International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (17 papers in press)
Factors affecting students behavioral intention in museum-based context-aware ubiquitous learning activities
by YUN-FANG TU
Abstract: Museums have been identified as an important environment providing learning contexts that integrate culture and knowledge. Researchers have pointed out the potential of using mobile and context-aware technologies in such an informal learning environment. This study proposes a museum-based context-aware ubiquitous language learning (ULL) system for engaging students which integrates socio-cultural contexts while learning English. Moreover, the factors affecting the students behavioral intention in museum-based context-aware learning were investigated. It was found that the university students complex problem-solving tendency had a significant positive influence on their effort expectancy and hedonic motivation to use the museum-based context-aware language learning system. When the learners awareness of the complex problem solving tendency increased, their preference for learning with the system increased as well; when the students autonomy and self-learning in relation to accomplishing the learning tasks rose, their usage intention also increased. In addition, performance expectancy, social influence, hedonic motivation, and self-management of learning had positive effects on the students behavioral intention to use the museum-based context-aware language learning system. It was also found that the high-performance students spent more time working on the tasks, while the low-performance students spent more time reading the learning materials. This implies that the low-performance students required additional support to learn in this socio-cultural context.
Keywords: mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; context awareness; museum-based learning; ubiquitous language learning.
Evaluating the acceptance of mobile devices by pre-service teachers with regards to their age and gender. A case study in Greece.
by Stamatios Papadakis
Abstract: The unique characteristics of smart mobile devices have the great potential to enrich the teaching and learning experience. A number of studies have indicated that the successful pedagogical use of technology depends on teachers attitudes and acceptance towards technology. The purpose of the present paper attempts to examine teachers background variables, such as age and gender, with respect to whether and to what extent they influence the use of mobile devices in class. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the core framework for analysis while additional constructs were added in order to find a better understand teacher acceptance of smart mobile devices. Data were collected from 125 pre-service teachers who were studying in a one-year programme of pedagogical training in Greece. Results revealed that preservice teachers have positive opinions about mobile devices. There is no gender and age difference regarding the purpose for using smart mobile devices. Implications of the findings and limitations along with future research directions are also discussed.
Keywords: TAM; mobile devices acceptance; gender; age; preservice teachers.
Reasons and attributes for the use of mobile learning in a Brazilian financial institution
by GEORGE MELLO, Gardenia Abbad, Lana Montezano
Abstract: This article aims to identify the main reasons and attributes perceived by different actors involvedrnin the adoption of a mobile learning model for business team training, adopted by an organization inrnthe financial sector present in 23 countries, with assets of US$315 billion. The study was arndescriptive-exploratory, cross-sectional, qualitative case study, using the data collection techniquesrnof documentary research, focus groups, interviews and questionnaires. Documentary and contentrnanalysis by seven judges were used. The main reasons identified were applicability in the work andrnsupport for the presential instruction, and the key attributes were mobility, ubiquity, ease,rninteractivity and convenience. Further studies are recommended for a better understanding of thernteaching-learning process in the new mobile reality, as well as for the improvement of the specificrninstructional design and evaluation of the results produced.
Keywords: training; development and education; e-learning; mobile learning; m-learning; ubiquitous learning; situated learning.
Trends of mobile technology-enhanced medical education: a review of journal publications from 1998 to 2016
by Ching-Yi Chang, Gwo-Jen Hwang
Abstract: Over the past decades, outcomes related to mobile learning have attracted extensive attention and investigation worldwide. However, little systematic analysis has been conducted on the trends of mobile technology applied in medical education. The present study systematically reviewed journal publications in journals from 1998 to 2016, examining the application domains, subjects, adopted learning strategies, research issues, and the findings of mobile technology-assisted medical education. The results indicated that the applications of mobile technology in medical education and training have not yet gained popularity. Although there were increasing number of mobile learning studies in medical education and the recent research outcomes have become more diverse, mobile learning is mainly applied to medical education for improving learners knowledge comprehension and skills rather than facilitating their higher order thinking (e.g., problem solving or critical thinking). This can be seen from the fact that such mobile learning strategies as inquiry-based learning, contextual mobile learning, mindtools, game-based learning, and synchronous sharing have not been extensively adopted in mobile medical education. On the other hand, it is found that the number of studies using an experimental design increased greatly in recent years. Most studies adopted questionnaire surveys to examine learners cognitive performance and concepts, while learning behaviors were seldom analyzed. Therefore, the present study proposes the research trends and potential research questions in mobile medical education. The results provide suggestions and references for researchers, teachers and decision makers of medical institutes.
