International Journal of Management in Education (18 papers in press)
Higher Education Social Media Marketing: Twelve Content Types Universities Post on Facebook
by Viriya Taecharungroj
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore and categorise how universities in the U.S. and Thailand use Facebook as a platform to engage their audiences. Although many higher education institutions (HEI) currently use social media to communicate, research on how they use the platform is lacking. In this paper, the author studied the Facebook posts of three universities from the U.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard, and Stanford) and three universities from Thailand (Mahidol, Chulalongkorn, and Thammasat). A total of 1,394 Facebook posts by the six universities in 2014 were analysed using content analysis. This study established twelve post types: research, faculty, curriculum, campus, students, alumni, industry, events, products, image and reputation, announcements, and others. The most common post type by U.S. universities is research, whereas the most common post types by Thai universities are events and announcements. From the findings, the author suggests that HEIs have to be both proactive and strategic on social media. Furthermore, to publish great content on Facebook, universities have to visualise and tell stories well.
Keywords: higher education marketing; university administration; social media; content analysis; Facebook
The Professor Coming Home: Determinants of Retention of Brain Gain Knowledge
by Joseph Darmoe
Abstract: The need for, and retention of knowledge workers in HEI have become important source of competitive advantage. International HEIs in sub-Sahara Africa have increasingly focused their attention on the recruitment of its own citizens trained in the developed world. Many studies have been done on reverse brain drain generally, with little attention paid to retention of reverse brain drain gain in international HEIs. Through an exploratory case study at a higher education institution in Sub Sahara Africa, the study presents a model that highlights the factors that determine retention of reverse brain gain knowledge workers in international HEI.
Keywords: staff retention; brain gain knowledge workers; higher education
Teachers' extra role behavior: relation with self efficacy, procedural justice, organizational commitment and support for training.
by Anugamini Srivastava
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self efficacy and procedural justice with teachers extra role behavior in Indian school context. Moderating role of support for training and mediating role of organisational commitment has also been examined. Data collected from 643 secondary and primary school teachers and 128 principals of Uttar Pradesh, India was analyzed through regression analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Findings revealed direct and significant relation between self efficacy (SE) and procedural justice (PJ) with organizational commitment. It also showed significant moderating impact of perceived support for training on the OC EXB relation. The data concentrated in a single area of the country restricting the generalization of results in other regions of the country. The study provided novel approach to relate support for training as a moderator and justified the generalization of previous proven relations of SE and PJ with OC and extra role behavior in Indian context.
Keywords: Extra role behavior, organizational commitment, procedural justice, self efficacy, support for training, teacher, India.
Investigating Organizational Justice in Higher Education in U.A.E
by Shahira Elalfy, Solomon Arulraj David
Abstract: The paper investigates organizational justice in higher education. A three-step research process has been used including, literature review, qualitative interviews, and then a quantitative survey. The literature review and the qualitative interviews with university instructors guide the development of a causal model that suggests antecedents and outcomes for organization justice in an educational setting. The nature, direction and magnitude of the proposed relationship between organizational justice and variables identified from the literature review and the qualitative phase are tested. Correlation, regression and analysis of variance are used to test the hypothesized model. The result provides insights on the nature of the relationship among these variables for finding effective means towards nurturing a positive educational environment where instructors are motivated to utilize their full potential in achieving educational goals. Findings shows that instructors demographic characteristics and cultural values explain the variance in perceived organizational justice and strong empirical evidence exist for the positive effect of perceived organization justice on instructors motivation. Perceived organization justice mediates the relationship between instructors cultural values and motivation.
Keywords: perceived justice; motivation; power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism; procedural justice; interpersonal justice; informational justice; United Arab Emirates; Higher Education.
Students' Performance in the Public Education in the State of São Paulo, Brazil
by Claudia Passador, Joao Passador, Julio Carneiro-da-Cunha
Abstract: This study analyses the variation of student performance and the way in which some factors affect student performance in the 8th grade of public education in the state of São Paulo. A regression analysis with the Hierarchical Database Model method on data from Prova Brasil and the School Census was performed. According to the results obtained, the variables which appeared to be associated with student performance were previous failure, initiation of studies in early childhood education, and level of parental education. Regarding schools, significant variables included school meals and average socioeconomic status of the students; moreover, for teachers the variables included training, experience, working exclusively for one school, and correcting students' homework.
Keywords: Elementary School; Students’ Performance; Public Education.
