International Journal of Nanoparticles (20 papers in press)
A review on exploring phytosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using genus Brassica
by Manju Yadav, Pawan Kaur
Abstract: Nanobiotechnology is an emerging field of applied biological science and nanotechnology. Synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is done by various physical and chemical methods but the biological methods are relatively simple, cost-effective, nontoxic, and environmentally friendly methods. Extract of Brassica genus vegetables and plants have been used as reducing agent for the environmentally friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles so the present review focuses on the synthesis of nanoparticles with special emphasis on the silver and gold nanoparticles by using plants of genus Brassica and their applications in various fields.
Keywords: Nanoparticles; Biological; Brassica; Vegetables; Reducing agents.
Sonochemical synthesis of iron doped zinc oxide nanoparticles at different sonication powers and temperatures with their application for photocatalytic degradation of PVC-ZnO composite film
by Anirban Roy, Saikat Maitra, Sampa Chakrabarti
Abstract: Doping with iron enhances various properties of zinc oxide making it suitable for several applications. Sono-chemical route is an easy way for synthesis of doped ZnO nanoparticles. Input-powers of ultrasound and synthesistemperature have significant influences over the characteristics of iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Effects of the varying sonication powers and synthesis temperatures on the average grain size, band gap and magnetic properties of doped ZnO were studied using UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractrometry (XRD), field emission scanning electron micrography (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and SQUID-magnetometer. Both temperature and sonication power influenced the characteristics. The nanoparticles were then used for casting composite films with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and photodegradation of the film was examined under sunlight. Performances of nanoparticles synthesized at different conditions were compared. Maximum degradation of about 12% was obtained within 3 hours with nanoparticles synthesized at 42 W power and 30oC temperature.
Keywords: Fe-doped- Zinc oxide; Nanoparticles; Sonication-power; Temperature; PVC-nanocomposite; degradation.
Experimental study and sustainable surface-active effect of ECA hybrid particulate on tin-zinc infringement coating developed via DAECD technique on AISI 1015 steel
by O.S.I. Fayomi, A.P.I. Popoola, F. Kgoete
Abstract: The effect of sustainable degradable eco-friendly extract juice on the precipitation and re-enforcement of Zn-SnO2 alloy matrix with the aim of producing an eco-friendly composite material for engineering structural applications was investigated. Coconut juice fluids were added as additive in different weight concentration into a sulphate bath. Composite samples were produced from these mixtures and the effect of coconut juice on the microstructure evolution, the mechanical properties of the composites and the electrochemical behaviour were investigated and analysed. Scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to study the surface morphology, the topography and the surface adherent properties of the coatings. The intermetalic phases were observed by an energy dispersive X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD). Micro-hardness behaviours were investigated by means of high impact diamond Dura scan micros hardness tester. The electrochemical behaviour of the deposits were measurements by the help of PGSTAT101 using potentiodynamic polarization method. The result shows that Zn-SnO2-15CJ sulphate co-deposition contributed to increase hardness strengthening condition than Zn-SnO2 alloy. The stable crystal growth and significant performance of Zn-SnO2-15CJ sulphate are link to the intermetalic phase hybrid of ZnSn, Zn4Sn2, Zn3Sn5. In addition, it was observed that Zn- Zn-SnO2-15CJ sulphate has excellent corrosion progression at ambient temperature. The hardness performance also shows that developed Zn-SnO2-15CJ is increased by about 80% compared to as received sample and about 25% compared with Zn-SnO2. This outcome of the characterization of ECA as reinforce materials is very promising for the structural application in production of surface-hard components.
Keywords: Sustainable extract; composite; re-enforcement; XRD; microstructure.
Investigating PMMA as a potential insulator material for Metal-Insulator-Metal diode
by Shilpi ., Kapil Bhatt, Sandeep ., Sandeep Kumar, C.C. Tripathi
Abstract: The metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes are considered very promising for high frequency applications because of its tunneling based ultrafast charge transport mechanism. A wide variety of materials are being explored in quest of developing these thin film devices. Recently, organic insulator based MIM diodes have attracted significant attention to the researchers due to its several advantages and have become a promising alternative of conventional inorganic insulators. In the present work the feasibility of an organic polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is investigated for insulating material of MIM junction. PMMA is a transparent resin which is able to produce uniform and thin insulating layer with low defect density. An Al/PMMA/Cr structure is fabricated by optimizing different process parameters in order to develop high performance, reproducible organic MIM diodes. The as fabricated device exhibited fairly asymmetric and non-linear current-voltage characteristics which reveals the viability of PMMA as candidate material for insulator layer in MIM diodes.
