International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion (38 papers in press)
Novel Hybrid Modified Elman Neural Network Control for a PMSM Driven Electric Scooter
by Chih-Hong Lin, Chih-Peng Lin
Abstract: Since the electric scooter driven by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, the accurate dynamic models are difficult established for the whole system. In order to overcome this problem, a novel hybrid modified Elman neural network (NN) control system is proposed to control for PMSM driven electric scooter. The novel hybrid modified Elman NN control system consists of a supervisor control, a modified Elman NN and a compensated control. Moreover, the novel hybrid modified ENN control system is developed to raise robustness for system. The on-line parameter training methodology of the modified Elman NN can be derived by using the Lyapunov stability theorem and the gradient descent method. The modified Elman NN has the on-line learning ability to respond to the systems nonlinear and time-varying behaviors. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, comparative studies are demonstrated by experimental results.
Keywords: Permanent magnet synchronous motor, Elman neural network, Lyapunov stability theorem.
Induced lightning overvoltages on overhead power lines
by mostefa boumaiza
Abstract: In this work we analyze the electromagnetic coupling of a lightning wave with an overhead line. The analysis is conducted directly in time domain with hold in account the effect of a finite conductivity of the soil. This analysis calculates the currents and voltages induced at every moment and at every point within the line. To strengthen our theoretical work, we present a set of applications that will allow us to validate this analysis.
Keywords: power distribution lines; lightning; electromagnetic field; ground transient resistance; Induced voltage
Optimization of Blade Profiles of Cross Flow Turbine (CFT)
by Assad Zaffar, Bilal Ibrahim, M. Awais Sarwar, Javed Ahmed Chattha, Muhammad Asif
Abstract: The areas where the supply of grid power is very difficult, Cross Flow Turbines (CFT) are used for low head power production. Results are presented for optimum profile of the leading edges of blade. Four different profiles (Flat tip blade profile, round tip blade profile, pointed tip blade profile and oval tip blade profile) are modeled and simulated with ANSYS CFX and then compared their performance in terms of their efficiencies. The complete turbine is analyzed for the determination of the leading edge of the blade in the first stage and the trailing edge in the second stage. The design and simulation conditions are based on the installed CFT at Chitral city of Pakistan. The results show that efficiency of the round tip blade profile is better than the other three profiles of the blade.
Keywords: Blade Profiles; Cross Flow Turbine (CFT); Turbine Efficiency; Renewable Energy; Hydro-Power.
Analysis of power efficient compressor with fuzzy logic MPPT based PV/FC system
by Rupendra Pachauri, Yogesh K. Chauhan
Abstract: In this paper, a hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/fuel cell (FC) power generation system is considered, where the hydrogen generated by the electrolysis process is used for subsequent FC operation. A novel induction motor based compressor is proposed to boost up the pressure of hydrogen, and hence to improve the performance of the FC system. A fuzzy logic based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system is designed for the considered PV system. Finally, a coordinated control scheme is applied for controlling the power supplied to the load by integrating both the sources. The complete model is realized in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to verify the developed model. The performance of the complete system is found satisfactory under different conditions.
Keywords: Solar PV system; electrolyzer system; hydrogen generation; fuzzy logic based MPPT; coordinated control.
Robust Loss Coefficients: Application to Power Systems with Solar and Wind Energy
by Dario Arango, Ricardo Urrego, Sergio Rivera
Abstract: In a power system analysis, it is useful to find the relation between power losses and generated power on a power system. It can be performed using loss coefficients. The main drawback of traditional loss coefficients is that they must be recalculated in case that changes in conditions take place in the power system. In this paper, a comparison is performed by using different estimation methods of loss coefficients. The first method is the traditional Kron Method (KM); the second one is a proposed modification of the traditional Incremental Method (IM); finally, an heuristic estimation method, robust under different changes in conditions of power systems, is proposed. A comparison is made between the three methods in terms of sensibility of active power losses when power demand and generation on the power system are changed with respect to the initial conditions of calculation. Additionally, the paper presents an application of power losses estimation in power systems with solar and wind energy. The stochastic behaviour of solar and wind energy is modelled using the probability distribution of solar irradiance and wind speed, respectively. In order to test loss coefficient robustness, a Monte Carlo simulation was developed in a power system with penetration of solar and wind energy.
Keywords: Power Losses; Loss Coefficients; Solar Energy; Wind Energy,
Modified Evolutionary Programming for Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling
by Chitralekha Jena, Mousumi Basu, Chinmoy Kumar Panigrahi
Abstract: This paper presents modified evolutionary programming (MEP) method to determine the optimal hourly schedule of power generation in a hydrothermal system. Evolutionary programming (EP) is a class of evolutionary algorithm based on the basic genetic operation of human chromosomes. EP is capable of determining the global or near global solution. In this paper, MEP has been proposed to enhance speed and quality of solution. The MEP algorithm is tested on two test problems and two hydrothermal multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric test systems having prohibited operating zones and thermal units with valve point effect. The ramp-rate limits of thermal generators are taken into consideration. The transmission losses are also accounted for through the use of loss coefficients. The results of the proposed MEP approach have been compared with those obtained by other evolutionary methods. It is found that the proposed MEP approach can provide better solution at lesser computational effort.
