International Journal of Management in Education (17 papers in press)
- Organisational legitimacy in sport management programmes: An application of a scale
by Gonzalo Bravo, Doyeon Won
Abstract: The purpose of the study was twofold. First, to develop a scale that measures the three dimensions of organizational legitimacy (cognitive, normative and regulative) in the context of sport management programmes. Specifically, it examines which dimensions of programme legitimacy were perceived to be more important to influence postgraduate students choice of a sport management programme. The secondary purpose was to compare the perceived importance of these legitimacy dimensions of a sport management programme between students and faculty members. Data was collected from 205 postgraduate students and 68 faculty members who participated in this study. Results based on confirmatory factor analysis and t-tests indicated that the cognitive dimension of the programme legitimacy was the most important, followed by the normative and regulative dimensions. Students placed greater importance on regulative legitimacy than faculty did. Meanwhile, faculty members were more sensitive to normative and cognitive legitimacy in comparison to students. This study suggests that newly establishing postgraduate programmes including sport management programmes should ensure their programme is well recognised and positioned among peer institutions and potential students. Results also suggest that perceptual differences exist between students and faculty members in regards to how these two groups identify which dimensions of programme legitimacy matter the most.
Keywords: Organisational legitimacy; market competition in higher education; new ventures; legitimacy scale; sport management programmes
- Performance Measurement System in Malaysian Public Research Universities: Is It Contemporary ?
by Sharul Effendy Janudin, Ruhanita Maelah
Abstract: Performance measurement system (PMS) is an important and effective mechanism to ensure managers performance is in line with the objectives of an organization. Positive effects of PMS on organization performance are supported by empirical research but the study on contemporary elements of PMS especially in an education setting is still lacking. Previous studies on PMS dimensions tend to focus on a single construct. This study aims to examine the existence of strategic, comprehensive and dynamic dimensions in university PMS. Cross sectional data were obtained from academic staff representing five research universities in Malaysia (N = 368). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modelling (SEM) demonstrates that strategic, comprehensive and dynamic elements exist in university PMS. The findings from this study contribute to the line of research in the area of PMS design. Practically, the findings can be used as a guideline by universities in designing the PMS.
Keywords: performance measurement system, university performance, institutions of higher learning, management in university
- Substitutes for leadership among the faculty of institutions of higher education and their moderating effects on leadership styles and individual outcomes
by Ghulam Hussain, Wan Khairuzzaman Bin Wan Ismail , Muhammad Amir Rashid, Fareeha Nisar
Abstract: We test (a) the direct effects of leadership styles and substitutes for leadership on followers outcomes and (b) the moderating effects of substitutes for leadership on the relationship between leadership styles and followers outcomes. We use a random sampling technique to define a sample of 416 Ph.D. faculty members of institutions of higher education who are on the list of Higher Education Commission (HEC)-approved Ph.D. supervisors. Using structural equation modeling, we find that leadership styles and substitutes for leadership have significant effects on followers outcomes and that some of the substitutes for leadership also significantly moderate the relationship between leadership styles and followers outcomes in a manner consistent with the substitutes for leadership proposition. Discussion, implications, and limitations of the study are offered.
Keywords: Higher education, leadership, leadership styles, substitutes for leadership and outcomes
- The structural model of relationship between spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence with quality of work life and work engagement of employees
by Fariba Karimi, Zahra Karimi
Abstract: This study was performed with the aim of investigating the structural model between spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence with quality of work life and work engagement of employees in Islamic Azad University of Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan). The research method was correlational descriptive type. The statistical population was the employees of Islamic Azad University of Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan) in a number of 340 persons, among which 180 people were selected using Krejcie & Morgan (1970) sampling table and with simple random sampling method. To measure the variables, the questionnaires of King (2008) spiritual intelligence, Bradbury & Greaves (2005) emotional intelligence, Walton (1975) quality of work life and Schaufeli (2001) work engagement were used. The reliability of questionnaires has been calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient for spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, quality of work life and work engagement as 0.90, 0.85, 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. To analyze the research results, Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling have been used. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence with quality of work life and work engagement, and between emotional intelligence with quality of work life and work engagement as well. Structural equation modeling results indicated that spiritual intelligence has a direct effect on quality of work life (0.51) and work engagement (0.21). Emotional intelligence has a direct impact quality of work life (0.54) and work engagement (0.42), quality of work life has also a direct effect on work engagement (0.40). Spiritual Intelligence has had an indirect effect on work engagement (0.21) through quality of work life, as well as emotional intelligence that has had an indirect impact work engagement (0.22) through quality of work life. The model had favorable conditions in terms of indices of model fit and data goodness.
