International Journal of Nanoparticles (15 papers in press)
A review on exploring phytosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using genus Brassica
by Manju Yadav, Pawan Kaur
Abstract: Nanobiotechnology is an emerging field of applied biological science and nanotechnology. Synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is done by various physical and chemical methods but the biological methods are relatively simple, cost-effective, nontoxic, and environmentally friendly methods. Extract of Brassica genus vegetables and plants have been used as reducing agent for the environmentally friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles so the present review focuses on the synthesis of nanoparticles with special emphasis on the silver and gold nanoparticles by using plants of genus Brassica and their applications in various fields.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, Biological, Brassica, Vegetables, Reducing agents
Aligned magnetic dipole in nonlinear radiative Falkner-Skan flow of Casson fluid over a wedge containing suspension of nanoparticles and microorganisms
by Kuppala R. Sekhar, G. Viswanatha Reddy, Chakravarthula S.K. Raju, Bapuji Pullepu, Rakesh Kumar, Sabir Ali Shehzad
Abstract: This paper scrutinises the influences of aligned magnetic field and nonlinearly radiative flow of Falkner-Skan Casson liquid towards a wedge which is filled with microorganisms and nanoparticles. Following Buongiorno's model, the expressions of flow are developed and then transformed into self-similar form by utilising appropriate similarity transformations. Numerical outcomes are presented through plots and tabular form by enforcing Newton's and Runge-Kutta techniques. The impacts of arising constraints on liquid velocity, temperature, density of motile organisms and concentration are explored. For industrial and engineering interest, surface drag coefficient, rates of mass and heat transport, motile microorganism's density number are investigated. A comparative analysis for two cases namely aligned magnetic field (AMF) and magnetic field (MF) demonstrates that rate of heat and mass transfer are high in AMF case in comparison to MF case, and therefore desired results can be obtained by utilising AMF case.
Keywords: Casson fluid; Falkner-Skan flow; nanoparticles.
Investigations on emission of nanoparticulates under free acceleration test condition
by Venkataraghavan Nagarajan, Thirumalini Subramaniam
Abstract: Considering the dangerous effects of ultrafine particles and air quality concerns worldwide, this work investigates the possibility of identifying operating criterion over which there is a greater tendency of formation of nanoparticle emissions in Diesel engines. The objective of this analysis is to study the emission of particles in the size range of 10 nm to 700 nm by subjecting a diesel engine to free acceleration tests. Details on the emission characteristics such as Particulate number, Particle mass, Particle diameter and the Lung deposition surface area in the size range 10-700 nm during specific conditions of acceleration and deceleration has been studied in this work. Maximum effect of the particles occurs during rapid acceleration. At idle speed, the Particle number, particle mass and Lung deposition surface area are very low indicating that the nanoparticle formation is low at idle condition. With increase in Particulate number, there is an increase in the Particulate mass and the LDSA. The particulate diameter is distributed across the PN range.
Keywords: nano-particulate emission measurement; diesel engine; free acceleration test.
MHD natural convective Ag-water nanofluid flow in an enclosure having internal heat generation with centre heater and bottom heat source
by Nagarajan Nithyadevi, Thangavelu Mahalakshmi, C. Udhaya Shankar
Abstract: Numerical study on MHD natural convection inside enclosure filled with Ag-water with centre heater is conducted. The vertical walls of enclosure are maintained at temperature Tc whereas its top wall is insulated and bottom wall is considered with constant heat source. The governing equations are solved numerically by finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm. The effects of heater length, Rayleigh number, Hartmann number and heat generation parameter are investigated. Results are presented with streamlines, isotherms, variation of average Nusselt number and mid height velocity profile. It is found that high heat transfer is obtained for the vertical heater and Hartmann number is a good control parameter for suppressing heat transfer. Moreover, the fluid flow, thermal fields and rate of heat transfer are strongly depending on heater length and heat generation parameter. Also, increasing solid volume fraction of nanoparticles cause better enhancement of heat transfer inside enclosure.
