International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (11 papers in press)
SROR: Designing a Social-based Routing Protocol for Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning
by GARY K. W. WONG
Abstract: Social-aware routing in delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) are a recent emerging technology that addresses intermittent connection issues, and has the potential to better support context-aware ubiquitous learning and create a social learning community without the infrastructure. Mobile devices equipped with ad hoc connectivity will suffice for setting up data transmission for the learning community. In the context of opportunistic networking, there may not be an end-to-end routing path between source and destination nodes, and existing routing protocols may be infeasible, so designing an efficient routing protocol remains a challenging issue. This study proposes a novel social-based routing protocol called the Social Relation Opportunistic Routing (SROR) algorithm for mobile opportunistic networks, based on the three properties of social relations, social profiles, and social mobility patterns. As this routing problem consists of three independent constraints, the time complexity of finding an optimal routing solution is NP-Complete. Thus, our objective is to compute the optimal relay node for routing the data so that the delivery ratio is maximised heuristically. We use an ns-2 simulator to analyse our protocol and the experimental results demonstrate that the SROR algorithm outperforms the existing Social Pressure Method algorithm and other benchmark routing protocols such as Prophet, SimBet and Fresh, and achieves the highest data delivery ratio with maximised routing efficiency under the dynamic social environments. Our results also show that the SROR algorithm is more persistent in dynamic environments in terms of mobility pattern and network topology. With this advanced technology, an authentic and seamless context-aware ubiquitous learning environment can be realised and supported in the future.
Keywords: Delay-tolerant networks; opportunistic networking; social-aware routing; mobile learning technology; context-aware ubiquitous learning.
The roles of sensing technologies and learning strategies in library-associated mobile learning- a review of 2007-2016 journal publications
by YUN-FANG TU, Gwo-Jen Hwang
Abstract: Libraries play an important role of supporting school education, academic research, and public learning. Recent advancement and popularity of mobile, wireless network and sensing technologies have further provided a more convenient and effective environment for accessing library facilities and resources. For example, students can be guided to learn in physical libraries by mobile learning systems with sensing technologies, or to complete learning tasks with access to electronic libraries via mobile devices when learning in the field. In addition to the learning contexts, the types of learning design could also affect students mobile learning outcomes. Therefore, it is worth investigating the trends of using libraries to support mobile learning from the aspects of the adoption of sensing technologies and learning strategies. This study aims to investigate the studies published in Elsevier's Scopus database from 2007 to 2016 to address these issues, including the types of sensing or location-based technologies, and learning strategies employed in library-supported mobile learning. From the review results, potential research issues and suggestions to future learning design are provided.
Keywords: mobile learning; sensing technologies; learning strategies; library-associated mobile learning.
Proposal of Personalized Mobile Game from Inquiry-based Learning Activities Perspective: Relationships among Genders, Learning Styles, Perceptions, and Learning Interest
by Narisra Komalawardhana, Patcharin Panjaburee
Abstract: This study is focused on the relationships among genders, learning styles, perceptions, and learning interest for physics learning supported by a digital game incorporated with scientific inquiry approach. Seventy-nine students participated in this experiment. The results of this study showed that perception about the digital game and learning interest are not significantly different among the different genders or learning styles; and there is significant association between genders and learning styles. Explanations and discussions of these results are offered. Although, this suggests the game need to provide the opportunities for interaction on game screen and with peers. The students showed the need of learning science in real phenomena by basing on the developed game corresponding their own prior-knowledge. In light of the previously mentioned, this paper extends the developed game and addresses the application proposal with the use of mobile devices to support personalized learning in authentic general science activities.
Keywords: interactive learning environment; individual differences; science education; mobile game-based learning.