Keywords: Spiritual Intelligence, emotional intelligence, quality of work life, work engagement, Structural Equation Modeling, Employees of University
- Difficulties in Adapting Feedback for Individual Learning Styles in the Arabic Teacher Assisting and Subject Adaptive Material (TASAM) System
by Nahla Aljojo, Iqbal Alsaleh, Areej Alshamasi
Abstract: According to a great deal of research, students learn in highly individualised ways. Adapting technology-enhanced learning to individual learning styles is a demonstrated means of improving educational outcomes and of enhancing learning experiences. This paper suggests that information may be conveyed in a number of ways. Creating educational systems that effectively meet the learning needs of different individuals, however. The TASAM (Teacher Assisting and Subject Adaptive Material) system attempts to meet this objective by taking an Arabic version of Felder-Silvermans learning styles as the foundation for creating learning resources and tailoring the teaching process for individual students. This paper aims to explore ways in which to evaluate the efficiency of adaptive learning systems. Suggestions will subsequently be offered for possible methods of adapting feedback within the TASAM system. The findings of this study seem to demonstrate a positive correlation between adaptation of learning styles and enhanced educational outcomes.
Keywords: Learning styles, Felder-Silverman learning style model, feedback, adaptive TASAM, Arabic cohort
- Conflicting stakeholder interest and accountability in non-governmental organizations
by Klemen Kavcic, Bojan Mevlja, Igor Rižnar
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to summarize and analyze what is known regarding the ways in which conflicting stakeholder interest may influence accountability. The interests of stakeholders in non-profit organizations (NPOs) as well as the purposes of these organizations are not uniform. The authors used a systematic review process to study the empirical evidence pertaining to how a stakeholder perspective helps to understand accountability in and the influences of stakeholders in the Slovenian non-governmental educational organizations. Research provides an empirical analysis from a survey of 78 representatives of Slovenian non-governmental educational organizations. The objective of this paper is to improve the understanding of the accountability relationship between internal and external stakeholders and development NGOs, and in particular to elucidate the highly correlated influences of both parties (external and internal influences of stakeholders).
Keywords: accountability, management in education, non-governmental educational organization, stakeholders
- Using the Industry as a Model for Better Learning Experience in Higher Education
by Per Hilletofth, David Eriksson, Peter Manfredsson
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate how industrial approaches to learning can be introduced into logistics/supply chain management (SCM) education programs in a university setting. This issue has been examined through two case studies. The first case study outlines the current state of a bachelor education program in logistics/SCM at the University of Bor
Keywords: Education, Teaching, Learning, Project-based learning, Logistics, Supply chain, Lean, Six Sigma
- Empirical Illustrations of Undergraduate Students Goal Pursuit Dynamics
by Shilpa Iyanna
Abstract: A body of extensive literature has compellingly emphasized that goals play an important role in influencing and directing consumer behaviour. However, Baumgartner & Pieters (2008) posit that systematic research on goal directed behaviour is still lacking. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to expand on previous studies and take the discussion a step further by providing empirical evidence that (1) illustrate how goals at different levels impact on each other as students progress through the various stages of consumption; and (2) examines the interaction and integration of resources in goal formation. A quasi-longitudinal qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews was employed in this study. The results suggest a shifting pattern in the goals as students progress in their undergraduate degree. The implications of these results for theory, practice and future research are discussed.