Quality Assessment of Academic Websites using Structured Equation Modeling
by Akash Deep, Yagya Sharma, Ramesh Anbanandam
Abstract: Academic websites have not evolved much as compared to other sector websites, like e-commerce, tourism, etc. They seem to fall back in areas such as structural design and maintenance quality which have a direct influence on users experience. A model is hypothesized to evaluate the quality of academic websites. The research is intended to suggest future developers to construct an effective website. A survey has been conducted to gain the users perspective for an academic website. Data was collected from 124 respondents and Confirmatory Factor Analysis and other reliability tests have been employed to validate the model. Structured Equation Modeling has been further used to test the hypotheses. The study indicates that the suggested nine quality constructs: system- accessibility, design, responsiveness and functionality; information- understandability, relevance and current; service- perception of service and trust building directly affect the user satisfaction of an academic website from a students point of view.
Keywords: Quality; Academic website; SEM; Information System; India
Factors influencing teachers absenteeism in the remote elementary schools of Indonesia: Empirical proof from southern Papua
by Basilius Redan Werang, Seli Marlina Radja Leba, Ermelinda A. G. Pure
Abstract: Teachers presence and performance in the classroom is of the most important school-based determinant of students academic achievement. High rates of teacher absenteeism in the remote elementary schools of southern Papua has been the most problematic issue that calls for an urgent solution to create a positive learning environment in schools and, in turn, improving the quality of education. This study aimed to reveal factors responsible for teachers absenteeism in the remote elementary schools of southern Papua, Indonesia. The present study employed a qualitative research approach using a case study research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to obtain 53 informants drawn from amongst school principals, local community members, and teachers of 28 elementary schools in the remote area of southern Papua, Indonesia. Profound interview to the elementary school principals, local community members, and teachers of respective schools was the main tool of the study to collect data. Data were analyzed qualitatively using Ishikawas fishbone analysis. We found three main categories of variables that influence teachers absenteeism in the remote elementary schools of southern Papua, Indonesia, namely: (a) teachers demographic characteristics which comprised of married status, working commitment, and job satisfaction; (b) factors related to working conditions which comprised of the remoteness, school physical facilities availability, the school principal leadership, and communitys support and involvement; and (c) factors related to the local authorities policy which comprised of teachers assignment and of school principal appointment. These findings demonstrate that, if the school supervisors and The Head of Education Office at government level wish to improve teachers attendance and, in turn, improve students capability in reading, writing, and arithmatics (3R), then they have to think seriously of how to create a more enjoyable environment and policy for teachers to be committed and passionated. These findings might be imperative for the institution of teachers training and education to design curriculum to address the special need of having teachers which are morally and mentally qualified.
Keywords: teachers absenteeism, elementary schools, remote area, southern Papua, Indonesia.
Career perceptions of undergraduate students in hospitality industry: an empirical study
by Girish Nair, Swati Prasad, Nidhi Choudhary
Abstract: This research focuses on the factors influencing student desire to pursue a career in the hospitality industry, with particular reference to hotels. Based on the literature review, seven dimensions have been chosen which have been theoretically linked to the choice of career by the students. The dimensions are nature of work, social status, industry-person congeniality, working conditions, pay-scale and benefits, promotion opportunities, and commitment to the industry. As there is no evidence to empirically prove their relationships an empirical investigation has been conducted. Second generation statistical analysis software Structural Equation Modelling has been adopted to test these hypotheses. Two types of analyses were carried out: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics provided the description of the data in terms of age, gender, work experience etc., and the inferential statistics were used to test hypotheses and draw specific suggestions to guide policy makers as to what measures could be taken to build a positive image of the hospitality industry amongst the future career seekers. Out of the seven hypotheses posited, five have been accepted based on which suggestions are made.
Keywords: Undergraduates; Career perception; Hospitality Industry.
WEBSITE CHARACTERISTICS AND WEB USERS SATISFACTION IN A HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTION
by Kian Guan Lee, Chin Wei Chong, Ramayah T
Abstract: This paper aims to identify the characteristics of higher learning institution websites that will affect student satisfaction in Malaysian context. It develops one research model concerned with the determinants of higher learning institution website towards student satisfaction based on end-user computing instrument (EUCI) model. It was found that web presence, visual design and navigation design in higher learning institution website play a major role in creating satisfaction when using the website. This study contributes to academia as it tries to fulfill the gap in the area of higher learning institution website characteristics which is rather limited and unexplored in previous literature. The findings of this study can shed a light to higher learning website designer on factors or characteristics to focus on when designing the website. This research proves that findings on e-commerce website are also applicable in higher learning institution websites.