Keywords: educational technology; mobile learning; medical education; ubiquitous learning; literature review.
Validating Student Satisfaction with a Blended Learning Scheme in Universitas Terbuka Setting
by Maximus Gorky Sembiring
Abstract: Blended learning scheme of Universitas Terbuka was explored here. It was aimed at validating on how, in what routines independent, moderating and dependent variables involved were interrelated. Exploratory design was utilized as part of mixed method. It was qualitatively established first that blended learning satisfaction reflected by instruction, interactivity, instructor, management, technology and OER-wise. Satisfaction led to student learning, competence, motivation, retention and value. It was quantitatively hypothesized that satisfaction was influenced by independent and it had corollary to the dependent variables. This configuration was completed through reviews and focus-group discussions prior to performing survey. Important-performance analysis (IPA) and customer-satisfaction index (CSI) were utilized to measure satisfaction and importance degree. Eleven hypotheses were assessed using structural-equation model (SEM); nine were validated. Management was the most influential factor, followed by interactivity, instructor, and instruction; excluding OER-wise and technology. Retention was influenced by satisfaction, followed by enhance learning, value, motivation and competence.
Keywords: blended learning; exploratory design; IPA; CSI; SEM.
A development of ubiquitous learning support system based on an enhanced inquiry-based learning approach
by Krittawaya Thongkoo, Patcharin Panjaburee, Kannika Daungcharone
Abstract: With the popularization of broadband and wireless Internet technologies, researchers have attempted to develop mobile device-based learning systems to enable students to seamlessly learning in anywhere and anytime through internet network connections. However, it is difficult for teachers to provide the manner for asking students to share explanations with peers. To cope with this issue, this study proposes an enhanced inquiry-based learning approach for eliciting and sharing knowledge from students investigation of a problem or task. Based on the proposed approach, a ubiquitous learning support system has been implemented in a web-programming course; moreover, an experiment was conducted on university students to evaluate the performance of our approach. By analysing the results from the two groups of students participating in the different systems, it was found that the proposed approach effectively enhanced the students learning achievement and promoted positive perception toward the system. Furthermore, the proposed approach benefited both male and female students in the terms of learning achievement and perceptions.
Keywords: interactive mobile learning environment; knowledge management; higher education; individual difference in education; active learning pedagogy.
A Bibliometric Analysis of M-Learning from Topic Inception to 2015
by Monther M. Elaish, Liyana Shuib, Norjihan Abdul Ghani, Ghulam Mujtaba, Nader Ale Ebrahim
Abstract: Mobile learning is a promising and widely adopted mode of education nowadays. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies that have investigated publications on the use of mobile learning in the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) through bibliometric analysis. This study aims to provide readers with statistical information to obtain a deep understanding of this domain. The results show that 3087 mobile learning publications have been published since 1982. As a result, the study has compared and determined the possible ways for researchers and authors to improve the citation rate of their publications on m- learning and to gain a deeper understanding of the field of mobile learning by studying the number of publications and country, the number of authors, the keywords, the number of references, the number of pages, the journal, the authors publications, and the number of citations. Additionally, other bibliometric results are discussed.
Keywords: Mobile learning; m-learning; Web of Science; bibliometric.
Effects of a Personalized Ubiquitous Learning Support System based on Learning Style-Preferred Technology Type Decision Model on University Students SQL Learning Performance
by Jirapipat Thanyaphongphat, Patcharin Panjaburee
Abstract: With the advancement of mobile device and wireless communication technologies, personalized ubiquitous learning support systems providing learning material corresponding student preference have been becoming an important research issue. This study focuses on developing such a learning support system based on learning styles and preferred technology types to recommend a proper digital learning material. A two-step experiment was conducted: the first study, involving 190 university students, explored a learning style-preferred technology type decision model for recommending digital learning material to individual students. The second study, involving 39 university students, empirically evaluated the effectiveness of the decision model-based personalized ubiquitous learning support system and the experiment was based on a pre-test and post-test design. The results of the two-part experiments showed that a) the decision model is able to recommend proper learning material to individual students based on their learning style and preferred technology type, and b) the learning support system demonstrated good performance concerning the gain of knowledge and learning motivations.
Keywords: mobile learning environment; individual difference in education; computer science education; higher education.