Keywords: magnetic field; nanofluid; internal heat generation; length of heater; heat source.
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green sources and comparative analysis
by Nabodita Sinha, Tamalika Chakroborty, Abhijit Sengupta
Abstract: The various side effects of the chemical drugs and their incapability to fight with the increasing drug resistance has led to the research for new antimicrobials which would be able to fight with fast evolving microbial army in a cost effective and efficient manner. The most promising source for this up to date is probably the nanoparticles among which the silver nanoparticles have the best potential till date. Silver has been used since time immemorial to treat cuts and burns and to treat wastewater but the effect of silver on human body in large dose may be toxic. The aim of this project is to identify the different types of sources from which the silver nanoparticles can be synthesised efficiently. Their comparative analysis has been done to compare their efficiency against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in the hope that further research would enlighten their uses more and a day may come when they would become our strongest fighter against microbial troops.
Keywords: antimicrobial activity; comparative analysis; green sources; silver nanoparticles.
Special Issue on: DevIC 2017 Nanotechnology Based Devices and Nanostructures
GaAs SOI FinFET: Impact of Gate Dielectric on Electrical Parameters and Application as Digital Inverter
by RAJESH SAHA, Brinda Bhowmick, Srimanta Baishya
Abstract: In this paper, a GaAs SOI (Silicon on Insulator) FinFET is proposed. A comparative study between proposed GaAs FinFET and conventional Si FinFET is presented. The effects of dielectric constant (k) of gate dielectric material on electrical parameters like channel potential, drain current, and Ion/Ioff have been reported. Results show that as k raises, both Ion/Ioff and channel potential increases. Again the impact of k on short channel effects (SCEs) has been investigated. TCAD results show that as k increases subthreshold swing (SS) improves, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) degrades, and Vt roll off occur. The impacts of k on gate capacitance (CGG) and intrinsic delay (τ) have been presented and they increases as k increases. A digital CMOS inverter is implemented through proposed FinFET and the effect of k on its delay parameter is estimated. Results shows that average delay increase as k increases.
Keywords: CMOS inverter; dielectric constant; FinFET; GaAs; SOI.
An Insight into the high frequency analysis of work function modulated cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET
by Biswajit Jena, Sidhartha Dash, Guru Prasad Mishra
Abstract: The unique design along with greater accuracy in device performance has made cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET (CSGM) a cutting edge device in the present VLSI technology. Due to its cylindrical geometry, this device provides higher packing density and higher scaling possibilities. In this work, a work function engineering based metal gate with continuous mole fraction variation along the z-axis in a cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET (WMCSGM) is introduced. The proposed WMCSGM model exhibits improved RF performance as compared to conventional CSGM model. The static gm-VGS curve and Cgg-VGS curves are investigated clearly. The relevant electrical parameters such as threshold voltage (Vth), drain current (Id) and transconductance are extracted. Along with the electrical parameters, RF parameters and gain parameters (current gain and voltage gain) and different performance measures (cut-off frequency, maximum oscillation frequency) have been extensively investigated.
Keywords: Cut-off frequency; Maximum oscillation frequency; CSGM; WMCSGM; Work function modulation.
Variation of Optical Bandwidth in Defected Ternary Photonic Crystal under Different Polarization Conditions
by Arpan Deyasi, A. Sarkar
Abstract: Photonic bandwidth of defected one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal is analytically calculated under both types of oblique incidences. Both P and S type polarized incidences on the structure are considered in order to compute transmittivity of the proposed Butterworth type bandpass filter, and passband spectrum is kept at 1550 nm by suitably choosing structural parameters and defect density. Defect is kept within feasible limit, and ripple in the desired passband region is tailored by its controlled variation. Width of passband as function of defect density, angle of incidence and dimension of constituent layers is computed, and critical dimension for the sandwiched layer is predicted over which the structure will behave as equivalent binary one. For closely-spaced signal transmission, this narrow bandpass filter will work as excellent candidate to improve SNR.
