International Journal of Management in Education (16 papers in press)
Self-efficacy and job satisfaction as antecedents of citizenship behaviour in private schools
by Manuel Soto, Omar Rojas
Abstract: This study evaluates the citizenship behaviour of customers and employees from a private school and aims to identify if variables like teachers self-efficacy and job satisfaction precede such a behaviour. The study was developed in the teaching field, where parents are considered as customers, teachers are employees from private schools that teach 6 to 18 years old students. The method consists of personal surveys applied to teachers and parents in order to measure their perceptions and opinions. The quantitative analysis applied was structural equation modelling. Results confirmed a positive and significative relationship between teachers self-efficacy, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and promoter citizenship behaviour. The study revealed that it is more probable that if a school has teachers showing a good level of self-efficacy, intrinsic job satisfaction and OCB, customers will be more satisfied and would recommend their private school to friends and relatives.
Keywords: organizational citizenship behaviour; self-efficacy; job satisfaction; orientation towards results; promoter citizenship behaviour.
Teacher education policy discourse in the midst of system reorganization and policy transfer: lessons for small and developing countries
by Blerim Saqipi
Abstract: This paper looks into the way teacher education policy interacts with policy transfer and with the ongoing devolution of education management competencies. Using the example of Kosovo and its teacher education policy, the paper brings out important variables that must be addressed when dealing with policy transfer projects in transitional contexts. Besides highlighting the need to consider some of the research questions in policy transfer and comparative education research in order to accommodate the specifics of small developing countries, the paper suggests that education systems in transition should adopt an analytical view to policy transfer and compare over-time orientation while adopting professional motivation behind policy transfer. At the same time, replacing existing practices of policy reception phase focus with efforts to ensure meaning-making and re-contextualization of new policies is crucial. This can avoid oversimplification of teacher education reform.
Keywords: Kosovo; teacher education policy; policy transfer; local context; standardization; system; developing; transition; school based development.
Factors Affecting the Implementation of Internationalization Strategies in Higher Education Institutions: Evidence from Bahrain
by Huda Alhalwaki, Allam Mohammed Hamdan
Abstract: The increasing rate of globalization is having a marked influence on education. Internationalization has developed in response to these changes. This study explores the progression of internationalization strategies in higher educational institutions in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
A quantitative methodology was adopted whereby data was collected to measure academics perceptions regarding the strategy factors and implementation processes in their institutions. Qualitative methods were used during interviews with key stakeholders in higher education.
The findings identified several factors that were perceived to influence the effective implementation of internationalization strategies. They also highlighted a gap between strategy and implementation practices which exists in higher education institutions. Academic staff members did not always agree that their institutions were committed to achieving the goals of their internationalization strategies.
It is recommended that a national internationalization framework be developed underpinned by clear policies and procedures that lead to the effective implementation of internationalization strategies.
Keywords: Internationalization; Globalization; Strategy; Higher Education; Higher Educational Council (HEC); Bahrain Economic Vision (2030); Influencing Factors; Institutional Commitment; National framework.
A bone of contention: teacher evaluation system in Greece
by Panagiotis Papakonstantinou, Tania Kolympari
Abstract: This paper explores the views of primary and secondary education teachers and their unions on the most recent Act of Parliament concerning the evaluation of teachers in Greece (Decree 152/2013). It examines the extent to which research participants agree with the proposed evaluation system taking into consideration the institutional framework; this paper also tries to achieve an understanding of the evaluation mechanisms in relation to the technocratic and transformative assessment model. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, it is found that participants are dissatisfied with the recent Parliament Act. Most teachers consider that education evaluation should be undertaken by the state and the administrative hierarchy, while fewer adopt a rather cooperative approach, based on a quasi equal balance of power between actors in the educational process and recipients. Teachers unions seem to maintain a visionary view, which largely relies on technocratic perception.
Keywords: teacher evaluation; transformative model; technocratic approach; union; qualitative analysis; Ministry of Education; Greece.
Environmental Management in Brazilian Higher Education
by Raquel Engelman, Patricia Tometich, Dusan Schreiber, Luis Felipe Nascimento, Edi Madalena Fracasso, Paola Schmitt Figueiro
Abstract: This research aims to investigate how the higher education institutions in Brazil are dealing with environmental issues. In this sense, a study was made to identify Environmental Management practices in Brazilian higher education institutions based on a survey with 75 institutions. The results showed that 22 practices are carried out by most of the Universities in the country. Institutions that prioritize environmental management, implementing Environmental Management Systems and deploying specific department for their management, have higher level of practices adoption. The results demonstrated that Brazilian institutions are oriented to comply with its environmental and social responsibility, but lack of resources (especially human and financial) and of interest of the own higher education institutions interest are some of the the main barriers found. The higher education institutions organize awareness programs for employees, and environmental policies are their management priorities, being part of their strategic planning and budget forecasting.
Keywords: sustainability; sustainable organizations; environmental management; sustainability education practices; sustainability in management education; higher education.
