International Journal of Management in Education (21 papers in press)
by Kitila Mkumbo
Abstract: Using content analysis research method, the paper analyses the content of the new education and training policy in Tanzania, with a view to examining the extent to which it is geared towards promoting learning outcomes. The analysis shows that the new policy embodies some significant changes that will guide the Tanzanian education agenda for a foreseeable future. Notably, the newly introduced structure of education seems appropriate and in line with international trends regarding the number of years that children are expected to spend in basic education. Nevertheless, the main focus of the policy statements seems to be on improving access rather than learning outcomes. In particular, the policy is largely silent on the most important driver of learning: the quality of teachers. As such, it is concluded that the new policy does not seem to be adequately geared towards addressing the apparent learning crisis in Tanzania.
Keywords: Tanzania; education and training policy; policy statements; learning outcomes.
Factors influencing teachers absenteeism in the remote elementary schools of Indonesia: Empirical proof from southern Papua
by Basilius Redan Werang, Seli Marlina Radja Leba, Ermelinda A. G. Pure
Abstract: Teachers presence and performance in the classroom is of the most important school-based determinant of students academic achievement. High rates of teacher absenteeism in the remote elementary schools of southern Papua has been the most problematic issue that calls for an urgent solution to create a positive learning environment in schools and, in turn, improving the quality of education. This study aimed to reveal factors responsible for teachers absenteeism in the remote elementary schools of southern Papua, Indonesia. The present study employed a qualitative research approach using a case study research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to obtain 53 informants drawn from amongst school principals, local community members, and teachers of 28 elementary schools in the remote area of southern Papua, Indonesia. Profound interview to the elementary school principals, local community members, and teachers of respective schools was the main tool of the study to collect data. Data were analyzed qualitatively using Ishikawas fishbone analysis. We found three main categories of variables that influence teachers absenteeism in the remote elementary schools of southern Papua, Indonesia, namely: (a) teachers demographic characteristics which comprised of married status, working commitment, and job satisfaction; (b) factors related to working conditions which comprised of the remoteness, school physical facilities availability, the school principal leadership, and communitys support and involvement; and (c) factors related to the local authorities policy which comprised of teachers assignment and of school principal appointment. These findings demonstrate that, if the school supervisors and The Head of Education Office at government level wish to improve teachers attendance and, in turn, improve students capability in reading, writing, and arithmatics (3R), then they have to think seriously of how to create a more enjoyable environment and policy for teachers to be committed and passionated. These findings might be imperative for the institution of teachers training and education to design curriculum to address the special need of having teachers which are morally and mentally qualified.
Keywords: teachers absenteeism; elementary schools; remote area; southern Papua; Indonesia.
Career perceptions of undergraduate students in hospitality industry: an empirical study
by Girish Nair, Swati Prasad, Nidhi Choudhary
Abstract: This research focuses on the factors influencing student desire to pursue a career in the hospitality industry, with particular reference to hotels. Based on the literature review, seven dimensions have been chosen which have been theoretically linked to the choice of career by the students. The dimensions are nature of work, social status, industry-person congeniality, working conditions, pay-scale and benefits, promotion opportunities, and commitment to the industry. As there is no evidence to empirically prove their relationships an empirical investigation has been conducted. Second generation statistical analysis software Structural Equation Modelling has been adopted to test these hypotheses. Two types of analyses were carried out: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics provided the description of the data in terms of age, gender, work experience etc., and the inferential statistics were used to test hypotheses and draw specific suggestions to guide policy makers as to what measures could be taken to build a positive image of the hospitality industry amongst the future career seekers. Out of the seven hypotheses posited, five have been accepted based on which suggestions are made.
Keywords: Undergraduates; Career perception; Hospitality Industry.
WEBSITE CHARACTERISTICS AND WEB USERS SATISFACTION IN A HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTION
by Kian Guan Lee, Chin Wei Chong, Ramayah T
Abstract: This paper aims to identify the characteristics of higher learning institution websites that will affect student satisfaction in Malaysian context. It develops one research model concerned with the determinants of higher learning institution website towards student satisfaction based on end-user computing instrument (EUCI) model. It was found that web presence, visual design and navigation design in higher learning institution website play a major role in creating satisfaction when using the website. This study contributes to academia as it tries to fulfill the gap in the area of higher learning institution website characteristics which is rather limited and unexplored in previous literature. The findings of this study can shed a light to higher learning website designer on factors or characteristics to focus on when designing the website. This research proves that findings on e-commerce website are also applicable in higher learning institution websites.
