International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing (14 papers in press)
Design and development of customized split insole using additive manufacturing technique
by Sivakumar Ganesan, Rajesh Ranganathan
Abstract: Medical researchers are seeking innovative manufacturing methods to produce health care products alike; prosthetics, implants, diabetic foot care product, etc., faster and more accurately. This research focuses on exploring the current technical challenges and provides a unique solution through additive manufacturing method in the development of customized split insole. Custom foot insole is developed by considering the essential anatomical study on bio-mechanics, anthropometric data of the human foot, gait analysis and plantar pressure. A new product custom body fitted product was developed considering the various mechanical and human parameters and the results are discussed with the possible improvements that the developed insoles have provided. The developed insole increases contact area and redistributes average peak plantar pressure, reduces at Zones 2 and 3 by 27.78 % and 76.92% respectively. This research work provides the methodology to manufacture a customized split insole using an additive manufacturing technique.
Keywords: Anthropometry; foot biomechanics; plantar pressure and 3D Printing /additive manufacturing.
Trends of Machine Learning in Additive Manufacturing
by Felix Baumann, André Sekulla, Michael Hassler, Benjamin Himpel, Markus Pfeil
Abstract: In this work, the influence on and application of Machine Learning tornthe domain of Additive Manufacturing or synonymously 3D printing is reviewed.rnExisting literature is identified by a literature search and grouped according to its application in 3D printing. We provide insight into this research and thernpotential of Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and other related computationalrnlearning methods on Additive Manufacturing and its potential future developmentrnand embedding, such as Cloud Manufacturing or Industry 4.0. The applicationrnof Machine Learning is discussed to aid solving numerous problems fromrnAdditive Manufacturing, such as process control, process monitoring, and qualityrnenhancement of manufactured objects. Furthermore, literature covering therngeneralities of the intersection of Additive Manufacturing and Machine Learning,rnreviews and future research questions are identified and presented herein. Thisrnwork provides an overview of the benefits and drawbacks of combining AdditivernManufacturing with Machine Learning.
Keywords: Survey; Review; Additive Manufacturing; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Artificial Neural Network.
Adopting Additive-Hybrid Manufacturing: The Role of Capacity in Implementation Decision
by Danielle Strong, Michael Kay, Tom Wakefield, Issariya Sirichakwal, Brett Conner, Guha Manogharan
Abstract: The integration of Additive Manufacturing (AM) with traditional manufacturing methods (e.g. machining) into hybrid manufacturing has increased the potential uses of AM in the manufacturing industry. This paper explores the role of production resources in a traditional manufacturing facility and economic effects on the adoption of AM via hybrid manufacturing. The motivation for this study stems from the growing interest among traditional manufacturing firms to offer post-processing AM parts as hybrid manufacturing services and the unknown risks associated with such implementation. A price competition model is used to analyze the effects of introducing hybrid manufacturing on the market structure of a standard product with regard to prices, quantities, and profits. Numerical results show that for products manufactured in a resource constrained environment, an adoption of hybrid manufacturing into one firms portfolio, in addition to improving its own profitability, may potentially improve the profitability of its competitor who chooses not to adopt hybrid manufacturing. An adoption in two firms may indirectly benefit the first firm that adopts hybrid AM due to collectively decreased resource availability. Firms can use this price competition model to help with decision making and strategizing, whether they wish to be the first in the market to offer hybrid-AM services or to compete with firms already offering such services.
Keywords: Hybrid Manufacturing; Additive Manufacturing; Bertrand Competition; Supply Chain; Manufacturing Flexibility; Resource Constraints.