Keywords: MIM diode; PMMA; Organic insulator; Asymmetry; Nonlinearity.
A Back Illuminated Solar Cell using PbS Quantum Dots as Sensitizers
by Abhigyan Ganguly, Siddhartha Sankar Nath, Gautam Gope, Madhuchhanda Choudhury
Abstract: Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) is generally fabricated using transparent conducting (TCO) glass plates and platinum or gold as electrodes. The article reports a modified back side illuminated QDSSC structure utilizing aluminum foil as electrodes. PbS quantum dots have been synthesized using simple chemical method and are utilized as sensitizers in a ZnO based solar cell structure. Two types of QDSSCs are fabricated using the same quantum dots i.e one using ITO glass plate and the other using aluminum. The solar cell parameters are obtained for both the structures and their comparative analysis is reported in the paper.
Keywords: PbS; Quantum dots; sensitizer; solar cell; Modified structure; back illumination; aluminium electrode.
Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanostructures for photocatalytic applications
by Kamel Atamnia, Hamid Satha, Mohamed Bououdina
Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and thin films were successfully prepared by sol-gel method using Titanium tetraisopropoxide (Ti(OCH(CH3)2)4) as precursor and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) as structuring agent, while varying TIPT:TMAOH ratio (2:1 and 2:2). X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of nanocrystalline anatase phase after crystallisation starting from 300
Keywords: Titania; precursor; anatase; nanostructures; structuring agent; TMAOH; monodipersed nanoparticles; photocatalytic.
HIGH PERFORMANCE PLL FOR MULTIBAND GSM APPLICATIONS
by UMAKANTA NANDA, Debiprasad Priyabrata Acharya, Debasish Nayak, Prakash Kumar Rout
Abstract: Dead zone very often poses to be a limitation in the high performance Phase Locked Loops (PLLs). The design of a dead zone free PLL with fast locking and low phase noise capability is proposed. This is achieved by using a voltage variable delay element (VVDE) in the feedback path or reset path of the Phase Frequency Detector (PFD). A feedback from one of the inputs of charge pump circuit is used to retain the overall PFD delay slightly positive to escape dead zone at lesser phase noise. The PLL performance with this proposed PFD is analyzed in the Cadence design environment. It attains phase noise of -110.5 dBc/ Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency which is superior as compared to the other two reported techniques. Achieving this superior phase noise performance the PLL consumes lesser power of 2.56 mW at the cost of 5% extra physical area. This performance is also compared with that of PLL where no delay and fixed delay element is used to reduce the dead zone.
Keywords: phase frequency detector; dead zone; phase noise; charge pump.
STUDY AND DESIGN ON CYBER INTERACTION PROCESSES FOR CEREBRAL PALSY EMPLOYEES
by Zinkar Das, Ashraful Islam, Dipesu Banerjee, Moumita Ghosh, Biswarup Neogi
Abstract: Modern technology inspires humanity to enhance its creativity, reliability and durability in basis of innovative high-tech activities. One of the major inventions of the twentieth century is the computer, which trends lifestyle in a smooth path. In spite of this prodigious creation, cerebral palsy is still underprivileged at societal activities as well as service employment. A ray of hope and happiness serves them for various official activities and knowledge enrichment through an economic prototype wheelchair design incorporated with computational interactions. Besides the creation of equating humanity feelings of deprived personnel is main concern about that purported work. Mainly, this paper represents the chronological developmental processes of prototype creation for computer interactional ergonomic arrangement for Cerebral Palsy (CP) patients. Starting from the first stage to future scope of study with the aim of better product generation on this topic is carried out. Wheel Chair with Cyber Interaction by a different part of the body (lower limb, upper limb, tongue) are focused with a complete schematic approach. Comparative table contributes significant preview of this development. Research implies a comprehensive knowledge on practical prototype generation on computer interaction device for CP persons. Training, evaluation processes with short data oriented specification details of the present system enhance its originality. Testing phase representation for a different angle is clarified with this paper on the view of future enhancement of this work.
