International Journal of Management in Education (21 papers in press)
- DETERMINANTS OF STUDY ABROAD DECISIONS AMONG INDIAN STUDENTS: A PLS APPROACH
by Kavitha Haldorai, Souji Gopalakrishna Pillai, Ketrina Kazako
Abstract: In spite of the growing number of universities, the Indian students opt to go abroad for higher education. The objective of this study is to determine the pre decision factors that motivate Indian students to seek education outside India. A total sample of 210 students was used in this study. A questionnaire with 29 items was used to collect the data through online survey. The data was analyzed using Smart PLS due to the formative nature of the indicators. The findings reveal that scholarship, social media, institutional factors, country image, program structure and personal factors influenced the students choice of destination. Cost did not play a significant role despite the falling rupee value. The findings not only lead to better understanding on Indian students but also for the policy makers to understand the needs of Indian students. It also suggests the factors that the host countries and their education institutions need to consider attracting Indian students.
Keywords: Indian students, study abroad, scholarship, social media, program structure, institutional factors, country image, cost, personal factors
- Development programs for headteachers in four Central European countries: an international comparison
by Ludvik Eger, Maria Pisonova, Lukasz Tomczyk
Abstract: The past two decades have witnessed increasing debate on how to better prepare school leaders for their roles. It has led to a surge of investigations into what constitutes successful school leadership. In many countries, new development programs and certifications for school leaders have been created. The main task of these programs is to provide school-centred management trainings that will support effective leaders in head teacher roles. In this article we examine trends in design of development programs for head teachers in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and in Saxony. The purpose of our comparative study is to illustrate how school leader development is organised in four countries in the Central Europe. The requirements for head teacher position and selection of head teachers refer to the underpinning rationales and processes of programs and design refer to the structure, content and teaching and learning methods of these programs. This comparative article aims to provide a broader, cross-national base from which head teachers preparation could be discussed. The study identifies patterns in the described programs and stresses that school leadership is exercised within a specific context. School leadership also depends on school autonomy, which is different in selected countries.
Keywords: leadership; head teacher; qualification; development program; comparison
- The experiences of school principals of teachers living with HIV
by Zvisinei Moyo, Brigitte Smit
Abstract: Since the discovery of HIV in the late 1980s, the HIV pandemic has become the leading cause of deaths in South Africa. The present study was designed to explore the experiences of how school principals deal with HIV/AIDS-related issues affecting teachers in schools. Empirically, a narrative inquiry as design type, nested in social constructivism, was used, together with narrative interviews to elicit qualitative data. Theoretically, the inquiry was framed by transformational leadership and an ethics of care. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, specifically descriptive, process and emotion codes, to theme the data. Key findings speak to inadequate leadership training for the sensitive educational landscape in South African schools, as well as lack of training and management skills to develop long-term strategies to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on teaching and learning.
Keywords: HIV; transformational leadership; educational leadership challenges; narrative inquiry.
- Educational Management and the Extent of Thai Undergraduates Learning and Performance Behaviour: An International View
by Ravee Phoewhawm
Abstract: As students are the future of the nations knowledge-based economy, educational managers in Thailand can help raise its global economic status by taking a closer look on the extent of the undergraduates learning performance behaviour so that an assessment can be made to improve the procedure. The study applied the achievement goal theory in the form of a questionnaire that was distributed to undergraduate students. The work sought to examine the level of students learning and performance behaviour in the area of mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance, and in performance-approach and performance-avoidance. The results demonstrated that the learning and performance of most Thai undergraduates for the first part tend to be instilled with the mentality of preventing mistakes and failures from occurring, while for the second part they are not vigorously concentrated on outperforming their peers or on displaying their abilities. Educational managers must consider the mental aspects of students in order to help them achieve.
Keywords: Avoidance, Behaviour, Change, Culture, Higher Education, Globalisation, Learning, Mastery, Performance, System
- Leadership Skill, Leadership Style and Job Commitment among Academic Staff of Nigerian Universities: The Moderating Effects of Employees Attitude and Work Environment
by Isidore Ekpe, Norsiah Mat, Mary Olufunmilayo Adelaiye
Abstract: The study aims to determine the moderating effects of employees attitude and work environment on the relationship between leadership skill and leadership style, and employees job commitment among academic staff of Nigerian Universities. The results of this study would enable the Nigerian government develop strategies to help lecturers develop more interest in research. The study employs cross-sectional survey design, with simple random sampling, to collect data from 340 academic staff of three Universities in the north, east and west regions of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Partial Least Square (Smart PLS) were used to analyze data. The results indicate that transformational leadership style is positively related to employees job commitment, and that attitude moderates between transactional leadership style and employees job commitment. The study suggests that appropriate leadership (from heads of departments) and adequate funding (from government) could engender more research commitments among scholars at Nigerian Universities.
