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International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology

 

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International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology (37 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • A Cloud-Fog Scalable Video Streaming Architecture for Multimedia Internet of Things (IoT) Devices   Order a copy of this article
    by Tz-Heng Hsu 
    Abstract: Cloud computing can be used to provide guaranteed quality of video services. On the other hand, fog computing can lower the transmission costs by using collaborative machine-to-machine and near-user edge communications. In this paper, a cloud-fog scalable video streaming architecture for multimedia Internet of things (Iot) devices is proposed, where fog nodes can collaborate with the rented cloud servers for efficiently delivering the requiring video frames to multimedia Iot devices. The proposed architecture strengthens the stability of the video streaming transmission and improves the quality of service (QoS) of multimedia Iot services with cloud-fog computing techniques.
    Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Video Streaming; Fog Computing.

  • The performance and QoE analysis of B2-DASH algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanapat Anusas-amornkul, Surawut Moonsin 
    Abstract: Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) protocol provides several video bit rates for each video segment depending on the current network conditions and it can be used for several platforms. However, the adaptive algorithm in DASH can be further improved to gain better performance. Therefore, Bandwidth and Buffer-based (B2)-DASH algorithm is proposed to enhance DASH algorithm using both buffer and bandwidth-based approaches to provide high average video bit rate in fluctuated network conditions. In this paper, the B2-DASH is compared with FDASH algorithm, which is the best adaptive algorithm among others. This work compares the performance in three scenarios, i.e. Low Switching Rate, Fast Switching Rate, and Wi-Fi networks. The performance metrics are average video bit rates, number of interruptions, and resolution changes. B2-DASH parameters are analyzed and the recommended parameter settings are presented for the best performance for each scenario. In term of user experiences for video streaming, Quality of Experience (QoE) is analyzed for both B2-DASH and FDASH algorithms. From the analysis, B2-DASH outperformed FDASH in all scenarios. The number of resolution changes was enhanced about 22% for Fast Switching Rate and Wi-Fi network scenarios. The parameter adjustment process is necessary when the actual bandwidth is highly fluctuated in order to give better performance to B2-DASH algorithm. Quality of Experience (QoE) was calculated for the FDASH and B2-DASH algorithms and B2-DASH algorithm improved the QoE about 13% over FDASH in the Wi-Fi network scenario.
    Keywords: B2-DASH; QoE Analysis; Adaptive Video Streaming Algorithm.

  • Bandwidth Management Framework for Smart Homes Using SDN: ISP Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Hung-Chin Jang, Jian-Ting Lin 
    Abstract: With the increasing number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and the advance of smart home technologies, not only smart environments like smart homes, smart cities and smart countries become feasible, but also all these devices consume more or less bandwidth in data transmission. In this paper, we propose an SDN (Software Defined Networking) based QoS (Quality of Service) aware bandwidth management framework for thousands of IoT enabled smart homes from ISP perspective. The operational scenario of this research assumes that an ISP should support thousands of smart homes. Each smart home equips with tens of IoT devices with a broad spectrum of functional capabilities, and each smart home exploits a variety of services. The overall system architecture consists of into SDN Smart Home Cloud at ISP side, and massive SDN enabled Smart Homes. The Smart Home Cloud interconnects with Smart Homes through OpenFlow protocol. With this architecture, we first prioritized smart home services into categories by adapting 3GPP LTE QoS Class Identifier (QCI). Then we propose a Bandwidth Allocation for Smart Home (BASH) strategy to calculate appropriate bandwidth for each service category according to distinct QoS requirements. ISP can thus use BASH to optimize bandwidth allocation of aggregated and classified services of smart homes. The experiments are conducted under an SDN-based network environment constructed by Linux based OpenvSwitch, Ryu controller, and Mininet. The experiment results show that the proposed framework can effectively enhance QoS and outperform the traditional ISP bandwidth allocation strategy in terms of average transfer ratio, average throughput, average delay and average jitter.
    Keywords: Software-Defined Networking (SDN); Quality of Service (QoS); Internet Service Provider (ISP); smart home; bandwidth management.

  • Bio-inspired Approaches for OFDM Based Cognitive Radio   Order a copy of this article
    by Naziha Ali Saoucha, Badr Benmammar 
    Abstract: Link adaptation algorithms design for OFDM based cognitive radio networks is a challenging task. The main concern is to provide a high Quality of Service for the secondary user while the mutual interference between this last and the primary user persists within a tolerable range. This issue can be formulated as a multiobjective optimization constraint problem. To tackle this optimization problem in a multiobjective constraint framework, in this paper we exploit three of the most recent powerful bio-inspired algorithms: firefly, bat, and cuckoo search. Simulation results revealed that, in contrast to the classical genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization based link adaptation, our proposed algorithms exhibit better performance in terms of convergence speed and solution quality with saving rates reaching over 98.93% and 46.60%, respectively.
    Keywords: cognitive radio; OFDM; QoS; interference; firefly; bat; cuckoo; particle swarm optimization(PSO); genetic algorithm (GA); binary.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPT.2019.10019368
     
