International Journal of Nanoparticles (21 papers in press)
- Antibiofouling property of marine actinobacteria and its mediated nanoparticle
by Aditi Agarwal, Avani Mehra, Loganathan Karthik, Gaurav Kumar, K.V. Bhaskar Rao
Abstract: The study focused on the combination of marine actinobacterial extract and its mediated zirconium oxide nanoparticles for anti-biofouling application against the isolated biofouling bacteria. Streptomyces sp.VITSDSB was used for the synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles, since it showed the maximum potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectra (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), where the biosynthesis of square shaped zirconium oxide nanoparticles with size 20nm was confirmed. The antibiofouling property of nanoparticles against the isolated biofouling bacteria was checked, where a combination of actinobacterial extract and nanoparticles with paint showed maximum effect against Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 mg/ml showed more than 50% lethality against brine shrimp eggs. Nanoparticles in combination with marine actinobacterial extract were also observed to have enhanced anti-corrosion activity against salt water and acid.
Keywords: Zirconium Oxide, Square shaped nanoparticles, Antifouling, Marine Actinobacteria
- Development of chlorophyll-protein complex nanoparticles for light harvesting and solar cell application
by Aneesha Kondapi, Golla Kishore, Farhan Ahmed, Anand Kumar Kondapi
Abstract: Principal components of photosystem involves light reception in plants are chlorophyll protein complexes. In the present study, we have employed chlorophyll protein complexes nanoparticles for photoreception with an aim to assess the excitation like behavior of these complexes when used in nanoparticle form for the development of photovoltaic devices. As a result of Photon interaction with chlorophyll protein complexes initiate electron emission thus convert it into electron deficient center. Consequently these electrons are transferred to electronic sink fullerene nanoparticle, makes it electron efficient, thus providing a natural photocell comprising electron deficient chlorophyll protein complexes nanoparticles as positive electrode and electron efficient fullerene as negative electrode. A comparative analysis of results for different plant species showed significant potential difference in such natural photocells developed with nanoparticles of chlorophyll protein complexes.
Keywords: Solar cell; nanoparticles; chlorophyll; fullerene; photosynthesis
- EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELD AND HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ON A CONFINED EXCITON IN A STRAINED GaAs0.9 P0.1/GaAs0.6 P0.4 QUANTUM DOT
by John Peter Amalorpavam, Ada Vinolin
Abstract: Simultaneous effects of magnetic field and the hydrostatic pressure on the confined exciton in a cylindrical GaAs0.9 P0.1/GaAs0.6 P0.4 strained quantum dot are investigated taking into account the geometrical confinement effect. Calculations are done using variational formulism within the single band effective mass approximation numerically. The oscillator strength as a function of dot radius is computed in the influence of magnetic field strength and pressure effect. Second order nonlinear coefficient, second order harmonic generation and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of third order harmonic generation as a function of dot radius, are carried out in the presence of magnetic field strength and the hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the optical properties strongly depend on the spatial confinement, the hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field strength.
Keywords: Quantum dot; Exciton; Optical properties
- Effect of doping on the structural parameters of pure and doped barium titanate nano powders synthesized by sol-gel emulsion technique
by Zubeda Bi H. Aga, Sutapa Roy Ramanan
Abstract: Ba1-xDxTiO3, ceramic powders was synthesized using sol-gel-emulsion technique. Structure of the synthesized powders was analyzed using X-ray diffractometer from which the lattice parameters were deduced. Effect of doping as a function of atomic radii and the concentration of dopant (D) was studied on these parameters. XRD analysis showed the synthesized material to possess pseudocubic symmetry. Crystallite size of these powders varied between 15.98- 40.72 nm. Cell volume shrinkage observed on doping pure BaTiO3 was noted to be between 0.022.27%. Change in % tetragonality for the synthesized powders was 16.62-21.57. The experimental lattice parameter values matched more closely when calculated using the empirical formula devised by Jiang et al. than that using Rick Ubic. The '%error' assuming six-fold coordination for the doped BaTiO3 powders was between 0.0168% to 0.9314% using the empirical formula devised by Jiang et al. and 0.0296% to 1.0852% using the formula given by Rick Ubic.