Keywords: Modified evolutionary programming; hydro thermal scheduling; ramp-rate limits; valve point effect; prohibited operating zones.
Comparative Analysis of Several Linear Controllers with Developed Feedback Controllers for DSTATCOM
by Amr Elnady
Abstract: This paper analyzes the performance of the Distribution STATic COMpensator, DSTATCOM, for two linear controllers and two developed state feedback controllers. The paper clarifies how the DSTATCOM controls the reactive power using the quadrature current, Iq, and the active power for adjusting its DC voltage across its capacitor, Vdc. The PI and PID controllers are employed as an example for a linear controller. The Linear Quadratic Regulator, LQR, and a novel structure and formulation of the decoupled state feedback controller, SFC, are adopted as tools for the pole placement so as to control the operation of the DSTATCOM. A comprehensive analysis for these four controllers is given to justify the merits and demerits of each controller. In addition, the proposed state feedback is also compared to an integral sliding mode controller, SMC, to prove its superior performance. Finally, three different applications for the developed state feedback controller are demonstrated to prove the meritorious performance of this developed control scheme for the operation of the DSTATCOM to control the reactive power and mitigate voltage quality problems within distribution systems
Keywords: DSTATCOM; PI; PID; LQR; SMC and Decoupled State Feedback Controller.
Perturbation and Observation as MPPT for Highly Penetrated Grid-Integrated PV Generator Considering Symmetrical Three-Phase Fault
by Tha'er Sweidan, Mohammad Widyan, Mohammed Rifai
Abstract: This paper presents Perturbation & Observation (P&O) as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique applied on grid-integrated PV generator. The interfacing is carried out via DCDC buck-boost converter, three-phase sinusoidal DC-AC inverter, LC filter, transformer and two identical transmission lines. Large-signal stability analysis has been carried out considering symmetrical three-phase to ground fault as a case study at the middle of one of the transmission lines when the PV generator is intensified with different solar irradiance levels. The dynamic stability analysis is executed based on the nonlinear dynamical mathematical model of the complete power system elements in d-q stationary reference frame. The idea behind introducing the DC-DC converter is to adjust its duty cycle using the P&O algorithm such that to extract the maximum power available in the PV generator at all practical solar irradiance levels and power system running conditions. The results show that the highly penetrated grid-integrated PV generator can keep the stability of its operating point despite the large-disturbance considered at wide range of solar irradiance levels. It is also concluded that overshoot and settling time of the power system are highly affected by the fault clearing time and solar irradiance level. The higher the solar irradiance level is, the higher the critical clearing time, the larger the overshoot and the lower the settling time tend to be.
Keywords: Perturbation & Observation; MPPT; Photovoltaic Generator; Power System Dynamics; Large-Signal Stability; Symmetrical Three-Phase Fault.
A New Model of Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) to Feed a Single Phase Load with an Application in Lighting Animal Farm
by Nassim Iqteit, Abdelkarim Daud
Abstract: This paper presents a new model of self-excited single-phase induction generator, used by a three phase machine for lighting animal farm through biogas energy. Lighting animal farm using SEIG is one of the important applications in Pico and Micro power systems. The designs and applications of the previous generator models have been found to be very complex, for this reason simple and effective model of SEIG is proposed. The model is derived from Steinmetz connection circuit, stationary reference frame qd-axes theory and symmetrical component theorem. This model is easily able to analyze sensitive transient phenomena such as: voltage build-up, types of faults, and the changing in the load voltage and frequency. Voltage regulation, maximum load power, voltage unbalance factor and other parameters can be determined by using proposed steady state equivalent circuit which can help to develop control methods for SIEG. Experimental and simulation using Matlab are the two methods used to prove the validity of the present model. Results obtained from the two methods were closed to each other. Also, the perfect balance point was achieved by using C-2C configuration and unity power factor load. This application proved that the output voltage and current have sinusoidal waves which implying that the generator was operating efficiently.
Keywords: Self-excited induction generator (SEIG); Biogas engine; Lighting Animal Farm; Dynamic model; Steady state model.
Improving the dynamic frequency regulation of a Multisource Power System considering GRC and Deadband with TCSC and SMES
by Rajesh Joseph Abraham, Deepak M
Abstract: Coordinated operation of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) for dynamic frequency regulation on a multisource power system consisting hydro, thermal and gas generating units is presented in this paper. The optimal integral gains of the control areas are obtained by tuning a quadratic performance index comprising frequency deviations and tie-line power error using Integral Squared Error technique. The effects of Generation Rate Constraint and Governor Dead Band nonlinearities are also considered. Time domain simulations carried out in MATLAB on a sample two area multi-unit power system comprising hydro, thermal and gas power plants reveal that the SMES-TCSC combination can effectively damp out deviations in area frequencies and tie-line power flow following a sudden load perturbation with better transient performance and reduced settling time.
Keywords: Dead Band; Generation Rate Constraint; Integral Squared Error ; Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage; Thyristor Controlled Series Compensatorrn(.