  • Modeling and Analysis of Real Time and Reliability for WSN based CPS   Order a copy of this article
    by Junhua Zhang, Yi Zhu, Fangxiong Xiao 
    Abstract: WSN based CPS can be used to collect information from remote environment and control it. Delay and dependability directly affect the running quality of WSN based CPS. In this paper, we present a specified process calculus to model the running of the system, including its real time and reliability character. Then we design a group of algorithms to calculate the reliability of the system under certain responsible time constraint. Using these methods, we can formally depict the running of WSN based CPS, and can assess real time and reliability of WSN based CPS quantitatively. We illustrate our ideas through bank night automatic monitoring and emergency system, and we can improve the systems reliability from 0.58 to 0.87 and higher gradually.
    Keywords: WSN based CPS; real time; reliability; process calculus.

  • Modified QUIC Protocol (ModQUIC) for Improved Network Performance and Comparison with QUIC and TCP   Order a copy of this article
    by Prashant Kharat, Muralidhar Kulkarni 
    Abstract: Congestion control mechanism is solely responsible for maintaining the performance of streaming data. However, when there is no congestion, a regular delivery window update is followed as a step by step process. The process can be improved by individual window update along with acknowledgment (ACK) as feedback to the server even in the absence of congestion. To achieve maximum throughput and minimum delay, we have suggested modification in the existing handshaking mechanism of Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC) protocol. This paper presents an investigation of QUIC protocol performance and proposes a Modified QUIC (ModQUIC): a modification in existing handshaking mechanism of QUIC to reduce control overhead. Chromium server-client model testbed setup results, show that the proposed technique gives stable output and improves performance in terms of overall throughput and delay over QUIC and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Performance has been tested for limited (2 Mbps) and sufficient (10 Mbps) link bandwidth in presence of loss. The validation of results has been carried out with the help of linear regression model. The result show a throughput improvement of 35.66% and 51.93% over QUIC and TCP respectively and also the delay is reduced by 3% to 5% over QUIC and TCP.
    Keywords: ModQUIC; QUIC; Network performance; Congestion control.

  • A General Purpose Deployment Method for Wireless Mesh Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Liang Tang, Zhichao Wang, Jun Huang, Li Bian 
    Abstract: When determining the location of candidate wireless Mesh routers, it is easy to ensure that each mesh client node within the communication range of the candidate router, but it is difficult to ensure that selected Mesh Routers from the candidate routers can constitute a connected network, in addition to the locations of the candidate router can also be placed too much, but too many candidate routers will affect the performance of the algorithm. We propose that all user terminals within at least one wireless router's coverage, and then consider the use of the least Mesh router to cover all of the user's terminals, meanwhile, make the selected Mesh routers connected with each other, and finally make the local connective network communicate with each other. Using the method of combining the genetic algorithm and the minimum spanning tree algorithm, the problem candidate Mesh routers cant construct a connected network was solved and the least selected wireless Mesh routers connected with each other with all mesh clients covered. The feasibility and practicability of the proposed method is verified by Matlab simulation.
    Keywords: wireless Mesh network; Mesh router deployment; genetic algorithm; connected component; minimum spanning tree.

  • Addressing for 6LoWPAN   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhengxiong Dou, Xiaonan Wang 
    Abstract: The paper proposes a distributed stateful IPv6 address configuration scheme for 6LoWPAN wireless sensor networks. In the scheme, each sensor node has the unique IPv6 address space for assignment and can allocate a unique IPv6 address for other nodes so the distributed IPv6 address configuration can be achieved and the address configuration for multiple sensor nodes can be performed in parallel, which improves the address configuration efficiency. In the scheme, the transmission scope of the control packets is limited within one-hop scope so the address configuration cost is reduced, the delay is shortened and the network life span is prolonged. In addition, the paper proposes the IPv6 address recovery algorithm. If a node fails, then the algorithm can automatically maintain and repair the topology of the k-way tree where the failed node locates in order to ensure that its descendants can work normally, which improves the address configuration robustness. The paper analyzes and compares the performance parameters of the proposed scheme and the existing schemes including MANETConf, Strong DAD and LISAA. The simulation results show that the performance of the proposed scheme is better.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor network; IPv6 address; distributed address configuration; stateful address configuration; address recovery.

  • Construction of Building Fire Information Monitoring Model Based on Adaptive Clustering Scheduling   Order a copy of this article
    by Lian Xue, Ying Li 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problem of unsatisfactory monitoring information transmission and large time overhead during conventional building fire monitoring, an optimization method of building fire information monitoring based on adaptive clustering scheduling is proposed. In this method, a channel model for building fire information monitoring is constructed through the bi-directional link transmission control method, and then node deployment for building fire information monitoring is optimized through the shortest path optimization method. The deployment of the largest coverage of fire information monitoring sensor nodes is designed through the self-adaptive rotation scheduling, and balance control of the output link layer of Internet of Things is performed through the adaptive clustering scheduling method to improve the accurate forwarding and real-time transmission capabilities of Internet of Things for fire detection information, and then a building fire information monitoring model is constructed. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the success rate of fire information monitoring packet forwarding with an average increase of 24.7%, which greatly improves the monitoring information transmission efficiency, and it reduces the time overhead of fire information monitoring by 160s. The proposed method meets the actual needs and ensures the effectiveness of fire monitoring.
    Keywords: Building; fire information; monitoring model; path optimization; node deploymentrnrn.

