International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (11 papers in press)
Factors affecting students behavioral intention in museum-based context-aware ubiquitous learning activities
by YUN-FANG TU
Abstract: Museums have been identified as an important environment providing learning contexts that integrate culture and knowledge. Researchers have pointed out the potential of using mobile and context-aware technologies in such an informal learning environment. This study proposes a museum-based context-aware ubiquitous language learning (ULL) system for engaging students which integrates socio-cultural contexts while learning English. Moreover, the factors affecting the students behavioral intention in museum-based context-aware learning were investigated. It was found that the university students complex problem-solving tendency had a significant positive influence on their effort expectancy and hedonic motivation to use the museum-based context-aware language learning system. When the learners awareness of the complex problem solving tendency increased, their preference for learning with the system increased as well; when the students autonomy and self-learning in relation to accomplishing the learning tasks rose, their usage intention also increased. In addition, performance expectancy, social influence, hedonic motivation, and self-management of learning had positive effects on the students behavioral intention to use the museum-based context-aware language learning system. It was also found that the high-performance students spent more time working on the tasks, while the low-performance students spent more time reading the learning materials. This implies that the low-performance students required additional support to learn in this socio-cultural context.
Keywords: mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; context awareness; museum-based learning; ubiquitous language learning.
An investigation of preservice teachers acceptance of mobile devices with regards to their age and gender. A case study in Greece.
by Stamatios Papadakis
Abstract: The unique characteristics of smart mobile devices have the great potential to enrich the teaching and learning experience. A number of studies have indicated that the successful pedagogical use of technology depends on teachers attitudes and acceptance towards technology. The purpose of the present paper attempts to examine teachers background variables, such as age and gender, with respect to whether and to what extent they influence the use of mobile devices in class. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the core framework for analysis while additional constructs were added in order to find a better understand teacher acceptance of smart mobile devices. Data were collected from 125 pre-service teachers who were studying in a one-year programme of pedagogical training in Greece. Results revealed that preservice teachers have positive opinions about mobile devices. There is no gender and age difference regarding the purpose for using smart mobile devices. Implications of the findings and limitations along with future research directions are also discussed.
Keywords: TAM; mobile devices acceptance; gender; age; preservice teachers.
Special Issue on: Role of Smart Devices in Teaching and Learning
An Evaluation of the Learning Effectiveness of a Formulated Ideal Social Collaborative Mobile Learning Environment Application Towards Cognitive Level in Biology
by CHEE KEN NEE, Noraffandy Yahaya, Nor Hasniza Ibrahim
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate mobile learning (m-learning) application (app), namely iMLearning as a Formulated Ideal Social Collaborative Mobile Learning Environment (FISCOMOLE) with an aim of improving students cognitive level based on higher order thinking skills (HOTS) and lower order thinking skills (LOTS) towards biology concept. Feasibility, functionality and usability design of the app together with its environment and content of the app were testified as well. A quasi-experimental research design of the non-randomized control group, pre-test-post-test with two control-group design model was used. Three high schools with a class of forty Form Four or year 10 students in each class, which were assigned by class to be the two control groups, and one experimental group. The classes were randomly assigned to one of the three groups, namely conventional computer assisted instruction (control group 1), electronic learning (e-learning) using the Frog VLE (control group 2) and m-learning using iMLearning App (experimental group). Analysis of quantitative data in this research was based on descriptive and inferential statistics methods. Academic performance comparison results between the conventional group, e-learning and m-learning groups based on gain score of LOTS, HOTS and overall result were using the Kruskal Wallis test as to determine the statistical differences at the level of 0.05. Besides, the Wilcoxon Signed-rank test was used to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in the gain score for academic achievement of m-learning groups against two types of cognitive stages respectively. The results showed that the FISCOMOLE that incorporated in iMLearning app used as m-learning approach is more helpful to the students in improving LOTS towards biology concept rather than HOTS either between different approaches or among its own approach. Mastery of LOTS is crucial due to it acts as foundation on the building-up of HOTS. Moreover, the students had a high level of acceptance of such a m-learning environment is easy to use (in term of Function and Design); useful (in term of Learning Material & Content and Tools); and promote interaction, collaboration, learning attitude and learning interest.
Keywords: Mobile Learning; Mobile Learning Environment; Cognitive Level; Higher Order Thinking Skill; Lower Order Thinking Skill; Social Collaborative Learning; Biology.