Impact of optimal location and sizing of distributed generation and automatic reclosers in distribution systems
by Luis F. Grisales, Alejandro Grajales, Oscar D. Montoya, Ricardo A. Hincapie, Mauricio Granada
Abstract: In this paper, a cascade methodology of two stages to solve the problem of the optimal location and sizing of distributed generators (DG), and determining an adequate protection scheme to improve reliability indices and reduce the nonsupplied energy level (NSEL) is proposed. In stage I, the optimal location of DG is determined by using a mathematical model, in which the objective function is composed by a linear combination between reduction of power losses and investment cost. To solve this problem, three sensitivity indices to determine a candidate set of nodes to install DG and three types of technologies are considered. A hybrid methodology based on Chu-Beasley genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization is used as a solution technique. In stage II, normally closed and normally open reclosers are located; the concept of operational areas is analyzed and a multi-objective problem is formulated, where the investment costs minimization is the first objective function and NSEL minimization is the second objective function. To solve this stage, the NSGA II algorithm is employed. A 102-node test feeder was used in order to prove the efficiency of the methodology proposed.
Keywords: Automatic reclosers; Chu & Beasley genetic algorithm; distributed generation; multi-objective optimization; non-supplied energy level; NSGA-II; operational areas; particle swarm optimization.
Optimal placement of DSTATCOM, DG and their performance analysis in deregulated power system
by Surajit Sannigrahi, Sriparna Roy Ghatak, Debarghya Basu, Parimal Acharjee
Abstract: Recently, incorporation of Distributed Generation (DG) and Distributed Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) is increased in Radial Distribution System (RDS) due to the enormous electrical energy demand, power system deregulation, and different restriction over existing network expansion. However, the proper allocation of these devices is essential to ensure maximum potential benefit from the device. In this article, the optimal placement of DG and DSTATCOM is determined on IEEE 33-bus and 69-bus RDS with an aim to enhance voltage profile, reduce line losses, and maximize financial benefit. To reduce the search space and computational burden, the performance assessments of these devices are carried out only at weak bus locations that are identified using Voltage Stability Index (VSI). To quantify the financial benefit after a certain period of time, authors developed a logical formula namely Economic Benefit (EB). In addition, an innovative formula namely Relative Pollution Index (RPI) is developed to assess the environmental impact of these devices. First time, on the basis of the technical, economical, and environmental aspects, performance comparison between DG and DSTATCOM is thoroughly analyzed in this study, which will facilitate the planning engineers to identify the most beneficial device for the RDS.
Keywords: Optimal Placement; Distributed STATCOM; Distributed Generation; Deregulated Power System; Recovery Time; Economic Benefit; Relative Pollution Index.
DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR SOLUTION OF A MULTI-AREA POWER DISPATCH PROBLEM
by Senthil Krishnamurthy, Raynitchka Tzoneva
Abstract: Large interconnected power systems are decomposed into areas or
zones based on the size of the electric power system, network topology and
geographical location. Multi-area economic emission dispatch (MAEED)
problem is an optimisation task in power system operation for allocating
amount of generation to the committed units within these areas. Its objective is
to minimise the fuel cost subject to the power balance, generators limits,
transmission lines, and tie-line constraints. The solution of the MAEED
problem in the conditions of deregulation is difficult, due to the model size,
nonlinearity, and interconnections. It determines the amount of power that can
be economically generated in the areas and transferred to other areas if it is
needed without violating tie-line capacity constraints. High-performance
computing (HPC) gives possibilities for reduction of the problem complexity
and the time for calculation by the use of parallel processing for running
advanced application programs efficiently, reliably and quickly.
Keywords: multi-area dispatch problem; Lagrange’s decomposition method;
electricity market; high performance computing; parallel computing.
A Comprehensive Simulator of AC Autotransformer Electrified Traction System
by Mohammad Hossein Bigharaz, Seyed Hossein Hosseinian, Ahmad Afshar, Amir Abolfazl Suratgar, Mehdi Amiri Dehcheshmeh
Abstract: In this paper a comprehensive simulator for a 2
Keywords: High speed transportation; Autotransformer Traction System; MTL; Load-flow.
Uncertainty Cost Functions for Solar Photovoltaic Generation, Wind Energy Generation, and Plug-In Electric Vehicles: Mathematical Expected Value and Verification by Monte Carlo Simulation
by Sergio Rivera, Camilo Arevalo, Fabian Santos
Abstract: Electrical power systems which incorporate solar or wind energy sources, or electric vehicles, must deal with the uncertainty about the availability of injected or demanded power. This creates uncertainty costs to be considered in stochastic economic dispatch models. The estimation of these costs is important for proper management of energy resources and accurate allocation of the amount of energy available for the system. In this paper, analytical formulas of uncertainty penalty costs are calculated, for solar and wind energy and for electric vehicles, through a mathematical expected value formulation. In order to get the proposed uncertainty cost functions, probability distribution functions (PDF) of the energy primary sources are considered, that is to say: Log-normal distribution for solar irradiance PDF, Rayleigh distribution for wind speed PDF and Normal distribution for loading and unloading behavior PDF of electric vehicles. The analytical formulation is verified through Monte Carlo simulations.
Keywords: Wind and Solar Energy ; Electric Vehicles ; Uncertainty Cost ; Economic Dispatch Models ; Mathematical Modeling.
Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in an Unbalance Distribution System using Gray Wolf Optimization Method
by Arjun Tyagi, Ashu Verma, Lokesh Kumar Panwar
Abstract: The distributed generation sources (DGs) are becoming increasingly
attractive due to introduction of small scale renewable energy sources. They
can be integrated in to low voltage distribution networks, to reduce the burden
on transmission and sub transmission network. However, the number of DGs,
their placement, and sizing can influence the advantages from the distribution
network operation point of view. Also, most of the time the planning is done
considering the peak load demand only. However, the losses obtained at peak
load, may not give the realistic picture. This paper demonstrates the application
of a grey wolf optimisation method for obtaining the optimal size and location
of DGs (solar photovoltaic-based) in an unbalanced distribution network. The
method proposed in this paper provides a set of solutions from the point of
view of voltage stability enhancement and loss minimisation. The utility can
prioritise either voltage stability enhancement or loss minimisation or both to
choose the best compromised solution. Moreover, the losses are calculated by
considering the seasonal load and PV generation patterns during the year to
simulate the real picture of distribution system. Results on 33 bus balanced and
25 bus unbalanced distribution system are taken to demonstrate the potential of
the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: distributed generator; energy loss; grey wolf optimiser; GWO;
optimal size; optimal location.
Simulation of Different Power Methods for Induction Generator Faults Detection and Diagnosis
by Abdeslem Leksir, Bachir Bensaker
Abstract: This paper deals with a simulation of different power methods to detect and diagnose induction generator faults. Instantaneous partial and total power, active and reactive power, complex apparent power and transformed power from mechanic to electric nature are revisited, simulated and discussed in this paper for induction generator rotor broken bars and stator short cuts faults detection and diagnosis. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and PQ transform algorithms are used as comparison tools. Simulation results show that, on one hand, active, reactive and complex apparent power can only be used to detect evolution of rotor faults. On the other hand, partial, total and power transferred from mechanical to electrical nature are able to detect induction generator faults evolution with the advantage of eliminating electrical distortions and influence of low quality of supplying voltage. Furthermore, the implementation of the PQ transformation offers the possibility to isolate load influence from rotor faults and stator ones.
Keywords: Induction Generator; Power Modelling; Partial and Total Power; Active-Reactive Power; Rotor & Stator Fault Diagnosis; Simulation.
Optimal AGC Scheme Design Using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimisation and Gravitational Search Algorithm
by Nour E.L. Yakine KOUBA, Mohamed Menaa, Mourad Hasni, Mohamed Boudour
Abstract: In this paper, a novel hybrid Particle Swarm Optimisation and Gravitational Search Algorithm (HPSO-GSA) is proposed to design an optimal Automatic Generation Control (AGC) scheme in interconnected power system. The proposed algorithm combines the advantages of both Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA). This new meta-heuristic HPSO-GSA is applied to achieve the optimal Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller parameters. Hence, the optimal PID controller is used to reduce the system fluctuations with the best dynamic performances. The AGC issue is formulated as an optimal load frequency control problem, where the frequency fluctuations and the tie-line power flow deviations are to be minimised in the same time. In order to test the performance of the proposed HPSO-GSA strategy, the integral time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE) is used as an objective function. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach over disturbances, standard two-area system is used. The obtained simulation results are compared to those yielded using classical and heuristic optimisation techniques surfaced in the recent state-of-the-art literature. The comparative study demonstrates the potential of the proposed strategy and shows its robustness to solve the optimal AGC problem.
Keywords: Automatic Generation Control (AGC); Load Frequency Control (LFC); Optimal Control; Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO); Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA); Hybrid PSO-GSA.
Supervisory Control Using Fuzzy Logic for Fault Ride-Through Capability of a Hybrid System in Grid Supporting Mode
by Chayan Bhattacharjee, Binoy Krishna Roy
Abstract: This paper demonstrates a novel supervisory control algorithm for power extraction and its management in a grid-tied low concentration photovoltaic system (LCPV) with battery energy storage system (BESS). The proposed controller functions in grid support mode where it provides different power share between the local load and the grid. Two broad cases are studied based on different irradiance periods. These are healthy and faulty grid conditions. The supervisory controller directs all the power converters and maintains power balance at the common dc link. Reactive power support of the grid inverter during a grid fault is controlled by using the magnitude of grid voltage sag. This control scheme prevents islanding of the dc microgrid in accordance with the Indian grid code. Under normal grid condition, the considered hybrid system will dispatch full power generated, at the point of common coupling. Transient variation in dc link voltage is stabilised via battery charge control. The selection of control parameters for optimum power extraction from low concentration photovoltaic generator during grid faults is done by using fuzzy logic. Both inverter and battery control power references are selected based on different operational modes during normal and faulty conditions of the grid. Use of dump load is avoided at the dc link for dc link voltage transient stabilisation during sudden load changes and grid faults; such a method adopted has increased the system efficiency.
Keywords: Battery Energy Storage System; Low concentration photo-voltaic; Maximum power point tracking; Supervisory controller and Voltage Oriented control.