  • Real-time reliability allocation algorithm of high-throughput communication channel under strong interference   Order a copy of this article
    by Xian Luo, Rongtao Liao, Guoru Deng, Dangdang Dai, Xiaolan He, Zhixiang Hou 
    Abstract: In order to improve the anti-interference capability of high-throughput communication and improve the communication quality in performing real-time reliability allocation of highthroughput communication channel in the strong interference environment, a real-time reliability allocation algorithm of high-throughput communication channel under strong interference based on fractionally spaced equalisation and excess mean square error convergence criteria is proposed. In this algorithm, a high-throughput communication channel model is established; optimal symbol interval sampling is carried out to communication signals based on the expansion loss of the channel; the matched filter detection method is adopted for interference suppression of high-throughput communication channel to realise signal spectrum suppression; the fractionally spaced equalisation method is adopted for equalisation scheduling of the channel, and based on the excess mean square error convergence criteria, real-time reliability allocation of highthroughput communication channel under strong interference is realised. Simulation results show that in high-throughput communication channel allocation under strong interference, the method proposed in this paper provides good reliability, which improves real-time channel allocation capability, and channel equalisation, and improves communication quality with relatively low communication output error bit.
    Keywords: strong interference; high-throughput communication; channel; equalisation; reliability allocation.

  • Weighted Moving Average based Differential UWB Indoor Localization System for High External Disturbance Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Qian Gao, Chong Shen, Xiaosi Chen, Kun Zhang 
    Abstract: Time based Ultra-wideband (UWB) indoor localization system is affected by clock offset, electromagnetic interference, NLOS and other external conditions, the localization accuracy and stability will be greatly reduced. Differential GPS (DGPS) technology introduces a reference station, which transmits a pseudo range correction value to a GPS receiver for error correction, thereby largely reducing the localization error to improve GPS localization accuracy and localization stability. In this paper a Differential UWB localization algorithm combined with weighted moving average is proposed by drawing on the experiences of Differential GPS, focusing on clock offsets and propagation effects. At the same time, the Differential UWB indoor localization system based on TDOA algorithm is tested by Hainan EVK 2.0 experiments. The experiment results show that Differential UWB indoor localization system can effectively improve the localization precision and localization stability, especially in the case of external disturbances, the overall localization error is reduced by 23%.
    Keywords: Differential UWB localization algorithm; TDOA algorithm; weighted moving average; external disturbances.

  • Intelligent Switching Algorithm for Mobile Communication under Non-uniform Distribution of Scatterers   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhixiang Hou 
    Abstract: In the presence of non-uniformly distributed scatterer medium, mobile communication is prone to multipath effect, so in order to improve the communication stability by reducing multipath interference through intelligent switching of mobile communication channels, an intelligent switching algorithm for mobile communication under non-uniform distribution of scatterers based on time compression and spatial focusing is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method can provide good intelligence in the switching of mobile communication channels under non-uniform distribution of scatterers and it improves channel equalization, provides output communication signals with good spatial focusing capability and reduces transmission delay and inter-symbol interference.
    Keywords: scatterer; non-uniform distribution; mobile communication; intelligent switching algorithm; channel.

  • CRAM: Clustering-based Resource Availability Measurement in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Moufida Rahmani, Mahfoud Benchaiba 
    Abstract: The peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are an alternative to solve the scalability issue raised by the client/server systems. P2P systems are composed of a set of entities that communicate directly without any central server and constitute scalable and robust distributed systems. In these systems, an entity only has a partial knowledge about the overlay state. The challenge is to provide a global knowledge in the system regarding a feature as the resources availability. In this paper, we propose a Clustering-based Resource Availability Measurement called CRAM for mobile P2P networks which relies on knowledge from all entities. CRAM can be used in resource search and in replication strategies to improve the network performances. Simulation results show that our estimation of availability is close to the real one such as the deviation between them can equal 0.008. They also show that our algorithm reacts efficiently to the appearance or depletion of a resource replica in the system.
    Keywords: Mobile peer-to-peer; Overlay; Resource Availability; Rare resource; Popularity resource; Clustering; Replication; Hybrid search; Social network.