Rule Mining models for Predicting Dropout/Stopout and Switcher at College using Satisfaction & SES Features
by Nashat Al-jallad, Xu Ning, Mergani A. Khairalla
Abstract: Predicting students dropout/stop-out and switch registration aspects at college is one of the important managerial issues that concern the academic institutions. This issue presents a specific challenge due to a large number of factors that can affect the student's decision and the imbalanced nature of the educational data. In this paper, a novel feature extraction method applied to student satisfaction and socio-economic features during the pre-processing stage to reduce the high dimensionality of the data. Thus, different interpretable data mining approaches, including decision trees and rule induction methods were examined using actual data of students at the Technical University of Palestine (PTU), Palestine. After applying resampling method to resolve imbalanced natural of the students data; the results showed that the student satisfaction and socio-economic status (SES) predictors are important to distinguish different registration aspects (dropout, stopout, switch). Moreover, the results revealed that J4.8 algorithm achieved best results due to the ability to apply an appropriate trade-off regarding accuracy versus interpretability.
Keywords: registration aspects; dropout; switch major; satisfaction; Socio-Economic status (SES); rule mining;.
Direct and indirect effect of ethical leadership on employee behaviours in higher education
by M. Sait Dinc
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect relationships among ethical leadership, ethical climate types, facets of job satisfaction, organisational commitment components and dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour of 515 employees working at public and private universities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Structural Equation Modelling results of the study demonstrated that 'law and code' and 'caring' types of ethical climate, 'overall job satisfaction' and 'normative' and 'affective commitment' were found to mediate the latter relationship. Ethical leadership was also a highly important predictor of the 'caring' and 'law and code' types of ethical climate and 'normative commitment'. 'Caring' climate was found to be a highly significant predictor of 'normative commitment'. Moreover, while 'caring' climate was shown to be an important predictor of 'overall job satisfaction' and 'affective commitment', 'overall job satisfaction' was shown to have a significant influence on 'altruism' organisational citizenship behaviour.
Keywords: ethical leadership; ethical climate; ethical climate types; job satisfaction; facets of job satisfaction; organisational commitment; organisational commitment components; organisational citizenship behaviour; dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour; structural equation modelling; public and private universities; Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Theory of planned behaviour to predict parents' awareness and intention to participate in school governing body elections
by Samkelisiwe Levin, Norman Chiliya, Mazanai Musara
Abstract: This study investigated the factors that affect the intention of parents from selected high schools to participate in School Governing Body (SGB) elections. A research model for the investigation was developed and empirically examined, using responses from 263 parents of high school learners from the two selected high schools. Based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), three variables were hypothesised to influence parents' intention to participate in these elections, namely attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Brand awareness was tested using the brand equity theory. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using SPSS 23 and AMOS 21 statistical software programs was performed to analyse data. The results provide evidence that the three variables in the TPB have a significant influence on parents' intentions to participate in SGB elections. Brand awareness was also found to have a significant influence on parents' intentions to participate in SGB elections. The findings of this study are valuable in guiding education authorities and their marketing partners to design the most appropriate interventions to persuade parents to participate in SGB elections and to improve management of schools.
Keywords: school management; school governing body elections; theory of planned behaviour.
Alignment of undergraduate business student's competencies with Saudi market requirements
by Nasser Saad AlKahtani, Abdul Malik Syed
Abstract: This empirical study highlights the most significant competencies from the employer's perspective for an undergraduate business administration program in Saudi Arabia. The motivation for this paper stems not only from the notion to align competencies as per the Saudi labour market requirements and National Qualifications Framework but also to adapt the undergraduate business program to the 21st-century knowledge, skills and abilities. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structured Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) to identify generic competencies, i.e. knowledge, skills and abilities of the undergraduate business programs with alignment to Saudi labour market requirements.
Keywords: national qualification framework; undergraduate business competency; PLS-SEM.
Promising digital university: a pivotal need for higher education transformation
by Jamshed Khalid, Braham Rahul Ram, Mohamed Soliman, Anees Janee Ali, Muhammad Khaleel, Md Shamimul Islam
Abstract: The digitisation is prompting education, particularly higher education at a very fast pace. Higher education institutions (HEIs) are in imperative need to implement modern technologies to stay digitally relevant and differentiate them as a digital leader. Though many universities have specific digital plans and strategies, yet implementation of these up to the highest standards is something many institutions lacking. The present study emphasised that HEIs are in need to grapple with the impacts of a progressively digital world. The emerging technologies and their effects on establishment of a digital campus have been investigated and enlightened. Furthermore, the possible barriers and the ways to harness digitalisation successfully have also been discussed. The study, finally, proposed a digital model for HEIs to implement a digital strategy for the entire institution to reap the benefits attached to the technological progression. The present study will guide HEIs to understand the imperative need of digital strategic plans and assist in the adaption of the digital change.
Keywords: higher education institution; digitalisation; digital campus; higher education transformation; technology.