Keywords: BaTiO3; Sol-Gel-Emulsion Technique; X-Ray Diffraction; Crystal Structure; Tetragonality; Pseudocubic Symmetry; Crystallite Size; Lattice Parameter; Atomic Radii
- The effect of Zn/S-nanoparticles on the thermal stability of Schiff-base polyamide
by hossein mighani
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate, the inclusion of the Zn/S-nanoparticles in the sciff-base polamide produced nanocompositmaterial with a higher thermal stability properties. The Zn/S-nanoparticles were synthesized by the reaction of zinc acetate with Thioacetamide in EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). The thermal properties of polyamide, which is filled with nanoparticles, is tested and the changes of the different temperatures as Tg (the Glass temperature), Tc (the Crystallization temperature) and Tm (the Melting temperature) was recorded. It was concluded that the addition of the nanoparticles increased the thermal Stability of polymer in the higher temperature (50
Keywords: Zn/S-nanoparticles; schiff-base polyamide; nanocomposite; high thermal stability
- Application of Nanoparticles for Pesticides, Herbicides, Fertilizers and Animals Feed Management
by Elham Mehrazar, Mahdi Rahaie, Somayeh Rahaie
Abstract: Nanotechnology due to special features and control of matter at scale nearly 1-100 nanometers could change agricultural systems. Nanotechnology have been demonstrated to have great potential in providing of novel and improved solutions for many challenges which agriculture sector encounters to them and thus possibly, to enhance yields or nutritional values. The application of nanotechnology for the controlled delivery of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers provides new approaches to improve safety of products with increasing the efficiency of production and decreased pollution. The development of nanodevices such as smart delivery systems to target specific sites, also nanocarriers for chemical controlled release are current important aspects in novel agriculture. In this review, we discuss about applications of new nanocarriers for smart delivery systems and the role of them in sustainable agricultural production.
Keywords: Pesticide, Fertilizer, Herbicide, Animal feed, Nanostructure, Nanoparticle, Nanocarrier, Smart Delivery System
- Silver Nanoparticles: Green Route of Synthesis and Antimicrobial Profile
by Anvesha Sinha, Jayanand Manjhi
Abstract: The antimicrobial effects of silver salts have been noticed and applied since antiquity. The effectiveness of silver particles gets enhanced when used in nano size dimensions. Silver nanoparticles are synthesized by physical, chemical and biological methods. Biological sources, such as bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and plants are usually favoured due to cost effectiveness, easy to scale up, easy availability of raw materials and environmental friendly nature. Moreover, plants contain various phytochemicals and compounds which may act both as reducing and stabilizing agents in the synthesis of nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles thus produced are more stable. Various plant extract derived silver nanoparticles have been scrutinized for their potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties which help them find applications in the medical domain. Moreover, they are being extensively used in agriculture, biotechnology, bio imaging, nano fabrics, electronics, bio-engineering, drug delivery etc.
Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, Green Synthesis, Antimicrobial Action, Phytochemicals, Medical Application
- Electric field enhancement of gold tip optical antenna
by Mehdi Zohrabi, Sergey Kharinsef, Mkh Salakhob
Abstract: This paper provides a design of gold tip optical antenna based on a specific
Geometry: the change of enhancement of the electric field of plane wave laser excitation : 400 to 700 nm surrounding the optical antenna are simulated. Based on direct illumination of antenna apex in TENOM back ground signal is produced and cause efficiency of optical microscopy.in practice one can change of antenna design and decreas this background signal. Progressions of geometry incorporating the change of period of circular grating in period 200 nm on the shaft of antenna. In addition, the distribution of enhancement of the electric field in a plane perpendicular to the shaft has been acquired.
Keywords: field enhancement, surface Plasmon, taperedgold tip, localizedPlasmon, confinement of light, hotspot, FDTD simulation
- Recent Developments in Enzymatic Biofuel Cell: Towards Implantable Integrated Micro-devices
by Diwakar Kashyap, Venkateswaran PS, Prabhat Dwivedi, Young Ho Kim, Gyu Man Kim, Ashutosh Sharma, Sanket Goel
Abstract: Enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) is envisioned as a viable replacement of batteries to work as a power feeding source for self-powered devices and small-scale sensors. In order to be a viable power feeding device, an EBFC should have a higher power output and needs to be miniaturized for its integration into the existing micro-devices, thus making microfluidic EBFC an attractive option. Recent developments in the area of EBFCs have been discussed with the main emphasis on carbon nanotube based direct electron transfer. This review also covers the research work on the utilization of fuels like Glucose and Fructose for the EBFCs due to their advantages like non-volatility, non-toxicity and ready availability in the human blood. In addition, the in-vivo testing and integration of EBFCs into the microfluidic channel is briefly studied. This review concludes with some possible perspectives on the future research and applications of the EBFCs in microfluidic devices.