  • Design a New Protocol and Comparison with B92 Protocol for Quantum Key Distribution   Order a copy of this article
    by Manish Kalra, Ramesh C. Poonia 
    Abstract: Quantum key distribution is the latest advancement in quantum cryptography. There are several QKD protocols like BB84, B92, Ekert91, COW, SARG04, etc. out of which B92 is the second protocol developed in 1992 based on Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle. In this paper we are discussing first about the related work for the simulation of QKD protocols, second the simulation of B92 and proposed protocol is elaborated and then we compare the performance of B92 with the proposed protocol and proving proposed protocol much better in case of average key length and error rate. Object oriented approach is used in the simulation designing of new protocol and B92 protocol.
    Keywords: B92 simulation; QKD protocols; Quantum cryptography; proposed protocol; variation of B92.

  • Acquiring users requirement and exploring users preference with Word2vec model   Order a copy of this article
    by Ji-Wei Qin, Yunpeng Jiang 
    Abstract: Traditional recommender algorithms mainly use structured data (resource tag, user feature etc.) to depict the user preference and ignore the semantic relations of resources. In this paper, we present a new idea for acquiring users requirement and exploring users preference with Word2vec model (RP- Word2vec) to find the interested and personal resource in the web service. We use Word2vec model to measure the sentiment among keywords and acquire users requirement as accurately as possible; and we treat resources as the input of Word2vec model based on history behaviors and adopt a semantic similarity measuring process to recommend interested and personal resource for the user. The experiments results that the presented RP- Word2vec supports more effective.
    Keywords: user’s requirement; user’s preference; Word2vec model.

  • Analysis of Spatial Information Service Composition Network Based on Ricci Curvature   Order a copy of this article
    by Yang Sun, Zuoqin Shi, Ling Zhao, Sumin Liu, Zhenshi Zhang, Ronghua Du, Zhixiang Hou 
    Abstract: In order to improve the efficiency of spatial information service composition and enhance its stability, this paper proposes to introduce the spatial information service combination network into the geometric space and use Ricci curvature to study the local structure of spatial information service chain and explore the way of connecting to the spatial information service network, and analyze the Ricci curvature and its distribution and excavate the network structure and analyze its meaning. It is found that negative curvature nodes are more heavily loaded and have more service invocations. They are prefer to be distributed over the edge of the graph structure composed of spatial information service chains, and more inclined to the intersection of local structures of the network,the positive curvature on the contrary. And the proportion of negative curvature of this service network is large,which indicates that there is strong connectivity and recall between these different service chains.
    Keywords: spatial information service composition; Ricci curvature; complex network.

  • Research on Adaptive Recommendation Algorithm for Big Data Mining Based on Hadoop Platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinming Zhang 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problems of low data recall rate, poor data mining accuracy and poor redundant data interference ability of traditional data mining technology, an adaptive recommendation algorithm for big data mining based on Hadoop platform is proposed. In this algorithm, a distributed storage structure model of big data is constructed on Hadoop cloud platform; the statistical regression analysis method is adopted to construct a big data similarity mathematical model; the autocorrelation matching detection method is adopted to extract correlation features of big data and B
    Keywords: Hadoop platform; big data; mining; recommendation algorithm; distributed storage.

  • Structural Optimization Algorithm of Weight Correlation Analysis for DBN   Order a copy of this article
    by Min Zhang 
    Abstract: The Deep Belief Network (DBN) algorithm has slow convergence rate and low learning efficiency, and it is sensitive to model hyperparameters. In view of the fact that DBN is a learning network model with a large number of network nodes and multiple hidden layers, this paper proposes a weight correlation analysis algorithm for DBN (WCA-DBN) to determine the approximately optimal network structure of DBN. This algorithm establishes a PS orthogonal projection space based on the arbitrary node set using the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) method, projects the balanced node set onto the PS plane, and solves the weights of the network nodes between sets through the correlation principle, to adjust the network structure of the hidden layer adaptively. The real-time traffic flow of six different types of roads in Jinan City, Shandong Province was selected as experimental materials to verify that the WCA-DBN algorithm has more obvious advantages over traditional algorithms in terms of accuracy and time complexity.
    Keywords: Deep learning; deep belief network; structural optimization; correlation analysis; linear discriminant analysis; traffic monitoring data of the arearnrn.

  • Preventing Sybil Attacks in Chord and Kademlia Protocols   Order a copy of this article
    by Zied Trifa 
    Abstract: Structured p2p overlay networks, such as Chord, Kademlia, CAN, Pastry and Tapastry allow participant to generate multiple identities on shared physical node. This practice of Sybil attacks introduces the risks of damaging the routing protocol and blocking access to information by impeding queries. Most existing security monitoring mechanisms are inefficient when applied to structured p2p overlay networks. In this work we propose a monitoring strategy allowing the decrease of Sybil nodes rate. We investigate this problem and find ways to detect suspicious behaviors. The key idea of our solution is to use the attack against the attack. We use Sybil attacks to infiltrate and launch monitor peers under different strategies to maximize the likelihood of detection. We were able to infiltrate and monitor in-depth the overlay using a small number of Sybils introduced in strategic zones, which allows us to estimate the number of malicious nodes. The proposed strategy is evaluated against the use of multiple identities both in Chord and Kademlia protocols as most cited and popular p2p overlay networks. We find that adoption of limited number of monitors makes Sybil attacks ineffective.
    Keywords: Sybil Attacks; Security; Monitoring; Chord; Kademlia.

