International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (17 papers in press)
Stakeholders Perceptions of Integrating Mobile Devices in Teaching and Learning
by Aisha Salim Ali Al-Harthi, Chris Campbell, Houda Abdullah Al-Hosni
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of using iPads in teaching and learning and to capture stakeholders perceptions of using iPads in an international school in the Middle East. The study uses a case study methodology and collects both quantitative and qualitative data. The results show that all stakeholders reported positive perceptions about using the iPad. IPad use may have increased students chances to communicate and ask for help from peers. Teachers reported they still need more help to plan for using iPads in their teaching. Some parents felt alienated from the types of learning their children used the iPad for. The qualitative results explain the stakeholders experience in terms of technology access, ownership, integration, connectivity and institutional support. Based on the study results, specific recommendations are provided to improve integrating mobile technology in schools.
Keywords: iPad; technology integration; mobile learning; BYOD.
Effects of a mobile technology-supported peer assessment approach on students learning motivation and perceptions in a college flipped dance class
by Lu-Ho Hsia, Han-Yu Sung
Abstract: Group performances are often employed to help peers learn from each other in college dance classes. This approach can not only cultivate students dance skills, but can also expand their performing experience. The implementation of a flipped classroom can increase students opportunities to practice and to interact with peers in class, and can enhance their learning achievement. On the other hand, students often have concerns about traditional face-to-face feedback while watching videos and giving asynchronous online feedback. As a result, how to conduct peer assessment on site while at the same time taking evaluators psychological pressure into consideration is a crucial issue. The present study integrated mobile technology into a flipped dance class in order to address these problems. In addition, through the grouping in the experiment, the study aimed to understand the effects of a mobile technology-supported peer assessment approach on students motivation and self-efficacy. Through the questionnaires, we explored the correlation between self-efficacy and motivation in the flipped learning context. Finally, group interviews were employed to understand the students learning perceptions. A total of 65 university students from 2 classes were recruited for the study. The 2 classes adopted a traditional feedback approach and a mobile technology-supported peer assessment approach respectively; the flipped teaching experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between students self-efficacy and motivation in the flipped teaching context. Additionally, the mobile technology-supported peer assessment approach was found to be an instructional approach with great benefits, which could significantly enhance students intrinsic motivation and strengthen their focus and reflection during activities.
Keywords: Flipped classroom; Peer assessment; Dance education; Higher education.
Advancement and research trends of smart learning environments in the mobile era
by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Qing-Ke Fu
Abstract: Currently, the rapid development of modern technologies has been influencing and changing every aspect of our society, in an attempt to make our lives more convenient and intelligent. Constructing and applying smart learning environments (SLEs) is such an effort to offer learners personalized learning experiences both effectively and efficiently. In the past half century, a steady development in the literature on SLEs has been identified. Moreover, most studies have been conducted in the fields of computer science, engineering, mathematics, and social science. In the meantime, several technological components of SLEs have been identified as follows: overall, dynamic and open models of learners, mobile technologies and innovative technologies, intelligent cloud service, educational big data and learning analytics. Some salient pedagogical affordances of SLEs have also been presented, such as personalized learning content and paths, cognitive guiding, developing high-order abilities, facilitating diverse learning modes, and fostering autonomous learning and lifelong learning abilities. Finally, several future developmental trends or suggestions are proposed, such as taking learners self-assessments into consideration when making decisions on personalized guiding, investigating the implementation of strategies and the application effects of the mixed learning modes based on SLEs in different teaching contexts, and so on.
Keywords: smart learning environments; trend analysis; educational big data; learning analytics; mobile learning.
Effects of a personalised ubiquitous learning support system based on learning style-preferred technology type decision model on university students' SQL learning performance
by Jirapipat Thanyaphongphat, Patcharin Panjaburee
Abstract: With the advancement of mobile device and wireless communication technologies, personalised ubiquitous learning support systems providing learning material corresponding student preference have been becoming an important research issue. This study focuses on developing such a learning support system based on learning styles and preferred technology types to recommend a proper digital learning material. A two-step experiment was conducted: the first study, involving 190 university students, explored a learning style-preferred technology type decision model for recommending digital learning material to individual students. The second study, involving 39 university students, empirically evaluated the effectiveness of the decision model-based personalised ubiquitous learning support system and the experiment was based on a pre-test and post-test design. The results of the two-part experiments showed that (a) the decision model is able to recommend proper learning material to individual students based on their learning style and preferred technology type, and (b) the learning support system demonstrated good performance concerning the gain of knowledge and learning motivations.