Optimization of planers tilts angles reflectors for solar hybrid photovoltaic thermal air collector
by Tabet Ismail, Khaled Touafek, Bellel Nadir, Nouredine Bouarroudj, Khalifa Abdelkarim
Abstract: Using concentrators to the output of hybrid photovoltaic thermal solar collectors (PV/T) has been proven cost effective. Flat reflectors offer a simpler, reliable, and cheap solution to increase the amount of solar radiations that fall on the solar collector. They provide a uniform concentration of solar radiation over the PV/T collector and prevent a hot-spot phenomenon. The objective of this study is to find the optimum tilt angle of the reflector with respect to the hybrid PV/T air collector by implementing a particle swarm optimization method (PSO). The PV/T air collector is south oriented and tilted at site latitude angle. The total incident solar radiation on the PV/T air collector surface is estimated. An experimental test was conducted in the southern region of Algeria on a prototype of the hybrid PV/T air collector, with two reflectors mounted on the lower and upper parts of the PV/T air collector. A 9%-19% increase in quantity of solar radiation incidents on the PV/T air collector was observed with the addition of planer reflectors.
Keywords: hybrid PV/T collector; planer reflectors; optimization; PSO.
Improvement of the line losses, weaker buses and saddle-node-bifurcation points using reconfigurations of the identified suitable lines
by Parimal Acharjee
Abstract: For the voltage stability analysis and the security assessment of the power systems, the identification of the weaker lines or buses are very important. For the planning, operation, and design of the modern power systems, the effect of the network reconfiguration of the identified weaker lines are now-a-days investigated. The Saddle-Node Bifurcation (SNB) is one of the most popular voltage stability indexes by which weaker buses or lines can be determined. Gradually increasing the load, the SNB point is determined using modified continuation power flow (MCPF) algorithm considering the practical security constraints. The three different sets of the security limits (i.e. three cases) are judged for the voltage stability analysis. The weakest and the weaker buses are detected from the power flow solution at the SNB point for all cases. The three different reconfigurations are implemented on the identified weaker lines for the standard IEEE-14, 30, and 57-bus test systems separately. For all cases and for all test systems, the loading margin or the SNB point is enhanced and the voltage stability is improved as the voltage magnitudes of the weaker buses are increased. The line loss of each reconfigured line is significantly reduced. The overall network line losses are also minimized for all cases. The optimal location and the suitable lines for the reconfiguration are demonstrated with the results. Using the network reconfiguration, the significant improvement of the SNB points, weaker buses, line losses for the different cases are proved showing results.
Keywords: Network reconfiguration; modified continuation power flow; weaker lines; Saddle-Node Bifurcation; line losses.
Transmission Line Capacity Improvement Using Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation Device Considering Voltage Stability Analysis
by AMRANE Youssouf
Abstract: In this paper, the Interior Point Method (IPM) is applied to the Optimal Reactive Power Planning (ORPP) problem using the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) device with consideration of voltage stability with handling the minimization of transmission line capacity in electrical network. To improve this case of study, two other objective functions are associated. The first is the angle deviation minimization problem it minimizes the difference between the sending and receiving bus angles. And the second one is voltage deviation problem which aims to improve the system voltage profiles. The chosen of these associate objective functions is defined by the most influence of bus angles and voltages to improve the system transmission line capacity. Also, the proposed algorithms satisfy various constraints, which are: power flow equations, generator voltage limits, switchable capacitor banks, transformer tap changer limits, and transmission line limits. The Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) is used to identify the critical lines to install the TCSC controllers. The methodology has been tested in the equivalent Algerian electrical power systems 114 bus. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for improving the reactive power planning problem.
Keywords: Optimal reactive power planning; Interior point method; Thyristor controlled series compensator; transmission line capacity; Algerian electric power system.
A Modernistic PLL Based on Feed Forward Frequency Estimator with Selective Harmonic Pre filter for Grid Imperfection
by Seema Agrawal, Dheeraj Kumar Palwalia
Abstract: This paper describes a synchronization technique to track phase and frequency of input signal under abnormal grid condition like frequency variation. Proposed control topology consist of a conventional synchronous reference frame phase locked loop (SRF PLL) type -2 along with a feed forward frequency estimator loop with selective harmonic filtering technique. It eliminates phase and frequency error under wide frequency deviation. Phase error is fed into proportional integral regulator which reduces it to zero. It is observed that faster and better dynamic performance is achieved by frequency estimator with higher stability margin. The stability is evaluated by bode plot. An estimated frequency is smooth and close to fundamental frequency as it uses the information from all three phase to estimate a single value for frequency. The feed forward action is implemented with pre filtering stage to improve dynamic performance of system. Simulation results are presented to validate effectiveness of proposed technique.
Keywords: Phase lock loop (PLL); Synchronous reference frame; Dynamic performance; Grid synchronization; Frequency estimation; Selective harmonic filtering.
Impact of Battery Electric Vehicles on Low Voltage Distribution Networks
by Bhuvaneswari Ramachandran, Gnansigamani Bellarmine
Abstract: Due to their high energy capacity and potential mass deployment, Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) will have a significant impact on power distribution networks. There are issues for the Distribution Network Operator if BEV charging is allowed to take place without any control on the time of day, duration or charging rate. Specifically, the network voltage may fall below prescribed limits at times of peak demand and power flows may cause a thermal overload of assets. The existing literature on scheduling charging/discharging of BEVs makes use of decentralized/centralized control architectures to study the effect of charging/discharging of BEVs on distribution network. This paper presents a teaching-learning algorithm method to optimally charge and discharge the BEVs and hence mitigate the adverse impacts on the distribution network by considering the driving behavior of car owners. This approach has resulted in reduced transformer loading even when using V2G and G2V modes of operation of the BEVs and hence has prevented transformer aging in low voltage distribution networks.