Design and Development of a prosthetic leg for an amputated peacock using additive manufacturing
by Rajesh Ranganathan, Pradeep Mohan S K, Arivazhagan Pugalendhi, Sivasankar Arumugam
Abstract: Prosthetics is widely seen as an option for static and dynamic situations, in this work an attempt was made in developing prosthetic product for static, dynamic and for flight mode. Following a deep understanding on the current load bearing and dynamic abilities, this work proposed to design and fabricate a prosthetic leg for an amputated peacock. The bird could not mobilize much due to wrecked leg. To overcome, computational design and additive manufacturing are adopted to fabricate the prosthetic leg. The combinations of Clay mould casting, 3D scanner, haptic arm device and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) are employed to design, fabricate and install the prosthetic body part. The ultimate tensile stress of the Prosthetic leg is 0.1811 MPa and the compressive stress of the assembly is 10.806MPa is less compared to the actual requirements. The final weight of the prosthetic leg is 85 grams that aid in mobility of the peacock. Upon, utilizing the prosthetic leg, the peacock is able to undergo its static, dynamic and flight modes of mobility. This work provides the knowledge about the development of healthcare products for birds with the application of additive manufacturing technology. This is along with the potential application of engineering design for development of prosthetic products.
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing (AM); Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM); ABS; Prosthetic Limb; amputation.
Special Issue on: Cyber Manufacturing – Emerging Frontiers in Sensing, Modelling and Control
Quality assurance in additive manufacturing of thermoplastic parts: predicting consolidation degree based on thermal profile
by Mriganka Roy, Olga Wodo
Abstract: Additive manufacturing is one of the most prominent and promising technologies in the field of manufacturing. However, its current dissemination is largely limited to the prototyping role due to inadequate quality assurance. The detailed process-geometry-properties relationships are still to be unveiled, even though AM is based on highly repetitive process. In this work, we aim to address this gap by leveraging the numerical prediction of the thermal behavior of the deposition to predict the properties of the printed part. In particular, we present a prediction of consolidation strength in fused filament fabrication. The proposed protocol is universal and can be applied for any deposition condition and geometry. This contribution has important implication for prefabrication quality assurance in AM as it allows to link process parameters with part properties for any geometry hence opening new avenues for process optimization.
Keywords: quality assurance; additive manufacturing; fused filament fabrication; finite element method; reptation; consolidation; bonding; thermoplastics.
Data-Driven Calibration for Infrared Camera in Additive Manufacturing
by Jack Francis, Mojtaba Khanzadeh, Haley Doude, Vince Hammond, Linkan Bian
Abstract: Non-contact infrared (IR) measurement devices are currently used to monitor the thermo-physical processes during additive manufacturing (AM). A common IR device for thermal monitoring, the IR camera, requires a blackbody calibration in order to be used effectively, as the camera measures the radiant energy (irradiance) instead of the true temperature. This calibration is difficult, expensive, and requires specialized equipment. Therefore, this article details a data-driven calibration for IR cameras by comparing the lengths of cutoff regions captured by the pyrometer and IR camera. After scaling and interpolating pyrometer images, a similarity metric is developed that characterizes the relationship between irradiance and temperature. An application of the IR camera for monitoring thermo-physical processes is discussed in detail. rnKeywords: Infrared Camera, Additive Manufacturing, Calibration, Pyrometer, Sensor Fusionrn
Keywords: Infrared Camera; Additive Manufacturing; Calibration; Pyrometer; Sensor Fusion.
Special Issue on: ICONNECT 2K18 Application of Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing for Industrial Challenges
Mechanical properties of 7075-t6 aluminium alloy surface hybrid composites synthesised by friction stir processing
by Periasamy Kaliyannan, Jayaraman M, Rajkumar S
Abstract: In this investigation of surface hybrid composites on aluminium alloy 7075 substrate using friction stir processing (FSP) with various composition of reinforced particles such as silicon carbide(SiC) and graphite(Gr). The distribution of reinforcement in the nugget zone was examined by SEM with EDS analysis. The strength and micro hardness are compared with the samples. Sample S3 (50% SiC + 50% Gr) shows the property superior than other combinations. The samples with higher amount of graphite content leads to deterioration in tensile strength and hardness.
Keywords: Aluminium alloy; Reinforcement particles; Surface modification; Friction stir process; Hybrid Composites.
