International Journal of Management in Education (11 papers in press)
Ethical Leadership and Employee Behaviours: Mediating Roles of Ethical Climate Types and Employee Attitudes in Higher Education of Bosnia and Herzegovina
by Muhammet Sait Dinc
Abstract: This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among ethical leadership, ethical climate types, facets of job satisfaction, organisational commitment components and dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour of 515 employees working at public and private universities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The SEM result demonstrated that \'law and code\' and \'caring\' types of ethical climate, \'overall job satisfaction \' and \'normative\' and \'affective commitment\' were found to mediate the latter relationship. Ethical leadership was also a highly important predictor of the \'caring\' and \'law and code\' types of ethical climate and \'normative commitment\'. \'Caring\' climate was found to be a highly significant predictor of \'normative commitment\'. Moreover, while \'caring\' climate was shown to be an important predictor of \'overall job satisfaction\' and \'affective comitment\', \'overall job satisfaction\' was shown to have a significant influence on \'altruism\' organisational citizenship behaviour.
Keywords: Ethical leadership; Ethical climate types; Job satisfaction facets; Organisational commitment components; Organisational citizenship behaviour dimensions.
Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict Parents Awareness and Intention to Participate in School Governing Body Elections
by Samkelisiwe Levin, Norman Chiliya, Mazanai Musara
Abstract: This study investigated the factors that affect the intention of parents from selected high schools to participate in School Governing Body (SGB) elections. A research model for the investigation was developed and empirically examined, using responses from 263 parents of high school learners from the two selected high schools. The study is therefore based on a case study of the two selected high schools. Based on Ajzens theory of planned behaviour (TPB), three variables were hypothesised to influence parents intention to participate in these elections; namely, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. The study also considers SGB Elections as a brand that needs to be promoted hence the brand equity theory is used to test relations between brand awareness and intention to participate. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSS 23 and AMOS 21 statistical software programs was performed to analyse data. The results provide evidence that the three variables in the TPB have a significant influence on parents intentions to participate in SGB elections. Brand awareness was also found to have a significant influence on parents intentions to participate in SGB elections. The value of findings of this study lies in their potential in guiding education authorities and their marketing partners to design the most appropriate interventions when attempting to persuade parents to participate in SGB elections and the ultimate functional management of schools.
Keywords: School Management; School Governing Body elections; Theory of Planned Behaviour.
Alignment of Undergraduate Business Students Competencies with Saudi Market Requirements
by Nasser Saad Al Kahthani, Abdul Malik Syed
Abstract: This empirical study highlights the most significant competencies from the employers perspective for an undergraduate business administration program in Saudi Arabia. The motivation for this paper stems not only from the notion to align competencies as per the Saudi labor market requirements and National Qualifications Framework but also to adapt undergraduate business program to the 21st century knowledge, skills and abilities. The data was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structured Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) to identify generic competencies i.e. knowledge, skills and abilities of the under graduate business programs with alignment to Saudi labor market requirements.
Keywords: National Qualification Framework; Undergraduate Business competencies; Partial Least Squares Structured Equation Modelling; PLS-SEM; Saudi Market Requirements.
Promising Digital University; A Pivotal Need for Higher Education Transformation
by Jamshed Khalid, Braham Rahul Ram, Mohamed Soliman, Anees Janee Ali, Muhammad Khaleel, Md Shamimul Islam
Abstract: The digitization is prompting education, particularly higher education at a very fast pace. Higher education institutions (HEIs) are in imperative need to implement modern technologies to stay digitally relevant and differentiate them as a digital leader. Though many universities have specific digital plans and strategies, yet implementation of these up to the highest standards is something many institutions lacking. The present study emphasized that HEIs are in need to grapple with the impacts of a progressively digital world. The emerging technologies and their effects on establishment of a digital campus have been investigated and enlightened. Furthermore, the possible barriers and the ways to harness digitalization successfully has also been discussed. The study, finally, proposed a digital model for HEIs to implement a digital strategy for the entire institution to reap the benefits attached to the technological progression. The present study will guide HEIs to understand the imperative need of digital strategic plans and assist in the adaption of the digital change.
Keywords: higher education institutions; digitalization; digital campus; higher education transformation; technology.
The Development of Principal Change Leadership Emotional Intelligence Model
by Omar Abdull Kareem, Tai Mei Kin
Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to develop a substantiated Principals Change Leadership Emotional Intelligence (PCLEI) model to identify critical PCLEI that maximizes change effectiveness in Malaysian secondary schools. It adopted a survey method with 731 school principals as respondents. It was tested rigorously with Rasch Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling. The analysis yielded a four-factor PCLEI model namely, Emotional Perceiving and Expressing, Emotional Utilization, Emotional Understanding and Emotional Regulation with normed chi-square=1.613, TLI=.971, CFI=.978 and RMSEA=.046. This is a coherent premier tested model derived in a local education setting with good convergent validity, discriminant validity and composite reliability. It would benefit educational practitioners in planning, designing and evaluating future training programmes for present and prospective school principals.
Keywords: Principal change leadership; educational leadership; emotional intelligence; emotional perceiving and expressing; emotional utilization; emotional understanding; emotional regulation; school change; Rasch Analysis; Structural Equation Modelling.