Keywords: Optical bandwidth; Transmittivity; polarized condition; Defect density; Ternary crystal; Ripple factor.
Effects of Hot-Carrier Degradation on the Low Frequency Noise in Strained-Si p-MOSFETs
by Sanghamitra Das, Tara Prasanna Dash, C.K. Maiti
Abstract: The aim of this work is to study hot carrier degradation starting from microscopic mechanisms of defect generation and its effects on noise behaviour of scaled strained-Si MOSFETs. As device dimensions decrease, hot carrier effects, which are mainly due to the presence of a high electric field inside the device, are becoming a major device/circuit design concern. Studies of hot carrier degradation in high-mobility SiGe channel MOSFETs, in which a more severe degradation is expected due to the smaller bandgap compared to Si, are highly essential. A comprehensive model for hot carrier degradation has been used in simulation to capture the physical picture behind these detrimental effects. In this work, hot carrier degradation modelling issues have been carefully analysed and a comprehensive physics-based hot carrier degradation simulation study has been taken up. Peculiarities of the defect generation kinetics as well as their impact on degradation is discussed. We present the results of our studies on the hot carrier degradation in novel high-mobility SiGe/strained-Si channel MOSFETs and its effects on the low-frequency noise. It is shown due to hot carrier degradation, the hole mobility is degraded by about 40% after stressing. A two-fold degradation in drain current is also observed.
Keywords: SiGe/strained-Si channel; CMOS; Hot Carrier Injection; low frequency noise.
Study on surface Plasmon based improvement in absorption in plasmonic solar cell
by Partha Sarkar, Saradindu Panda, Bansibadan Maji, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Abstract: Recently, plasmonics offers very high attention and greatly deals with various field includes the nanophotonics domain that takes care of optical fields in submicron level. Its most enlighten properties are to control nanoscale concentration and scaled electromagnetic fields at nano dimension especially at solar cell. In the plasmonic field, when the nanoparticle is much smaller than the wavelength of light, coherent oscillation of the conduction band electrons induced by interaction with an electromagnetic field and conjointly improves absorption through scattering. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of nanoparticle dimension to enhance extinction in terms of absorption and scattering for silver, gold, copper and aluminum nanoparticles. We also studied finite difference time domain based solar cell model that improves various simulated plasmonic field components and observed that the high sensitivity of the surface plasmon resonance spectrum of noble metal nanoparticles to adsorbate induced changes in dimension and dielectric constant of the surrounding nanoenvironment. We also observed that noble metal specifically silver and gold nanoparticles significantly improve optical absorption than copper and aluminum nanoparticles.
Keywords: plasmon; absorption; extinction; scattering; surface Plasmon polariton; finite difference time domain.
An approach to various carrier transmission properties and significant parameters in special semiconductor arrangement 'superlattice'
by Sachin Kumar
Abstract: Semiconductor superlattices with submicrometer heterostructures are of interest not only for their device applications but also for the fundamental physical phenomena they exhibit due to their material properties and their submicrometer dimensions. In order to understand the features exhibited, it is essential to calculate their electronic and various optical phenomenon e.g transmission properties, reflection properties along the arrangement.This paper proposed the examination of potential energy profile at multibarrier system by using the mathematical function and consequently we derived the probability to get the carriers crossing the barrier in superlattice by considering the various transmission properties e.g. the transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient, dc conductance, energy variations, temperature variation etc.; and also some other significant physical parameters are analyzed at different values of internal bias across the superlattice. The dc conductance and current both have variations with respect to applied voltage can be seen here as same as that happened in bulk semiconductors.
Keywords: Transmission Coefficient; Reflection Coefficient; Energy; DC Conductance; Applied Voltages; DC Current; Temperature.