Keywords: mobile learning environment; individual difference in education; computer science education; higher education.
A methodology for designing mobile, pervasive, seamless and IoT-based learning scenarios: language, process and supporting tools
by Jihene Malek, Mona Laroussi, Henda Ben Ghezala, Mariem Nefzi
Abstract: A significant interest and a considerable attention have been given, in recent years, to the mobile pervasive and the Internet of Things (IoT) throughout different fields such as education. However, there are only few empirical examples regarding the use of those technologies in learning design and there is a scarcity of theoretical researches and studies within the literature. This paper seeks to fill this gap by investigating features required in designing such TEL scenarios and by proposing a methodology that allows teachers to design, simulate, enact and track, innovative learning scenarios. The strengths of our approach lie in the fact that it takes into account both design and run-time phases by combining mobile and IoT Key elements, Model-driven development, Activity theory and Tin-Can Api specification. We have conducted two researches at the Tunisian Bardo National Museum to verify the utility of applying the proposed methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the methodology meets the challenges.
Keywords: mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; learning design; modelling and simulation; interactive learning environments; computer-assisted instruction.
Lessons learned from integrating concept mapping and gaming approaches into learning scenarios using mobile devices: analysis of an activity for a geology course
by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Hsin-Yu Lee, Chih-Hung Chen
Abstract: In this study, an integrated concept mapping and gaming-based learning approach was proposed to support mobile learning activities. To investigate the effects of the interaction between concept mapping and gaming on the participants' mobile learning outcomes, a quasi-experimental design was adopted and conducted for a learning activity of the elementary school course unit 'knowing the representative rocks in different geographical locations in Taiwan'. The participants were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. The experimental groups used the integrated concept mapping and gaming-based mobile learning approach, the gaming-based mobile learning approach and the integrated concept mapping and guidance-based mobile learning approach, respectively. On the other hand, the control group used the conventional guidance-based mobile learning approach. The experimental results showed that no interaction was observed between the gaming approach and the concept mapping approach. Furthermore, it was found that the concept mapping approach was not beneficial for students' learning achievement, while the gaming approach significantly improved their learning motivation, learning satisfaction and flow experience. Finally, discussion is provided to explain the findings, in particular, to infer why concept mapping did not achieve the expected positive impacts, as a reference for future studies.
Keywords: teaching/learning strategies; elementary education; applications in subject areas; interactive learning environments.
Mobile-mediated communication and students' listening skills: a case study
by Alberto Andujar, Sardar Abdalla Hussein
Abstract: This research attempted to shed light on the impact of using mobile chat-based applications on the development of language listening skills in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom. Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) was used to develop students' listening skills in second language learners as well as to observe students' experience within the application and its potential features for educational use. A total of 61 students that enrolled in an Administration and Business Management course participated in the experiment and were divided into control and experimental group. 20 students were selected to participate in a WhatsApp group on a daily basis as part of their study for a semester. A mixed method research design was used to analyse the data in both groups. Results indicated that voice-based chat conversation helped students adapt to different accents and tones, and gave rise to a high number of language related-episodes which may foster listening comprehension. Students also reported benefits in terms of vocabulary and pronunciation.
Keywords: mobile-mediated communication; mobile learning; mobile-assisted language learning; MALL; listening skills; Whatsapp; MIM; mobile instant messaging; language learning; virtual environments; BYOD.
Special Issue on: TALE2017 Innovative Engineering Education for Smarter World
DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEOS AND CLASSWORK ACTIVITIES: TEACHING INTERNET OF THINGS VIA FLIPPED CLASSROOM
by Chi-Un Lei, Cheuk-Wang Yau, K.-S. Lui, Vincent Tam, Allan H.-K. Yuen, Edmund Y. Lam
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) applications demonstrate great potential to improve our quality of life and efficiency of business operations. Traditionally, students are taught engineering concepts in lectures. However, this may not be the most effective approach for teaching students IoT, since it can hardly allow students to gain exposure to relevant concepts, programming practices, and system-level design of a practical application. In order to help students get hands-on experience, an undergraduate course focusing on IoT application development was flipped recently: Classroom-based lectures were replaced by a series of student-paced online video lectures, and most weekly meetings were transformed into laboratory sessions facilitated by the course team. In this article, we (1) discuss the rationale for designing the course structure and learning activities, (2) evaluate the course effectiveness through analysing students video viewing behaviour and their project deliverables; and (3) propose future pedagogical development for scaling up students learning.
Keywords: Internet of Things; flipped classroom; classwork design; instructional videos; video analytics; blended learning; design project.
