International Journal of Learning Technology (4 papers in press)
Enhancing Thai Generation Zs Creative Thinking with Scratch through the Spiral Model
by Purita Sayavaranont, Pallop Piriyasurawong, Namon Jeerungsuwan
Abstract: This paper is a report on the findings of research and development into the instructional model Enhancing Thai Generation Z Creative Thinking with Scratch through the Spiral Mode. The purposes of this study are: (1) to develop and (2) to evaluate and gain experts opinion on the proposed model, adapted from a creative thinking spiral first used in Scratch (Resnick, 2007), based on Thailands challenges. The proposed spiral model consists of ten steps: Analyse, Inspire, Educate, Imagine, Create, Experience, Share, Reflect, Evaluate and Imagine. The research was conducted through a semi-structured interview methodology whereby the questions were prepared and circulated to nine experts in advance. All of them agreed that using the Spiral model, and by extension, Scratch, is an appropriate way to develop and improve creative thinking among Generation Z Thais.
Keywords: spiral model; Scratch; Generation Z; creative thinking; Thailand’s competitiveness; Thailand’s challenges.
Flipped classroom approach for preschool students in learning English language
by Siti Hajar Halili, Rafiza Abdul Razak
Abstract: Along with technology advancements, the Malaysian education system needs to be transformed from a traditional system to an environment that is technology-based. In the Malaysian context, English is considered a second language to be acquired, thus barely practiced by students outside classroom or in daily life. Using Gagnes theory, this study aims to identify the teaching and learning (T&L) processes carried out when using a flipped classroom (FC) approach. Findings show that students have positive responses toward the T&L processes using a FC approach. Three themes emerged during the interview process childrens learning, video lectures and learning guidance. Thus, the contributions of the paper are to encourage the future English kindergarten teachers to implement FC in their T&L practices.
Keywords: flipped classroom; FC; pre-school students; English; teaching and learning process; Gagne’s theory.
The use of 3D Multiuser Virtual Environments in Computer Assisted Second Language Learning: A Systematic Literature Review
by Stefania Borona, Efthimios Tambouris, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Abstract: The rapid development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is influencing the way we learn. 3D Multiuser Virtual Environments (3D MUVE) is an emerging technology that is increasingly used in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Virtual environments are immersive, virtual worlds that could enhance second language learning (SLL). However, due to the novelty of the medium, the field lacks of a complete, systematic literature review that can support or reject the argument that 3D MUVE can enhance SLL. The aim of this paper is to map this emerging research field. For this purpose, a published method for conducting systematic literature reviews was employed. Using this method, we identified 128 relevant papers. From these, we selected 32 that included case study results and employed general purpose virtual worlds (e.g. Second Life) rather than games (e.g. Warcraft). The results suggest there is evidence of improvement in learning outcomes, communication skills and motivation. In addition, this paper sheds light on areas requiring further research, such as the instructors role in a 3D MUVE.
Keywords: 3D MUVE; SLL; CALL; virtual worlds; 3D game; collaborative learning.
E-assessment with multiple-choice questions: A qualitative study of teachers' opinions and experience regarding the new assessment strategy
by Rosalina Babo, Jarkko Suhonen
Abstract: An e-assessment strategy, consisting of multiple choice questions (MCQ) within a Moodle learning management system (LMS) was implemented in a higher education institution to assist teachers with the assessment process. Considering that the new procedure induced major changes to the existing assessment, affecting students, teachers and staff, this paper aims to analyse teachers perceptions through a qualitative study, applying a focus group constituted by senior lectures who used MCQ tests in their courses. Resulting in the identification of advantages and disadvantages, eliciting improvements and exploring whether MCQ develops and evaluates the same knowledge and skills compared to existing solutions. In sum, the studys main result was the confirmation that e-assessment with MCQ remains reliable in any degree program course, although preferably when combined with another kind of assessment, such as a problem-based group project,, which is effective in developing competencies and skills that MCQ are not.
Keywords: e-learning; e-assessment; learning management system; LMS; Moodle; qualitative research; multiple choice questions; MCOs; database management systems; DBMSs; spreadsheet; focus group; group work.