Keywords: Higher learning institution; satisfaction; website; Internet.
Analysis of the roles and leadership capacity of heads of departments in secondary schools
by Sello Mokoena
Abstract: This multi-case qualitative study explored the roles and leadership capacity exhibited by heads of departments (HODs) in secondary schools. The findings of the current study revealed that HODs have different roles to fulfil in secondary schools. As a result, HODs experienced both role conflict and role ambiguity between the espoused nature of the job and the reality of the job. Furthermore, some critical features of high leadership capacity, such as enquiry-based decisions, reflective practices, and broad-based skilful collaboration, are often missing in the leadership responsibilities of HODs. Although the study tends to validate the findings of other research studies, it also makes a contribution to the existing knowledge base, by highlighting the challenges faced by HODs, and also by using critical features of high leadership capacity to analyse the current leadership capacity exhibited by HODs in secondary schools. The integration of critical features of high leadership capacity in this study is therefore a methodological contribution to the study of leadership capacity. Furthermore, this multi-case study provided insights and recommendations which might serve as strategies to reduce workloads of HODs, and to enable them to balance their leadership duties and build leadership capacity in secondary schools.
Keywords: collaboration; head of department; leadership capacity; roles and responsibilities; analysis; secondary schools.
RETHINKING THE BUSINESS SCHOOLS VALUE PROPOSITION: THE COORDINATION OF LEARNING NETWORKS
by Pedro Dos Santos, Samir Lotfi, Angela Versiani
Abstract: In this paper, we argue that a model of education based on learning networks centrally coordinated by business schools arises as a solution to develop the organizational learning of participant companies. Given the wide range of ways in which business schools create value, we see these institutions as viable candidates to proactively design and coordinate networks focused on learning. A research framework was proposed to analyze how a learning network coordinated by a business school influences organizational learning. We used this framework to as a guide to our interviews and to help us organize data processing activities. To understand the relations between participants and their perceptions of learning in such contexts, we conducted a case study with a Brazilian business school. Data collection consisted of informal conversations and semi-structured interviews. The participants demonstrated to have successfully implemented new management practices in their organizations from knowledge gathered with participation in formal activities and from socialization with members of other companies. The observed effectiveness of this program shows us that learning networks have potential as a path to achieving a paradigm shift in executive education. Thus, learning networks should be considered when designing business schools models of value creation.
Keywords: business schools; value proposition; coordination; learning networks; organizational learning; executive education; management education.
Benchmarking Corporate Social Responsibility Against Principles for Responsible Management Education
by Santiago Gonzalez, Murat Erogul, Salvador Barragan
Abstract: Universities are educating students to become future leaders, managers and entrepreneurs. The need to incorporate and develop Corporate Social Responsibility within university programs is necessary for future decision makers. We benchmark corporate social responsibility curriculum against the Principles for Responsible Management Education in two different contexts: a Mexican University and a Canadian University. Through a comparative case study process, we find that both programs have similarities and differences with PRME on issues of perceiving Corporate Social Responsibility as a strategic management tool that adds value to the organization, the role of entrepreneurs and the responsibility they have towards the different stakeholders, the globalization phenomena and the foundations of social responsibility. The paper contributes insight into how higher education institutes play a role in developing and preparing students as stakeholders who can not only ensure standards of Corporate Social Responsibility but also how social responsibility is maintained.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Stakeholder Theory; Principles for Responsible Management Education; Case study; Mexico; Canada.
Effect of Crowd-funding on Entrepreneurial Intentions among Academic Staff of Nigerian Universities
by Isidore Ekpe, Norsiah Binti Mat, Aminu Ahmad, Kabiru Maitama Kura
Abstract: To develop greater interest in enterprise start-up, efficient corporate management among adults and effective enterprise finance strategy among policy-makers, this study was conducted to examine the level of awareness of crowd-funding model and its effect on entrepreneurial intentions among Nigerian university lecturers. With a survey, data were collected from 217 lecturers at three universities in north, east and west regions of Nigeria. Employing descriptive statistics and partial least square (Smart PLS-SEM) methods, data were analysed. Among others, we found that most of the lecturers were not aware of crowd-funding as a novel model for enterprise financing. We also discovered that crowd-funding has a significant positive relationship with entrepreneurial intentions. Therefore, it was recommended that the government and university management should draft appropriate strategies (e.g inclusion in syllabus) that will engender greater awareness and adoption of crowd-funding, especially among entrepreneurial educators and students, for enterprise creation and development in the country.
