAMPER AND ITS EFFECT ON TURNING OPERATION FOR IMPROVING SURFACE QUALITY   Order a copy of this article
    by G.SATHYAPRIYA GANESAN, U.NATARAJAN  
    Abstract: This article investigates the parameters affecting the roughness of surfaces produced during turning operation using a vibration isolating compliant damper. The vibration is considered to be a major challenge in the production industry while deciding the optimum machining parameters. The use of compliant damper is more economical in vibration isolation compared to the conventional dampers. To avail the best result, an appropriate optimization technique may be used. However, it is the designing of damper that makes it critical such that no specific procedure or formulation has been identified. In this work, several approaches were made in the design stage itself and the model with the significant vibration absorption capacity was manufactured. The very reason where a compliant damper can be utilised in order to reduce this unnecessary vibration and improves the surface texture of the finished product. The experimental results were analysed for the importance of compliant damper and the influence of machining vibration in product quality. A significant reduction of about 18% of vibration and 47% of surface roughness was observed when using compliant damper made of mild steel material. rnrn
    Keywords: Keywords: Complaint damper; vibration reduction; surface roughness; machining parameters; response surface analysis.

  • Analysis of Mechanical and micro structural property of Aluminium metal matrix (LM25) composite hybrid with Nano silicon carbide and Nano alumina as reinforcement particles.   Order a copy of this article
    by DEEPAK ARAVIND V, Gopal P, Viswanathan A 
    Abstract: The effect of reinforcement of Silicon Carbide Nano Particle (SiCnp) and Nano Alumina Particle (Al2O3np) in base matrix composite of Aluminium (LM25) alloy is studied. By using stir casting method the hybrid Aluminium Metal matrix Nano Composite Samples (AMNC) are made. The addition of nano particles in a base matrix increases the strength compared to Pure LM25 Aluminium alloy. The distributions of reinforcement particles are evident in the EDAX and SEM analysis. Both the density test and compression test results of AMNC samples are compared with the pure LM25 Aluminium alloy. The result suggests that Sample 3 of AMNC is having high density and compression strength when compared to other two AMNC samples and Pure Sample. By increasing the percentage of reinforcements in matrix phase influences the increase in their mechanical properties. Aluminium matrix based nano composites (AMNC) having high density, Compression strength and wear resistance than pure Aluminium. Particularly LM25 based Aluminium series. The above results indicates that the AMNC have excellent corrosion resistance and good fluidity but limited strength in high temperature. Now a days LM25 based AMNC samples are widely used in aerospace and automobile industries due to its good mechanical properties, better corrosion resistance, high specific strength and low thermal co-efficient of expansion compared to other metals and alloys applications.
    Keywords: : LM25 Al Metal Matrix Nano Composite Sample (AMNC); Silicon Carbide Nano particle (SiCnp); Nano Alumina Particle (Al2O3np); Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscope (EDAX); Micro meter (.

  • Effect of Optimized Cutting Constraints by AlCrN/Epoxy Coated components on Surface roughness in CNC Milling   Order a copy of this article
    by BOVAS HERBERT BEJAXHIN, G. Paulraj  
    Abstract: Here in this work, the milling slots are produced on EN32 MS plate machined with coated HSS end milling cutters and Fusion Bonded Epoxy coated BT40 tool holders. Tool coatings TiN, TiAlN, and AlCrN are preferred in the process of PVD method. This experiment benefited to differentiate the surface roughness for various speed, feed, and depth of cut. The prediction of effective stress for tool work interaction through the dynamic simulator Deform3D. An L27 array is designed with a controllable response to machining conditions, coating types which affect the desired output Ra. Taguchi and ANOVA approach supports to determine the most significant parameters. The influence of coated tools pooled with Fusion Bond Epoxy (FBE) coated taper end BT40 milling tool holder used to elevate Ra. Thus the optimized values of surface roughness were obtained and the effect of input parameters was identified on specimen roughness. Comparisons have made in between the roughness and stress effective of simulator tool for inspiring the clear solution.
    Keywords: Coating; CNC Milling; Surface roughness; Epoxy; Taguchi.