The development of principal change leadership emotional intelligence model
by Omar Abdull Kareem, Tai Mei Kin
Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to develop a substantiated Principals Change Leadership Emotional Intelligence (PCLEI) model to identify critical PCLEI that maximises change effectiveness in Malaysian secondary schools. It adopted a survey method with 731 school principals as respondents. It was tested rigorously with Rasch analysis and structural equation modelling. The analysis yielded a four-factor PCLEI model namely, Emotional Perceiving and Expressing, Emotional Utilisation, Emotional Understanding and Emotional Regulation with normed chi-square = 1.613, TLI = .971, CFI = .978 and RMSEA = .046. This is a coherent premier tested model derived in a local education setting with good convergent validity, discriminant validity and composite reliability. It would benefit educational practitioners in planning, designing and evaluating future training programs for present and prospective school principals.
Keywords: principal change leadership; educational leadership; emotional intelligence; emotional perceiving and expressing; emotional utilisation; emotional understanding; emotional regulation; school change; Rasch analysis; structural equation modelling.
Using business process management simulation to support continuous improvements in higher education management system
by Paolo Renna, Carmen Izzo
Abstract: Quality assurance has become an increasing importance topic in higher-education institutions. The countries that have signed the Bologna Declaration are agree to develop a quality-assurance process and governing body to ensure standard qualifications and quality throughout participating countries. The process approach is one of the crucial issues of the quality assurance models with description of responsibility, authority, procedures, plans and available resources. This research aims to support the decision about the organisation (resources allocation, process sequence, etc.) to improve the performance level. The main importance regards the simulation analysis instead of the only process description proposed in literature. The method proposed concerns the process modelling, defining the main influences for the performance and the simulation models for the numerical analysis. A case study in an Italian university based on the proposed method is developed improving the organisation with higher performance.
Keywords: business process management; higher education; simulation; quality assurance; resource allocation; customer satisfaction.
How interpersonal relations are affected by and affect the selection of head teachers in primary education: the teachers' perspectives
by Vasiliki Brinia, Stella Perakaki
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the views of teachers working in primary schools in Athens, Greece, on the importance of the election of the head teacher through the teachers' secret vote and on the importance of the head teacher-candidates' interpersonal relations with the other teachers regarding the head teacher selection process. The sample was 40 teachers from 15 different schools in the city of Athens. A qualitative approach through semi-structured interviews has been followed. The findings have shown that, while the most important selection criteria are the scientific qualifications, it appears that interpersonal relationships have eventually mostly determined the selection of head teachers. The present study is of value as it provides policy makers, both in Greece and in other countries that have adopted similar selection processes, with valuable insights on the way the selection process really works and on how it can be improved.
Keywords: head teacher's selection criteria; teachers' interpersonal relations; teachers' association; primary education; secret ballot.
Factors and information sources influencing students' consumer behaviour: a case study at an Italian public university
by Mariella Pinna, Giacomo Del Chiappa, Martina G. Gallarza
Abstract: This article examines the factors and the preferred sources of information that influence prospective Italian students' choice of a Department of Business and Economics at a public university. Results, based on quantitative survey data, show that both future undergraduate and future postgraduate students value the reputation of the university, the guidance services offered by the institution and the degree of specialisation as important factors that drive their choice, and peers' suggestions are the most relevant information source for both groups. The paper provides insights on how traditional elements are combined with more contemporary ones in domestic Students' Consumer Behaviour. Findings provide several implications for policy makers and managers in Higher Education.
Keywords: higher education; student choice; student consumer behaviour; motivation; information sources; domestic recruitment; public university; future undergraduates; future postgraduates; Italy; University of Sassari.
Educational leadership and total quality management: investigating teacher leadership styles
by Eleni Sfakianaki, Anna Matsiori, Dimitrios A. Giannias, Ioanna Sevdali
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate an important aspect of quality management in education - teacher leadership styles - as practiced by Greek secondary education teachers. A survey questionnaire was used based on a model developed by Giannias and Sfakianaki in 2016, which progresses the research originally undertaken by Blake and Mouton. A sample of 138 teachers provided their perceptions on the leadership styles they adopt. The study integrates leadership and quality management theories and explores teacher leadership styles in the Greek secondary educational system. Teachers can use their personal results for self-assessment and reflection as part of the total quality management process.
Keywords: education; leadership; total quality management; grid method; teachers.
Effect of the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education programs on entrepreneurial competency and business performance
by Elia Ardyan, Oscarius Yudhi Ari Wijaya
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of action-based approach and the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education program on entrepreneurial competency and students' business performance. The analysis used is structural equation modelling (SEM) which is using AMOS version 21 to process the data. The result showed that action-based approach has significant positive influence to entrepreneurial competency. Entrepreneurial competency which grew in students' awareness was able to influenced business work that developed. The effectivity of entrepreneurship education program will give great impact to entrepreneurial competency growth and students' business performance.
Keywords: action-based approach; effectiveness of entrepreneurship education program; entrepreneurial capability; students' business performance.