Keywords: Consumer Behaviour; Goal Hierarchy; Goal Formation; Stages of Consumption; Resource Integration
- Evidences of Service Quality from an Emerging Educational Hub, Qatar
by Shahid Nakib Bhuian
Abstract: This study examined service quality at a university in a unique context, Qatar, utilizing the SERVQUAL model. The universities in the Middle-East region are staffed by expatriates from all over the world on contractual terms. There is no tenure system, which can have possible impact on job commitment and job satisfaction of these expatriates. As such, service quality at universities as perceived by students and the consequent student satisfaction with university services can be affected. A sample of over two hundred students assessed service quality along the dimensions of tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. Results indicated students perceptions of all the five dimensions of service quality were lower than their expectations of the same dimensions. The biggest discrepancy was observed for the dimension of reliability followed by responsiveness and the lowest was found in tangibility. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: SERVQUAL, GCC, Qatar, and service quality
- The Value of Theorizing...from a Student Stakeholder Perspective
by Richard Arend
Abstract: We apply data from two related surveys to an exploratory study centered on what the value is that academic theory creates for its main stakeholders. We begin to address questions of whether and how and to whom we, as strategy researchers, add new value through our published theoretical propositions. Our preliminary results reveal that the majority of our top-tier theoretical published causal relationships are obvious to business school students. That said, we provide several paths for increasing our added and appropriable value, including an identification of the audiences that need it most.
Keywords: student perspectives; theoretical hypotheses; value; non-obviousness; entrepreneurship; practicality; survey
- Effective Factors for Recruitment and Retention in Malaysian Private Universities
by Pradeep Kumar Nair, Hadi Farid
Abstract: The number of private universities has grown rapidly and is considered to be a key component of the Malaysian Higher Educational System, and, accordingly, the recruitment and retention of academic staff has taken on unprecedented importance. This study was designed to examine the recruitment and retention of academic staff at six private universities. The total number of academic staff in the selected universities was found to be 1,986 of which 455 participated in this study for the purpose of data analysis. The statistical results suggest there should be a greater focus on the strategies and policies of recruitment and retention of academic staff to overcome the challenges these institutions are facing. This study contributes to the related literature, makes a practical contribution to private universitiesâ€™ leadership strategies and informs and comments on policies which will enable academic talent to succeed.
Keywords: academic staff; higher education; leadership; policy makers; private universities; recruitment factors; retention factors.
- Universal-diverse orientation of business, education, and social work students in a north-eastern comprehensive university
by Hermeet K. Kohli, Flynn Ross, Amarpreet S. Kohli, Cheng Peng
Abstract: Purpose of this interdisciplinary research was to measure the level of multicultural awareness, sensitivity to and understanding of difference, and intercultural competence when working in diverse environments in the undergraduate and graduate Business, Education and Human Development, and Social Work students using the Universal-Diverse Orientation (UDO) (MGUDS-S survey). Convenient purposive sampling was utilised to invite students enrolled in these three schools to participate in web-based descriptive survey research. Students in Social Work had the greatest UDO, followed by students in Education and Human Development, and the Business students. Interdisciplinary differences in context of variables, such as degree, number of prior diversity courses, exposure to diverse cultures, gender, spirituality, and political affiliation, are discussed, along with recommendations for education and practice.
Keywords: business education; multicultural awareness; intercultural competence; sensitivity to difference; diversity curriculum; human development; graduates; interdisciplinary differences; UDO; universal-diverse orientation; undergraduates; higher education; social work students; USA; United States; cultural diversity; gender; spirituality; political affiliation.
- Data-mining applications with the admission data of adult learners in higher education: a pilot study
by Sylvia Chong, Mabelene Mak, Wai Mun Loh
Abstract: Admission offices are inundated with information from a variety of data sources and applications. This includes admission data such as student profiles and demographics, as well as academic and professional experiences. The paper outlines a pilot study that uses data-mining applications with the admission data of adult learners in a Singapore university. The application methodology has a sequence of four phases that leads to the building of relevant data-mining models. The analysis of the admission data is used to determine the best-fit model to predict applicants' academic performance. From the evaluation and validation of the different predictive models, the CHAID decision tree is selected as the predictive model. With this model, the probability of academic performance is computed for incoming and existing students by tracing the decision tree.