Using business process management simulation to support continuous improvements in higher education management system
by Paolo Renna, Carmen Izzo
Abstract: Quality assurance has become an increasing importance topic in higher-education institutions. The countries that have signed the Bologna Declaration are agree to develop a quality-assurance process and governing body to ensure standard qualifications and quality throughout participating countries. The process approach is one of the crucial issue of the quality assurance models with description of responsibility, authority, procedures, plans and available resources. This research aims to support the decision about the organisation (resources allocation, process sequence, etc.) to improve the performance level. The main importance regards the simulation analysis instead of the only process description proposed in literature. The method proposed concerns the process modelling, defining the main influences for the performance and the simulation models for the numerical analysis. A case study in Italian University based on the proposed method is developed improving the organisation with higher performance.
Keywords: Business Process Management; Higher Education; Simulation; Quality Assurance; Resource Allocation; Customer Satisfaction.
Does statistics anxiety affect students' performance in higher education? The role of students' commitment, self-concept and adaptability
by Arsalan Najmi, Syed Ali Raza, Wasim Qazi
Abstract: This study investigates the role of students' commitment, self-concept and adaptability on statistics anxiety and performance in higher education. Data was collected from 320 students enrolled in a business school in a Pakistan-based university by a survey questionnaire. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, results of structural equation modelling revealed that though students' commitment, self-concept and adaptability have a negative relationship with statistics anxiety, but the presence of the said attitudes mitigates the significance of statistics anxiety on students' performance. The study concluded that the presence of affirmative attitudes of students can minimise the significance of statistics anxiety on students' performance. Moreover, practical implications of the findings are also discussed.
Keywords: higher education; commitment; self-concept; adaptability; statistics anxiety; students' performance.
Effective teacher professional development in the process of major school reforms
by Edita Alo, Hazel Slinn, Blerim Saqipi, Janez Vogrinc
Abstract: This small-scale qualitative study explores the elements that influence effective teacher professional development in Kosovo by examining the perceptions of a selected group of teachers in relation to their experiences of professional development. The study applied a qualitative, multiple case study approach, drawing on the experiences of four teachers who have participated in professional development activities and who have been part of the professional development process that has supported curriculum implementation reform in Kosovo. Findings from the study focus on delivery and quality of training; implementation of the new learning and skills; and institutional support at school level and beyond. The study concludes that there is an on-going need for high-quality professional development; that an understanding of effective adult learning is essential to influence professional growth; and that TPD will be effective only if it is supported by the context in which it is delivered.
Keywords: effective teacher development; features of effectiveness; high-quality professional development; teachers' perceptions; institutional support; relevance; format; challenges; delivery; continuous learning.
Introducing performance management in universities: the case of a university in Southern Italy
by Antonio Nisio, Rossella De Carolis, Stefania Losurdo
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify the exogenous and endogenous conditions that may lead to specific characteristics in the processes of introducing performance management system and their success/failure. In particular an analysis was carried out on the route followed to adopt the performance management system in a university in Southern Italy, first formally and then substantively. The life-cycle approach is used to examine the various phases of adopting the performance management system: design, implementation, use, evaluation or assessment and impacts. Also considering the limits of the analysis of a single case study, the analysed case shows how the substantive adoption of the managerial changes in the public administrations is based more on cultural elements, skills and abilities, on the organisational learning, rather than on the application of rules or regulations or on the mere transposition of models and tools originating in private companies. The case study illustrates these problems and shed light on needed research.
Keywords: adoption gap; life-cycle approach; performance management system; university performance; New Public Management; introducing performance management.
Understanding the productivity of faculty members in higher education
by Julie A. Delello, Rochell R. McWhorter, Shelly L. Marmion
Abstract: With the price of rising tuition and mounting student debts in the USA, there continues to be much debate as to whether faculty members at universities work hard enough and whether that work benefits students. This article discusses key findings of a mixed-methods case study reflecting the breadth of work-related activities engaged in by university faculty at one regional university in Texas transitioning towards a greater focus on research. Contrary to popular press, it was found that full-time faculty members at all ranks worked more hours per week than the national average and two-thirds of those were spent in teaching related activities. The authors caution those entities pushing for large overhauls in higher education to abandon misinformation regarding faculty work roles and urge administrators to include very knowledgeable and concerned faculties in such discussions.
Keywords: faculty performance; faculty accountability; higher education; faculty scholarship; work-life balance; faculty workload.
Strategy crafting in a selected group of Turkish universities
by Nisan Selekler-Goksen, Beyza Oba
Abstract: This study investigates the impact of intensifying competition in higher education on the market and non-market strategies of universities and the governance structure through which these strategies are crafted. Competition creates pressures towards both diversity and homogeneity although their relative strength is contested in past studies. This study contributes to the literature by analysing the issue in a state-dependent higher education system and taking into consideration the role of the state as a strong regulator in the field. The sample involves four universities in Turkey with different ownership structures (public/private) and dominant orientations (research/teaching). Archival sources and semi-structured interviews are used to collect data. Findings show that homogeneity pervades the market and non-market strategies with diversity appearing on a smaller scale while governance structures are more likely to display differences.
Keywords: higher education; state-dependent higher education systems; market strategy in higher education; non-market strategy in higher education; university governance; public universities; foundation universities; Turkey.