Special Issue on: Mobile Learning and Knowledge Sharing
Multi-cloud storage systems for mobile devices: study and analysis
by Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Abstract: Despite high demand of smart mobile devices among users as in case of mobile learning, it has a lot of issues as limited storage capacity, processing power and battery backup. Recent studies described that these limitations can be removed by using the concept of mobile cloud computing. There are many multi-cloud storage systems for mobile devices having different features and limitations. In this article, we are providing study and analysis of three multi-cloud storage systems for mobile devices named Mult Cloud, ES File Explorer and Cloud Cube and evaluate their performance on the basis of CPU usage, battery consumption, time consumption and data usage parameters on Wi-Fi network and using two mobile phones, Sony Xperia ZL smart phone and Nexus 7 tablet. Finally, open research challenges and future scope are discussed.
Keywords: multi-cloud storage; vendor lock-in; mobile cloud computing; data usage; CPU usage; battery usage.
The moderated effect of government regulations on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and competitive advantage in SMEs
by Mohammed R. Yaseen Zeebaree, Rusinah B. Siron, Hashem Ali Issa Almuslamani
Abstract: This study aims to test effects of the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation on the competitive advantage, and to investigate the moderated role of governmental regulation on the relationship between each dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation with competitive advantage in the small and medium-sized enterprises in the Kurdistan Region economy in Iraq. This study applied a quantitative approach using questionnaires as instrument tools for the collection of data. The subjects of this study were top managers working in the 3526 small and medium-sized enterprises in the Kurdistan Region. 680 questionnaires were distributed to gather data, out of which 580 useful questionnaires were selected for analysing purposes. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was employed to examine the moderated role of governmental regulations on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and competitive advantage. The results showed that each dimension of entrepreneurial orientation is deemed to be a significant driver for competitive advantage. The results further suggested that the interaction of governmental regulations has a significant impact on the relationship between each dimension of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive advantage.
Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises; entrepreneurial orientation; competitive advantage; government regulations.
Utility of an object-oriented metrics component: examining the feasibility of .Net and C# object-oriented program from the perspective of mobile learning
by Neelamadhab Padhy, R.P. Singh, Suresh Chandra Satapathy
Abstract: In the 21st century, mobile applications could be built using different object-oriented languages like C#, Java and object-oriented framework. Increasing and maintaining the software product for multiple applications remains to be a challenging task. Object-oriented metrics play a crucial role in development of a software product. The estimation of object-oriented metrics is essential in the software engineering domain, including measuring the software code complexity, and estimating the size and quality of the products. Developers generally implements applications on different platforms, such as the Android in Java and Windows in C#, by having the metrics estimation conducted automatically since manual calculation is difficult. The metrics are generated in different ways owing to the change of mobile technologies and other marketing factors. This research not only reviews both manual and automated design tools for the estimation of object-oriented metrics for mobile applications, but also proposes a novel approach for estimating the metrics by recognising individual metrics and estimating the re-usability factors in a dynamic manner. The Chidamber and Kemerer metrics suite is best suited for measuring the object-oriented design metrics. This paper reviews the object-oriented metrics and analyses the difference through a comparison table; following that, several suggestions are provided to researchers and system developers.
Keywords: object-oriented metrics; CK metrics; DRUBM; ATDFEOOMFA.
Lessons learned from the successful countries and distinguished authors by reviewing 2007-2016 journal publications on mobile technology-supported collaborative learning
by Qing-Ke Fu
Abstract: In this study, a review of mobile collaborative learning was conducted to identify the main contributing countries and authors of this field by analysing journal papers published from 2007 to 2016. Based on the analysis results, the outstanding countries and authors are presented; more important, the key factor of successfully promoting mobile learning studies and applications in a country was investigated. The findings and suggestions of this study could provide a good reference for policy makers and administrators who intend to implement successful mobile learning research and practice in their countries.
Keywords: mobile learning; collaborative learning; ubiquitous learning; literature review; trend analysis.
Multi-agents platform for mobile learning using objective distance based personalisation method
by Sataworn Chaichumpa, Punnarumol Temdee
Abstract: Promoting personalised learning in the mobile learning environment is challenging. This paper thus proposes a platform to promote effective personalised mobile learning. For this paper, the Objective Distance (OD) which is the distance between the expected and the current learning competency is mainly used for personalised support. More specifically, the different OD determines the different support for the different learner. In this paper, the developed platform is implemented with multi-agents architecture to promote the ease of development, adaptability, and extensibility. This proposed platform is tested with 50 students for English language learning. It is evaluated in terms of efficiency and satisfaction. For efficiency assessment, the results show that the proposed platform can enhance student's learning efficiency significantly. For satisfaction assessment, the participating students strongly agree that the developed platform is convenient to use. At the same time, students also strongly agree that it can provide the personalised support for them.