Primary School Students Intrinsic Motivation to Plugged and Unplugged Approach to Develop Computational Thinking
by Shan Jiang, Gary K.W. Wong
Abstract: This paper compared primary school students intrinsic motivation to plugged and unplugged approach to develop computational thinking using a revised Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. A total of 400 fourth-graders who have completed a school-provided coding course participated in the study. The revised instrument examined students motivation of the two learning approaches from four dimensions: interest, perceived competence, value, and relatedness. The main findings of the study are: (1) primary school students show moderate to high motivation to learn computational thinking through both plugged and unplugged approach; (2) compared to unplugged approach, students gain higher perceived competence from plugged approach; (3) the revised Intrinsic Motivation Inventory has good psychometric properties in the context of computational thinking except for the close correlation among different dimensions.
Keywords: Computational thinking; coding education; programming; K-12.
An Analysis of Undergraduate Level Flipped Courses based on the Seven Principles: A Case Study
by Jing Luo, Mansurbek Kushnazarov, Khe Foon Hew
Abstract: The concepts of implementing the flipped classroom approach are fundamentally the same across different disciplines, yet many teachers still consider it too difficult to switch from the traditional lecture mode to the flipped classroom approach due to the lack of a practical model. This paper mainly evaluates three different technological courses that adopted the flipped classroom approach for one semester in The University of Hong Kong based on the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education proposed by Chickering and Gamson (1987). Good principle-guided practices from these five courses are summarized. It is aimed that the findings of this paper will motivate on-campus teachers to adopt the flipped classroom approach.
Keywords: flipped classroom; seven principles of effective teaching; blended learning; SPOC; instructional design; learning design.
Special Issue on: Business and Social Issues in the Mobile Environment
Effect of information quality and system quality in information system (IS) success model as an antecedent of mobile learning in education institutions: case study in jordan
by Bilal Al-Nassar
Abstract: Educators and students in the higher institutions have reaped the benefits of wired technology in the past several years in the form of mobile learning. The main objective of the research is to develop and propose a service quality model for m-learning in university environment. The study proposed a service quality model based on the Information System (IS) Success Model for universities m-learning in a developing country, Jordan. This study was carried out through three stages; first, a questionnaire was used to obtain the perception of m-learning services among 360 students studying in different colleges of the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) and second, information quality was measured through (usefulness and adequacy), system quality (ease of use, accessibility and interactivity), and their causal relationship with learners perceived service quality. Lastly, the third stage involved the development of m-learning system prototype (MLSP) by using Rapid Application Development (RAD) technique. The prototype was then tested among students in JUST, Jordan.
Keywords: nformation quality ; system quality ; IS success model ; usefulness and adequacy ; ease of use ; accessibility and interactivity.
Consumer Perception towards Corporate Social Responsibility Practices: a study of the Malaysian Banking Sector
by Yeo Chu May, Amy, Steve Carter
Abstract: Organisations can gain enormous benefits when they are perceived as being socially responsible to their stakeholders. One of the important stakeholder groups that appear to be particularly susceptible to the banks Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives is their consumers. Thus, this research aims to investigate how banks customers perceived CSR practices in the banking industry in Malaysia. Administering through a Google-form survey instrument, supplemented with a created link via Facebook and Whatsapp, a total of 240 responses were collected, resulting in a response rate of 80 per cent. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions mainly on the predictive power of the constructs in this study. The notable results indicated consumer awareness tended to be positively correlated to CSR practice and it was also one of the most important constructs contributing to the prediction of CSR with the exception of knowledge of consumers and purchasing decision. This suggests that bank managers need to take seriously consumer awareness into the next level of analysis, in which social media has an essential role to play in disseminating important information relating to CSR practices and implementation, including the use of mobile learning as an educative tool.
Keywords: CSR practices; consumer awareness; purchase decision; consumer knowledge; Malaysian banking industry.
Mobile Advergame: Analysis of Flow, Attitudes, and Competitor Trait as the Moderating Variable
by Sri Hartini
Abstract: The focus of this study will be on mobile advergame as the communication media of online marketing. Mobile advergame is a video game which in some ways it contains an advertisement for a product, a service, or a company. This study examines the relationships of consumer flow, attitude toward mobile advergame, attitude toward brand and consumer characteristics, especially competitor trait as the moderating variable. This study used quantitative approach with hypothetical analysis. To collect the data, this study used purposive sampling method. Six mobile advergames, especially adventure genre were used in this study. A total of 162 game players as participants were involved in the survey. The participants were obtained when they were playing the mobile advergame. The result shows that consumer flow influences the attitude toward mobile advergame and competitor trait moderates the relationships. Attitude toward mobile advergame influences attitude toward brand. Consumer flow does not influence attitude toward brand and competitor trait does not moderate relationship flow on attitudes toward brand.