Adsorption of gaseous air pollutants over Ti-doped ZGNR structures: A DFT study
by RITWIK VATSYAYAN, RAJAN SINGH, Roy PAILY
Abstract: In this study, we employed the Density Functional Theory (DFT) to study the interactions between gaseous air pollutants, including di-atomic (CO and NO), tri-atomic (CO2 and HCN), and poly-atomic (HCHO and COCl2) species, and Ti-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) structures. During this, two types of doped structures are considered, i.e. SV-ZGNR in which Ti replaces one carbon atom and DV-ZGNR, in which Ti atom replaces two adjacent carbon atoms. All gases under consideration are observed to exhibit significant adsorption energy over doped ZGNR except COCl2 for which a catalytic dissociation is observed. Our results indicate that doped ZGNR is
better for CO, NO, and HCHO adsorption as compared to that for reported doped graphene sheet. Also, DV-ZGNR is preferred over SV-ZGNR in terms of adsorption. Moreover, due to the adsorption, changes in the density of states are observed which confirms that the Ti-doped ZGNR has potential to be used as the sensing platform for these gases.
Keywords: CO; NO; CO2; HCN; HCHO; COCl2; Adsorption; Ti-doped ZGNR; Density Functional Theory.
Special Issue on: DevIC 2017 Nanotechnology and High-Speed Electronic Systems
Staggered Heterojunctions-based Tunnel-FET for application as a label-free biosensor
by Avik Chakraborty, Debasis Singha, A. Sarkar
Abstract: In this work, on the basis of dielectric modulation, a Heterojunction (HETJ) surrounding gate (SRG) Tunnel Field Effect (TFET) biosensor has been proposed. Due to the presence of biomolecules having different dielectric constant in the nanogap region of the biosensor, sensing has been performed. The sensitivity of the biosensor has been indicated using the traditional change in threshold voltage as well as in terms of ION/IOFF ratio. The results obtained from TCAD device simulation reveals that the proposed HETJ-based biosensor provides higher sensitivity as compared to other existing homojunction (HJ)-based biosensors.
Keywords: Biosensor; Heterojunction; Tunnel FET; Dielectric modulation; Label free; Surrounding Gate;.
Special Issue on: DevIC 2017 Nanotechnology and High-Speed Electronic Systems
Analysis of Power Consumption and Delay of an Inverter Circuit using TMJLSRG MOSFET for the Design of Digital Integrated Circuit
by Surajit Bari, Debashis De
Abstract: This paper represents delay and power analysis of an inverter using a triple-material junctionless surrounding gate MOSFET (TMJLSRG) to design integrated circuit. TCAD tools has been used for the purpose of simulation. The delay and power consumption are the vital design metrics to design the circuit in nano level. In this work the variation of power consumption has been reported for different values of power supply voltage VDD and channel length. Delay is also reported with respect to VDD .Moreover power consumption has been reported for the gate engineered device for different ratio of gate length .The results are satisfactory to design low power and high speed digital integrated circuit using TMJLSRG MOSFET.
Keywords: Inverter ; power ; delay ; integrated circuit ; gate engineered; TMJLSRG MOSFET.
Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz IMPATT Sources: Influence of Inter-Carrier Interactions
by Prasit Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Arindam Biswas, A. K. Bhattacharjee, Aritra Acharyya
Abstract: A major amount of energy of mobile electrons and holes in a semiconductor under electric field lost due to inter-carrier collisions prior to ionizing collision. This fact causes decrease in the ionization probability which leads to deterioration in ionization rates especially when the doping density is high. The effects of this phenomenon on the high frequency and noise properties of highly doped impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) devices based on different wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors, like 4H-SiC, Wurtzite-GaN (Wz-GaN) and type-IIb diamond (C) have been studied in this paper. Significant deteriorations in the diodes’ high frequency and noise performance have been observed in the simulation results. The simulation results have been compared with the experimental data in order to validate those.
Keywords: Carrier-carrier interactions; impact ionization, IMPATT; millimeter-wave; terahertz