International Journal of Immunological Studies (4 papers in press)
REVIEW ARTICLE - MANAGEMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
by MARIA AZIZ, Kush Yadav
Abstract: The review article covers every aspect of treatment modalities of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients .The importance of Reverse pyramid approach,with early aggressive treatment has been highlighted with due consideration to Adjuvant therapies .Treatment of Comorbid conditions has also been considered.Targetized Goals of treatment have been stressed for Rheumatologist while designing the management plan for RA patients.
Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; Management; DMARDs; Reverse Pyramid approach rn.
Changes in Activation Status of Dendritic Cells and Cytokine Profile in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Good vs Poor Glycemic Control
by Jarupa Soongsathitanon, Apiradee Sriwijitkamol, Visith Thongboonkerd
Abstract: Uncontrolled hyperglycemia gives rise to pathological lesion of blood vessel in diabetes mellitus (DM). Dendritic cells were evidenced in atherosclerotic plaque and involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study investigated differences in the phenotype of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in patients with different level of glycemic control. Expression of activation markers, CD80 and CD86, on dendritic cells was compared between type 2 DM patients with good glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7), poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 9), and non-diabetic subjects. CD80 expression was significantly increased in patients with poor glycemic control in comparison to good glycemic control and healthy subjects. CD86 expression was higher in diabetic patients, with either good or poor glycemic control. Cytokine assay showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ in diabetic patients. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a chemokine recruiting inflammatory cells into atherosclerotic lesion, was increased in diabetic patients, with higher expression of its receptor, CCR2, in poor control group. This study demonstrated inflammatory state in type 2 DM and activated dendritic cells in poorly controlled diabetes. This may lead to vascular complications in diabetic patients.
Keywords: Glycemic control; dendritic cell; atherosclerosis; HbA1c; MCP-1; diabetes mellitus.
Role of Oxidative Stress in Prognosis of Ovarian Cancer
by Amany Ghazy, Nour El-Etreby, Radwaa Rashad, Nermine Moussa
Abstract: Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies due to its poor prognosis. It could be improved by better understanding of its molecular pathogenesis. It is hypothesized that mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer may emanate from an altered redox balance. Mitochondria and NADH-oxidase enzymes generate a significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. Prohibitin (PHB) protein is mainly located in the mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. Because electron transport chain (ETC) is the major source of ROS generation and PHB1 directly regulates its activity, it is not surprising that PHB1 may have a role in the control of ROS production.
Aim: The present work establishes an interesting link between NOX4 enzymes (which are an important source of ROS in the cell) and PHB1 (as a holdase type chaperone specifically required in situations of mitochondrial stress).
Subjects & Methods: The current study was conducted on 60 patients with ovarian tumours (benign, borderline and malignant) and 20 healthy volunteers (as a control group). NOX4 expression was assessed by TaqMan
Keywords: Ovarian tumours; PHB1; NOX4mRNA.
Investigation of the cellular and soluble markers of inflammation for the assessment of cardiovascular risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome in Bangladesh
by Talita Zahin Choudhury, Mohammad Kamruzzaman, Laila Noor Islam
Abstract: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), one of the leading causes of mortality in Bangladesh, occurs when a plaque in the coronary artery suddenly ruptures and obstructs the flow of blood to the heart causing myocardial tissue necrosis. In this study, a total of 140 participants were enrolled including 70 ACS patients and 70 non-ACS controls. The total and differential WBC counts, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and complement functions were investigated and the values were compared between the study groups. We found the total WBC count, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), plasma MPO activity, serum IMA, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the ACS patients while the complement-mediated bactericidal activity was significantly lower. The results on NLR, MPO activity, and IL-6 levels demonstrate activation of cellular and soluble inflammatory mediators in ACS, which may be potential diagnostic biomarkers.
Keywords: ACS; WBC counts; neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR); oxidative stress; MPO activity; markers of inflammation; IL-6; ishcaemia-modified albumin; complement function; diagnostic biomarkers; Bangladesh.