  • Collaborative Robot Selection using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)   Order a copy of this article
    by Christopher Greene, Silpa Subash 
    Abstract: The research addresses the deficiency of a structured methodology for the selection of collaborative robots or cobots, a type of an industrial robot that can perform tasks in cooperation with a human operator in a shared workspace. Without a standard procedure, manufacturing and service industries may experience difficulty determining a suitable cobot for their collaborative robot application. The decision to select a suitable cobot requires multiple requirements that may need to be considered along with the multiple choices of cobot alternatives available from various manufacturers. This decision may be difficult because there has been no literature that addresses the requirements that needs to be considered for cobot selection. Identifying the requirements may serve as the standard criteria for evaluation of the various cobots available as of now. The research is focused on determining the specific criteria useful for evaluation of various cobots. Subsequent to the determination of the criteria for cobot selection, an improved multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) algorithm will be utilized to illustrate the methodology for the selection of a cobot suitable to the manufacturing or service industry.
    Keywords: Collaborative Robot; Cobot; Cobot Selection; Multi-Criteria Decision-Making; Analytical Hierarchy Process.

  • Additive Manufacture of TiB2/Ti-6Al-4V Metal Matrix Composite by Selective Laser Melting   Order a copy of this article
    by Peter Farayibi, Taiwo Abioye 
    Abstract: Since the advent of layer based and blown powder methods for additive manufacture the geometrical design freedoms which these processes allow have been widely applied. However, limited research has been undertaken investigating the design freedoms that are granted through these manufacturing processes to date. Furthermore, there has been little investigation into the development of materials specifically formulated for additive processes. In this study a new material combination is evaluated for use with selective laser melting (SLM) methods of additive manufacturing. A 10 wt.% fine TiB2 powder was satellited onto the surface of a 90 wt.% Ti-6Al-4V powder to prevent segregations and promote homogeneity during processing. Solid structures of TiB2/Ti-6Al-4V were built using SLM Realiser 50 machine. Thereafter, the built structures were subjected to microstructural examination using optical and scanning electron microscopies. The hardness of the structure was determined using Vickers hardness tester. Results revealed that there was a reactive decomposition of the TiB2 powder which led to the formation of short (length ≤ 10 μm) and long (20 25 μm) TiB whiskers as reinforcements in the composites. The composite hardness was measured to vary from 440 503 HV0.3, signifying 30% increase when compared to Ti-6Al-4V hardness (350 HV0.3). The study thus demonstrated that miniature functional parts, requiring synergetic properties achievable with composites, can be manufactured using SLM.
    Keywords: Selective Laser Melting; Additive Manufacture; Microstructure; Hardness; Composite; Reinforcement; TiB; Ti-6Al-4V; TiB2; Whiskers.

  • Effect of Process Parameters on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys AA 6061 and AA 7075   Order a copy of this article
    by Manikandan R, Elatharsan G 
    Abstract: Frictions stir welding of dissimilar alloys are an efficient way to industrial applications. The effect of joining dissimilar alloys (AA6061-AA7075) to improve the strength of the joint materials of efficient stir weld. This work micro-hardness and mechanical properties of frictions stir welded dissimilar alloys has investigated. Aluminium alloy which is heat treatable and subjected to either hot working or cold-working. The heat treatment followed by revolutionizing and precipitation hardening. Micro hardness has measured at various zones of the welded joints. The tensile properties of dissimilar joints are characterized .Tensile test results will published and the stress-strain curve indicated the mechanical properties causes the frictions stir welding parameters. . Cylindrical threaded profile has to do important role among the other tool profiles. It contributes 93% to the overall efficiency. High strength of 172 MPa attained the tool made up of cylindrical threaded pin profiled tool. This work inferred that the rotational speed transverse speed, and D/d ratio for cylindrical threaded has considered more efficient. Maximum tensile strength could be obtained from the cylindrical threaded tool and it has comparatively high as other than materials. Tensile and hardness measurement done on this part of material characterization.
    Keywords: FSW; Micro hardness; dissimilar alloys; heat treatment; cylindrical.