Keywords: Crowd-funding; entrepreneurial educators; intentions; Nigeria.
A culture of sharing? Transnational higher education students views on plagiarism in the digital era
by Anne Palmer, Grace Oakley, Mark Pegrum
Abstract: Higher education has greatly expanded and many transnational campuses have been established. The vast amount of educational material available online and the ease of sharing it electronically appear to have facilitated an increase in student plagiarism. Plagiarism may undermine the learning process of students and the quality of education that an institution provides. A survey in two Australian university campuses in Singapore was conducted to investigate transnational students views on plagiarism. It was found that many students, whilst fully aware of obvious cases of plagiarism, would disagree with more complex cases, such as collusion and reuse of ones own work or of a friends work. This suggests that current strategies for preventing plagiarism are not entirely effective. It is recommended that educative interventions such as induction and follow-up courses on plagiarism be provided to students and staff to ensure that academic integrity is maintained within the transnational education environment.
Keywords: Transnational higher education; plagiarism; education quality; international students; Australian university campuses; Singapore; academic integrity; educative interventions.
Organizational Change in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study on restructuring the School of Social and Humanistic Sciences
by Mariela Mendez Prado, Klelia Guerrero
Abstract: The growing need for professionals that are competent and compatible with the dynamics of a globalized world, encourages universities to continuously redefine themselves. This study uses the evolutionist and teleological models of organizational change to analyse and assess the effectiveness of the systematic process conducted by the School of Social and Humanistic Sciences (FCSH) of the Escuela Superior Polit
Keywords: Organizational Change; Restructuring; Innovation; Higher-education
Participation in Decision-making in School: Opportunities and Students Attitudes in Austria and Slovenia
by Monika Mithans, Milena Ivanus Grmek, Branka Cagran, Matjaz Mulej
Abstract: The article reports on the student inclusion in the school life management. The study comprised pupils aged 10-11, 13-14 and 16-17. 322 students attend school in Austria, and 458 students in Slovenia. The right to participation is among the four main principles exposed in the UNICEFs Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). However, a study that aimed to identify areas of school life where students already have the opportunity to participate in decision-making and areas of school life management/governance where they want more participation showed that pupils are still insufficiently aware of their right to participation in school. rnrnThe results also indicate that, in spite of its proven advantages, legal basis and repeated demands for implementation of pupils participation in the school it is yet to become common practice.rn
Keywords: Austria; participation in decision-making; school life management and governance; Slovenia; desire for participation in decision-making; perception analysis.
Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Change: An Empirical Validation
by Tai Mei Kin, Omar Abdull Kareem
Abstract: The objectives of the study were to validate a substantiated teacher attitude toward change (TATC) model and an instrument to identify critical components of TATC. A total of 936 teachers from 47 high-performing secondary schools completed the survey. Five different pre-tests had been applied to ensure the validity and reliability of the instrument: a) review by academic colleagues; b) verification and comments from panel; c) personal interviews with respondents about the questionnaire format, syntax and design; d) evaluation of item clarity; and e) assessment of internal consistency reliability. Following these, exploratory factor analysis was employed to identify the underlying factors whereas confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the measurement models. The analysis yielded a three-factor model: a) Cognitive; b) Behavioral; and c) Affective reaction to change. The results demonstrated a good fit of the model: normed x2=4.412, TLI=.966, CFI=.977 and RMSEA=.060. Psychometric analyses provided evidence for convergent validity, discriminant validity and construct reliability. The TATC model is an empirically tested model derived in local Malaysian setting. It provides direction for practitioners in planning and designing training programs for school principals in enhancement of positive TATC. The TATC scale offers a promising measure for examining TATC for practitioners and researchers.
Keywords: Teacher attitudes toward change; cognitive reaction to change; behavioural reaction to change; affective reaction change; embracing; acceptance; indifference; resistance; management in education; structural equation modeling.
