Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology


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International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology (13 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • A Proactive Spectrum Handoff Scheme with Efficient Spectrum Utilization for Cognitive Radio Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishan Kumar, Arun Prakash, Ganesh Prasad Mishra, Rajeev Tripathi 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a proactive spectrum handoff scheme for Cognitive Radio (CR) ad hoc networks by exploiting the efficient utilization of the available wireless spectrum by CR. The novelty of this spectrum handoff scheme is that it is able to use the available free channels which are idle for one complete CR packet transmission as well as idle for less than one packet transmission. This has been done by channel scheduling and packet fragmentation to reduce unusable channels. In this scheme, spectrum sensing is done during packet transmission. The main contribution of the proposed spectrum handoff scheme is that it outperforms the existing proactive and reactive spectrum handoff schemes in terms of reduced CR average service time, improved throughput, and improved spectrum utilization under the different Primary User (PU) arrival rates. It is also analysed that the proposed spectrum handoff scheme is best suited scheme in heavy PU traffic arrival rates.
    Keywords: Average service time; Channel scheduling; Cognitive radio adhoc networks; Efficient spectrum utilization; Packet fragmentation; Proactive; Spectrum handoff.

  • A SPARQL Query Processing System using Map-Phase-Multi-Join for Big Data in Clouds   Order a copy of this article
    by Ce-Kuen Shieh, Sheng-Wei Huang, Chia-Ho Yu, Ming-Fong Tsai 
    Abstract: Big Data refers to large data sets collect from various sources which are huge, complex and hard to be stored and analyzed by traditional data processing tools. The Linked Data is one of the approaches to deal with Big Data. These data sets can be integrated by using linked data approaches and therefore the users can access these data for useful information. These linked data are stored and processed in TripleStore. With the data growing in a rapid manner, the TripleStore requires more scalable and efficient techniques. The programming model MapReduce is the most representative of Cloud technology which aims to improve the scalability and efficiency of computing. There were several researches using cloud technologies to construct their TripleStore. The implementations of these approaches use a MapReduce algorithm to serve the SPARQL query and a distributed storage system like HDFS or HBase to store billions of data. However, these systems still exhibit unacceptable performance in processing complex SPARQL queries. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a Map-Phase-Multi Join algorithm for processing SPARQL queries. By using multi-join can reduce the job initialization time by avoiding iterative of MapReduce jobs. Furthermore, map-phase join can save bandwidth cost by preventing join-less data transferring among cluster. We also design a storage schema in HBase which enhances the performance of our join algorithm. Finally, we formulate a join-order rule which aims to reduce the input size of mappers and the number of join computations. The evaluation results show that our system defeats traditional join approaches in most simple queries and complex queries.
    Keywords: Big Data; Linked Data; MapReduce; SPARQL; TripleStore; NoSQL.

  • Node Deployment for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Improved Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaibin Wei 
    Abstract: Node deployment is a crucial issue for wireless sensor networks, and it significantly affects the performance of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we proposed a novel Node deployment algorithm for wireless sensor networks via solving the multi-objective optimization problem. The aim of node deployment in WSN is to determine an optimal node arrangement satisfying two conditions: 1) Cover all targets in the sensing range and 2) Reduce the number of wireless sensors. The main innovation of this paper is to optimize multiple objectives, such as average energy consumption, average sensitivity area and network reliability. To solve the multi-objective optimization problem, we improve the MOEA/D method by 1) using the uniform design to generate aggregation coefficient vectors and 2) exploiting the simplified quadratic approximation to promote accuracy of the local search. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms other optimization methods for all optimization objectives.
    Keywords: Node deployment; Wireless sensor networks; Intelligent optimization; Multi-objective optimization; Decision vector.

  • Vertical Handover Decision Algorithm in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Wafa Benaatou 
    Abstract: With the recent progress in the area of cellular communication the issue of inter cells handover without dropping an on-going connection with the base station has arisen. In this paper, the focus is on the performance of vertical handover. Various proposed interconnection architectures for vertical handover in heterogeneous networks were studied. To achieve the aim the vertical handover process between different networks (WLAN, UMTS, WiMAX, LTE and LTE-A) was implemented and simulated. Two different algorithms to make the decision on when and to which network perform a handover were considered. In the first of them the decision is based on the received signal strength (RSS). In the second one a fuzzy logic system that uses RSS, bandwidth, battery power and packet loss as the input parameters is proposed. The simulation results show that the algorithm based on fuzzy logic leads to a reduction of the number of handovers and a minimization of the power consumption as compared to the first algorithm used here and the existing algorithms.
    Keywords: Vertical handover; WLAN; WIMAX; UMTS; LTE; LTE-A; Received signal strength (RSS); Heterogeneous networks; Fuzzy logic; Simulation.

