International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (18 papers in press)
by Kardi Somerfield, Kathleen Mortimer, Geraint Evans
Abstract: This paper develops unique new insight for business practitioners and academic researchers into the interaction between Consumers and Brands on Social Media platforms, principally where brands choose to interact with, and amplify, user generated content (UGC) by retweeting it on their own brand channels. Despite increasing research into Social Media in general, there is a relative lack of available academic research on major brands engaging with consumer content, which may, be in part due to the pace of change and exponential growth in this emerging area. This mixed method study develops insight conducted over an 18-month period with leading social media practitioners, concluding that primarily a brand's social media team opportunistically seek out and retweet organic image-led UGC to convey specific messages across multiple platforms. Content containing imagery lends authenticity to brand storytelling; brands with tangible products are more likely to receive organic UGC which contains images than intangible brands.
Keywords: Social Media'; Branded Content'; Community Management'; User Generated Content'; UGC'; Images'; Engagement'; retweet'; platform'; Twitter'; Facebook'; Instagram'.
An exploratory study on information retention in social media platforms among Generation Y
by Abhijith Unnikrishnan, Rejikumar G
Abstract: This study was designed to critically analyze the effect of certain antecedents which contribute to higher degrees of information retention and sharing intention across various social media platforms with the intervention of information overload. A cross sectional study, in which perceptions of 256 Y gen respondents was collected using a structured questionnaire which was circulated online across India. Constructs used in the study were conceptualized as reflective and variance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis has been done to test the theory. The study could find that social media trust perceived by a user lead to higher extent of retention of the various contents generated by firms across platforms but the intervention of information overload degrades the retention level and sharing intention. The study concluded that information overload existing in social media is not controllable therefore the indicators which lead to social media trust has to be identified and improved by the marketers and content generators to increase the rate of retention and sharing intentions across platforms.
Keywords: Information Retention; Information Overload; Y Gen Social Media Behaviour; Social Media Trust; SEM Analysis.
INNOVATIONS IN COMMUNICATION AND ADVERTISING: A PERSPECTIVE FROM SMALL FIRMS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL
by Leonel Rodrigues, Valéria Riscarolli, Fabrícia Zucco, Christian Falaster
Abstract: Market penetration, especially for small firms, requires effective ways of communication, for investments optimization. For small firms communicating effectively, means also being selective on communications objectives. In this study we investigate the adoption of communication and advertising innovations in small firms, when using virtual social networks. We search a sample of 227 small firms in the Brazilian countryside, regarding this question. We also look at the role of paid advertising in virtual social networks. Main results confirm the premise of selective communication objectives, narrowing to brand communication and brand recalling. We also learn that small firms, divert in objectives. Most of them pursue brand information, strengthening image and faster brand recall, when using virtual social communication. Some of them, however, remain on the traditional sales expansion and increasing revenues. The later use traditional advertising. The formers tend not to use traditional (paid) advertising and try to innovate engaging in virtual social networks when their communication objectives target at brand image, brand recall and deeper links with their audience.
Keywords: internet; marketing; advertising; innovation; innovation in advertising; small firms; virtual social networks; communication objectives; adopting innovation; diffusion of innovation;.
Measuring the Effects of Visual Scan Codes in Advertising
by David R. Fortin, Kate Surovaya
Abstract: With smart phone technology becoming increasingly widespread in the consumption space, the use of Visual Scan Codes (VSC) such as QR (Quick Response) or Shazam codes are becoming prominent interactive tools transforming traditional advertising into more engaging and responsive communication platforms. To examine the effects of the presence of these codes, this study uses a (2x2) between-subjects experimental design with treatment groups for code type (QR code active vs. QR code static) and code salience (black and white vs. coloured) with a fifth control group. Findings suggest that such codes have significant effects on hedonic attitudes towards the ad, perceived vividness and brand recall. Participants who noticed the code in the stimulus ad showed higher brand recall and involvement levels. In addition, the mere presence of a static code was found to be perhaps even more effective than an activated code.