Keywords: Direct electron transfer, Mediated electron transfer, Mediators, Carbon nanotube, Microfluidic devices, Biofuel cell
- Use of Carbon Nanotubes in Concrete for Structural Health Monitoring- A Review
by Mohamed Elkashef
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are on the frontline of materials research and innovations worldwide. There is a growing interest in CNTs due to their superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. The electrical conductivity of individual CNTs is in the order of 104 107 S/m. The incorporation of CNTs in concrete leads to an increase in the electrical conductivity of the CNT/concrete composite. Recently, the use of CNTs in concrete in structural health monitoring has attracted a lot of attention. CNTs/cement composite have shown piezoresistivity property where the electrical resistance of the composite varies with load. This property offers a practical way to sense load variations by monitoring the electrical resistivity of the structure. This paper will give an overview of the current research efforts in this regard. The review will cover the use of both functionalized and pristine CNTs. An overview of the Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method which is most commonly used to synthesize CNTs will also be presented.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes; Nanotechnology; CNT/concrete composites; Pressure-sensitivity; Piezoresistivity; Nanocomposites
- Preparation and characterization of antibacterial silver-containing Nano fibers for wound healing in diabetic mice
by Maisa Mostafa, Thanaa Shalaby, Nivan Fekry, Amal Elsodfy, Amel El Sheredy
Abstract: Impaired wound healing is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Nanofiber can be served as powerful tools in advanced wound care management. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of antibacterial nanofibers by incorporating silver nanoparticles into celluose acetate nanofibers as wound dressing on excisional wound healing in diabetic mice. Celluose acetate nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique. The prepared nanofibers were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Fourier-transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A full thickness of the excision wound of circular area 95 mm2 and 2 mm depth was created. Wound dressed by silver containing nanofibers, the wound closure rate were assessed, skin wounds were processed for histopathological examination and comparing the mechanical properties of healed skin. It was found that, wounds dressed with silver containing nanofibers showed marked increase in collagen production which improve the skin mechanical properties.
Keywords: nanofiber; electrospinning; wound dressing; antibacterial properties; healing; diabetes mellitus
- Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: preparation and hyperthermia applications
by thanaa Shalaby, Yousef Yousef, Mostafa Mohamed, Hisham Badwy
Abstract: The magnetic hyperthermia is based on localized heating of tumor keeping the healthy cells out of harm. In the process, magnetic hyperthermia involves dispersing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) throughout the target tissue and then exposed to ultrasound and/or microwave energy to cause the particles to be heated up to the required temperature of about 45oC. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles were prepared through the co-precipitation method and characterized using TEM, SEM, X-ray diffractometer and Fourier-transform Infrared (FTIR). Magnetic behavior of nanoparticles was studied using Vibrating-Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Through the treatment period, tumor volume was determined every other day. After treatment period, the dielectric properties of the treated tissues were determined. Tumor apoptosis was studied using transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that the magnetic fluid is a suitable mediator for cancer treatment using hyperthermia application with appropriate controlling the heating temperature ranges from 45 to 50oC using microwave and/or ultrasound energy.
Keywords: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles; Magnetic properties; Co-precipitation; Magnetic fluid hyperthermia; Microwave; Ultrasound; Dielectric properties; Apoptosis.
Special Issue on: "Nanotechnology Challenges 2014 "Nanotechnology Imperatives in the New Millennium,"
- A Simple Method to Prepare Superhydrophobic Polypropylene Coatings for Biomedical Applications
by Rafik Abbas, Wagih Sadik, Abdel Ghaffar El Demerdash, Adel Badria
Abstract: In this paper, a simple method of preparing superhydrophobic self-cleaning polypropylene coating for biomedical applications is reported. The effect of several factors on the preparation of superhydrophobic polypropylene (PP) surfaces has been studied. These factors include PP concentration, heating rate for PP dissolution, the solvent evaporation rate and the addition of different amounts of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared PP was studied by contact angle, SEM, FTIR, and DSC measurements. This study showed that the best suitable parameters for PP superhydrophobic surface formation were found to be 40 mg/ml of PP in xylene concentration, 3.5oC/min dissolution heating rate and 70oC curing temperature. Superhydrophobic Polypropylene surfaces incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized via the adopted method. Static contact angle of 165◦ was achieved. Also preliminary biological studies, including bacteria antisticking effect and ISO cytotoxixcity, have been investigated. The antisticking effect of the superhydrophobic surfaces showed a significant positive result against S. aureus bacterial suspension.