Prioritization of Factors Influencing Teachers Job Satisfaction in the UAE
by Hareb Alkhyeli, Anne Van Ewijk
Abstract: A high teacher turnover rate has a negative effect on the quality of education, which in turn diminishes student learning, enrolment, and retention. This is a particular problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where education is high on the government agenda, but the residence of many expatriate teachers is relatively more transient. This study is the first to include four main factors with proven influence on teachers job satisfaction in a comprehensive model for the UAE: motivation, school leadership style, job characteristics, and cultural intelligence (CQ). The objectives of this empirical study are (1) to provide an overview of the 20 sub- factors associated with each main factor, (2) to determine the preferences and priority that UAE private school teachers attribute to the four main factors of job satisfaction and their 20 sub-factors, and (3) to summarise these findings into a new analytical hierarchical model that can be tested and validated in future research. As this is, in essence, a multi-criteria decision-making dilemma, we have chosen the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method (a systematic way to compare lists of factors with sub-factors in a hierarchical fashion with the use of experts in the field) to construct this comprehensive model. We find that recognition, pay, and autonomy scored as the teachers highest concerns. Focusing on these aspects should, therefore, be a priority for private school management in order to decrease teacher turnover.
Keywords: education; teacher; turnover; job satisfaction; AHP; United Arab Emirates.
Does Statistics Anxiety Affect Students Performance in Higher Education? The Role of Students Commitment, Self-Concept and Adaptability
by Arsalan Najmi, Syed Ali Raza, Wasim Qazi
Abstract: This study investigates the role of students commitment, self-concept and adaptability on statistics anxiety and performance in higher education. Data was collected from 320 students enrolled in a business school of a Pakistan based university by a survey questionnaire. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, results of structural equation modelling revealed that though students commitment, self-concept and adaptability have negative relationship with statistics anxiety but presence of the said attitudes mitigates the significance of statistics anxiety on students performance. The study concluded that the presence of affirmative attitudes of students can minimize the significance of statistics anxiety on students performance. Moreover, practical implications on the findings are also discussed.
Keywords: Higher education; commitment; self-concept; adaptability; statistics anxiety; students’ performance.
Globalization and education: Case Demonstration and Lessons Learned from Finlands Education Export
by David Delahunty, Kongkiti Phusavat, Pekka Kess, Hanna Kropsu-Vehkapera, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto
Abstract: Globalized education has become an emergent trend over the past decade. Recently, Finland has decided to promote and export its educations expertise, experience, and know-how through the sale of educational expertise, products, and services. This study describes a comprehensive case of one Finnish education export project involving the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), and the University of Oulu / City of Oulu, Finland. This description comprises of a record of the main issues and obstacles faced throughout the pilot, the factors identified by respondents concerning the successful conclusion of the projects, and the factors which participants identified as being responsible for overcoming these same obstacles, and issues.
Keywords: Globalized education; education export; pilot project.
Higher education social media marketing: 12 content types universities post on Facebook
by Viriya Taecharungroj
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore and categorise how universities in the USA and Thailand use Facebook as a platform to engage their audiences. Although many higher education institutions (HEIs) currently use social media to communicate, research on how they use the platform is lacking. In this paper, the author studied the Facebook posts of three universities from the USA (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard, and Stanford) and three universities from Thailand (Mahidol, Chulalongkorn, and Thammasat). A total of 1394 Facebook posts by the six universities in 2014 were analysed using content analysis. This study established 12 post types: research, faculty, curriculum, campus, students, alumni, industry, events, products, image and reputation, announcements, and others. The most common post type by USA universities is research, whereas the most common post types by Thai universities are events and announcements. From the findings, the author suggests that HEIs have to be both proactive and strategic on social media. Furthermore, to publish great content on Facebook, universities have to visualise and tell stories well.
Keywords: higher education marketing; university administration; social media marketing; content analysis; Facebook; USA; United States; Thailand.
The professor coming home: determinants of retention of brain gain knowledge
by Joseph Darmoe
Abstract: The need for, and retention of, knowledge workers in HEI has become important source of competitive advantage. International Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Sub-Sahara Africa have increasingly focused their attention on the recruitment of its own citizens trained in the developed world. Many studies have been done on reverse brain drain generally, with little attention paid to retention of reverse brain drain gain in international HEIs. Through an exploratory case study at a HEI in Sub-Sahara Africa, the study presents a model that highlights the factors that determine retention of reverse brain gain knowledge workers in international HEI.