  • Study on Cooperative Emergency Medical Service System and Mobile App Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Pingjia Xie, Yuliang Tang, Le Xu 
    Abstract: Emergency medical treatment is an important component of public health, and its service quality is directly related to peoples health and safety. But in the traditional emergency medical service mode, the relevant departments are relatively isolated and dispersive, which results in vital information cant be shared in real time. This study argues the application architecture and framework of a new Cooperative Emergency Medical Service System (CEMSS). The system enables effective information communication among Emergency Command Center (ECC), ambulances and the hospital dispatching center, and makes doctors in the ambulances with experts of the hospital related departments work in synergy. The mobile app based on Android operating system is developed to promote convenience and flexibility. The proposed system can help doctors shorten the treatment time, improve the service quality and reduce the damage for patients.
    Keywords: Cooperative Emergency Medical Service System; Session Initiation Protocol (SIP); Android.

  • Probability Based Measure to Calculate Reliability of Multi-layer Web Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Hammad Majeed, Zia Ul Qamar, Raihan Rasool 
    Abstract: Distributed environments like, cloud computing and web services, comprise of multiple layers and interacting components. Each component needs to be reliable and dependable for a smooth functioning of the system. Calculating reliability of a system is a complex problem due to non-standardization of its definition and nonavailability of metrics for computing it. This paper proposes a probabilistic model for calculating reliability of multi- layer architecture based web applications. It is based on Hidden Markov Model and takes user count and events generated by the users as input and calculates the failure probability of an event at browser and server levels. The results show that the proposed model accurately depicts the reliability of the system and identifies the scenarios with high probability of failure. This is particularly useful for the decision makers to develop a reliable web applications.
    Keywords: Reliability; Grid Computing; Cloud Computing; Probabilistic Modeling; Multi-tier architecture; Web 2.0 reliability; Web applications.

  • System Security Model Based on Trusted Access Control under Cloud Computing Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Fengqi Wang 
    Abstract: It has become a hot spot of cloud security to provide good service for legal user, and prevent access from illegal user or illegal access from legal user. Therefore, it is urgent to design a reasonable access control security model under cloud computing. This paper discusses trust definition and computation in cloud computing environment and uses scientific methods to compute comprehensive trust degree. Then based on RBAC model the conception of trust is introduced to form a trust-based access control model. The security model satisfies the design for access control mechanism in opened system, by establishing indirect user-role distribution relation and context constrain which reflecting context information. The formal definition and access control policies of the model are explained. The scheme can dynamically determine the authorization according to the user's trust value, so it can detect the user's abnormal behavior at any time and respond in a timely manner. The simulations shows this model can effectively help users in cloud service to make choices on security and reliability, and it also shows better dynamic property to prevent abnormal behaviors of the users.
    Keywords: security; access control; trust degree; context; RBAC.

  • Addressing for 6LoWPAN based on multi-hop clusters   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaonan Wang, Dong Wang 
    Abstract: 6LoWPAN is a multi-hop network, so the address configuration standards commonly used in single-hop IP networks cannot directly be applied in 6LoWPAN. In this situation, some addressing solutions for 6LoWPAN are proposed. Since these solutions employ the stateless strategy such as duplicate address detection (DAD) or the stateful strategy such as a remote server, the addressing cost and latency are relatively high. This paper proposes an addressing scheme based on multi-hop clusters and aims to reduce the total addressing cost and delay. In this scheme, a cluster covers a multi-hop area, so the frequency of a node performing the addressing is lowered and the total addressing cost and delay are reduced. Moreover, a node employs beacons to obtain a unique address from a neighbor without DAD, so the addressing cost and delay are further reduced. This scheme is evaluated, and the data results show that the average addressing success rate is increased and the total addressing cost and delay are reduced.
    Keywords: 6LoWPAN; addressing; cluster; cluster head; cluster member.

  • Broadcasting Algorithm Based on Successful Broadcasting Ratio and Energy Balance of Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanping Yu, Long Li, Keyan Liu, Yichen Deng, Xue Su 
    Abstract: Blind flooding in mobile ad hoc networks could result in a large number of redundant packets, which causes the broadcast storm problem and broadcast unreliability, leading to overall network performance degradation. In order to mitigate the broadcast storm, improve the broadcasting reliability and prolong the lifetime of networks, we propose a Broadcasting algorithm based on Successful broadcasting Ratio and Energy Balance of nodes (BSREB) in mobile ad hoc networks. In BSREB, each node in the network calculates its own forwarding probability according to its successful broadcasting ratio and its own residual energy. Then, the node retransmits the received packets with the forwarding probability. The usual ways to deal with broadcast problem generally use local topology information, for example, the number of neighbors. However, heavy traffic will aggravate the broadcast problem. Thus, we introduce the successful broadcasting ratio which reflects both local topology and traffic to determine the forwarding probability. To prolong the network lifetime, energy balance strategy is adopted by using residual energy to determine the forwarding probability. Since the forwarding probability of each node is determined by its own successful broadcasting ratio and residual energy, which can be acquired without extra packet exchanging and complex calculation, BSREB is simple and easy to implement. The simulation results show that BSREB can achieve a lower latency and higher reachability. Meanwhile, the BSREB algorithm has a strong adaptability to node mobility.
    Keywords: mobile ad hoc networks; broadcast storm; broadcast unreliability; successful broadcasting ratio; energy balance; forwarding probability.

