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International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials

 

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International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials (21 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Collagen/Chitosan Hybrid 3D-Scaffolds as Potential Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering   Order a copy of this article
    by Hilary Urena-Saborio, Emilia Alfaro-Viquez, Daniel Esquivel-Alvarado, Marianelly Esquivel, Sergio Madrigal-Carballo 
    Abstract: Chitosan (CHT) has been reported to be biocompatible, bio-absorbable and particularly, is considered a good wound-healing accelerator. On the other hand, collagen (CGN) is one of the most widely used matrix biomaterial in tissue engineering. Highly porous CGN single 3D-scaffolds have been used to support in vitro growth of many types of tissues. We fabricated hybrid 3D-scaffold biomaterials by mixing CHT from native shrimp waste streams and CGN from tilapia aquaculture waste by-products, applying previously developed methodologies involving solvent casting and freeze-drying. CGN/CHT hybrid 3D-scaffolds were characterized according to its water uptake capacity, mechanical properties, thermal behavior (TGA), and morphology (SEM). Hybrid 3D-scaffolds showed improved stability, greater porosity, increased thermal stability, and mechanical properties, as well higher biodegradation as compared to single 3D-scaffolds. Cell culture incubation with adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ADSC) and SEM imaging showed that CGN/CHT hybrid 3D-scaffolds allowed ADSC adhering, spreading, and growing in vitro.
    Keywords: Collagen; chitosan; scaffolds; tissue engineering.

  • Effect of annealing on the physical properties of WO3 thin films   Order a copy of this article
    by Madhuri Kalapala 
    Abstract: Tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films have considerable interest due to its wide variety of properties, and extensively studied for various applications such as chromogenic devices, switching mirrors, optoelectronic devices and gas sensors. In this view, our present investigations are aimed at electron beam evaporated thin films of WO3. The films were deposited at an oxygen partial pressure of 2x10-4 mbar and at different substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 4500C. The films were annealed at 4000C about 2 hours and the properties were studied systematically. The X-ray Diffraction studies show the diffraction peak of (320) at 2θ = 44.070 which indicate the Orthorhombic phase of WO3 and also the other peaks represent the hexagonal phase of WO3. Due to annealing of the films, the monoclinic phase is also observed. The surface morphology of WO3 thin films was investigated by using Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, which supports the above data. The Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) compositional analysis confirmed the presence of W and O. The optical properties were studied by UV-VIS Spectrophotometry and hence the bandgap values are calculated.
    Keywords: Tungsten trioxide thin films; annealed; structural; morphological; optical and compositional.

  • ALTERNATING CURRENT CONDUCTION STUDIES OF HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE   Order a copy of this article
    by T. Chandrasekhar, Y.T. Ravi Kiran, C.H. V. V. Ramana, D.K. Mishra 
    Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) and Polyaniline-Yttrium oxide (PANI-Y2O3) hybrid nanocomposite were synthesized separately by simple chemical polymerisation method and then they were structurally characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The alternate current (AC) conduction parameters of PANI and the composite were comparatively studied in the frequency range 100Hz-1MHz at room temperature. The AC conduction results were interpreted as power law of frequency and the frequency exponent s and was found to lie in the range 0 Keywords: Polyaniline; Yttrium oxide; Polymer composites; AC conductivity; Correlated barrier hopping;.

  • Adsorption of Ni(II) ions from waste water by -MnO2-MCM-41: Isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Suresh Kumar Dash 
    Abstract: δ-MnO2 modified MCM-41 adsorbent was prepared by loading different amounts of δ-MnO2 (5, 10, 15 and 20 weight %) onto MCM-41 by direct-synthesis or in situ method. The synthesized materials were characterized by UV-vis diffused reflectance spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared spectra and BET surface area. The adsorbent (δ-MnO2-MCM-41) showed very high efficiency and sensitivity for removing Ni(II). By varying different parameters like initial Ni(II) concentration, pH of solution and temperature, it was concluded that highest adsorption took place for (5) δ-MnO2-MCM-41 at 323 K, and at a pH 3.0. The equilibrium isotherms fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich models explaining modest adsorbate-adsorbent interactions. From kinetic studies the adsorption was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic studies indicated endothermic nature with chemisorption mode.
    Keywords: δ-MnO2-MCM-41; adsorption of Ni(II); Equilibrium isotherms; kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

  • Development of Defects in Nanocrystalline Zirconia: Studied through Photoluminescence Spectroscopy   Order a copy of this article
    by Shreenu Pattanaik, Sushanta Kamilla, Dilip Mishra 
    Abstract: Zirconium dioxide (zirconia) nanoparticle with monoclinic structure is successfully synthesized by chemical route i.e. pyrophoric method from aqueous solution of ZrOCl2.8H2O and triethanol amine. The structural and optical properties of the annealed samples have been investigated by using X-ray diffractometer, photoluminescence spectroscopy and UV-visible spectrometer. It is observed that the variations of annealing temperature from 650
    Keywords: Zirconia; X-ray diffraction; Photoluminescence; Defects.