Keywords: Superhydrophobicity, Polypropylene, TiO2 Nanoparticles, Nanocomposites, S. aureus bacteria, Bacteria Adhesion, ISO Cytotoxicity
- Photoluminescence, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Co-Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized Via Solgel Auto-combustion Method
by Nema Imam, Salwa Ismail, Mohammed Elbahrawy, Adel Hashhash
Abstract: Herein, we report magnetic, photoluminescence and electric properties for CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles. The CoFe2O4 was prepared by a citrate auto-combustion method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallization of pure CoFe2O4 phase with an average size of about 27 nm. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the intrinsic cation vibrations for the spinel structure. Magnetization values for CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are lower when compared to the literature values for bulk samples. The variation of dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and AC conductivity for CoFe2O4 nanoparticles at different temperature and as a function of frequency has been studied. The results revealed that the magnetic properties depend on the particle size and cation distribution, whereas the role of particle size is more significant. The data from vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and photoluminescence (PL) have been analyzed for exploring their applications.
Keywords: Spinel ferrites; synthesis; Characterization; Magnetic Properties
- Bionanosilver- Poly (methyl 2-methylpropenoate) Electrospun Nanofiber as a potent antibacterial against multidrug resistant bacteria
by Mohamed Abu-Saied
Abstract: Poly (methyl 2-methylpropenoate) PMMA [(C5O2H8) n] and bionanosilver are known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this study Bacillus subtilis was used to produce bionanosilver particles that were characterized using SEM and FE-SEM. The bionanosilver were mixed with PMMA and dissolving in di methyl formamide (DMF) to produce bionanosilver-nanofiber (bionanofiber) using electrospun. The surface morphology was investigated by SEM. The activity of bionanofiber was examined as antibacterial against nine human pathogenic bacteria and the results were compared with different generic antibiotics. The bionanofiber showed high antibacterial activity and it was found that bionanofiber more specific for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) especially in liquid culture with low concentrations.
Keywords: Electrospinning; polymer; nanofiber; bionanosilver; antibacterial; SEM
- Enhancement of pearlitic structure through inoculation with Nano-Size silicon carbide
by Mohamed ElFawkhry, Ahmed Shash, Sherif Aly, Taha Mattar
Abstract: The feasibility of SiC inoculation for low carbon steel was studied in this work. Five heats of low carbon steel with different percentage of Silicon carbide inoculants have been compared with the reference steel in terms of microstructure, tensile properties, and wear abrasion resistance. The optical observations using optical and scanning electron microscope declare that the weight percentage of SiC inoculants has a significant effect on the pearlite fractions increment, as well as its morphology. The excellent response of the enhancement in the pearlitic structure is observed by tensile test. The impact toughness of inoculated steel approaches 250% more than non-inoculated steel. In the same way, the wear abrasion resistance is improved by nanoinoculation, especially at heavy load conditions.
Keywords: Silicon carbide; pearlite structure; low carbon steel; inoculation; nano-size inoculants; fine grain steel.
- Characterization of alginate based nanocomposites prepared by radiation for removal of pesticides
by Ghada Mahmoud, Nabil El-kelesh, Nagwa Badway, Fatma Kamal, Asmaa Abdel Aziz
Abstract: Nancomposites based on sodium alginate (NaAlg) and acrylic acid monomer (AAc) with different concentrations of calcite (C) or xonotlite (X) were prepared using gamma ray radiation. (NaAlg/ AAc) hydrogel and its composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The introduction of calcite or xonotlite particles into (NaAlg/AAc) hydrogel increases the swelling capacity. The thermal stability improved by introducing calcite into (NaAlg/AAc) nanocomposite and decreased by introducing xonotlite. The prepared nanocompsites were used for removal of methomyl pesticide. It was found that the removal of methomyl by the nanocomposites is pH-dependent. The adsorption isotherm of various nanocomposites was ﬁtted with Freundlich model. The maximum removal percent of methomyl is sequence in order of (NaAlg/AAc-X) > (NaAlg/AAc-C) > (NaAlg/AAc).