Keywords: Visual Scan Codes (VSC); QR codes; Shazam; advertising; vividness; involvement; attitudes.
How Avatars Help Enhancing Self-Image Congruence
by Sevtap Unal, Tevfik Dalgic, Ezgi Akar
Abstract: Most users prefer to use avatars to escape from the real-world difficulties and to create their virtual worlds in where they feel more free and controllable. In this sense, virtual worlds reflect the expected personality traits. In parallel, this study focuses on consumers and their avatar using behaviours across self-image congruence theory by examining the congruence among avatars, participants personality traits, and product-related self-image. This study analyses the responses of 403 individuals collected by an online questionnaire. The study results highlight that male avatars are more attractive than female and anthropomorphic avatars, and consumers mostly prefer male avatars even their genders are female. This study contributes to a better theoretical understanding of consumers avatar using behaviours from the standpoint of self-image congruence theory. It also complements other studies on the topic of avatars and self-image congruence by providing different methods and ideas that can lead to further research.
Keywords: avatars; online consumer behavior; self-image congruence; virtual world.
Gamification in a servicescape context: A conceptual framework
by Miralem Helmefalk, Leif Marcusson
Abstract: While gamification has gained in popularity across different research domains, there is still scarce knowledge on gamification in a servicescape context. The little research that exists in this field does not point in any clear direction. However, further investigation of gamification can provide researchers and practitioners with opportunities to further understand, embed and implement gamification into their marketing activities. To solve these issues, this research reviews contemporary servicescape and gamification literature and conceptualizes a framework showing how gamification and its mechanics are linked to the concept of servicescapes and its marketing outcomes. This review highlights gamified mechanics in servicescapes as visible, nonvisible and platform dependent. These are shown to influence cognitive and affective responses such as engagement, motion, flow and emotions, which subsequently have impact on long and short-term marketing outcomes. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.
Keywords: Atmospheres; Customer behaviour; Engagement; Gamification; Marketing; Motivation; Retailing; Servicescape; S-O-R; Value.
The effect of social media and advertising activities on affiliate marketing
by Rainer Olbrich, Carsten D. Schultz, Patrick M. Bormann
Abstract: The study uses data from a service company to analyse if social media and advertising activities affect affiliate marketing results. The data set spans a six month period, registering 611,081 ad impressions, 15,082 clicks, and 2,672 social media messages. The results from affiliates using social media are analysed and then compared to the results of affiliates not using social media. The study adds to the affiliate marketing literature by analysing the used ad media, commission amount, length of partnership, and business focus as campaign variables. Further, it adds to the multichannel literature: Microblogging social media activities of affiliates positively affects the number of ad impressions and to a lesser extent the number of affiliate leads. As social media activities of affiliates affect the results of the affiliate marketing campaign, merchants may include social media data to get a more detailed picture of affiliate activities and performances.
Keywords: advertising; ad impressions; affiliate marketing; business focus; clicks; commission amount; leads; length of partnership; microblogging; multichannel advertising; social media; social media messages; social media reach.
The Complementary Role of Advertising and Electronic Word-of-Mouth for Blockbusters and Low-Budget Motion Pictures
by Guillermo Armelini, Jorge Gonzalez, Julian Villanueva
Abstract: Rooted on Integrated Marketing Communication theory, the main purpose of this paper is to study the complementary role between advertising and Electronic Word-Of-Mouth (eWOM) in motions pictures with high and low investments (i.e. production costs). This distinction is critical for studios because of the risk they face when market the movies. The research question is tested using a novel methodology in experience goods modeling, that endogenize the effect of eWOM, advertising, revenues per screens and screens the main constructs of our study - We apply the methodology to a random sample of 202 movies.
The advertising impact on revenues and eWOM is more critical for high than for low-production budget movies. However, a higher positive effect of advertising on screen allocation is found for movies with lower budgets. We believe, our results have two important implications for managers: From the demand side, advertising affects moviegoers attention after a certain threshold and it has a ripple effect on eWOM. Therefore, marketing campaigns based exclusively on eWOM are unlikely to succeed. From the supply side we found that theater owners consider advertising investments as a signal of quality for movies with a limited production budget.