Keywords: BEV battery; electric vehicles; smart charging and discharging; distribution network; aging of the distribution transformer.
Direct power control of three-phase PWM AC/DC converter based on intelligent approach with dc-bus voltage regulation using sliding mode controller
by Mohamed Akherraz, Mohamed Barara, Mustapha Jamma, Abderrahim Bennassar
Abstract: This research aims to present a novel direct power control (DPC) strategy of three-phase PWM AC/DC converters. In this strategy, the regulation of the dc-bus voltage is based on non-linear sliding mode controller (SMC), therncontrol of the instantaneous active and reactive power is performed by fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) and also the artificial neural networks (ANN) approach is used to select the switching states of PWM AC/DC converter. The sliding mode control is an effective tool to minimize disturbances. Nevertheless, the chattering phenomenon depicts a major problem for variable structure systems (VSS). To overcome this drawback, a saturation function is employed to decrease chattering effects. The proposed method allows, on the one hand, to steer the dc-bus voltage, the instantaneous active and reactive power to their reference values. On the other hand, it enables to reduce the harmonic disturbances, the power ripples and to realize a unity power factor (UPF) operation. Simulation results are provided to confirm the efficiency, the robustness and the performances of the proposed DPC scheme in different conditions of simulation.
Keywords: direct power control; sliding mode controller; artificial neural networks approach; fuzzy logic controller; PWM AC/DC converter.
Performance Evaluation of Backstepping Approach for Wind Power Generation System Based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator and Operating Under Non-ideal Grid Voltages
by Youssef Errami, Abdellatif Obbadi, Smail Sahnoun, Mohammed Ouassaid, Mohamed Maaroufi
Abstract: Under the increasing integration of wind energy into power systems, an effective control strategy of a Wind Farm System (WFS) plays a fundamental role in wind power exploitation. This paper presents a nonlinear control strategy to track the maximum power point for 4 MW-WFS based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and interconnected to the electrical network. The proposed configuration consists of a 2 PMSGs connected to a common dc-bus system through a rectifiers. The dc-bus is connected to the power grid through only one inverter system. The control schemes are based on nonlinear Backstepping theory to control both PMSG and grid-side converters of a WFS. The main objective of this control is to regulate the velocities of the PMSGs with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for the complete functioning regions of a wind turbine system. Besides, the grid-side converter is used to control the dc link voltage and to regulate the power factor at varying wind velocity. The stability of the regulators is obtained using Lyapunov analysis. The simulation results through MATLAB/Simulink are presented and discussed to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed methodology. Finally, a comparison of results based on the proposed Backstepping approach and conventional Proportional Integral (PI) regulator is provided for different grid voltage conditions and under parameter deviations.
Keywords: Wind Farm System; PMSG; MPPT; Nonlinear Control; backstepping approach; Electric Network Connection.
Detection and Classification of Power Quality Events Using Empirical Wavelet Transform and Error Minimized Extreme Learning Machine.
by MRUTYUNJAYA SAHANI
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to detect the Power Quality Events (PQEs) by Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) and classify by Error Minimized Extreme Learning Machine (EMELM). Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) is used to analyze the non-stationary Power Quality Event signals by Multi Resolution Analysis (MRA). Here, the disturbance energy index feature vector of different electric power supply signals have been acquired by applying the EWT on all the spectral components and to analyze the overall efficiency of the proposed method on both ideal and noisy environments, three types of PQ event data sets are constructed by accumulating the noise of 25, 35 and 45dB. ELM is an advanced and efficient classifier, which is implemented to recognize the single as well as multiple PQ fault classes. Based on very high performance under ideal and noisy environment, the new EWT-EMELM method can be implemented in real electrical power systems. The feasibility of proposed method is tested by simulation to verify its cogency.
Keywords: Disturbance Energy Index; Empirical Wavelet Transform; Error Minimized Extreme Learning Machine (EMELM); Multiresolution Analysis; Non-stationary power quality events.
Sensorless control and diagnosis of synchronous generator used in wind energy conversion system under inter turn short-circuit fault
by Samir Bouslimani
Abstract: This paper deals with control and diagnosis of the synchronous generator (SG) used in a wind energy conversion system under inter turn short-circuit fault. In the first part of this paper, a speed sensorless control of the synchronous generator is presented. In this case speed estimation is carried out using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS). In the second part, the MRAS observer is associated with the Luenberger observer in order to estimate the stator resistances according d and q axis. The stability of the system is proved by using Lyapunov theory. Finally, the proposed new hybrid observer MRAS-Luenberger is used to detect the turn-to-turn short circuit faults. The Parks Vector Approach (PVA) is adopted to take decision if there are faults. The proposed technique is tested on dSPACE DS1103 and the results confirm the efficacy to detect the fault by observing the shape. This method gives us the right information for the fault isolation.
Keywords: Synchronous Generator; Condition Monitoring; Inter-turn Short-Circuit; Park Vector Approach (PVA); Fault Diagnosis; Wind Power.