  • Preparation and Characterization of graphene Oxide Nanofluid and its Electrical conductivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Zaved Hossain Khan, M. Abu Naser Shatez, K.Y. N. Ritee 
    Abstract: Recently, two dimensional honeycomb lattice structural graphene grants unique properties that are currently being pursued for conductive composites, advanced electronics, membranes etc. In this work, we report the preparation of graphene oxides (GO) nanofluids by dispersion of GO nanosheets in base fluid. Firstly, GO sheets were synthesized in controlled size using improved Hummer method by simply oxidation and facile exfoliation procedure. As prepared samples are characterized by UV-vis spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD pattern revels that GO were form in nanoscale with crystalline structure. SEM image confirmed that GO were form in ultra small sheet state with smooth surface. UV-vis absorption spectrum reveals that GO nanosheets disperse well in the base fluid. FTIR result reveals the presence of functional group in the lattice which helps the graphene sheets to interact with water molecules and good dispersion. In terminology of electrical conductivity, the result suggests that the samples with 0.1% volume of GO had the highest conductivity with the value of 5310
    Keywords: Graphene oxide; nonofluids; electrical conductivity; crystalline structure; nanosheets.

  • Assessing the potential of mesoporous MCM-41 nanoparticles for treatment of phenolic wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhananjay Naidu, Namita Panigrahi, Jyoti Mishra, Naresh Sahoo 
    Abstract: In the present study MCM-41 nano-particle was synthesized, characterized and applied for treatment of phenolic wastewater. In order to enhance the phenol adsorption efficiency adsorption parameters, such as pH, MCM-41 dosage and initial phenol concentration was optimized by employing statistical design of experiments using central composite design and response surface methodology. Result revealed that pH and adsorbent dose were found to have significant influence on phenol adsorption on to MCM-41. Further, among these significant factors adsorbent dose showed a large positive effect on the phenol removal. On the other hand, while pH showed strong negative interaction effect on phenol removal from synthetic wastewater. Further, it was observed that interaction between pH and phenol dose had significant effects on phenol removal from the synthetic wastewater. It was found that more than 99% phenol adsorption along with 96% of toxicity removal was achieved at an optimum combination of pH 5.2, phenol 132 mgl-1 and 2.6 gl-1 of MCM-41.
    Keywords: Adsorption; MCM-41; Phenol; Response surface methodology; Interaction effect; Optimization.

  • Structural, optical and dielectric study of Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by High Energy Ball Milling   Order a copy of this article
    by Bikram K. Das, Tanushree Das, Kajal Parashar, S.K.S. Parashar 
    Abstract: Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles abbreviated as Zn1-xCuxO (x=0, 0.01and 0.03) were synthesized by High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) technique. The structural, morphological, optical and dielectric properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were carried out by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis and impedance analyzer respectively. The incorporation of the dopant Cu into ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure has been verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Cu doping on the structural bonding of ZnO has been verified by Fourier Transformation Infrared spectra (FTIR).The XRD spectra show that all the synthesized nanoparticles are single phase, hexagonal wurtzite structure and belong to the space group of p63mc. Compare to pure ZnO (18nm) the crystallite size of Cu doped ZnO (15nm) is smaller and peak broadening exists in the system. A similar feature of FTIR spectra has been observed for all samples, which supports the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO even after Cu doping. The band gap (Eg) of ZnO decreases with Cu doping which can be attributed to sp-d exchange interaction between the ZnO band electrons and localized d electrons of Cu2+ ions. The dielectric constant of ZnO decreases with Cu doping.
    Keywords: Ball Milling; XRD; FTIR; UV-Vis; Dielectric Constant.