Keywords: Cerebral Palsy; Computer Interaction; Interactive Wheelchair; Ergonomic arrangement.
Thermal Convection in a Rectangular Box Saturated by Nanofluid with Convective Boundary Condition
by Shivani Saini, Y.D. Sharma
Abstract: The combined effect of Brownian diffusion and thermophoretic (collision between molecules of base fluid and nanoparticles) on the onset of convection in a rectangular box has been investigated in the present paper. Convective boundary condition and modified mass flux condition are considered. Darcy model is used for porous media. The linear stability of nanofluid is analyzed by calculating the critical Rayleigh number using normal mode technique and resulting equations are solved by the Galerkin residual method. The critical Rayleigh number is determined as a function of the nanofluid parameters, Biot number, and aspect ratios of the rectangular box. It is observed that modified diffusivity ratio, nanoparticle Rayleigh number, and Lewis number, destabilize the system, while Biot number and porosity stabilize the system. It is also found that effect of nanoparticles on convection is independent of the aspect ratio of a rectangular box. The stabilizing/destabilizing effects of various governing parameters on the convection have also been presented graphically.
Keywords: Rectangular Box, Nanofluid, Aspect Ratio, Lateral Walls
Special Issue on: DevIC 2017 Nanotechnology Based Devices and Nanostructures
An approach to various carrier transmission properties and significant parameters in special semiconductor arrangement 'superlattice'
by Sachin Kumar, Soumya Kumari
Abstract: Semiconductor superlattices with submicrometer heterostructures are of interest not only for their device applications but also for the fundamental physical phenomena they exhibit due to their material properties and their submicrometer dimensions. In order to understand the features exhibited, it is essential to calculate their electronic and various optical phenomenon e.g transmission properties, reflection properties along the arrangement.This paper proposed the examination of potential energy profile at multibarrier system by using the mathematical function and consequently we derived the probability to get the carriers crossing the barrier in superlattice by considering the various transmission properties e.g. the transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient, dc conductance, energy variations, temperature variation etc.; and also some other significant physical parameters are analyzed at different values of internal bias across the superlattice. The dc conductance and current both have variations with respect to applied voltage can be seen here as same as that happened in bulk semiconductors.
Keywords: Transmission Coefficient; Reflection Coefficient; Energy; DC Conductance; Applied Voltages; DC Current; Temperature.
GaAs SOI FinFET: Impact of Gate Dielectric on Electrical Parameters and Application as Digital Inverter
by RAJESH SAHA, Brinda Bhowmick, Srimanta Baishya
Abstract: In this paper, a GaAs SOI (Silicon on Insulator) FinFET is proposed. A comparative study between proposed GaAs FinFET and conventional Si FinFET is presented. The effects of dielectric constant (k) of gate dielectric material on electrical parameters like channel potential, drain current, and Ion/Ioff have been reported. Results show that as k raises, both Ion/Ioff and channel potential increases. Again the impact of k on short channel effects (SCEs) has been investigated. TCAD results show that as k increases subthreshold swing (SS) improves, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) degrades, and Vt roll off occur. The impacts of k on gate capacitance (CGG) and intrinsic delay (τ) have been presented and they increases as k increases. A digital CMOS inverter is implemented through proposed FinFET and the effect of k on its delay parameter is estimated. Results shows that average delay increase as k increases.
Keywords: CMOS inverter; dielectric constant; FinFET; GaAs; SOI.
An Insight into the high frequency analysis of work function modulated cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET
by Biswajit Jena, Sidhartha Dash, Guru Prasad Mishra
Abstract: The unique design along with greater accuracy in device performance has made cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET (CSGM) a cutting edge device in the present VLSI technology. Due to its cylindrical geometry, this device provides higher packing density and higher scaling possibilities. In this work, a work function engineering based metal gate with continuous mole fraction variation along the z-axis in a cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET (WMCSGM) is introduced. The proposed WMCSGM model exhibits improved RF performance as compared to conventional CSGM model. The static gm-VGS curve and Cgg-VGS curves are investigated clearly. The relevant electrical parameters such as threshold voltage (Vth), drain current (Id) and transconductance are extracted. Along with the electrical parameters, RF parameters and gain parameters (current gain and voltage gain) and different performance measures (cut-off frequency, maximum oscillation frequency) have been extensively investigated.