Keywords: Leadership, attitude, environment, job-commitment, lecturers, Nigerian universities
- The Predictability of Organizational Culture for Commitment among Faculty Members: Evidence from Iran Higher Education
by Zahra Daghighi Masouleh, Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari
Abstract: Higher education is one of the effective factors for the realization of economic, social and cultural development in a society. In addition, highly effective human resources play an important role in advancing policies and plans. This study aimed to investigate the level of and relationship between organizational culture and commitment among faculty members. The study was designed based on quantitative methods. The statistical population consisted of 224 faculty members from Islamic Azad University of Rasht branch, Iran. Random stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 76 faculty members. This research made use of Allen and Meyer questionnaire to assess organizational commitment with 20 statements and Dennison questionnaire to assess organizational culture with 12 statements. Structural equation model confirm the appropriacy of the proposed model.
Keywords: Faculty members, Higher education, Organizational commitment, Organizational culture, Structural equation model
- Higher Education Social Media Marketing: Twelve Content Types Universities Post on Facebook
by Viriya Taecharungroj
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore and categorise how universities in the U.S. and Thailand use Facebook as a platform to engage their audiences. Although many higher education institutions (HEI) currently use social media to communicate, research on how they use the platform is lacking. In this paper, the author studied the Facebook posts of three universities from the U.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard, and Stanford) and three universities from Thailand (Mahidol, Chulalongkorn, and Thammasat). A total of 1,394 Facebook posts by the six universities in 2014 were analysed using content analysis. This study established twelve post types: research, faculty, curriculum, campus, students, alumni, industry, events, products, image and reputation, announcements, and others. The most common post type by U.S. universities is research, whereas the most common post types by Thai universities are events and announcements. From the findings, the author suggests that HEIs have to be both proactive and strategic on social media. Furthermore, to publish great content on Facebook, universities have to visualise and tell stories well.
Keywords: higher education marketing; university administration; social media; content analysis; Facebook
- The Professor Coming Home: Determinants of Retention of Brain Gain Knowledge
by Joseph Darmoe
Abstract: The need for, and retention of knowledge workers in HEI have become important source of competitive advantage. International HEIs in sub-Sahara Africa have increasingly focused their attention on the recruitment of its own citizens trained in the developed world. Many studies have been done on reverse brain drain generally, with little attention paid to retention of reverse brain drain gain in international HEIs. Through an exploratory case study at a higher education institution in Sub Sahara Africa, the study presents a model that highlights the factors that determine retention of reverse brain gain knowledge workers in international HEI.
Keywords: staff retention; brain gain knowledge workers; higher education
- Teachers' extra role behavior: relation with self efficacy, procedural justice, organizational commitment and support for training.
by Anugamini Srivastava
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self efficacy and procedural justice with teachers extra role behavior in Indian school context. Moderating role of support for training and mediating role of organisational commitment has also been examined. Data collected from 643 secondary and primary school teachers and 128 principals of Uttar Pradesh, India was analyzed through regression analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Findings revealed direct and significant relation between self efficacy (SE) and procedural justice (PJ) with organizational commitment. It also showed significant moderating impact of perceived support for training on the OC EXB relation. The data concentrated in a single area of the country restricting the generalization of results in other regions of the country. The study provided novel approach to relate support for training as a moderator and justified the generalization of previous proven relations of SE and PJ with OC and extra role behavior in Indian context.
Keywords: Extra role behavior, organizational commitment, procedural justice, self efficacy, support for training, teacher, India.
- Performance measurement system in Malaysian public research universities: is it contemporary?
by Sharul Effendy Janudin, Ruhanita Maelah
Abstract: Performance Measurement System (PMS) is an important and effective mechanism to ensure managers' performance is in line with the objectives of an organisation. Positive effects of PMS on organisation performance are supported by empirical research but the study on contemporary elements of PMS especially in an education setting is still lacking. Previous studies on PMS dimensions tend to focus on a single construct. This study aims to examine the existence of strategic, comprehensive and dynamic dimensions in university PMS. Cross-sectional data were obtained from academic staff representing five research universities in Malaysia (N = 368). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) demonstrates that strategic, comprehensive and dynamic elements exist in university PMS. The findings from this study contribute to the line of research in the area of PMS design. Practically, the findings can be used as a guideline by universities in designing the PMS.
Keywords: performance measurement system; university performance; institutions of higher learning; management in university.