Keywords: faculty retention; returning professionals; academic faculty; West Africa; Ghana; higher education; universities; knowledge workers; reverse brain drain; case study.
Teachers' extra role behaviour: relation with self-efficacy, procedural justice, organisational commitment and support for training
by Anugamini Priya Srivastava
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and procedural justice with teacher's extra role behaviour in Indian school context. Moderating role of support for training and mediating role of organisational commitment have also been examined. Data collected from 643 secondary and primary school teachers and 128 principals of Uttar Pradesh, India, were analysed through regression analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Findings revealed direct and significant relation between self-efficacy (SE) and procedural justice (PJ) with organisational commitment. It also showed significant moderating impact of perceived support for training on the OC-EXB relation. The data concentrated in a single area of the country restricting the generalisation of results in other regions of the country. The study provided novel approach to relate support for training as a moderator and justified the generalisation of previous proven relations of SE and PJ with OC and extra role behaviour in Indian context.
Keywords: extra role behaviour; organisational commitment; procedural justice; self-efficacy; training support; teacher roles; India; secondary schools; primary schools; secondary education; primary education; additional roles.
Investigating organisational justice in higher education in UAE
by Shahira El Alfy, Solomon Arulraj David
Abstract: The paper investigates organisational justice in higher education. A three-step research process has been used, including literature review, qualitative interviews, and then a quantitative survey. The literature review and the qualitative interviews with university instructors guide the development of a causal model that suggests antecedents and outcomes for organisation justice in an educational setting. The nature, direction and magnitude of the proposed relationship between organisational justice and variables identified from the literature review and the qualitative phase are tested. Correlation, regression and analysis of variance are used to test the hypothesised model. The result provides insights on the nature of the relationship among these variables for finding effective means towards nurturing a positive educational environment where instructors are motivated to utilise their full potential in achieving educational goals. Findings show that instructors' demographic characteristics and cultural values explain the variance in perceived organisational justice and strong empirical evidence exists for the positive effect of perceived organisation justice on instructors' motivation. Perceived organisation justice mediates the relationship between instructors' cultural values and motivation.
Keywords: perceived justice; motivation; power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism; procedural justice; interpersonal justice; informational justice; United Arab Emirates; UAE; higher education; demographic characteristics; cultural values; culture; organisation justice; faculty motivation.
Students' performance in the public education in the state of São Paulo, Brazil
by Cláudia Souza Passador, João Luiz Passador, Julio Araujo Carneiro-da-Cunha
Abstract: This study analyses the variation of student performance and the way in which some factors affect student performance in the 8th grade of public education in the state of São Paulo. A regression analysis with the Hierarchical Database Model method on data from Prova Brasil and the School Census was performed. According to the results obtained, the variables which appeared to be associated with student performance were previous failure, initiation of studies in early childhood education, and level of parental education. Regarding schools, significant variables included school meals and average socio-economic status of the students; moreover, for teachers the variables included training, experience, working exclusively for one school, and correcting students' homework.
Keywords: elementary schools; student performance; public education; elementary education; Brazil; previous failure; early childhood education; parental education; school meals; socio-economic status; teacher training; teacher experience; homework correction.
Quality assessment of academic websites using structured equation modelling
by Akash Deep, Yagya Sharma, Ramesh Anbanandam
Abstract: Academic websites have not evolved much as compared to other sector websites, like e-commerce, tourism, etc. They seem to fall back in areas such as structural design and maintenance quality, which have a direct influence on user experience. A model is hypothesised to evaluate the quality of academic websites. The research is intended to suggest future developers to construct an effective website. A survey has been conducted to gain the user's perspective for an academic website. Data were collected from 124 respondents, and confirmatory factor analysis and other reliability tests have been employed to validate the model. Structured equation modelling has been further used to test the hypotheses. The study indicates that the suggested nine quality constructs (system accessibility, design, responsiveness and functionality; information understandability, relevance and current; service perception of service and trust building) directly affect the user satisfaction of an academic website from a student's point of view.
Keywords: website quality; academic websites; SEM; structured equation modelling; information systems; India; web design; website maintenance quality; user experience; user satisfaction; universities; higher education; university websites.