Factors Influencing Mobile Learning A Literature Review of selected journal papers
by Jayendra Bharati Venkataraman, Srikanth Ramasamy
Abstract: Due to technological advancements and decreasing costs of mobile devices and services, there is a significant change in learning environment that demands for mobility. As a result, a new way of learning has arisen, that is, mobile learning (m-learning). The emergence and popularity of m-learning helps flexibility in delivering education, meeting learners' needs, and supporting learning activities without limiting to physical locations or time. M-learning has created a new opportunity for R&D in education system. Students adoption of m-learning by students is a key criterion for success in implementation of m-learning systems. Encouraged by this new trend in learning, this review research embarks to explore the factors affecting students' purpose for using mobile devices for learning. Research has been done by going through various existing literature. The results indicate that service quality, performance expectancy, ubiquity, attainment value, perceived enjoyment, and self-management of learning are noteworthy predictors of behavioral intent to use m-learning; effort-expectancy, facilitating conditions, social influence, and self-efficacy are found to be trivial. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model was found to be the most optimal model for m-learning.
Keywords: m-learning; technology; factors; mobile phone; models of m-learning; consumer behavior; student behavior; education.
A sustainable model for deployment of mobile learning in schools
by Vajiheh Zeraati, Somaieh Alavi, Naser Nematbakhsh
Abstract: As an educational technique, mobile learning is referred to as any kind of learning that takes place inside or outside traditional learning environment via mobile phones. To successfully deploy mobile learning as a new paradigm in modern education, many studies have been conducted, but there are no clear instructions for sustainability of mobile learning deployment. In this research, factors affecting mobile learning are identified and a model is suggested for the sustainable deployment of mobile learning in education and learning in schools. Evaluation of the proposed model was conducted in order to deploy a sustainable mobile learning via 100 teachers and eventually this model was revised. The revised model can be used as a road map for both stages before and after the deployment of mobile learning. Furthermore, with a planned approach Education Organization and schools can use the model for mixing mobile learning with traditional learning with the aim of improving education and learning.
Keywords: Mobile learning; E-learning; Mobile technology; School.
Mood-Tracking Application as Persuasive Technology for Reduction of Occupational Stress
by Sanaz Alavian Ghavanini, Elaheh Homayounvala, Ali Rezaeian
Abstract: Occupational stress is a major concern in the job performance of employees. The use of persuasive technologies is one way to prevent or reduce this stress. Of the different types of persuasive technology, software applications on mobile phones are the most well-known because mobile phones are available everywhere and can be easily applied for this purpose. The present study as a pilot study developed a mood tracking application and tested its effect on stress reduction of employees. Pretests and posttests were completed by participants to investigate the effects of mood tracking on the reduction of stress in the work environment. Twenty-six employees of a petrochemical company were divided into equally-sized groups of married and single participants. Two types of accommodation are offered in this company based on the marital status of the employees. Other variables effecting stress, such as working conditions, were same for both groups. An OSI-R questionnaire was used to collect data before and after four weeks of application use. In present pilot study, data analysis shows that this kind of persuasive technology can have a significant positive effect on single employees and help them to decrease and manage their stress; however, no meaningful results were recorded for the married group because they did not use the application as much as participants in the single group.
Keywords: mobile learning; occupational stress; persuasive technology; self-monitoring; mood-tracking; stress management; organizational training.
Factors of Students Performance Based on Cognitive Level in a Mobile Learning Environment
by Chee Ken Nee, Noraffandy Yahaya, Nor Hasniza Ibrahim
Abstract: The purpose of this follow-up research is to explore factors that affecting students performance in Biology based on lower order thinking skill (LOTS) and higher order thinking skill (HOTS) when Formulated Ideal Social Collaborative Mobile Learning Environment (FISCOMOLE) which is incorporated via iMLearning app was adopted in the lesson. The previous portion of research, proposed prototype was intervene in quasi-experiment as an effort to improve the educational potential of mobile learning environment. This paper presents a later portion of the findings on the factors behind the students performance and most used tools in the mobile application in FISCOMOLE as an effort to bridging the gap in the body of literature due to paucity of study. This qualitative research study focused on ten students from one boarding school. The students had been integrating mobile learning using FISCOMOLE into their Biology lesson for at least three consecutive weeks on the cell division topic. Data were collected through student focus group interviews and then triangulate with observation on user behaviour by using the screen recorder app. Five specific main themes emerged from the interview data: factors that affecting students performance on higher order thinking skill and lower order thinking skill while using mobile learning, solutions to curb with factors that leads to HOTS become harder, boon and tools that often used in iMLearning app with few sub-themes as, HOTS become harder because the skill of thinking outside of the box is required, the question is in the form of application and content is out of the textbooks scope; LOTS become easier because mere basic concept is required and question is in the form of direct; solutions to curb with factors that leads to HOTS become harder is facilitation via visualization enhancement (eg. Video) and face to face tutoring with an instructor or peers; iMLearning app is easy and helpful because it can overcome boredom, make learning can happen anywhere, it is interesting and attracting, and provide extra information; and tools that often used in iMLearning App is khanacademy (video), Edmodo (video) and Edmodo. It is advocating that mobile devices and the use of FISCOMOLE created opportunities for interaction, collaboration, as well as allowed students to contribute in content sharing, but its implementation need to be in proper manner as to increase students performance in both LOTS and particularly HOTS. It is proffessed that the integration should be accompanied with the presence of immediate instructions with appropriate facilitation by provocation, argumentation and guidance on interaction either by face to face or via online with teacher. Furthermore, its effect could be enhanced by visualization through video or simulation.