Keywords: Higher learning institution, satisfaction, website, Internet
Analysis of the roles and leadership capacity of heads of departments in secondary schools
by Sello Mokoena
Abstract: This multi-case qualitative study explored the roles and leadership capacity exhibited by heads of departments (HODs) in secondary schools. The findings of the current study revealed that HODs have different roles to fulfil in secondary schools. As a result, HODs experienced both role conflict and role ambiguity between the espoused nature of the job and the reality of the job. Furthermore, some critical features of high leadership capacity, such as enquiry-based decisions, reflective practices, and broad-based skilful collaboration, are often missing in the leadership responsibilities of HODs. Although the study tends to validate the findings of other research studies, it also makes a contribution to the existing knowledge base, by highlighting the challenges faced by HODs, and also by using critical features of high leadership capacity to analyse the current leadership capacity exhibited by HODs in secondary schools. The integration of critical features of high leadership capacity in this study is therefore a methodological contribution to the study of leadership capacity. Furthermore, this multi-case study provided insights and recommendations which might serve as strategies to reduce workloads of HODs, and to enable them to balance their leadership duties and build leadership capacity in secondary schools.
Keywords: collaboration; head of department; leadership capacity; roles and responsibilities; analysis; secondary schools.
RETHINKING THE BUSINESS SCHOOLS VALUE PROPOSITION: THE COORDINATION OF LEARNING NETWORKS
by Pedro Dos Santos, Samir Lotfi, Angela Versiani
Abstract: In this paper, we argue that a model of education based on learning networks centrally coordinated by business schools arises as a solution to develop the organizational learning of participant companies. Given the wide range of ways in which business schools create value, we see these institutions as viable candidates to proactively design and coordinate networks focused on learning. A research framework was proposed to analyze how a learning network coordinated by a business school influences organizational learning. We used this framework to as a guide to our interviews and to help us organize data processing activities. To understand the relations between participants and their perceptions of learning in such contexts, we conducted a case study with a Brazilian business school. Data collection consisted of informal conversations and semi-structured interviews. The participants demonstrated to have successfully implemented new management practices in their organizations from knowledge gathered with participation in formal activities and from socialization with members of other companies. The observed effectiveness of this program shows us that learning networks have potential as a path to achieving a paradigm shift in executive education. Thus, learning networks should be considered when designing business schools models of value creation.
Keywords: business schools; value proposition; coordination; learning networks; organizational learning; executive education; management education.
Benchmarking Corporate Social Responsibility Against Principles for Responsible Management Education
by Santiago Gonzalez, Murat Erogul, Salvador Barragan
Abstract: Universities are educating students to become future leaders, managers and entrepreneurs. The need to incorporate and develop Corporate Social Responsibility within university programs is necessary for future decision makers. We benchmark corporate social responsibility curriculum against the Principles for Responsible Management Education in two different contexts: a Mexican University and a Canadian University. Through a comparative case study process, we find that both programs have similarities and differences with PRME on issues of perceiving Corporate Social Responsibility as a strategic management tool that adds value to the organization, the role of entrepreneurs and the responsibility they have towards the different stakeholders, the globalization phenomena and the foundations of social responsibility. The paper contributes insight into how higher education institutes play a role in developing and preparing students as stakeholders who can not only ensure standards of Corporate Social Responsibility but also how social responsibility is maintained.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Stakeholder Theory; Principles for Responsible Management Education; Case study; Mexico; Canada.
Determinants of study abroad decisions among Indian students: a PLS approach
by Kavitha Haldorai, Souji Gopalakrishna Pillai, Ketrina Kazako
Abstract: In spite of the growing number of universities, the Indian students opt to go abroad for higher education. The objective of this study is to determine the pre-decision factors that motivate Indian students to seek education outside India. A total sample of 210 students was used in this study. A questionnaire with 29 items was used to collect the data through online survey. The data were analysed using SmartPLS due to the formative nature of the indicators. The findings reveal that scholarship, social media, institutional factors, country image, program structure and personal factors influenced the students' choice of destination. Cost did not play a significant role despite the falling rupee value. The findings not only lead to better understanding on Indian students, but also help the policy makers to understand the needs of Indian students. It also suggests the factors that the host countries and their educational institutions need to consider to attract Indian students.
Keywords: Indian students; study abroad; scholarship; social media; program structure; institutional factors; country image; cost; personal factors.