  • Size controlled nanocrystalline TiO2 supported on mesostructured SBA-15 for better photocatalytic performance   Order a copy of this article
    by DIPTI R. SAHU, Sheng-Chang Wang, L.Y. Hong, Jow-Lay Huang 
    Abstract: Nanocrystalline TiO2 was prepared using sol gel hydrolysis and silica SBA-15 using organic solvent method. The synthesized SBA-15 served as the TiO2 support to reduce the TiO2 grain size and well-dispersed TiO2 for enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The synthesized titania/silica composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, TEM, UV-Visible spectroscopy, etc. TEM micrographs showed that the organic solute template method could prepare the titania-silica composite, and successfully embedded titania in SBA-15 channel. The mesoporous structure restrained the titania grain size within 5-7 nm which caused blue shift identified by UV-Vis spectra. The photo catalytic test of this material has been studied using methylene blue which shows improved performance than TiO2. Titania loading on the silica matrix decreases the surface area of the support and there is systematic decrease in their pore volume values, as titania content increases.
    Keywords: Mesoporous; Titania; SBA-15; Nanoparticle; pore size.

  • Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Bismuth Doped Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles   Order a copy of this article
    by KRUTIKA ROUTRAY, DIRTHA SANYAL, Pratip Kumar Mukhopadhyay, DHRUBANANDA BEHERA 
    Abstract: Bismuth doped Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has been prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method. An attempt has been made to study the electrical and magnetic transport properties of CoBixFe2-xO4 nanoparticles. The phase identification and morphological studies have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Obtained results confirm the presence of single phase spinal structure having space group Fd3m. In addition, FESEM micrographs reveal presence of spherical grains having diameters ranging from 20-130 nm. Further, dielectric studies of the prepared nanoparticles have been performed which suggests different types of conduction mechanism of the charge carriers. Results demonstrates the presence of dielectric relaxation, which is found to be of non-Debye type. Apart from these, Mossbauer study is conducted to observe the distribution of the cobalt and bismuth in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, in this study, effect of gamma irradiation on structural, dielectric and Mossbauer properties for various concentration of Bi have been discussed in detail.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles; sol-gel auto combustion; X-ray diffraction (XRD); dielectric; Mossbauer spectra.

  • Performance Analysis of ZnO based Ultrasonic MEMS Transducer used for Blind Person Navigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Hara Prasada Tripathy, Priyabrata Pattanaik, Sashanta Kumar Kamilla 
    Abstract: Navigation is not an easy task especially without using eye. Creatures like bats and dolphins are navigated by creating ultrasonic wave. The sensory organs help them to create and sense the path without visualizing it. This paper imitates these creatures to propose an ultrasonic based MEMS transducer for blind person navigation. MEMS based acoustic transducers commonly employ the piezoelectric material. This model has been designed by using non-toxic and low cost compound like zinc oxide (ZnO) using COMSOL multiphysics. 2D axis-symmetrical model geometry is designed to imitate like sensory organ to sense the obstacle present 2 meters away from it. An optimized voltage of 5 volt and frequency of 20.103 KHz is applied to the proposed model to create ultrasonic wave. Further, the wave propagation in the air medium is analyzed by using 3D partial differential equation. The pressure waves are studied during transmitting and receiving time. The rebounded wave from the obstacle to the transducer is converted to 30.2mV by the proposed model. The von-misses stress is carried out to study the pressure on transducer surface.
    Keywords: Navigation; Ultrasonic Wave; MEMS Transducer; Zinc Oxide (ZnO); COMSOL multiphysics; Von-misses Stress.

  • Comparison of magnetization and transport properties of processed La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 manganites for technological application   Order a copy of this article
    by DIPTI R. SAHU, D.K. Mishra 
    Abstract: A lot of efforts are being made to look for suitable types of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) materials with specific composition for technological applications. We have synthesized and performed the magnetization and transport studies on La0.67Ca0.33Mn03 CMR polycrystalline materials prepared using melt and sintering technique. It is observed that the magnetoresistance is enhanced in partially melted sample with increase in insulator-to-metal transition temperature enabling its possible applications at room temperature. This indicates the high degree of spin polarization of the conduction electrons in partially melted sample. It has been observed that grain boundaries disrupt the local magnetic order and alter the electrical conduction of polarized electrons whereas the magnetization behaviour is not significantly affected except the magnitude of the magnetization. This suggests that the magnetic spin alignment in the weak link region of the sintered sample increases the absolute magnetization. The melt processed method is the ideal method to achieve superior magnetic and transport properties for possible major technological application of colossal magnetoreistive devices.
    Keywords: CMR; Magnetization; Magnetoresistance; Transport.

  • Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide Nanopowder via Plasma Processing route   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanghamitra Dash, Rakesh K. Sahoo, Saroj K. Singh, Dinesh Singh Chauhan 
    Abstract: We describe a less time consuming and scalable thermal plasma process for the synthesis of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. In this process, argon is used as the plasmagen gas to form argon plasma. In presence of argon plasma magnesite powder was decomposed to form nano magnesia within 10 minutes. This as-synthesized magnesia has been analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) for phase, morphology and presence of surface functional groups, respectively. The phase and average crystallite size of the as-synthesized powder was determined from XRD pattern. Further, Raman spectroscopy was used to observe the phase and phase purity. Finally, the spherical shape of the as-formed magnesia powder was observed using TEM.
    Keywords: Magnesium oxide; thermal plasma; structure; morphology; spherical particle.

  • Preparation and characterization of smart polymer-metal nanocomposite: Optical and morphological study   Order a copy of this article
    by Binay Bhushan 
    Abstract: The paper reports a novel polymer-metal nanocomposite. The composite structure is in the form of annular polydiacetylene (PDA) nanovesicles surrounded by silver nanoparticles both on the outer as well as inner surfaces of the vesicle structure. The synthesis route has been described in detail and the rationale behind the synthesis procedure has been discussed. The composite structure has been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy while its morphology has been studied based on the result of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction pattern. Our synthesis procedure does not require any catalyst, contrary to what has been reported in the literature. The coupling between electrons of PDA and free electrons of silver nanoparticles in the composite system is particularly useful for nonlinear optical applications. We have also outlined some of the strategies that could be explored in future so that such composite system could be a better potential candidate for photonic devices.
    Keywords: Polydiacetylene; Silver; Nanoparticles; Nanocomposite.

  • Aesthetic Improvement Of Transparent Natural Quartz By Heat Treatment At Different Temperature   Order a copy of this article
    by Rakesh K. Sahoo, Saroj K. Singh, B.K. Mishra, Biswa Bhusan Dhal 
    Abstract: Attempt has been made by us to improve the aesthetic value of natural gem variety transparent quartz from of Odisha through heat treatment with cobalt oxide powder and the results are reported. Natural occurring quartz stones were surface cleaned and heat treated at different temperatures with cobalt oxide to alter the color and clarity. A series of experiments by adding cobalt oxide additive at different temperature were carried out to study the alteration of aesthetic values. The change in color and chemistry on the surface of the treated stones with respect to the untreated one were compared. Moreover, in this work improvement in aesthetic value of the quartz stone and its consequent change in surface chemical and physical characteristics before and after heat treatment at different temperatures have been compared and described.
    Keywords: Quartz; heat-treatment; Cobalt oxide; surface analysis; Odisha.

  • Influence of chondroitin 4-sulfate on properties and cell behaviour of collagen hydrogel   Order a copy of this article
    by Masrina Mohd Nadzir, Lau Sin Mun, Farah Dhaniyah Anour, Shiplu Roy Chowdhury, Mohd Fauzi Mh Busra 
    Abstract: In this research, the fabrication of collagen/chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) hydrogel scaffold for biomedical applications was studied. The influence of C4S content on physical, mechanical, and biological properties of scaffold were investigated. It was found that high C4S content significantly increased the swelling capacity of scaffold. Furthermore, thermal stability was higher by 5
    Keywords: hydrogel scaffold; collagen; chondroitin 4-sulfate; characterization; in vitro.

  • MM-Wave Double Drift IMPATT Diode: A Comparison of Experimental, Theoretical and Neural Network Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Pravash Tripathy, Sishir Choudhury, Shankar Pati 
    Abstract: This paper presents the comparison of simulation and experimental output with the neural network results of different materials like Si and GaAs based IMPATT diode at 94 GHz window frequency. The experimental results are nearly equal to simulation results and show a quantitative agreement between theoretical values and experimental output. The experimental results in terms of efficiency and RF power are almost 80-85 % of the simulation results. Rest 15-20 % discrepancy between theory and experiment because of due to several causes like temperature, small-signal approach, parasitic effects, impedance matching problem and proper heat-sink arrangements. The experimental value shows that from silicon double drift impatt diode produced 530 mW with 8.0 % efficiency as compared to the simulation results of 680 mW with 8.5 % efficiency at 94 GHz frequency. At the same frequency our neural network result shows 525 mW with 8.3 % efficiency, which is very close to the experimental results in same design frequency. It shows our neural network approach is a good agreement with experimental results. In the similar way the RF power and efficiency for GaAs double drift impatt diode is 217 mW with 4.5 % as compared to simulated results 210 mW with 7.3 % efficiency. Here by applying the neural network technique, the power is about 215 mW with 4.7 % efficiency. The developed neural network model is used to optimize performance of the diode by taking other wide band gap semiconductor material based IMPATT diode. The model and the results will be very useful for applications in radar and guided missile technology.
    Keywords: Silicon; Gallium Arsenide; double drift; IMPATT; RF power; Efficiency; Neural Network.