  • High-speed Data Aggregation Storage Query Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Yicheng Mu 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problems of poor aggregation storage capacity and low query efficiency of high-speed data under cloud computing platform, a high-speed data aggregation storage query method based on joint probability density feature extraction and fuzzy C-means clustering under cloud computing platform is proposed. Under the cloud computing platform, the cloud storage data features are decomposed by constructing an overall distributed architecture model of high-speed data storage, the joint probability density features of cloud storage high-speed data are extracted, the data fusion is carried out by using discrete sampling and fuzzy clustering method, the fused data perturbation is detected and filtered by solving a limited set of vectors, and the fuzzy C-means algorithm is introduced for high-speed data feature clustering to achieve adaptive storage query data. The simulation results show that after 60 iterations the recall ratio of the proposed method can reach as high as 100%. When data volume reaches 2000Mbit, the time overhead is only 26.5ms. It indicates that when the proposed method is used to conduct adaptive query of the data under the cloud computing platform, it can effectively realize the classified querying of data with different attribute categories and the precision ratio and query speed are relatively high, having good application value.
    Keywords: Cloud computing platform; Data; Fuzzy C-means clustering; Storage; Queryrnrn.

  • The Reliability Research of V2V based on Sample Judgment and Balanced Modulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Gao, Shuyun Niu, Honghai LI, Meng WANG 
    Abstract: In IOV (internet of vehicle) system, V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) data transmission is influenced by multipath interference, which often causes bad consequences.In order to improve the data transmission reliability, a new estimate algorithm is proposed, that is an evaluation algorithm for V2V communication reliability based on sample judgment and balanced modulation. This study structures a transmission channel model of V2V in IOV, and analyzes the characteristics of multipath transportation of communication channel. By adopting Potter interval balance to design the communication channel balance of V2V in IOV, to balance the self-adapting of sample judgment, according to the interference intensity between the communications transmissions of intersymbol, and to reduce the error code ratio of the communication output. By making the sequence spread spectrum directly at the end of the V2V in IOV, to enlarge communication channel bandwidth, and by combining self-adapting fraction interval modulation methods to estimate the reliability of communication transmission to satisfy the big bit stream data transmission and to reduce the risk of data loss. The simulation result indicates that the above-mentioned reliability estimate method can get an even better accuracy of V2V communication transmission and better effect of communication channel balance. Meanwhile, it can also reduce the error code ratio of the communication and improve the communication quality.
    Keywords: IOV (internet of vehicle); V2V (vehicle to vehicle); multipath effect; transmission; reliability estimate; communication channel balance.

  • Video Encryption Scheme Using Hybrid Encryption Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Qingqing Han, Liejun Wang, Yongming Lee, Jiwei Qin 
    Abstract: In recent years, researchers have proposed a number of encryption algorithms and encryption schemes to protect the privacy of individuals or businesses. However, these encryption algorithms and encryption schemes are difficult to achieve a certain balance in term of encryption efficiency and security. In order to achieve this goal as much as possible, we propose a hybrid encryption technique, which makes the best use of two encryption techniques to achieve higher security and faster speed of encryption algorithm. We introduce two techniques in this hybrid encryption scheme. The first is scrambling and the second is encryption. We evaluated the performance of encrypted video by comparing the PSNR and SSIM values of the scrambled video and the encrypted video. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has high encryption efficiency and good security.
    Keywords: encryption character; Scramble; Elliptic Curve Encryption(ECC); Advanced Encryption Standard(AES).

  • Network Distance Education Platform Control System Based on Big Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiefeng Wang 
    Abstract: In this paper, an overall framework of the control system of the network distance education platform is designed. The RTCP control structure Word is used to handle the context-aware control system of the network distance education platform, and the centralized control method is used to design the user interaction experience, the function of each module of the control system is analyzed. The big data integration scheduling model of the network distance education platform is constructed. The experimental results show that the average computational cost of resource scheduling consumed by the proposed method was 32.34ms, which is 12.6% and 23.7% faster than the other two traditional methods. It shows that the designed network distance education platform control system consumes shorter execution time and can provide better output stability, higher accuracy of big data resource scheduling, and good control performance.
    Keywords: big data; network distance education platform; control system; stability.