The effectiveness of integrating mobile devices with inquiry-based learning on students’ learning achievements: A meta-analysis
by Lanqin Zheng, Xin Li, Lu Tian
Abstract: Mobile devices are gaining more and more popularity in recent years. Researchers and practitioners took advantages of mobile devices to facilitate inquiry-based learning in the past decade. Although there were many studies that using mobile devices in inquiry-based learning, the systematic review of the effectiveness of integrating mobile devices with inquiry-based learning remained lacking. This meta-analysis examined 34 empirical studies with 2316 participants on integrating mobile devices with inquiry-based learning from 2007 to 2016. The results indicated that there was a high effect size of 0.91 for the application of mobile devices in improving students’ learning achievements. The features of moderator variables were also deeply analysed and synthesized based on the content analysis of all studies. The results together with the implications for practices and research were also discussed in detail.
Keywords: Mobile devices; Inquiry-based learning; Learning achievement; Meta-analysis
Special Issue on: Role of Smart Devices in Teaching and Learning
Factors Influencing Mobile Learning A Literature Review of selected journal papers
by Jayendra Bharati Venkataraman, Srikanth Ramasamy
Abstract: Due to technological advancements and decreasing costs of mobile devices and services, there is a significant change in learning environment that demands for mobility. As a result, a new way of learning has arisen, that is, mobile learning (m-learning). The emergence and popularity of m-learning helps flexibility in delivering education, meeting learners' needs, and supporting learning activities without limiting to physical locations or time. M-learning has created a new opportunity for R&D in education system. Students adoption of m-learning by students is a key criterion for success in implementation of m-learning systems. Encouraged by this new trend in learning, this review research embarks to explore the factors affecting students' purpose for using mobile devices for learning. Research has been done by going through various existing literature. The results indicate that service quality, performance expectancy, ubiquity, attainment value, perceived enjoyment, and self-management of learning are noteworthy predictors of behavioral intent to use m-learning; effort-expectancy, facilitating conditions, social influence, and self-efficacy are found to be trivial. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model was found to be the most optimal model for m-learning.
Keywords: m-learning; technology; factors; mobile phone; models of m-learning; consumer behavior; student behavior; education.
A sustainable model for deployment of mobile learning in schools
by Vajiheh Zeraati, Somaieh Alavi, Naser Nematbakhsh
Abstract: As an educational technique, mobile learning is referred to as any kind of learning that takes place inside or outside traditional learning environment via mobile phones. To successfully deploy mobile learning as a new paradigm in modern education, many studies have been conducted, but there are no clear instructions for sustainability of mobile learning deployment. In this research, factors affecting mobile learning are identified and a model is suggested for the sustainable deployment of mobile learning in education and learning in schools. Evaluation of the proposed model was conducted in order to deploy a sustainable mobile learning via 100 teachers and eventually this model was revised. The revised model can be used as a road map for both stages before and after the deployment of mobile learning. Furthermore, with a planned approach Education Organization and schools can use the model for mixing mobile learning with traditional learning with the aim of improving education and learning.
Keywords: Mobile learning; E-learning; Mobile technology; School.
Mood-Tracking Application as Persuasive Technology for Reduction of Occupational Stress
by Sanaz Alavian Ghavanini, Elaheh Homayounvala, Ali Rezaeian
Abstract: Occupational stress is a major concern in the job performance of employees. The use of persuasive technologies is one way to prevent or reduce this stress. Of the different types of persuasive technology, software applications on mobile phones are the most well-known because mobile phones are available everywhere and can be easily applied for this purpose. The present study as a pilot study developed a mood tracking application and tested its effect on stress reduction of employees. Pretests and posttests were completed by participants to investigate the effects of mood tracking on the reduction of stress in the work environment. Twenty-six employees of a petrochemical company were divided into equally-sized groups of married and single participants. Two types of accommodation are offered in this company based on the marital status of the employees. Other variables effecting stress, such as working conditions, were same for both groups. An OSI-R questionnaire was used to collect data before and after four weeks of application use. In present pilot study, data analysis shows that this kind of persuasive technology can have a significant positive effect on single employees and help them to decrease and manage their stress; however, no meaningful results were recorded for the married group because they did not use the application as much as participants in the single group.
Keywords: mobile learning; occupational stress; persuasive technology; self-monitoring; mood-tracking; stress management; organizational training.