Keywords: adsorption; alginate; nanocomposite; gamma radiation; pesticide removal
- Impact of Chemical Composition of the Substrate on the Synthesis and Behavior of Nano Hard Anodized Layers
by Zeinab Abdel Hamid
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to focus on the effect of chemical composition of aluminum substrate on the formation of nano hard anodized aluminum oxide layer (NHAAO) from sulfuric acid bath. The effect of both operating conditions (temperature, time, and current density) and chemical composition of the Al substrate on the thickness, pore diameter, morphology, microhardness, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance of the anodized layers has been investigated. The optimum growth conditions for the formation of NHAAO films were studied by field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The study shows that the substrate composition, anodizing temperature and current density had shown positive dependence of great significance on the anodic film thickness, pore diameters and the hardness of the anodized layer, while the time had shown a positive effect on the coating thickness only. Also, the results revealed that thick and dense NHAAO layer on pure Al and 3004 Al alloy build up at a lower electrolyte temperature of -2 C and lower current densities of 1 - 3 Adm-2. At low current density, the size of the nonpore was uniform, but at high and unstable current density, the sizes and the arrangements of the pores were not uniform. XPS analysis illustrated the prepared ﬁlm consists mainly of oxide. Moreover, it was found that the formation of NHAAO on pure Al or 3004 Al alloys improve the hardness and corrosion resistance comparing with unanodized substrates.
Keywords: Anodizing process; sulfuric acid electrolyte; nanoporous materials; anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films; hard coat, and Nano hard anodized aluminum oxide (NHAAO).
- Optimization of the fabrication conditions of the PEDOT:PSS layer in organic solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM
by Omayma Ghazy, Mervat Ibrahim, Fatten Abou Elfadl, Hany Hosni, Eman Shehata, Noha Deghiedy, Mohamed Balboul
Abstract: This study aimed at studying the effect of the quality and thickness of PEDOT:PSS buffer layer that used in organic solar cells, on the performance of the cell. The effect of diluting the PEDOT:PSS dispersion with methanol on the morphology and thickness of the thin layer was studied using SEM and AFM. The results showed that dilution with 1:2 is. The effect of the buffer layer thickness on the performance of the solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM was studied using AFM and I-V measurements. It was found that a layer of thickness 40 nm is optimum for the best performance.
Keywords: PEDOT:PSS layer, organic solar cells, P3HT:PCBM
- Cellulose nanocrystals and carboxymethyl cellulose from olive stones and their use to improve paper sheets properties
by Mohammad Hassan, Ragab Abou Zeid, Shaimaa Fadel, Mohamed Elsakhawy, Ramzi Khiari
Abstract: Olive stones wastes were used to prepare cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the prepared nanocrystals had width and length of about 5-7 nm and 174 - 234 nm, respectively. Mixtures containing CMC and CNC in water were prepared and the effect of CNC ratio (from 2.5 - 10 wt. % based on CMC) on viscosity of CMC solution was studied. Films casted from CMC/CNC mixtures were characterized regarding their crystallinity, tensile strength, and dynamic mechanical thermal properties. In addition, the prepared mixtures were used for coating of paper sheets and the effect of coating on mechanical properties (breaking length and tear factor), water absorption, and air permeability of paper sheets was studied. Presence of CNC in the coating mixtures resulted in improving mechanical properties and decreasing water absorption and air permeability of paper sheets as compared to paper sheets coated with neat CMC coating mixture.
Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals; olive stones; carboxymethyl cellulose; paper coating; tensile strength; air permeability; water absorption.
- Synthesis and Characterization of Strontium Tartrate Nanoparticles with and without Triton X-100 Surfactant
by E. Abdel-Aal, A.N. El-Shazly
Abstract: Strontium tartrate was synthesized with and without Triton X-100 surfactant. Synthesis was performed by crystallization. All crystallization parameters were studied in details. Induction time was measured under different supersaturations ranging from 9.7 to 18.1. This is the time elapsed between the achievement of supersaturation and the appearance of a solid phase. The results show that, the induction time decreases exponentially with increasing the supersaturation. On the other hand, the induction time was increased with addition of Triton X-100 surfactant. In addition, the surface energy was increased with addition of Triton X-100 compared to the baseline (without Triton). Interestingly, with addition of the Triton surfactant, the precipitated crystals are larger compared with the baseline.
Keywords: Organometallic compounds; Chemical synthesis; Nucleation; Crystal growth.