Development programs for head teachers in four Central European countries: an international comparison
by Ludvík Eger, Mária Pisoňová, Łukasz Tomczyk
Abstract: The past two decades have witnessed increasing debate on how to better prepare school leaders for their roles. It has led to a surge of investigations into what constitutes successful school leadership. In many countries, new development programs and certifications for school leaders have been created. The main task of these programs is to provide school-centred management trainings that will support effective leaders in head teacher roles. In this article we examine trends in design of development programs for head teachers in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and in Saxony. The purpose of our comparative study is to illustrate how school leader development is organised in four countries in the Central Europe. The requirements for head teacher position and selection of head teachers refer to the underpinning rationales and processes of programs and design refer to the structure, content and teaching and learning methods of these programs. The study identifies patterns in the described programs and stresses that school leadership is exercised within a specific context.
Keywords: leadership; head teacher; qualification; development program; comparison.
The experiences of school principals of teachers living with HIV
by Zvisinei Moyo, Brigitte Smit
Abstract: Since the discovery of HIV in the late 1980s, the pandemic has become the leading cause of death in South Africa. The present study was designed to explore the experiences of how school principals deal with HIV/AIDS-related issues affecting teachers in schools. Empirically, a narrative inquiry as design type, nested in social constructivism, was used, together with narrative interviews to elicit qualitative data. Theoretically, the inquiry was framed by transformational leadership and an ethics of care. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, specifically descriptive, process and emotion codes, to theme the data. Key findings speak to inadequate leadership training for the sensitive educational landscape in South African schools, as well as lack of training and management skills to develop long-term strategies to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on teaching and learning.
Keywords: HIV; transformational leadership; educational leadership challenges; narrative inquiry.
Educational management and the extent of Thai undergraduates' learning and performance behaviour: an international view
by Ravee Phoewhawm
Abstract: Students are the future of the nation's knowledge-based economy. Therefore, educational managers in Thailand can help raise the country's global economic status by taking a closer look at the extent of the undergraduates' learning and performance behaviour so that an assessment can be made to improve the procedure. This study applied the achievement goal theory in the form of a questionnaire distributed to undergraduate students. The work sought to examine the students' level of learning and performance behaviour in the area of mastery approach and mastery avoidance, and in performance approach and performance avoidance. The results demonstrated that the learning and performance of most Thai undergraduates for the first part tend to be instilled with the mentality of preventing mistakes and failures from occurring, while for the second part they are not vigorously concentrated on outperforming their peers or on displaying their abilities. Educational managers must consider the mental aspects of students in order to help them achieve more.
Keywords: avoidance; behaviour; change; culture; higher education; globalisation; learning; mastery; performance; system.
Leadership skill, leadership style and job commitment among academic staff of Nigerian universities: the moderating effects of employee's attitude and work environment
by Isidore Ekpe, Norsiah Mat, Mary Olufunmilayo Adelaiye
Abstract: The study aims to determine the moderating effects of employee's attitude and work environment on the relationship between leadership skill and leadership style, and employee's job commitment among academic staff of Nigerian universities. The results of this study would enable the Nigerian government to develop strategies to help lecturers develop more interest in research. The study employs cross-sectional survey design, with simple random sampling, to collect data from 340 academic staff of three universities in the northern, eastern and western regions of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Partial Least Square (Smart PLS) were used to analyse data. The results indicate that transformational leadership style is positively related to employee's job commitment and that attitude moderates between transactional leadership style and employee's job commitment. The study suggests that appropriate leadership (from heads of departments) and adequate funding (from government) could engender more research commitments among scholars at Nigerian universities.
Keywords: leadership; attitude; environment; job commitment; lecturers; Nigerian universities.
The predictability of organisational culture for commitment among faculty members: evidence from Iran higher education
by Zahra Daghighi Masouleh, Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari
Abstract: Higher education is one of the effective factors for the realisation of economic, social and cultural development in a society. In addition, highly effective human resources play an important role in advancing policies and plans. This study aimed to investigate the level of and relationship between organisational culture and commitment among faculty members. The study was designed based on quantitative methods. The statistical population consisted of 224 faculty members from Islamic Azad University of Rasht Branch, Iran. Random stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 76 faculty members. This research made use of Allen and Meyer questionnaire to assess organisational commitment with 20 statements and Dennison questionnaire to assess organisational culture with 12 statements. Structural equation model confirm the appropriacy of the proposed model.
Keywords: faculty members; higher education; organisational commitment; organisational culture; structural equation model.