Keywords: m-learning; personalised learning; objective distance; multi-agent.
Special Issue on: Technological Transformations in Open and Innovative Education in the Mobile Era
Developing social entrepreneurs through distance education: The value of commitment and interactivity with the learning community
by Marta Solórzano-García, Julio Navío-Marco
Abstract: Given that the creation of successful interactions and collaboration networks develops into sustainable and successful social entrepreneurial organizations, learning communities can serve as an ideal environment to train students in social entrepreneurship. This paper describes massive open online learning communities as an appropriate methodology for the distance teaching of social entrepreneurship and how the students on a massive online open course in social entrepreneurship commit to the learning community generated in this virtual environment. Data from a pioneer social entrepreneurship massive open online learning communities were analyzed using three statistical methodologies. The analysis demonstrates that a students commitment to the distance learning community is directly related to his degree of participation, the rewards received, his correspondence with the other students and recognition from the other members of the community.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship; distance education; commitment; online interaction; learning communities; mobile learning; massively open online courses; MOOC; social network analysis; social constructivism; collaborative learning; statistical analysis; learning engagement; social presence; digital badgets.
Trends of digital game-based learning in the mobile era: A systematic review of journal publications in 2007 to 2016
by Ching-Yi Chang, Gwo-Jen Hwang
Abstract: The application of mobile learning and the use of game-based instructional strategies have been demonstrated as promoting students learning performances and motivation. Over the past decade, many researchers and educators have integrated mobile technology and the features of gaming into their instructional designs; however, there has been little systematic review of the applications and trends in mobile technology-supported gaming. In the present study, related international journal publications from 2007 to 2016 were reviewed by searching the WOS database. The aim of this literature review was to highlight the research domain and issues of promoting game-based learning in future mobile technology. Based on this review, trends in mobile game-based learning are proposed from various aspects, such as the adoption of mobile technologies, gaming types, application domains, learning strategies, research issues, research methods, and participants. Accordingly, several suggestions are given for future studies.
Keywords: digital game-based learning; mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; mobile games; educational games.
Matching of Compatible Different Attributes for Compatibility of Members and Groups
by Pratya Nuankaew, Punnarumol Temdee
Abstract: The compatibility of members and groups requires appropriate matching, which depends on the level of attitudes towards the components of a mentoring system. Generally, a mentoring system consists of two roles, including the mentor and mentee. Identifying how to classify these compatible roles from a large group of members in an online community can be a challenging task. This paper proposes a matching model for classifying the compatibility of mentors and mentees in a large group by using compatible different attributes. More specifically, the compatible different attributes consist of 24 attributes of attitude towards similarities and dissimilarities attributes between mentors and mentees. The data was collected from 32 mentors and 205 mentees at 4 universities including Mae Fah Luang University, University of Phayao, Chiang Rai Rajabhat University, and Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University. The collected data was classified utilising two primary classifiers, namely k-means and k-medoids, in order to compare the classification results. Overall, comparison showed that k-medoids provided better classification results than k-means.
Keywords: Mentoring Model; Online Mentoring; Compatibility Different Attribute; Classification.
The Effects of Mobile Learning for Nursing Students: An Integrative Evaluation of Learning Process, Learning Motivation, and Study Performance
by Kam Cheong Li, Linda Yin-king Lee, Suet-lai Wong, Ivy Sui-yu Yau, Billy T.M. Wong
Abstract: This paper reports a study on the relationships between the variables of nursing students learning motivation, perception of their mobile learning practice and their study performance. A total of 225 undergraduate nursing students participated in the research. They used a mobile app for fostering clinical knowledge and skills acquired in class, and took part in a questionnaire survey as well as a before-and-after test of their study performance. The results showed that, despite a statistically significant improvement in their study performance after using mobile devices for learning, this improvement was positively correlated with only some of the motivational factors (i.e., mastery goal orientation and intrinsic value) and certain variables (e.g., learners prior knowledge) in the Framework for the Rational Analysis of Mobile Education used for conceptualising mobile learning. Also, the results of factor analysis suggested three latent factors among all the variables in the model.
Keywords: mobile learning; m-learning; nursing education; nursing students; FRAME model; learning process; learning motivation; study performance.