- Organisational legitimacy in sport management programs: an application of a scale
by Gonzalo A. Bravo, Doyeon Won
Abstract: A scale that measures three dimensions of organisational legitimacy (cognitive, normative and regulative) in sport management programs was developed with the aim to examine which of these dimensions were perceived to be more important to influence students' choice when applying to a postgraduate sport management program. The study also compared how these three dimensions were perceived by students and faculty members. Confirmatory factor analysis and t-tests indicated that cognitive legitimacy was the most important dimension, followed by normative and regulative. Results show that perceptual differences exist between students and faculty in regards to how these two groups identify which legitimacy dimensions matter the most. Students placed greater importance on regulative legitimacy than faculty did. Meanwhile, faculty were more sensitive to normative and cognitive legitimacy. Finding suggest that for newly establishing sport management programs ensuring their program are well recognised and positioned among peer institutions becomes critical to influence student's choice.
Keywords: organisational legitimacy; market competition in higher education; new ventures; legitimacy scale; sport management programs.
- Substitutes for leadership among the faculty of institutions of higher education and their moderating effects on leadership styles and individual outcomes
by Ghulam Hussain, Wan Khairuzzaman Bin Wan Ismail, Muhammad Amir Rashid, Fareeha Nisar
Abstract: We test (a) the direct effects of leadership styles and substitutes for leadership on followers' outcomes and (b) the moderating effects of substitutes for leadership on the relationship between leadership styles and followers' outcomes. We use a random sampling technique to define a sample of 416 PhD faculty members of institutions of higher education who are on the list of Higher Education Commission (HEC)-approved PhD supervisors. Using structural equation modelling, we find that leadership styles and substitutes for leadership have significant effects on followers' outcomes and that some of the substitutes for leadership also significantly moderate the relationship between leadership styles and followers' outcomes in a manner consistent with the substitutes for leadership proposition. Discussion, implications, and limitations of the study are offered.
Keywords: higher education; leadership; leadership styles; substitutes for leadership and outcomes.
- The structural model of relationship between spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence with quality of work life and work engagement of employees
by Zahra Karimi, Fariba Karimi
Abstract: This study was performed with the aim of investigating the model between spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence with quality of work life and work engagement of employees in Islamic Azad University of Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan). The results showed that there is a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence with quality of work life and work engagement, and between emotional intelligence with quality of work life and work engagement as well. Results indicated that spiritual intelligence has a direct effect on quality of work life (0.51) and work engagement (0.21). Emotional intelligence has a direct impact quality of work life (0.54) and work engagement (0.42), quality of work life has a direct effect on work engagement (0.40). Spiritual Intelligence has had an indirect effect on work engagement (0.21) through quality of work life, as well as emotional intelligence that has had an indirect impact work engagement (0.22) through quality of work life.
Keywords: spiritual intelligence; emotional intelligence; quality of work life; work engagement; structural equation modelling; employees of university.
- Difficulties in adapting feedback for individual learning styles in the Arabic Teacher Assisting and Subject Adaptive Material (TASAM) system
by Nahla Aljojo, Iqbal Alsaleh, Areej Alshamasi
Abstract: Creating educational systems that effectively meet the learning needs of different individuals is not without challenges, however. The TASAM (Teacher Assisting and Subject Adaptive Material) system attempts to meet this objective by taking an Arabic version of Felder-Silverman's learning styles as the foundation for creating learning resources and tailoring the teaching process for individual students. This paper aims to explore ways in which to evaluate the efficiency of adaptive learning systems, as well as to explore specific obstacles faced in adapting feedback to students' learning styles. Suggestions will subsequently be offered for possible methods of adapting feedback within the TASAM system. There are numerous ways to adapt feedback to individuals within a learning context. The findings of this study seem to demonstrate a positive correlation between adaptation of learning styles and enhanced educational outcomes.
Keywords: learning styles; Felder-Silverman learning style model; feedback; adaptive TASAM; Arabic cohort.
- Conflicting stakeholder interest and accountability in non-governmental organisations
by Klemen Kavčič, Bojan Mevlja, Igor Rižnar
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to summarise and analyse what is known regarding the ways in which conflicting stakeholder interest may influence accountability. The interests of stakeholders in non-profit organisations (NPOs) as well as the purposes of these organisations are not uniform. The authors used a systematic review process to study the empirical evidence pertaining to how a stakeholder perspective helps to understand accountability and the influences of stakeholders in the Slovenian non-governmental educational organisations. Research provides an empirical analysis from a survey of 78 representatives of Slovenian non-governmental educational organisations. The objective of this paper is to improve the understanding of the accountability relationship between internal and external stakeholders and development NGOs, and in particular to elucidate the highly correlated influences of both parties (external and internal influences of stakeholders).
Keywords: accountability; management in education; non-governmental educational organisation; stakeholders.