Keywords: Factor; LOTS; HOTS; Solution; Performance; Cognitive Level.
Special Issue on: Mobile Learning and Knowledge Sharing
Multi Cloud Storage Systems for Mobile Devices: Study and Analysis
by Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Abstract: Despite high demand of smart mobile devices among users as in case of mobile learning, it has a lot of issues as limited storage capacity, processing power and battery backup. Recent studies described that these limitations can be removed by using the concept of Mobile Cloud Computing. There are many Multi Cloud Storage Systems for Mobile Devices having different features and limitations. In this article, we are providing study and analysis of three Multi Cloud Storage Systems for mobile devices Mult Cloud, ES File Explorer and Cloud Cube and evaluate their performance on the basis of CPU usage, Battery Consumption, Time consumption and Data usage parameters on Wi-Fi network and using two mobile phones Sony Xperia ZL smart phone and Nexus 7 tablet. Finally, open research challenges and future scope are discussed.
Keywords: Multi Cloud Storage; Vendor Lock-in; Mobile Cloud Computing; Data Usage; CPU Usage; Battery Usage.
The Moderated Effect of Government Regulations on relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Competitive Advantage in SMEs
by Mohammed R. Zeebaree, Rusinah Bt. Siron, Hashem Ali Issa Almuslamani
Abstract: This study aims to test effects of the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation on the competitive advantage, and to investigate the moderated role of governmental regulation on the relationship between each dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation with competitive advantage in the small and medium-sized enterprises in the Kurdistan Region economy in Iraq. This study applied a quantitative approach using questionnaires as instrument tools for the collection of data. The subjects of this study were top managers working in the 3526 small and medium-sized enterprises in the Kurdistan Region. (680) questionnaires were distributed to gather data, out of which (580) useful questionnaires were selected for analyzing purposes. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to examine the moderated role of governmental regulations on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and competitive advantage. The results showed that each dimension of entrepreneurial orientation is deemed to be a significant driver for competitive advantage. The results further suggested that the interaction of governmental regulations has a significant impact on the relationship between each dimension of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive advantage.
Keywords: Small and medium-sized enterprises; entrepreneurial orientation; competitive advantage; government regulations.
Utility of an Object-Oriented Metrics Component: Examining the feasibility of .Net and C# Object-oriented program from the perspective of mobile learning
by Neelamadhab Padhy, Singh R.P., Suresh Satapathy
Abstract: In the 21st century, mobile applications could be built using different object-oriented languages like C#, Java and object-oriented framework. Increasing and maintaining the software product for multiple applications remains to be a challenging task. Object-oriented metrics play a crucial role in development of a software product. The estimation of object-oriented metrics is essential in the software engineering domain, including measuring the software code complexity, and estimating the size and quality of the products. Developers generally implements applications on different platforms, such as the Android in Java and Windows in C#, by having the metrics estimation conducted automatically since manual calculation is difficult. The metrics are generated in different ways owing to the change of mobile technologies and other marketing factors. This research not only reviews both manual and automated design tools for the estimation of object-oriented metrics for mobile applications, but also proposes a novel approach for estimating the metrics by recognizing individual metrics and estimating the re-usability factors in a dynamic manner. The Chidamber and Kemerer metrics suite is best suited for measuring the object-oriented design metrics. This paper reviews the object-oriented metrics and analyzes the difference through a comparison table; following that, several suggestions are provided to researchers and system developers.
Keywords: Object-Oriented Metrics; CK Metrics; DRUBM (Model for Estimating Reusability Factor Dynamically); ATDFEOOMFA (Automated Tool Design for Estimation of Object-oriented Metrics for Mobile Application).
Lessons learned from the successful countries and distinguished authors by reviewing 2007-2016 journal publications on mobile technology-supported collaborative learning
by Qing-Ke FU
Abstract: In this study, a review of mobile collaborative learning was conducted to identify the main contributing countries and authors of this field by analyzing journal papers published from 2007 to 2016. Based on the analysis results, the outstanding countries and authors are presented; more important, the key factor of successfully promoting mobile learning studies and applications in a country was investigated. The findings and suggestions of this study could provide a good reference for policy makers and administrators who intend to implement successful mobile learning research and practice in their countries.
Keywords: mobile learning; collaborative learning; ubiquitous learning; literature review; trend analysis.