Keywords: Advertising; Electronic Word-Of-Mouth; movies; social contagion; publicity; threshold effect.
Does freight insurance really work? Effect of freight insurance on consumers' attitude in online shopping
by Tong Chen, Ke Ma, Chundong Zheng
Abstract: This research examines the effects of free freight insurance on consumers' product purchase intention and product return intention. Through an empirical study (study 1), the results show that free freight insurance will have a positive impact on consumers' product purchase intention, but it is also demonstrated that free freight insurance may lead to higher product return intention. Specifically, consumers react more perceived benefits and less perceived risks toward free freight insurance during online shopping. Furthermore, product category and product price have an interaction moderation effect on the effect of free freight insurance on consumers' purchase intention. For experience product with higher price, free freight insurance was demonstrated that it does not functions well, and the results in study 2 (an actual experiment) also verify on this point. The results of this study have important and meaningful implications for online retailers.
Keywords: freight insurance; perceived risk and benefit; product category; product price; purchase intention; return intention.
Impact of perceived social media marketing activities on brand and value consciousness: roles of usage, materialism and conspicuous consumption
by Ahmed Rageh Ismail, Bang Nguyen, T.C. Melewar
Abstract: This research investigates the impact of perceived social media marketing activities on brand- and value consciousness. It further examines the effect of social media usage on materialism, brand consciousness and conspicuous consumption, as examining materialism-centric behaviour is becoming important in a consumption-based economy. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of 346 undergraduate students. Two different research models are tested and confirmed. The findings of this research indicated that perceived social media marketing activities have a significant effect on brand loyalty; brand consciousness and value consciousness mediate the relationship between perceived social media marketing activities and brand loyalty. Moreover, evidence supports the idea that the greater the use of social media, the greater the tendency towards materialism and conspicuous consumption. This study confirms the growing importance of perceived social media marketing activities in envisioning brand loyalty and provides insights on impact of social media on materialism and conspicuous consumption.
Keywords: perceived social media marketing activities; brand loyalty; brand consciousness; value consciousness; materialism and conspicuous consumption.
Investigating the segment specific preferences for hedonic and utilitarian online-shop characteristics: the case of German online wine shops
by Frank Habann, Christopher Zerres, Lukas Zaworski
Abstract: Recently the market for grocery online-shopping is expanding. Therefore, this study analyse the influencing factors of online shoppers' preferences for online wine shops with an adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis (ACBC). As these factors in general differ for hedonic and utilitarian goods, we investigated what characteristics presented in the online-shop are most important to customers of a primarily hedonic product like wine. Surprisingly, respondents in general favoured utilitarian over hedonic characteristic levels. In addition, we identified two distinct customer groups by applying a preference-based market segmentation (CCEA). The price/efficiency-seeking group favoured utilitarian characteristics. The quality-seeking group favoured hedonic over utilitarian characteristics, but with a strong importance of some utilitarian website characteristics. Finally management implications are presented.
Keywords: online shopping behaviour; adaptive conjoint analysis; hedonic and utilitarian goods; preference-based market segmentation.
The moderating role of technology anxiety on brand service quality, brand image and their relation to brand loyalty
by Syahida Abd Aziz, Muhammad Shahar Jusoh, Mohammad Harith Amlus
Abstract: The increasing importance of technology in our daily lives leads companies to integrate the latest technology into their products before bringing them to the market. Since technologically advanced cars have attracted a great deal of attention, marketers use this as a means of increasing customers' level of loyalty by assuaging concerns that create a level of anxiety about the system installed in their cars. This study investigates the direct effects of brand service quality and brand image on brand loyalty as moderated by technology anxiety. It analyses 206 samples in Malaysia. Since the moderator variables are rarely tested in the context of the Partial Least Square (PLS) model, the authors analysed the data using PLS by measuring the moderating effect of technology anxiety in brand loyalty relationships. The results illustrate that technology anxiety moderates the relationship between brand image and brand loyalty.