- Using the industry as a model for better learning experience in higher education
by David Eriksson, Peter Manfredsson, Per Hilletofth
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate how industrial approaches to learning can be introduced into logistics/supply chain management (SCM) education programs in a university setting. This issue has been examined through two case studies. The first case study outlines the current state of a bachelor education program in logistics/SCM at the University of Borås in Sweden. The second case study illustrates two education programs for practitioners in an international electronics company from Sweden. The investigated university education program has several practical goals, but few practical learning situations. The industrial case study illustrates how practical learning situations can be incorporated into the education program and this may help to improve skills and confidence of the students. Practical learning situations seem positive, but need consideration to when they are to be included in the education program.
Keywords: education; teaching; learning; project-based learning; logistics; supply chain; lean; Six Sigma.
- Empirical illustrations of undergraduate students' goal pursuit dynamics
by Shilpa Iyanna
Abstract: A body of extensive literature has compellingly emphasised that goals play an important role in influencing and directing consumer behaviour. However, Baumgartner and Pieters in 2008 posit that systematic research on goal directed behaviour is still lacking. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to expand on previous studies and take the discussion a step further by providing empirical evidence that (a) illustrate how goals at different levels impact on each other as students' progress through the various stages of consumption; and (b) examines the interaction and integration of resources in goal formation. A quasi-longitudinal qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews was employed in this study. The results suggest a shifting pattern in the goals as students' progress in their undergraduate degree. The implications of these results for theory, practice and future research are discussed.
Keywords: consumer behaviour; goal hierarchy; goal formation; stages of consumption; resource integration.
- Evidences of service quality from an emerging educational hub, Qatar
by Shahid N. Bhuian
Abstract: This study examined service quality at a university in a unique context, Qatar, utilising the SERVQUAL model. The universities in the Middle-East region are staffed by expatriates from all over the world on contractual terms. There is no tenure system, which can have possible impact on job commitment and job satisfaction of these expatriates. As such, service quality at universities as perceived by students and the consequent student satisfaction with university services can be affected. A sample of over 200 students assessed service quality along the dimensions of tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. Results indicated students' perceptions of all the five dimensions of service quality were lower than their expectations. The biggest discrepancy was observed in the dimension of reliability followed by responsiveness and the lowest was found in tangibility. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: SERVQUAL; GCC; Qatar; service quality.
- The value of theorising
from a student-stakeholder perspective
by Richard J. Arend
Abstract: We apply data from two related surveys to an exploratory study centred on 'what is the value' that academic theory creates for its main stakeholders. We begin to address questions of whether and how and to whom we, as strategy researchers, add new value through our published theoretical propositions. Our preliminary results reveal that the majority of our top-tier theoretical published causal relationships are obvious to business school students. That said, we provide several paths for increasing our added and appropriable value, including an identification of the audiences that need it most.
Keywords: student perspectives; theoretical hypotheses; value; non-obviousness; entrepreneurship; practicality; survey.
- Effective factors for recruitment and retention in Malaysian private universities
by Pradeep Kumar Nair, Hadi Farid
Abstract: The number of private universities has grown rapidly and is considered to be a key component of the Malaysian Higher Educational System, and, accordingly, the recruitment and retention of academic staff has taken on unprecedented importance. This study was designed to examine the recruitment and retention of academic staff at six private universities. The total number of academic staff in the selected universities was found to be 1986 of which 455 participated in this study for the purpose of data analysis. The statistical results suggest there should be a greater focus on the strategies and policies of recruitment and retention of academic staff to overcome the challenges these institutions are facing. This study contributes to the related literature, makes a practical contribution to private universities' leadership strategies and informs and comments on policies which will enable academic talent to succeed.
Keywords: academic staff; higher education; leadership; policy-makers; private universities; recruitment factors; retention factors.
- Performance evaluation of education system with human capital approach by data envelopment analysis and TOPSIS - with a case study
by Mahdi Karbasian, Bijan Khayambashi, Mohammad Mehdi Tavakoli
Abstract: In recent years, the economic crisis has increased competition among organisations. For this reason, organisations seek to achieve competitive advantage for themselves in this condition. In each organisation, the intangible asset is an important factor that organisations try to increment it and lead toward others through it. Increasing the level of human capital and managing it correctly will enhance personnel's organisational commitment and lead organisation to obtain their goals easily. Due to significance of human capital management, in this study, departments of Malek-Ashtar University of Technology are evaluated using data envelopment analysis (DEA). For this purpose, the drivers of human capital management and the organisational commitment are considered as input and output respectively, and the departments are evaluated via BCC input-oriented model. Then, they are evaluated considering each driver of human capital and its' enforcement actions; results are analysed via statistical analysis. Eventually, the departments are ranked by TOPSIS. The results indicate that the Department of Electrical Engineering, Material Engineering and Sciences are efficient and the Department of Sciences is the best department based on TOPSIS results. In addition, correlation analysis shows the direct correlation between the results of performance evaluation and each human capital management approach.
Keywords: human capital; organisational commitment; DEA; data envelopment analysis; TOPSIS.