Solutions of UPFC-based load frequency control using quasi-oppositional biogeography based optimisation considering various nonlinearities of power system
by Dipayan Guha, Provas Kumar Roy, Subrata Banerjee
Abstract: In this article, quasi-oppositional biogeography-based optimisation (QOBBO) is employed for the optimum solution of load frequency control in the power system. Initially, two-area non-reheat thermal system equipped with classical PID-controller with all possible physical constraints is considered for investigation. Optimum values of controller parameters are derived using QOBBO through the minimisation of integral time absolute error-based objective function. Two more fitness functions based on integral square error and integral time square error are considered for better comparison of proposed algorithm. Comparisons are also made with existing methods to the show superiority of proposed algorithm. Additionally, frequency stabiliser in the form of unified power flow controller is proposed in the system for the betterment of the existing results. Finally, two more realistic test systems namely two-area multi-unit hydro-thermal network and two-area six-unit power system having thermal, hydro, wind and diesel power plant are considered for judging potentiality of proposed method. The sensitivity of the designed controller is investigated over a wide variation of system parameters and under different loading conditions.
Keywords: load frequency control; LFC; nonlinearities of power system; quasi-oppositional biogeography-based optimisation; unified power flow controller; UPFC; robustness analysis.
Performance study of three synchronisation algorithms in renewable energy grid connected system
by Chirine Benzazah, Loubna Lazrak, Mustapha Ait Lafkih
Abstract: In grid connected applications, the efficiency of systems is strongly affected by the employed phase locked loop (PLL) strategy. This paper presents a comparative study of three PLL structures applied to a grid-connected renewable energy system with a nominal power of 7 MW. To select the suitable structure dedicated to previously mentioned application, we will evaluate the performance of the PLL techniques under distorted and unbalanced supply voltages. Several simulations test with a disturbed three phase utility grid using MATLAB-Simulink/SimpowerSystem are presented to valid the theoretical study.
Keywords: renewable energy; grid synchronisation; phase-looked-loop; PLL; harmonic distortions; unbalances.
Comprehensive three-diode model of photovoltaic array with partial shading capability
by Mehdi Ouada, Mohamed Salah Meridjet, Djalel Dib
Abstract: In this paper, we present a new approach of comprehensive MATLAB/Simulink simulator for photovoltaic generator based on a three-diode equivalent circuit, taking in consideration seven parameters and it needs only the parameters presented in the data sheet by the manufacturer. For characterisation of any photovoltaic generator, the simulator supports a large array combination with high accuracy. The results obtained by the simulator are compared with previously published simulator and the experimental data. The proposed work can be very useful for photovoltaic (PV) professionals and developers that can be interfaced with different kind of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms and power electronic converters, and its present capability with partial shading conditions (PSC).
Keywords: photovoltaic simulator; PV; three-diode model; partial shading; fast MPPT; global MPPT.
DC grid connected energy flow control formed by three different solar panels, fuel cell and battery-backed hybrid energy generation system
by Tolga Özer, Yüksel Oğuz, Hasan Çimen
Abstract: Hybrid energy generation systems help to increase system reliability and improve power quality. However, they come across some challenges in their widespread using area. These problems are intermittently varying renewable energy sources like solar radiation, high installation costs and limited lifetime of energy storage devices. Thus, there is a need to integrate these sources by means of a suitable power management strategy despite the fluctuations in source and load power. In this paper, an energy system comprising two energy sources, namely PV and fuel cells, is proposed. Each of the energy sources is controlled so as to deliver energy at optimum efficiency. The main aim is to give uninterrupted, efficient and economical energy to consumer. So Arduino microcontroller-based control is applied for energy flow control to DC voltage bus. Also, a complete description of the management system is presented.
Keywords: hybrid energy; energy flow control; fuel cell; solar panel; Arduino; Labview; microcontroller.
Power quality improvement for grid interconnected solar PV system using neural network control algorithm
by Bellamkonda Pragathi, Rajagopal Veramalla, Fazal Noorbasha, Bangarraju Jampana
Abstract: This paper deals with neural network control algorithm-based grid connected to solar photo voltaic (PV) system consisting of DC-DC converter, solar PV with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, three-leg voltage source converter (VSC), ripple filter at PCC, interfacing inductor and three phase grid connected to three phase linear/nonlinear loads. The reference solar-grid current for three-leg VSC are estimated using neural network control algorithm. The neural network based on least mean square (LMS) control algorithm is also known as adaptive linear element to estimate reference fundamental grid currents. A three phase non-isolated zigzag transformer is connected to solar grid PCC for neutral current compensation. The proposed solar PV grid connected system maintains UPF at the grid, reactive power compensation for ZVR operation along with load balancing, neutral current compensation and harmonic compensation. In the proposed solar PV system, MPPT is obtained using DC-DC boost converter and DC bus voltage is controlled by using DC bus proportional integral (PI). The neural network control algorithm based solar PV system is modelled in MATLAB R2013a along with SIMULINK.
Keywords: neural network control algorithm; solar PV system; DC-DC converter; power quality; maximum power point tracking; MPPT.