  • Wireless sensor network node deployment based on multi-objective immune algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Shanshan Li 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is made up of a large number of low-cost wireless sensor nodes, which can collect all types of data in its lifetime. Node deployment of WSN is a NP complete problem, and it can significantly influence the network coverage and energy consumption in WSN. In this paper, we try to exploit multi-objective immune algorithm to solve the node deployment problem in WSN. The proposed node deployment algorithm aims to maximize the degree of network coverage and minimize the energy consumption. In the proposed multi-objective immune algorithm, each antibody refers to a candidate solution in node deployment process, and the antibodies are randomly initialized with a specific range. In addition, we design a fitness function by two ranking modes. Finally, experiments are conducted to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed can both enhance the network coverage degree and reduce the energy consumption by minimizing the moved distance.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor network; Node deployment algorithm; Multi-objective immune algorithm; Network coverage; Energy consumption.

  • An Improved Routing Algorithm in Communication Network Based on Cloud Computing Technology
    by shuaiqiu xiang, dongsheng cheng, zhenjia zhu 
    Abstract: Traditional communication network routing algorithm mostly takes the distance between the nodes as the weight coefficient, completing the routing selection based on the shortest distance between the source node and the target node without considering the problem of energy consumption between nodes. This algorithm is not suitable for communication network. This paper proposed a research of communication network routing algorithm based on cloud computing technology. Our research designed cloud computing platform which applies to big data through the introduction of different types of routing protocols. The optimal routing selection of communication network and node energy balanced load provided the data storage and computing environment. In the route optimization stage, this research used pheromone anycast mechanism for selecting route on the basis of the importance of heuristic factor on the path and the residual pheromone, avoiding the algorithm fall into local optimum. Taking the energy consumption of nodes as weight for the routing updates and adjustment in nodes-cluster, we controlled the energy consumption of inter-nodes at the optimal level. Simulation results show that the proposed communication network routing algorithm has low average error rate of network data, high link reliability and good energy saving effect.
    Keywords: Cloud computing technology; Communication network; Routing algorithm

Special Issue on: Novel Architectures and Approaches for Resolving Service Discovery, Communication and Integration Issues in the Internet of Things

  • Providing Efficient User Management for large-scale Enterprise by Achieving high Scalability over cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Nalini Priya G, Arun Kumar Sangaiah, Aishwarya Thangavelu, Thusitha Murali, Balamurugan Balusamy 
    Abstract: Cloud computing is an emerging computing technology, almost used by all the big enterprises to store and access their private organizational data. It also helps to manage the complex work and to process in easy and secure manner. Access control models provide authorization and authentication to the users in pursuance of providing security over the data in the cloud. Many big enterprises suffer a scalability problem in storing the data of the employees and their related access data due to the exponentially increasing freshers randomly. These big enterprises prefer Role Based Access control (RBAC) model to manage the different roles in the management. A drastic problem called Role Explosion occurs in RBAC due to the random increase in the number of users and roles in an organization. In this paper we propose a variant data structure model for the Role Based Access Control model namely Scalable Bloom Filter-Role Based Access Control (SBF-RBAC) model. Our proposed model implements Scalable Bloom Filters for each role so that there could be a dynamic accommodation of users in the roles that reduce space complexity. This also helps in reducing the Role Explosion to a greater extent. We also merge the roles with the same access grant in order to avoid the overlapping of roles. Thus, the SBF-RBAC model could help a management to manage a number of employee records and their respected grants with much more efficiency and without any hindrance.
    Keywords: Role Based Access Control; Scalable Bloom Filters; User’s scalability problem; Role Explosion; access control techniques.

  • Recent Advances in QoS Provisioning in Wireless Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Prakash Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar 
    Abstract: With rapid increase in multimedia and other real time applications, incorporating Quality of Service (QoS) requirements like end to end delay, bandwidth, jitter and energy in MANET is necessary. MANET has some unique features such as self-organizing and easy deployment. It has great potential in many applications such as military and civil. Existing QoS aware routing protocols designed for wired networks cannot be directly applied to wireless ad hoc networks due to its dynamic topological scenario and error prone nature of these wireless links. Best-effort QoS routing protocols are needed to ensure optimum network operation in an unpredictable wireless environment. Besides, QoS routing also ensures that a network performance should not be degraded in the event of disruption of links, failure of mobile devices and short residual connectivity time. In this paper, comprehensive description of QoS routing along with its taxonomy is presented and different QoS routing proposals are analyzed in terms of its performance and limitations.
    Keywords: MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Networks); QoS; Framework; Provisioning.