Special Issue on: Cyber Manufacturing – Emerging Frontiers in Sensing, Modelling and Control

  • Quality assurance in additive manufacturing of thermoplastic parts: predicting consolidation degree based on thermal profile   Order a copy of this article
    by Mriganka Roy, Olga Wodo 
    Abstract: Additive manufacturing is one of the most prominent and promising technologies in the field of manufacturing. However, its current dissemination is largely limited to the prototyping role due to inadequate quality assurance. The detailed process-geometry-properties relationships are still to be unveiled, even though AM is based on highly repetitive process. In this work, we aim to address this gap by leveraging the numerical prediction of the thermal behavior of the deposition to predict the properties of the printed part. In particular, we present a prediction of consolidation strength in fused filament fabrication. The proposed protocol is universal and can be applied for any deposition condition and geometry. This contribution has important implication for prefabrication quality assurance in AM as it allows to link process parameters with part properties for any geometry hence opening new avenues for process optimization.
    Keywords: quality assurance; additive manufacturing; fused filament fabrication; finite element method; reptation; consolidation; bonding; thermoplastics.

  • Data-Driven Calibration for Infrared Camera in Additive Manufacturing   Order a copy of this article
    by Jack Francis, Mojtaba Khanzadeh, Haley Doude, Vince Hammond, Linkan Bian 
    Abstract: Non-contact infrared (IR) measurement devices are currently used to monitor the thermo-physical processes during additive manufacturing (AM). A common IR device for thermal monitoring, the IR camera, requires a blackbody calibration in order to be used effectively, as the camera measures the radiant energy (irradiance) instead of the true temperature. This calibration is difficult, expensive, and requires specialized equipment. Therefore, this article details a data-driven calibration for IR cameras by comparing the lengths of cutoff regions captured by the pyrometer and IR camera. After scaling and interpolating pyrometer images, a similarity metric is developed that characterizes the relationship between irradiance and temperature. An application of the IR camera for monitoring thermo-physical processes is discussed in detail. rnKeywords: Infrared Camera, Additive Manufacturing, Calibration, Pyrometer, Sensor Fusionrn
    Keywords: Infrared Camera; Additive Manufacturing; Calibration; Pyrometer; Sensor Fusion.

Special Issue on: ICONNECT 2K18 Application of Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing for Industrial Challenges

  • Mechanical properties of 7075-t6 aluminium alloy surface hybrid composites synthesised by friction stir processing   Order a copy of this article
    by Periasamy Kaliyannan, Jayaraman M, Rajkumar S 
    Abstract: In this investigation of surface hybrid composites on aluminium alloy 7075 substrate using friction stir processing (FSP) with various composition of reinforced particles such as silicon carbide(SiC) and graphite(Gr). The distribution of reinforcement in the nugget zone was examined by SEM with EDS analysis. The strength and micro hardness are compared with the samples. Sample S3 (50% SiC + 50% Gr) shows the property superior than other combinations. The samples with higher amount of graphite content leads to deterioration in tensile strength and hardness.
    Keywords: Aluminium alloy; Reinforcement particles; Surface modification; Friction stir process; Hybrid Composites.

  • Optimization of Free Vibration Analysis on Structural Plates of Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composites   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajkumar D.R, Padmanaban K.P, Rathan Raj R 
    Abstract: The present work deals with optimization of free vibration of fiber reinforced composite rectangular plates. In this investigation, Eglass/epoxy and Jute/epoxy rectangular plates were fabricated using hand lay-up technique. Experimental mechanical testing was done as per ASTM standard for the plates and elastic properties such as Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio and shear modulus were carefully calculated from the test data. For the same specimens, elastic properties were derived using analytical method by rule of mixture and Chamis model. These data were fed into finite element analysis in ANSYS software to find the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite element analysis as the result of experimental mechanical testing and analytical model for both plates were compared and dynamic characteristics were discussed elaborately. The effects on aspect ratio (a/b=3.75, 7.5) for both plates on natural frequency were studied experimentally using hammer method. Finally the cause for the difference in natural frequency and mode shapes were justified with available data.
    Keywords: Vibration analysis; Finite element analysis; Glass/epoxy composite; Jute/epoxy composite; Optimization.