  • Reconstruction and Application of Flooding Routing Algorithm for Smart Street Light over Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhichao Wang, Liang Tang, Jun Steed Huang, HongWei Shi, Li Bian 
    Abstract: For smart street light wireless sensor networks, there are huge amount of redundant packets flooding in the route discovery process, resulting in information explosion and high energy consumption. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an improved flooding routing protocol which is suitable for smart street light wireless sensor networks. The protocol can receive signals which include the serial number of copies of the packets, destination address, node types and so on, and it determines the received signal whether need to be forwarded again or not. It forward signal according to a probability which is selected from Golden Ratio (GR), Moon Age (MA), Lunar Month (LM), Euler-Mascheroni constant (EM), EmbreeFrefethen constant (EF), LandauRamanujan constant (LR), Prime Quadruplet (PQ) based on the environment factors such as the season. Thus the protocol can prevent the information explosion effectively and reduce the energy consumption of the entire network, while without lowering the reliability. Through the practical application test analysis, combined with Matlab simulation, we show that the improved algorithm can balance the efficiency versus the reliability, and it has a very broad application prospects.
    Keywords: smart lighting; packets flooding; algorithm efficiency; network reliability.

  • Certificateless Batch Verification Protocol to ensure data integrity in Multi-Cloud using Lattices   Order a copy of this article
    by Sasikala Chinthakunta, Shoba Bindu Chigarapalle 
    Abstract: Cloud storage provides flexible On-demand data storage services to users at anytime and anywhere. However, this new model of data storage introduces a number of new security threats in Cloud Computing environment, because of the loss of physical control over the outsourced data. One of the major challenging issues is data integrity protection. To address this problem several Remote Data Integrity Checking (RDIC) protocols have been proposed, but most of them do not support batch verification, or they rely on Public Key Infrastructure. In this work, we introduce a Certificateless Batch Verification Protocol using Lattices, which supports data integrity checking of multiple data files in a multi-cloud environment. Using, this protocol Third Party Auditor (TPA) can check the data integrity of the multiple data files stored on different cloud service providers at a time. By utilizing, random masking technique and Fibonacci based search approach the proposed protocol not only provides privacy preserving RDIC but also achieves rapid identification of the corrupted data. With this batch verification, we will reduce the computation overhead and communication overhead over the TPA. Through a security analysis we prove the storage correctness and privacy against the TPA of the proposed method. And the experimental results shows that the proposed batch verification decreases computation cost over the TPA approximately 10% compared to the individual verification.
    Keywords: Data integrity; Cloud storage; Third Party Auditor; Batch Verification; Cloud computing.

  • A Low Cost Paging Scheme for Clustered PMIPv6 Protocol by Head-MAG Entity Utilization   Order a copy of this article
    by Adnan Jabir 
    Abstract: Clustered PMIPv6 (CPMIPv6) was proposed to reduce the PMIPv6 signaling cost by dividing the domain into clusters each with a Head-MAG used to control the intra-cluster operations. However, existing mobility protocols perform registration process even for idle nodes, which leads to degrade the protocol performance due to unnecessary location updates. On the other hand, paging technique is widely used in cellular networks to reduce the signaling required for idle nodes registration. Although several paging schemes were proposed to enhance the PMIPv6 performance, they are either based on central entity or they incur high signaling cost due to multicasting. Inspired by CPMIPv6 architecture, this paper proposes a low cost paging scheme where each cluster is considered as a paging area and Head-MAGs entities are utilized to perform the paging functions within the cluster. The analytical results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing paging schemes in terms of paging signaling cost.
    Keywords: Clustered PMIPv6; Paging; Mobility Management Protocol; Proxy MIPv6.

  • Hybrid Encryption Model for Managing the Data security in Medical Internet of Things   Order a copy of this article
    by Purushotham Jyotheeswari, Jayanthi N 
    Abstract: Internet of things (IoT) creates communication between the sensor nodes and smart devices through the internet to collect the data. The utilization of IoT in the medical field brings more advantage to the patients and doctors for effective monitoring. The confidentiality of the medical data is a crucial factor need to be taken care of by the medical-IoT (M-IoT). This paper concentrates on developing a secure mechanism for medical data management. In this paper, we develop an architecture for managing the large volumes of medical data generated by the sensor nodes. This architecture will provide secure communication for data sharing among doctors and patients in normal and emergency conditions. As a next step, we propose the security mechanism for improving the data integrity and confidentiality. The proposed mechanism uses symmetric encryption and attribute-based encryption to achieve the performance. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed system.
    Keywords: Sensor nodes; data collection; security; confidentiality; Internet of Things.

  • Optimization of Classification Algorithm of Associated Data Features of Large-Scale Network System   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Cao 
    Abstract: Data feature extraction is vulnerable to external interferences during traditional classification of associated data of large-scale network system, resulting in low classification accuracy and large time consumption, so an optimized classification algorithm of large-scale network system associated data features based on deep learning is proposed. In this algorithm, associated data of large-scale network system is acquired through the multi-sensor quantization fusion method, and the acquired data is done with spectral decomposition to obtain the convergence conditions for feature components of associated data of large-scale network system; then the feature components are processed based on a spectrum analysis model to extract features of associated data of large-scale network system; the features of the associated data are done with piecewise regression analysis, and data samples are output in classification based on the deep learning algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed method can accurately classify associated data with relatively short learning steps with accuracy 24.7% higher than that of the ARMA classification method and 22.6% higher than that of the decision tree classification method. It is verified that the method proposed in this paper is obviously better than the traditional methods with higher classification accuracy and less time consumption.
    Keywords: large-scale network system; deep learning; data classification; feature extraction;.