Special Issue on: Mobile Learning and Knowledge Sharing
Multi Cloud Storage Systems for Mobile Devices: Study and Analysis
by Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Abstract: Despite high demand of smart mobile devices among users as in case of mobile learning, it has a lot of issues as limited storage capacity, processing power and battery backup. Recent studies described that these limitations can be removed by using the concept of Mobile Cloud Computing. There are many Multi Cloud Storage Systems for Mobile Devices having different features and limitations. In this article, we are providing study and analysis of three Multi Cloud Storage Systems for mobile devices Mult Cloud, ES File Explorer and Cloud Cube and evaluate their performance on the basis of CPU usage, Battery Consumption, Time consumption and Data usage parameters on Wi-Fi network and using two mobile phones Sony Xperia ZL smart phone and Nexus 7 tablet. Finally, open research challenges and future scope are discussed.
Keywords: Multi Cloud Storage; Vendor Lock-in; Mobile Cloud Computing; Data Usage; CPU Usage; Battery Usage.
The Moderated Effect of Government Regulations on relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Competitive Advantage in SMEs
by Mohammed R. Zeebaree, Rusinah Bt. Siron, Hashem Ali Issa Almuslamani
Abstract: This study aims to test effects of the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation on the competitive advantage, and to investigate the moderated role of governmental regulation on the relationship between each dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation with competitive advantage in the small and medium-sized enterprises in the Kurdistan Region economy in Iraq. This study applied a quantitative approach using questionnaires as instrument tools for the collection of data. The subjects of this study were top managers working in the 3526 small and medium-sized enterprises in the Kurdistan Region. (680) questionnaires were distributed to gather data, out of which (580) useful questionnaires were selected for analyzing purposes. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to examine the moderated role of governmental regulations on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and competitive advantage. The results showed that each dimension of entrepreneurial orientation is deemed to be a significant driver for competitive advantage. The results further suggested that the interaction of governmental regulations has a significant impact on the relationship between each dimension of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive advantage.
Keywords: Small and medium-sized enterprises; entrepreneurial orientation; competitive advantage; government regulations.
Utility of an Object-Oriented Metrics Component: Examining the feasibility of .Net and C# Object-oriented program from the perspective of mobile learning
by Neelamadhab Padhy, Singh R.P., Suresh Satapathy
Abstract: In the 21st century, mobile applications could be built using different object-oriented languages like C#, Java and object-oriented framework. Increasing and maintaining the software product for multiple applications remains to be a challenging task. Object-oriented metrics play a crucial role in development of a software product. The estimation of object-oriented metrics is essential in the software engineering domain, including measuring the software code complexity, and estimating the size and quality of the products. Developers generally implements applications on different platforms, such as the Android in Java and Windows in C#, by having the metrics estimation conducted automatically since manual calculation is difficult. The metrics are generated in different ways owing to the change of mobile technologies and other marketing factors. This research not only reviews both manual and automated design tools for the estimation of object-oriented metrics for mobile applications, but also proposes a novel approach for estimating the metrics by recognizing individual metrics and estimating the re-usability factors in a dynamic manner. The Chidamber and Kemerer metrics suite is best suited for measuring the object-oriented design metrics. This paper reviews the object-oriented metrics and analyzes the difference through a comparison table; following that, several suggestions are provided to researchers and system developers.
Keywords: Object-Oriented Metrics; CK Metrics; DRUBM (Model for Estimating Reusability Factor Dynamically); ATDFEOOMFA (Automated Tool Design for Estimation of Object-oriented Metrics for Mobile Application).
Lessons learned from the successful countries and distinguished authors by reviewing 2007-2016 journal publications on mobile technology-supported collaborative learning
by Qing-Ke FU
Abstract: In this study, a review of mobile collaborative learning was conducted to identify the main contributing countries and authors of this field by analyzing journal papers published from 2007 to 2016. Based on the analysis results, the outstanding countries and authors are presented; more important, the key factor of successfully promoting mobile learning studies and applications in a country was investigated. The findings and suggestions of this study could provide a good reference for policy makers and administrators who intend to implement successful mobile learning research and practice in their countries.
Keywords: mobile learning; collaborative learning; ubiquitous learning; literature review; trend analysis.