Finite Element Analysis of the Stress and Strain Patterns in Pyramidal Hopper
by T. Sathish, R. Jayarajeswaran, S. Karthick
Abstract: An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) device is used mainly for particulate collection, which removes the particles present in the flowing gas. This precipitator uses the principle of induced electrostatic charge force. Here, two electrodes is used for carrying out the precipitation process, where one is a collector and other is an emitter. The ashes or the dust collected from the gases is collected at a hopper, which contains electric heaters at its bottom. This avoids moisture condensation that may lead to clogging of the hoppers. To avoid effectively the moisture condensation, pyramidal hopper with specific angle is designed. The main aim of this paper is to study the optimization of a 1/3rdpyramidal hopper plate. The modeling is carried out with pro-e and the analysis is carried out with Ansys simulation tool. Here, the optimization is carried out in the form of a standardized model and that reduces the efforts for design. The pyramidal hopper is optimized with the help of channel elimination and increasing the plate thickness that improves the plate stiffness. The valley angle of the hopper is kept at 55 degree that facilitates the free fall of the dust inside the hopper from the precipitator. The simulation experiments prove that the proposed design is good enough to carry the stress and strain during the exhaust process.
Keywords: Electrostatic Precipitator; Pyramidal Hopper; Simulation design; Moisture condensation and Clogging.
Optimization of Free Vibration Analysis on Structural Plates of Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composites
by Rajkumar D.R, Padmanaban K.P, Rathan Raj R
Abstract: The present work deals with optimization of free vibration of fiber reinforced composite rectangular plates. In this investigation, Eglass/epoxy and Jute/epoxy rectangular plates were fabricated using hand lay-up technique. Experimental mechanical testing was done as per ASTM standard for the plates and elastic properties such as Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio and shear modulus were carefully calculated from the test data. For the same specimens, elastic properties were derived using analytical method by rule of mixture and Chamis model. These data were fed into finite element analysis in ANSYS software to find the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite element analysis as the result of experimental mechanical testing and analytical model for both plates were compared and dynamic characteristics were discussed elaborately. The effects on aspect ratio (a/b=3.75, 7.5) for both plates on natural frequency were studied experimentally using hammer method. Finally the cause for the difference in natural frequency and mode shapes were justified with available data.
Keywords: Vibration analysis; Finite element analysis; Glass/epoxy composite; Jute/epoxy composite; Optimization.
Preparation and Testing of Fiber Reinforced Zeamays, Calotrpis Gigantea Concrete Material Under Various Testing Conditions
by T. Sathish, V. Mohanavel
Abstract: This paper provides an implementation of improved modelling of fiber reinforced composites with natural fibers namely: zeamays and calotrpis gigantea. The main aim of inducing such natural fibers to form composites is to improve its structural and water resistant properties. These natural fibers are used for improving the fiber bending stiffness that enhances the strength of the concrete composites. The proposed method uses hand layup method to prepare the solid composite under varying temperature and period. The use of Randomly Oriented Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Composite is used for preparing the mould. Further, three different samples are prepared using the mould for tensile testing, impact testing and water absorption testing.This improves the structural properties, composite strength with increased fiber length, fineness without grains, uniformity and stiffness. The test results shows that the proposed pattern for improving the fiber reinforced concrete composite improves well its structural and other related properties of the concrete with higher tensile and impact factors.
Keywords: Fiber reinforced concrete; zeamays and calotrpis gigantean; tensile test; impact test.
Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Al6061 Composites and its Prediction Using KNN-ALO Algorithms
by A. Thirumoorthy, T.V. Arjunan, K.L. Senthil Kumar
Abstract: Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) are widely practicing material for
improving the surface property. Stir casting is one of the most straightforward
processes of manufacturing MMC and attains higher advantages on material
processing cost, more comfortable handling of material, size, design and
excellent stability of matrix structure. In this research work, MMC of Al6061
with blended MgO and Si3N4 composite mixtures is produced using stir
casting process. One of the factors affecting the material homogeneity in the
casted material is the tensile rupture, where the proposed composite material
subjected to tensile stress and yielding. The structural property of the material
tested under Universal Testing Machine and Brinell hardness tester. This paper
proposes a novel hybrid approach to evaluate the tensile property of
composites. The prediction of the tensile property of the MMC performed by
the K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm (KNN) and Ant Lion Optimization (ALO)
algorithm, which is numerically modelled and experimented in the running
platform of MATLAB and compared with Decision Tree (DT) classifier
algorithm for better performance outcome. Predicted test results show that the
proposed KNN-ALO is an efficient method for predicting the tensile and
hardness properties of stir cast aluminium composites.