Keywords: Cut-off frequency; Maximum oscillation frequency; CSGM; WMCSGM; Work function modulation.
Variation of Optical Bandwidth in Defected Ternary Photonic Crystal under Different Polarization Conditions
by Arpan Deyasi, A. Sarkar
Abstract: Photonic bandwidth of defected one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal is analytically calculated under both types of oblique incidences. Both P and S type polarized incidences on the structure are considered in order to compute transmittivity of the proposed Butterworth type bandpass filter, and passband spectrum is kept at 1550 nm by suitably choosing structural parameters and defect density. Defect is kept within feasible limit, and ripple in the desired passband region is tailored by its controlled variation. Width of passband as function of defect density, angle of incidence and dimension of constituent layers is computed, and critical dimension for the sandwiched layer is predicted over which the structure will behave as equivalent binary one. For closely-spaced signal transmission, this narrow bandpass filter will work as excellent candidate to improve SNR.
Keywords: Optical bandwidth; Transmittivity; polarized condition; Defect density; Ternary crystal; Ripple factor.
Adsorption of gaseous air pollutants over Ti-doped ZGNR structures: A DFT study
by RITWIK VATSYAYAN, RAJAN SINGH, Roy PAILY
Abstract: In this study, we employed the Density Functional Theory (DFT) to study the interactions between gaseous air pollutants, including di-atomic (CO and NO), tri-atomic (CO2 and HCN), and poly-atomic (HCHO and COCl2) species, and Ti-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) structures. During this, two types of doped structures are considered, i.e. SV-ZGNR in which Ti replaces one carbon atom and DV-ZGNR, in which Ti atom replaces two adjacent carbon atoms. All gases under consideration are observed to exhibit significant adsorption energy over doped ZGNR except COCl2 for which a catalytic dissociation is observed. Our results indicate that doped ZGNR is
better for CO, NO, and HCHO adsorption as compared to that for reported doped graphene sheet. Also, DV-ZGNR is preferred over SV-ZGNR in terms of adsorption. Moreover, due to the adsorption, changes in the density of states are observed which confirms that the Ti-doped ZGNR has potential to be used as the sensing platform for these gases.
Keywords: CO; NO; CO2; HCN; HCHO; COCl2; Adsorption; Ti-doped ZGNR; Density Functional Theory.
Effects of Hot-Carrier Degradation on the Low Frequency Noise in Strained-Si p-MOSFETs
by Sanghamitra Das, Tara Prasanna Dash, C.K. Maiti
Abstract: The aim of this work is to study hot carrier degradation starting from microscopic mechanisms of defect generation and its effects on noise behaviour of scaled strained-Si MOSFETs. As device dimensions decrease, hot carrier effects, which are mainly due to the presence of a high electric field inside the device, are becoming a major device/circuit design concern. Studies of hot carrier degradation in high-mobility SiGe channel MOSFETs, in which a more severe degradation is expected due to the smaller bandgap compared to Si, are highly essential. A comprehensive model for hot carrier degradation has been used in simulation to capture the physical picture behind these detrimental effects. In this work, hot carrier degradation modelling issues have been carefully analysed and a comprehensive physics-based hot carrier degradation simulation study has been taken up. Peculiarities of the defect generation kinetics as well as their impact on degradation is discussed. We present the results of our studies on the hot carrier degradation in novel high-mobility SiGe/strained-Si channel MOSFETs and its effects on the low-frequency noise. It is shown due to hot carrier degradation, the hole mobility is degraded by about 40% after stressing. A two-fold degradation in drain current is also observed.
Keywords: SiGe/strained-Si channel; CMOS; Hot Carrier Injection; low frequency noise.
Study on surface Plasmon based improvement in absorption in plasmonic solar cell
by Partha Sarkar, Saradindu Panda, Bansibadan Maji, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Abstract: Recently, plasmonics offers very high attention and greatly deals with various field includes the nanophotonics domain that takes care of optical fields in submicron level. Its most enlighten properties are to control nanoscale concentration and scaled electromagnetic fields at nano dimension especially at solar cell. In the plasmonic field, when the nanoparticle is much smaller than the wavelength of light, coherent oscillation of the conduction band electrons induced by interaction with an electromagnetic field and conjointly improves absorption through scattering. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of nanoparticle dimension to enhance extinction in terms of absorption and scattering for silver, gold, copper and aluminum nanoparticles. We also studied finite difference time domain based solar cell model that improves various simulated plasmonic field components and observed that the high sensitivity of the surface plasmon resonance spectrum of noble metal nanoparticles to adsorbate induced changes in dimension and dielectric constant of the surrounding nanoenvironment. We also observed that noble metal specifically silver and gold nanoparticles significantly improve optical absorption than copper and aluminum nanoparticles.