Comparative study of wind speed extrapolation methods for sites with different roughness
by Dalila Khalfa, Abdelouaheb Benretem, Nassir Cheikchouk, Lazher Herous
Abstract: An accurate wind shear model is crucial to extrapolate the observed wind resource from the available lower heights to the steadily increasing hub height of modern wind turbines. That is why several studies have been made to determine the best suited formula for wind speed extrapolation. This work is aimed at preceding the research issue addressed within a previous study, where some extrapolation models were tested and compared by extrapolating the energy resources at different heights. In this context, this paper deals with the assessment of several wind speed extrapolation laws by comparing the analytical results obtained with real data for three different meteorological. The comparison has led to the following results: for an extremely roughs site, the one seven law is a very efficient law for the extrapolation of the wind speed and Weibull parameters of reference altitude at higher altitudes, for a site of average roughness, the modified power law 2 is recommended for the best extrapolation. The logarithmic power law provides a good level of accuracy for a site of mild roughness.
Keywords: extrapolation laws; Weibull parameters; meteorological sites; wind speed; measure of dispersion; roughness.
A hybrid improved harmony search algorithm-nonlinear programming approach for optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relays including characteristic selection
by Vipul N. Rajput, Kartik S. Pandya
Abstract: The objective of optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) is to search optimal relay settings. This leads to the minimum operating time of relays for faults in their primary protection zone under the coordination and boundary constraints. In this paper, relay settings are considered as pairs of - pickup current setting (Ip) and time multiplier setting (TMS), plug setting (PS) and TMS - for solving the coordination problem on 8-bus and 15-bus networks. Moreover, a new hybrid improved harmony search algorithm-nonlinear programming (IHSA-NLP) approach is proposed to solve the relay coordination problem. To demonstrate the superiority of IHSA-NLP method, obtained results are compared with the IHSA and existing methods presented in the literature. Also, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated with the coordination problem considering multiple characteristics on IEEE 30-bus network.
Keywords: characteristic selection; constrained optimisation; directional overcurrent relay; DOCR; improved harmony search algorithm; IHSA; meta-heuristic; nonlinear programming; optimum relay coordination; power system protection; relay setting.
Krill herd algorithm for optimal UPFC placement in transmission system
by Susanta Dutta, Provas Kumar Roy, Debashis Nandi
Abstract: Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are well-known optimisation approaches to deal with nonlinear and complex problems. However, most of these population-based algorithms are computationally expensive due to the slow nature of the evolutionary process. This paper presents a fast, efficient and relatively new krill herd algorithm (KHA) to find optimal location of unified power flow controller (UPFC) for solving the optimal power flow (OPF) problem taking nonlinearities of valve-point effects into consideration. The proposed algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 30-bus system incorporating single and multiple UPFC devices for two different load conditions. The simulation results of the proposed KHA method are compared with other well popular artificial intelligent techniques namely, particle swarm optimisation (PSO), differential evolution (DE), genetic algorithm (GA) and biogeography-based optimisation (BBO). The solutions obtained by the proposed KHA algorithm are quite encouraging and it is found that the proposed KHA-based approach is able to provide better solution than other evolutionary optimisation techniques in terms of cost, computation time and convergence.
Keywords: krill herd algorithm; KHA; evolutionary optimisation; unified power flow controller; UPFC; optimal power flow; OPF; FACTS; valve point effect.
Design of new controller for load frequency control of isolated microgrid considering system uncertainties
by Mehran Esmaeili, Hossein Shayeghi, Mehdi Nooshyar, Hamze Aryanpour
Abstract: In this paper, a method for designing a load frequency control for micro grids after islanding has been proposed using neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) control approaches. The three different controllers consisting optimal PID controller, fuzzy controller and a special kind of ANFIS controller have been compared. PID controller parameters are tuned using NSGA-II algorithm to minimise overshoot, settling time and integral square error over a wide-range of load changes. The PID controller parameters obtained from NSGA-II algorithm are used to train ANFIS. The performances of the controllers are implemented using MATLAB package. A comparison of ANFIS PID controller and other controllers indicates the superiority of proposed ANFIS-based approach over fuzzy PID and optimal PID controller for the same conditions.
Keywords: neuro-fuzzy inference systems; ANFIS; fuzzy PID controller; NSGA-II; islanded operation; LFC; microgrids.
A novel parameter estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor drive
by Pilla Ramana, Karlapudy Alice Mary, Munagala Surya Kalavathi
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel parameter estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive based on Hartley modulating function (HMF). The speed and torque of a PMSM depend on currents directly and winding resistance, inductance indirectly. So, in order to achieve a good performance drive system, an accurate knowledge of machine parameters is important. Most of the existing techniques for parameter estimation of PMSM use a linear model of the system in order to estimate the parameters. However, PMSM is inherently nonlinear, and linear modelling is applicable for restricted operating region. The proposed estimation is free from boundary conditions and gives rise to linear-in-parameters model. Using HMF method, electrical parameters such as armature resistance (Ra), q-axis inductance (lqs), d-axis inductance (lds) and mechanical parameters such as the moment of inertia (J), viscous friction coefficient (β) are estimated with a fair amount of accuracy. The estimates have been found to be quite sensitive to the choice of sampling time and size. The proposed method is verified by MATLAB simulation, and shows better performance in the estimation process.
Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motor; PMSM; rotor reference frame; parameter estimation; Hartley modulating function; HMF.