  • Preparation and Testing of Fiber Reinforced Zeamays, Calotrpis Gigantea Concrete Material Under Various Testing Conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by T. Sathish, V. Mohanavel 
    Abstract: This paper provides an implementation of improved modelling of fiber reinforced composites with natural fibers namely: zeamays and calotrpis gigantea. The main aim of inducing such natural fibers to form composites is to improve its structural and water resistant properties. These natural fibers are used for improving the fiber bending stiffness that enhances the strength of the concrete composites. The proposed method uses hand layup method to prepare the solid composite under varying temperature and period. The use of Randomly Oriented Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Composite is used for preparing the mould. Further, three different samples are prepared using the mould for tensile testing, impact testing and water absorption testing.This improves the structural properties, composite strength with increased fiber length, fineness without grains, uniformity and stiffness. The test results shows that the proposed pattern for improving the fiber reinforced concrete composite improves well its structural and other related properties of the concrete with higher tensile and impact factors.
    Keywords: Fiber reinforced concrete; zeamays and calotrpis gigantean; tensile test; impact test.

  • Studies on Mechanical Properties of the Sintered Bronze-Graphite Composites   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Ramasamy, K. Subramanian, G. Sozhan, Su. Venkatesan 
    Abstract: Bronze with addition of graphite, produced by powder metallurgy processes are widely used in textile and food industries as bearings and bushes. Addition of graphite serves to reduce sliding contact between machine parts, especially where grease and oil lubricant cannot be used. Sintered bronzegraphite composite with various volume percentage of graphite at different particle size and at varying compaction load was prepared. The surface morphology of the composites was experimented by scanning electron microscope. The sintered composites exhibited reduced porosity and improved relative density. The theoretical, green, sintered and relative density of the specimens were determined. It was found that the porosity of the composites decreased with increase in volume percentage of graphite. The effect of variation in particle size of graphite, volume of graphite content and compaction load on hardness of the sintered composites were studied. The scratch test for all the specimens at a constant load of 10N was conducted and scratch width was measured. The hardness values obtained through experiments were utilized to find out the correlation between hardness and single scratch track width using regression modeling and the model was validated.
    Keywords: Sintered bronze-graphite composite; powder metallurgy; density; porosity; hardness and scratch track width.

  • Agility in small sized pump manufacturing companies An exploration in Indian scenario   Order a copy of this article
    by Peramanan A, Palani P.K., Devadasan S.R., Suresh V 
    Abstract: Today, companies are required to imbibe agility characteristics. Agility of a company refers to its capability in producing innovative products by reacting quickly in accordance with the dynamic demands of the customers. In this paper a research has been reported in which the agility level prevailing in three small size pump manufacturing companies located in India was measured by using a model called twenty criteria agile manufacturing measurement model. By using this model, the agility of these companies was measured by using a measure called agility index. The agility index of one of them was found to be higher than that of the other two. Further, it was explored to identify the weak agility criteria practiced in the three small size pump manufacturing companies. This exploration indicated that poor adoption of technology prevents the small sized pump manufacturing companies from speeding up of the agile manufacturing journey in Indian scenario.
    Keywords: Agile manufacturing; pump manufacturing companies; performance measurement; Information Technology; organizational structure; flexible manufacturing system.

  • A STUDY ON MACHINABILITY EVALUATION OF Al-Gr-B4C MMC USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY BASED DESIRABILITY ANALYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK TECHNIQUE   Order a copy of this article
    by Ponnuvel S, Senthilkumar N 
    Abstract: In this work, machinability behavior of Aluminum-Graphite-Boron carbide metal matrix composite is performed during Wire-cut Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process. Experiments were designed using central composite-face centered design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and with the application of desirability function multiple quality characteristics viz., kerf width, surface roughness, and Material Removal Rate (MRR) were optimized simultaneously. Input parameters gap voltage, pulse ON-time, pulse-OFF time and % reinforcement of boron carbide particles in the aluminum matrix are considered. The optimized machining condition obtained is a gap voltage of 150 V, pulse ON-time of 124.56 ms, pulse-OFF time of 48.03 ms and 2.5 % reinforcement of boron carbide. From the experimental values, it is observed that better output responses are achieved with lower reinforcement of boron carbide. Second order regression models are developed individually for the output responses. An artificial neural network model is developed to predict the output responses, results obtained show that a better prediction can be achieved through artificial intelligent technique.
    Keywords: Metal matrix composite; Wire-cut EDM; Response surface methodology; Desirability analysis; Artificial Neural Network.