Keywords: plasmon; absorption; extinction; scattering; surface Plasmon polariton; finite difference time domain.
Special Issue on: DevIC 2017 Nanotechnology and High-Speed Electronic Systems
Staggered Heterojunctions-based Tunnel-FET for application as a label-free biosensor
by Avik Chakraborty, Debasis Singha, A. Sarkar
Abstract: In this work, on the basis of dielectric modulation, a Heterojunction (HETJ) surrounding gate (SRG) Tunnel Field Effect (TFET) biosensor has been proposed. Due to the presence of biomolecules having different dielectric constant in the nanogap region of the biosensor, sensing has been performed. The sensitivity of the biosensor has been indicated using the traditional change in threshold voltage as well as in terms of ION/IOFF ratio. The results obtained from TCAD device simulation reveals that the proposed HETJ-based biosensor provides higher sensitivity as compared to other existing homojunction (HJ)-based biosensors.
Keywords: Biosensor; Heterojunction; Tunnel FET; Dielectric modulation; Label free; Surrounding Gate;.
Analysis of Power Consumption and Delay of an Inverter Circuit using TMJLSRG MOSFET for the Design of Digital Integrated Circuit
by Surajit Bari, Debashis De
Abstract: This paper represents delay and power analysis of an inverter using a triple-material junctionless surrounding gate MOSFET (TMJLSRG) to design integrated circuit. TCAD tools has been used for the purpose of simulation. The delay and power consumption are the vital design metrics to design the circuit in nano level. In this work the variation of power consumption has been reported for different values of power supply voltage VDD and channel length. Delay is also reported with respect to VDD .Moreover power consumption has been reported for the gate engineered device for different ratio of gate length .The results are satisfactory to design low power and high speed digital integrated circuit using TMJLSRG MOSFET.
Keywords: Inverter ; power ; delay ; integrated circuit ; gate engineered; TMJLSRG MOSFET.
Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz IMPATT Sources: Influence of Inter-Carrier Interactions
by Prasit Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Arindam Biswas, A.K. Bhattacharjee, Aritra Acharyya
Abstract: A major amount of energy of mobile electrons and holes in a semiconductor under electric field lost due to inter-carrier collisions prior to ionizing collision. This fact causes decrease in the ionization probability which leads to deterioration in ionization rates especially when the doping density is high. The effects of this phenomenon on the high frequency and noise properties of highly doped impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) devices based on different wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors, like 4H-SiC, Wurtzite-GaN (Wz-GaN) and type-IIb diamond (C) have been studied in this paper. Significant deteriorations in the diodes high frequency and noise performance have been observed in the simulation results. The simulation results have been compared with the experimental data in order to validate those.
Keywords: Carrier-carrier interactions; impact ionization; IMPATT; millimeter-wave; terahertz.
Implementation of Quadruple Valued Flip-Flops Using CMOS and Spatial Light Modulator Based Savart Plate
by Animesh Bhattacharya, Amal K. Ghosh, Goutam K. Maity
Abstract: The designing and simulation of multi-valued logic is a very interesting and important task in the present scenario. The memory devices in multi-valued logic (MVL) system are the most important area of modern research. The MVL system consists of a number of intermediate states between the true and false instead of the conventional binary logic consists of only two states- true and false. Hence, the MVL enables more information to be handled in a much compact manner, especially suitable for handling big data. In quadruple valued logic (QVL) system the additional two intermediate states are denoted as partially known and partially unknown which can be explored significantly to sequential logics also e.g. flip-flops, etc. The present paper deals with the design and simulation of different kind of flip-flops in QVL system using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and its optical implementation using Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) and Savart Plate.
Keywords: CMOS; Flip-Flop; MVL; QVL; Savart Plate; SLM; Tanner EDA Tools.