  • Study on Thermal Field of a Laser Heated Gemstone Matrix by Finite Element Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Radhakanta Dash, Pratima Mishra 
    Abstract: This paper presents the finite element modelling of the thermal field of a gemstone matrix by laser beam local heating. By using a continuous Gaussian beam of infrared laser a 3D temperature distribution in the gemstone material in the time domain is obtained. A tetrahedral mesh is used to solve the heat conduction equation in the entire 3D-structure. A transient thermal analysis of the interaction of the laser beam with the gemstone matrix reveals the temperature distribution profile throughout the volume of the material. The temperature profile of the computational model of the gemstone is in good agreement with the experimental observations
    Keywords: gemstone matrix; alumina; sapphire; laser heating.

  • Thin membrane with biomimetic hexagonal patterned surface for guided bone regeneration.   Order a copy of this article
    by Anurag Satpathy, Rinkee Mohanty, Tapash Ranjan Rautray 
    Abstract: Polymeric membranes used as a barrier in guided tissue regeneration have undergone several modifications for improved structural, handling and biological properties. Biomaterial surface characteristics are critical in regulating cell function. Physicochemical signals from substrate surfaces stimulate cell behaviour. This paper focuses on fabrication of biodegradable barrier membrane with hexagonal patterned surface for guided tissue regeneration. Hexagonal patterned surfaces were obtained during solvent casting of chitosan solution using a novel method. Obtained barrier membranes were analyzed under stereo and electron microscopy and were assessed for their surface roughness. The hexagonal patterned surface barrier membranes had a significantly higher surface roughness (p<0.001).
    Keywords: barrier membrane; chitosan film; hexagonal; patterned surface; surface roughness; guided bone regeneration.

  • Transport properties on MHD 3-D ethylene glycol and water based colloidal suspensions (Al, CuO & SiC) nanoparticles: A numerical Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Santosh Parida, Satya Mishra 
    Abstract: A comparative study has been made on thermal properties of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) 3-D ethylene glycol and water based colloidal suspensions (Al, CuO & SiC) nanoparticles. Especially, fluid flow, heat and mass transfer characteristic for MHD three dimensional ethylene glycol based nanofluid is studied in the presence and absence of magnetic field. The involving nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced into ordinary differential equations by using similarity variables and then equations are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. Nusselt number, Sherwood number and Skin friction are calculated and their effect on the flow, heat and mass profiles are discussed graphically. It is interesting to observe that fluid velocity decreases with increase in Al-nanoparticles volume fraction whereas it increases for the nanoparticles CuO and SiC. Increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction increases the temperature both in presence and absence of magnetic parameter for all the three types of nanofluid under study.
    Keywords: MHD; Nanofluid; Shooting Technique; Runge-Kutta Method.

Special Issue on: ISMA 2016 Smart Materials and Applications

  • Preparation of TiO2 film on Ag and Al electrode for electrochemical bio-sensing application
    by Nibedita Patro, Priyabrata Pattanaik, Sushanta Kumar Kamilla 
    Abstract: In this present, work, titanium dioxide (TiO2) deposited on Ag and Al electrodes were fabricated by sol-gel chemically wet & dry (CWD) method to detect urea. The formation of the polycrystalline TiO2 deposited on Ag and Al substrates were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The XRD analyses of both the samples clearly indicated that some percentage of Ag and Al diffuses into the TiO2 matrix at its interface region. The nature of I-V characteristics showed by the TiO2 on Ag and Al wire electrodes are found to be Ohmic and is perfect to be used for electrochemical sensor or bio-sensor at very low potential value. The performance and response to various concentrations of urea solution and pH level were experimentally studied by using TiO2 coated on Ag and Al as working electrodes with respect to Ag as reference electrode.
    Keywords: TiO2 (Titanium dioxide), Chemical wet and dry (CWD) technique, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Ammonia sensor.