Keywords: flow; attitude; competitor trait; mobile advergame.
Special Issue on: ICOIE 2018 Innovating Education with Mobile Technology Advancements
The Use of Student Response Systems with Learning Analytics: A Review of Case Studies (20082017)
by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong
Abstract: This paper reviews the case studies on the use of student response systems (SRSs) with learning analytics. A total of 26 case studies published between 2008 and 2017 were collected from Scopus and Google Scholar. The review covers the functions of the SRSs, the learning contexts for their use, the data collected, and the use of analysis results, as well as their benefits and limitations. The findings showed an increasing use of SRSs with learning analytics in recent years, mainly in an in-class environment, for collecting students responses to exercises, quizzes or polls. The SRS use has been shown to support tracking and maintain students in-class engagement level, understand their learning experience, and evaluate the effectiveness of teaching. However, there are also constraints on the learning activities and subject disciplines which are suitable for SRS use, which calls for further work to identify the underlying factors and promote the use of SRS in a broader range of learning analytics practices.
Keywords: student response system; classroom response system; audience response system; immediate response system; clicker; learning analytics.
Optimizing the learning process with immersive virtual reality (IVR) and non-immersive virtual reality (nIVR) in an educational environment
by Vivian Wing Yan Lee, Paula Hodgson, Chung Shing, Johnson Chan, Agnes Fong, Sonia Wai Ling Cheung
Abstract: Teachers in higher education have a growing interest in embedding virtual reality in learning and teaching. This means that students can have a virtual exploration or a simulated experience in a range of situations. They can have an immersive virtual reality (IVR) experience using their smartphones mounted with cardboard boxes. Alternatively, tablets and notebook computers can also provide a non-immersive virtual reality (nIVR) experience. Given that bandwidth can be limited in many teaching environments, educators can arrange the options for both IVR and nIVR to maximize the possibility of learning engagement. This paper reports on student experiences of two undergraduate courses Pharmacology and Therapeutics and Understanding Ecotourism, when educators deploy this innovative pedagogy. Survey and focus group interviews with students were conducted after the VR classes. These showed that students appreciated the VR experience, which broadened their awareness and knowledge.
Keywords: Immersive virtual reality; higher education; virtual simulation; virtual exploration.
A Mobile Application with Augmented Reality in Exploring the Natural Environment of Hong Kong
by Sin-Chun Ng, Ho-Chun Lee, King-Nam Cheng, Heung-Hang Ngan
Abstract: This paper introduces a mobile educational application using Augmented Reality called N-Trail for primary students to explore the natural environment of Hong Kong. Students studying in the primary schools in Hong Kong do not have many chances to go for a field trip in the nature parks. It will be beneficial for the students to learn outside of the classroom and explore the beauty of the nature. With the use of N-Trail, primary students can explore the Hong Kong natural environment effectively. N-Trail can provide the nearby flowering plants with the GPS function. Students can take pictures for recognition of different flowering species. The augmented reality (AR) model in N-Trail can simulate the growth of the flowering plants. Students can learn more about the flower and insect species found in Hong Kong. User evaluation revealed that N-Trail is a useful and effective tool for primary students to explore the natural environment in Hong Kong.
Keywords: Augmented Reality (AR); Image Recognition; Mobile Application; Natural Environment of Hong Kong.
Special Issue on: TALE2017 Innovative Engineering Education for Smarter World
Students Characteristics in Programming Learning and the Design of a Mobile Learning Platform
by Chan Tong Lam, Wei Ke, Sio Kei Im, Anabela Gomes, António Mendes, Maria Marcelino
Abstract: We studied the correlations between novice students performance in an
introductory programming course and their learning characteristics and styles as
well as their motivations toward this difficult area. Based on the findings, we then provided a conceptual design of a mobile learning platform for enhancing their
performance, using the most prevalent messaging and social media applications
(APPs) among the students. The study took place in two different academic
years for students taking introductory programming courses at Macao Polytechnic
Institute in Macao and the University of Coimbra in Portugal. We compared
the results of the two samples and found that although we could not establish
correlations in many cases, we were able to get some insights on some context and
teaching aspects that might be improved. The most important factor to improve
the students performance in their first programming course is to enhance their
confidence and motivation in a visual learning environment.
Keywords: Introductory Computer Programming; Learning Characteristics; Motivational Characterization; Learning Styles; Mobile Learning.