  • Delay and Jitter Sensitivity Analysis with varying TCP fraction for Multiplexed Internet Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Sneha Thombre, Lalit Patnaik, Anil Tavildar 
    Abstract: Queuing delay and Jitter are much more difficult to evaluate as all other components of end-to-end delay are adequately characterized in Internet. Jitter is particularly important to manage the QoS of real-time applications. Queuing delay and jitter are clearly related to congestion control and occur at the network layer, therefore the queuing delay and jitter are analyzed at the network layer in this paper. Initially, arrival and service processes for multiplexed TCP and UDP datagrams at the congested router output queue are modeled. The model accounts for the fraction of TCP and UDP datagrams (as they contend for resources), the arrival and service distributions of TCP and UDP with their respective datagram sizes. Mean queuing delay, average instantaneous queuing delay and jitter are quantified using queuing theory and the arrival and service process model. The findings of the analysis are then compared with NS2 simulation results. The interesting and intriguing result is that, delay related performance of the tagged flow is adversely affected by the fraction of TCP in the background traffic. This is particularly important because TCP dominates the overall traffic. The simulation results fairly agree with the analytical values. The conclusion is true for Cubic, Reno and Compound TCP flavors.
    Keywords: Internet; IP; TCP; UDP; Mean Queuing Delay; End-to-End Delay; Jitter.

  • Optimal Network Selection Algorithm under the Multi-Network Coexistence Environment Based on Attribute Decision   Order a copy of this article
    by Chungeng Ma, Lixia Hou, Wenjing Ma 
    Abstract: In order to perform optimal network selection under the multi-network coexistence environment and realize adaptive switching of network to improve the stability of network transmission, an optimal network selection algorithm under the multi-network coexistence environment based on attribute decision is proposed. In this algorithm, a network channel distribution model under the multi-network coexistence environment is constructed; the adaptive link priority control method is adopted to perform network channel switching under the multi-network coexistence environment, and a dynamic scheduling model for network transmission channel under multi-network coexistence is constructed. Simulation results show that when this proposed method is adopted for optimal network selection under the multi-network coexistence environment, the channel equalization of network transmission and network stability are good and the output bit error rate is low.
    Keywords: multi-network coexistence environment; attribute decision; network selection; channel equalization; bit error rate.

  • Research on intelligent scheduling strategy of elevator group under the big data platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Junjun Liu, Jian Wu, Lanzhong Guo, Mingyang Li, Ming Zhang 
    Abstract: The traditional elevator dispatching system has a long response time, resulting in poor scheduling performance. To this end, an elevator group intelligent dispatching system is designed under the large data platform. The overall structure of the system is given, and the elevator data is fused under the big data platform. The objective function is determined based on the results of the big data processing. The comprehensive evaluation function of the elevator group intelligent dispatching system is established by linear weighting method. The traffic mode is judged by the elevator group, the constraint rules are given, and the ant colony algorithm is applied to the elevator group intelligent scheduling to obtain the optimal scheduling scheme. The experimental results show that the system can respond to the time period and the elevator runs efficiently. This paper designs the elevator group intelligent dispatching system to have good overall performance.
    Keywords: big data platform; elevator group; intelligence; scheduling; system.

  • Constant Temperature Control System for Indoor Environment of Buildings Based on Internet of Things   Order a copy of this article
    by Lu Wang, Difei Jiang 
    Abstract: In order to improve the stability of constant temperature control for indoor environment of buildings, a design method of constant temperature optimization control system for buildings' indoor environment based on Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed. The system design is divided into two partsthe control algorithm design and the hardware structure design of the control systemto conduct the overall design framework analysis and functional component analysis of indoor environment constant temperature control system. The time-delay feedback error compensation method is adopted to optimize the design for temperature control law for indoor environment of buildings. The test results show that the minimum root-mean-square error of the designed constant temperature control system is 0.021, which significantly reduces the temperature error of the constant temperature control system, indicating that the system has good temperature output stability, strong adaptive adjustment ability and effectively improves the constant temperature control ability of indoor environment.
    Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); indoor environment of buildings; constant temperature control system; time-delay feedback.

  • Secure Encryption Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Node Trust Value   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Li 
    Abstract: The data transmission in the wireless sensor network is affected by the forwarding randomness of the relay node, resulting in poor security encryption performance. In order to improve the security encryption capability of wireless sensor network, a wireless sensor network security encryption algorithm based on node trust value is proposed. The linear coding design of sensor network transmission data is carried out according to the trust degree, and the composite chaotic model is used for recursive analysis of vector quantization in wireless sensor network encryption process, and then the linear block code design of encryption key and decryption key is realized. The regression analysis results of node trust value are used to realize wireless sensor network security encryption. Simulation results show that the security of wireless sensor network encryption used proposed method is better, the distortion of encrypted transmission is lower, and the performance is better.
    Keywords: node trust value; wireless sensor network; security encryption; algorithm design.