Keywords: Metal Matrix Composites; Stir Casting; Tensile Strength; Brinell Hardness; K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm.
TRAJECTORY TRACKING CONTROL OF TWO-LINK INDUSTRIAL ROBOT MANIPULATOR BASED ON C++
by Selvam Bose, U. Natarajan, M. Balasubramonian, S.K. Lakshmanaprabu
Abstract: In this paper trajectory tracking of two-link planar rigid robot manipulator using proportional-integral-derivative control law (PID) based on open source, C++ software has been presented. Trajectory tracking control of Industrial robot manipulator is an important task for a control engineer in order to increase the productivity in the manufacturing sector utilizing manipulator. The significance of this paper is the demonstration of the importance of open software C++ for trajectory tracking control analysis of robot manipulator instead of utilizing high-end commercial software like Matlab which is costly. Fourth order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) has been utilized to solve the control problem represented as a simultaneous differential equation and the simulation algorithm is written as codes in C++ environment. Proportional integral derivative (PID) control law has been implemented for the trajectory control task. The proposed cost-free approach provides researchers and students a better platform for dynamic and control analysis of complex dynamic system such as robot manipulator. The simulation results obtained in both Matlab and C++ environments are similar and hence the proposed C++ based trajectory control analysis has been validated.
Keywords: Industrial Robot; Two-link rigid robot manipulator; PID control; C++; Productivity.
Special Issue on: ICONNECT 2K18 Application of Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing for Industrial Challenges
Studies on Mechanical Properties of the Sintered Bronze-Graphite Composites
by K. Ramasamy, K. Subramanian, G. Sozhan, Su. Venkatesan
Abstract: Bronze with addition of graphite, produced by powder metallurgy
processes are widely used in textile and food industries as bearings and bushes.
Addition of graphite serves to reduce sliding contact between machine parts,
especially where grease and oil lubricant cannot be used. Sintered bronzegraphite
composite with various volume percentage of graphite at different
particle size and at varying compaction load was prepared. The surface
morphology of the composites was experimented by scanning electron
microscope. The sintered composites exhibited reduced porosity and improved
relative density. The theoretical, green, sintered and relative density of the
specimens were determined. It was found that the porosity of the composites
decreased with increase in volume percentage of graphite. The effect of
variation in particle size of graphite, volume of graphite content and
compaction load on hardness of the sintered composites were studied. The
scratch test for all the specimens at a constant load of 10N was conducted and
scratch width was measured. The hardness values obtained through
experiments were utilized to find out the correlation between hardness and
single scratch track width using regression modeling and the model was
Keywords: Sintered bronze-graphite composite, powder metallurgy, density, porosity, hardness and scratch track width
Fabrication and micro-hardness properties of nano-Al2O3 reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite by Field-assisted sintering technique (FAST)/Spark plasma sintering (SPS) Processing Route.
by Pranav Dev Srivyas, M.S. Charoo
Abstract: Aluminum metal matrix composites are the advanced composites materials which are developed using different micro/nano reinforcements and metal matrix. The reinforcement may be ceramic or any other material which provides outstanding properties to those composite materials for various structural and functional applications. In this research work spark plasma sintering fabrication route was used for consolidation of pre-alloyed Al-Si alloy reinforced with different concentration of nano-Al2O3 i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt%. The powder was ball milled in high energy planetary ball mill for 12 hours and then the fabrication was done at the optimum temperature of 450˚c with heating rate of 100˚c/min at normal loading pressure of 50 MPa and holding time of 10 min. SEM, EDS, XRD and Optical Microscopy was done for micro-structural analysis of the powder and the sample. Density measurement and micro-hardness of the sintered samples were also done using digital densimeter and micro-hardness tester respectively. It is concluded that the FAST/SPS fabrication route is an outstanding technique for the processing of aluminum matrix composites with better properties.
Keywords: SPARK PLASMA SINTERING (SPS); MECHANICAL ALLOYING (MA); MICRO-HARDNESS; REINFORCEMENT