Keywords: higher education; adult learners; data mining; data analytics; admission data; Singapore; academic performance; performance prediction; decision tree; student admissions.
- Developing a framework of internationalisation for higher education institutions in Malaysia: a SWOT analysis
by Milad Kalantari Shahijan, Sajad Rezaei, Christopher Nigel Preece
Abstract: Higher education internationalisation has been understood in terms of the interchanging of idea networking, cultures, knowledge, and values. Internationalisation is a significant indicator for quality in higher education which has been attracting the interest of scholars throughout the world. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework of internationalisation for the higher education sector in Malaysia. This paper includes a Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) internationalisation SWOT analysis for decision-making Malaysian international HEIs. The paper reveals that it is important for Malaysia to promote itself as an 'education hub' in South-East Asia. However, there are some issues and challenges regarding HEIs internationalisation in the Malaysian context. Malaysia should seek comprehensive, attractive and supportive student packages to engage a larger number of international students. Malaysia, like other developing countries, is striving to take its higher educational system to a higher level of performance. This study is among few attempts to conduct SWOT analysis within HEIs in Malaysia.
Keywords: HEIs; higher education institutions; internationalisation; SWOT analysis; Malaysia; international students; developing countries.
- Students' learning styles and appropriate teaching methods: experience from Iran
by Reza Movahedi, Mehrdad Pouya
Abstract: This study was aimed at determining students' learning styles and its relationship with university teaching methods using a survey methodology. Samples of the study consisted of 194 students at both graduate and undergraduate levels from an agricultural college in Iran. Data collecting tool was a questionnaire with three parts which validated by a panel of experts from agricultural extension and education department of the university. Its reliability was tested during a pretest by Cronbach's alpha and was 0.73. Results showed that a majority of the students (61.9%) used only two learning styles, namely accommodator and diverger. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between the students' learning style and gender, level of education, fields of education, or place of living (rural/urban). In contrast, a significant relationship was observed between the students' learning style and three teaching methods including practicals, visit and field trips, and question and answer.
Keywords: learning styles; teaching methods; learning outcomes; agriculture; experiential learning; Iran; higher education; universities; agricultural college; gender; education level; education topics; location; practicals; visits; field trips; question and answer; Q&A.
- Recruitment in higher education institution: the mediating role of parents' expectations and encouragement
by Joseph Kee-Ming Sia, Ahmed Rageh Ismail
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated the direct relationship between parents' education, parents' expectation and encouragement and college choice decision; however, study on the possibility of variables having a mediating role on college choice decision has yet to be investigated. This paper attempts to address this knowledge gap and seeks to serve a provocative role in explaining students' college choice decision. The study was conducted among prospective students. The results revealed the direct and indirect relationship between parents' education and college choice decision. The results support all of the hypothesised relationships, suggesting the importance of the role of parents' expectation and encouragement in the students' decision to enrol in higher education institution. This significant finding implies that the challenges of higher learning institutions should also focus on strategies to engage with parents so that students will decide to enrol in the marketed higher learning institution. Theoretical and managerial implications were also discussed.
Keywords: higher education recruitment; college choice; college selection; parents; parental education; parental expectation; parental encouragement; higher education institutions; HEIs; student choice.
- Corporate governance mechanism for academic institutions imparting higher education in India
by Niladri Das, J.K. Pattanayak
Abstract: This paper aims to assess the relevance of two models of corporate governance for academic institutions imparting higher education in India. In order to achieve this, the paper draws on theories of 'for-profit governance', particularly the stewardship model, and theories of 'non-profit governance', particularly the stakeholder model. Theoretical insights from these literatures are then combined with the emerging literature on organisations within the educational sector in India. An empirical study has been undertaken to identify the appropriateness of both theories in the governance of Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs). The paper argues that HEIs in India may be more likely to exhibit a hybrid of both stewardship and stakeholder models of governance. Practitioners within HEIs and those operating in advisory roles in the sector may benefit from the study as it may offer a possible governance solution to the distinctive management challenges being faced by educational sector.
Keywords: corporate governance; higher education institutions; HEIs; stakeholder models; stewardship models; India; for-profit governance; non-profit governance.