  • Parametric advancement of numerical model to predict the mechanical properties of friction stir processed AA5052   Order a copy of this article
    by Chanakyan C, Sivasankar S 
    Abstract: Friction stir processed on AA5052 Aluminium plates is executed by three-factor three levels Box Behnken pattern in response surface methodology. It is initiated that the processing parameters such as rotational speed of tool, traverse speed, axial load accept an essential part in selecting the processing attributes. The advanced parameters that prompted the most extreme tensile strength in fsp on AA5052 were resolved. The predicted outcomes were then contrasted with those tentative values. The outcomes show that there is great understanding between the predicted and estimated values. Response plots created from the numerical models are used to translate the communication impacts of the processing parameters on the response variables. Competence of the created models is approved utilizing analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. The "MINITAB" programming was utilized for regression and graphical studies of information gathered. Analysis of variance was promoted to check the effectiveness of the model. Boxbehnken matrix in response surface methodology with three factors three levels and 15 runs was used to promote the link between the FSP parameters (processing speed, tool rotational speed and load) and the responses UTS, yield strength and micro hardness were created.
    Keywords: Rotational Speed; Traverse speed; Axial load; RSM.

  • Investigation of mathematical model to optimize the mechanical properties of friction stir processed AA6082   Order a copy of this article
    by Bharathikanna R, Elatharasan G 
    Abstract: Friction stir process (FSP) is a creating solid state joining process in which has been widely used in modern areas of industrial applications. The friction stir processing parameters are tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial load plays a significant role in deciding the processing qualities. In this examination central composite Design procedure and scientific model was developed by response surface technique with three parameters, three levels and 20 runs, was utilized to create the relationship between the FSP parameters (rotational speed, welding speed, axial load,) and the reactions (tensile strength, Yield strength (YS) were analyzed. Proficiency of the established models is affirmed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The "MINITAB" computer programs were used for polynomial regression and graphical investigations of data assembled.
    Keywords: FSP; Rotational Speed; Welding speed; Axial Force; CCD.

  • Optimization of Identical Parallel Machine Scheduling problem   Order a copy of this article
    by SOMASUNDARAM KAMARAJ 
    Abstract: Scheduling is allocating the resources optimally over a period of time. The productivity and customer goodwill of the company increases by proper scheduling. This work focuses on scheduling of Identical Parallel machines (IPM) with an objective to makespan minimization by using Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) algorithm. Makespan is the maximum completion time of all the jobs. In this work, the different jobs in different identical parallel machines are classified as experiments E1, E2, E3 and E4. These experiments were computationally solved by new metaheuristic GWO algorithm. The experimental computational results of GWO were compared with GA to obtain near optimal solution in all experiments.
    Keywords: make span; grey wolf optimizer; identical parallel machine.

  • TRAJECTORY TRACKING CONTROL OF TWO-LINK INDUSTRIAL ROBOT MANIPULATOR BASED ON C++   Order a copy of this article
    by Selvam Bose, U. Natarajan, M. Balasubramonian, S.K. Lakshmanaprabu 
    Abstract: In this paper trajectory tracking of two-link planar rigid robot manipulator using proportional-integral-derivative control law (PID) based on open source, C++ software has been presented. Trajectory tracking control of Industrial robot manipulator is an important task for a control engineer in order to increase the productivity in the manufacturing sector utilizing manipulator. The significance of this paper is the demonstration of the importance of open software C++ for trajectory tracking control analysis of robot manipulator instead of utilizing high-end commercial software like Matlab which is costly. Fourth order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) has been utilized to solve the control problem represented as a simultaneous differential equation and the simulation algorithm is written as codes in C++ environment. Proportional integral derivative (PID) control law has been implemented for the trajectory control task. The proposed cost-free approach provides researchers and students a better platform for dynamic and control analysis of complex dynamic system such as robot manipulator. The simulation results obtained in both Matlab and C++ environments are similar and hence the proposed C++ based trajectory control analysis has been validated.
    Keywords: Industrial Robot; Two-link rigid robot manipulator; PID control; C++; Productivity.