Special Issue on: Future of IoT (Internet of Things) Information Digital Era and Societal Challenges

  • ATM PIN GENERATION - A Formal Mathematical Model to generate PIN Using Regular Grammar, Context Free Grammar and recognition through Finite State Machine, Pushdown Automata   Order a copy of this article
    by VAITHYASUBRAMANIAN SUBRAMANIAN 
    Abstract: A Secret Passcode composed of numbers in authenticating the genuine user is recognized as Personal Identification Number (PIN). A PIN is utilized to authenticate the identity of the legitimate person to access Debit/Credit card in an ATM or online. In general Personal Identification Number is used to validate the legitimate user for transactions like Credit card, Debit card; online and also in accessing mobile telephones. In banking sectors, as a part of two factor authentication ATM card assumes noteworthy part, PIN serves as a legalized application to distinguish the authenticated user. PIN commonly contains four digits; to generate this four digit access code new behavioral model has been proposed. This paper exhibits PIN generation technique made out of a finite number of states utilizing "Regular Grammar" and "Context Free Grammar". Programming Language Python generating PIN of 4 digit numbers is also offered in this paper. To perceive the produced 4-digit ATM PIN computational Mathematical Model known as a Finite State Machine and "Pushdown Automata" has been utilized.
    Keywords: Automated Teller Machine - Personal Identification Number – Access Code –– Mathematical Model – Computational Model - Regular Grammar - Context Free Grammar - Finite State machine - Pushdown Automata.

  • Analysis of factors affecting Customer Satisfaction in E-Commerce applications using Condorcet AHP method   Order a copy of this article
    by Sweta Bhattacharya, V. Raju 
    Abstract: The paper proposes a new approach by combining Condorcet Voting Theory with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to analyze various criteria and alternatives affecting customer satisfaction in E-commerce systems. Customer satisfaction depends on multiple criteria and alternatives and choosing the most prioritized one leads to a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. AHP method has been successfully used to resolve MCDM problems in various sectors of human life. But the major weakness of AHP lies in the use of subjective assessment and importance scale point which leads to judge mental errors in results. In this paper Condorcet voting method is used to derive the importance of the criteria involved in customer satisfaction instead of subjective assessment and quantitative ratio method is used instead of the standard importance scale point eliminating the weaknesses of the traditional AHP technique. The derived consistency ratio values provide support to the consistency accuracy and consistency of the results. The comparative analysis of the priority vectors highlight Trust and Support as the most significant criteria affecting customer satisfaction in e-commerce. The structured analysis of the criteria in this paper thus provides immense insight and hence would benefit business personnels to frame strategies pertinent to the most significant criteria and enhance customer satisfaction in e-commerce systems.
    Keywords: E-commerce; Customer Satisfaction; MCDM; Analytical Hierarchy Process; AHP; Condorcet Voting Theory.

  • Security analysis of a Cloud Authentication Protocol using applied pi-calculus   Order a copy of this article
    by Norbert Oláh, Andrea Huszti 
    Abstract: Nowadays cloud computing is the most promising model within information technology. One of the most important issues is to achieve secure user authentication. Vulnerability of an authentication protocol results in successful attacks against confidentiality and integrity of user data stored and processed in the cloud. In our suggested protocol a person uses a static password and a one-time password for identity verification. Shared control among the cloud servers is provided by applying a Merkle-tree for storing one-time passwords distributed. A security analysis is carried out in case of outsider adversaries. We show that our authentication protocol fulfills typical security requirements of a key exchange protocol, i.e. authentication of the participants, key secrecy, key freshness and confirmation that both parties know the new key in the Dolev-Yao model.
    Keywords: Cloud computing; two-factor authentication; applied pi calculus; Merkle-tree.

  • Improvement of WBAN Performances by a Hybrid Model: Design and Evaluation of a Novel Inter-MAC Layer Exploited In Medical Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by CHARAF EDDINE AIT ZAOUIAT, ADNANE LATIF 
    Abstract: The main idea of this paper is essentially motivated by the need to set up a smooth transition towards the IEEE 802.15.6 standard, which is doomed to take over versus IEEE 802.15.4 standard in the future, which is of a great interest. In this paper, since IEEE 802.15.4 is more efficient for sensors with minimum data rate requirement, for sensors enquiring high data rates, the use of IEEE 802.15.6 is more advantageous, whence our contribution aims to improve the Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) performance by combining both IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6 advantages in one hybrid WBAN design. A new design so called the Inter-MAC layer is suggested, which is located between the dependent-technology MAC layers and upper protocols layers, playing the role of a smart communication bridge. Ultimately, a comparative evaluation study is conducted between the two combined models (i.e. IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6) with the new hybrid design, which led to a considerable improvement in terms of the lifetime and the reliability.
    Keywords: WBAN; Hybrid; Inter-MAC; lifetime; reliability; Medical.