Keywords: customer relationship management; relationship marketing; consumer psychology; technology anxiety; brand management; brand equity; brand loyalty; brand service quality; brand image; partial least squares; automotive.
Social bonds and millennial consumers' activity in social networks
by Maria Petrescu, Costinel Dobre, Anca-Maria Milovan-Ciuta
Abstract: This study uses the Relational Bonds Theory to analyse the importance placed on activities in online social networks about variables such relational bonds and number of friends, in a cross-cultural context. We also take into consideration the differences that age can bring in consumers' social media participation behaviour and analyse intra-generational differences within the Millennial group. We use a cross-cultural sample and assess the differences between consumer groups based on cultural characteristics of the country of origin. We showed that consumers who are satisfied with the social value brought to them by their contacts have higher activity rates in social media.
Keywords: relational bonds theory; social network activity; millennials; collectivism.
Special Issue on: ICCMI 2017 New Approaches for Innovative Business in the Era of Internet Marketing and Advertising
Understanding the Role of Personality Traits on Facebook Intensity
by Leonidas Hatzithomas, Nikolaos Misirlis, Christina Boutsouki, Maria Vlachopoulou
Abstract: The present study aims to examine the influence of the five personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness) on both Facebook usage and users preferences for specific Facebook features. Hierarchical regression analysis was used for hypothesis testing. Survey data from 367 university students in Greece indicate that, agreeable individuals use Facebook to express their orientation to other people rather than to themselves. Extroverts use Facebook as a relationship building mechanism, whereas neurotics strive to bring out the best of themselves. Openness and conscientiousness do not seem to affect significantly Facebook use.
Keywords: Personality traits; Extraversion; Neuroticism; Agreeableness; Facebook Intensity.
The role of Cloud Computing and Citizens Relationship Management in Digital Government Transformation
by Ioannis Nanos, Eugenia Papaioannou, Efthymia Androutsou
Abstract: Cloud Computing is expected to be a fundamental part of e-government strategy in the upcoming years, contributing to the digital government transformation at national, regional and local-municipal levels. Citizens Relationship Management (CiRM) represents a combination of methods and ICT applications used by governments to manage their relationship with citizens. Provided through appropriate cloud computing deployment and services models, CiRM can support governments to adopt a new paradigm shift by viewing and managing citizens as customers, in order to respond quickly and accurately to citizen requests or inquiries and to provide access to e-government services, thus fostering more open, innovative, participatory and trustworthy communities. The paper analyzes the role of cloud computing and citizens relationship management and proposes a theoretical model for the exploration of digital government transformation. Furthermore, it explores the advantages, barriers and challenges that are associated with cloud computing and CiRM in the public sector and suggests appropriate cloud computing models for CiRM deployment.
Keywords: cloud computing; citizens relationship management; e-government; digital transformation.
Attitudes of college students towards online advertisement in social networking sites: a structural equation modelling approach.
by Ioannis Antoniadis, Costas Assimakopoulos, Ioannis Koukoulis
Abstract: Social media and Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are now considered to be an integral part of the marketing mix of firms and organizations across the world. Advertisement in SNSs takes a growing part of the advertising budget, replacing traditional media, due to its characteristics in terms of ROI and interactivity. However, the attitudes of consumers towards advertisement affect the efficiency of advertisements in SNSs as well. In this paper we are examining the attitudes of 512 college students in the region of Western Macedonia towards advertisement in the SNSs. In accordance with relevant literature, 5 main categories of attitudes towards SNSs advertisement are identified, namely information, entertainment, credibility, irritation, value corruption through confirmatory factor analysis, and the effect they have on the attitudes towards advertisement and advertisement value is assesed with the use of a Structural equation model. Our results validate the positive effect that entertainment, information and credibility have in advertisement value.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites; Attitudes; Online Advertisement Value; Greece.
E-marketing and BPA Coordination on Business Strategy
by Nikolaos Katsonis, Michael Sfakianakis, Barbara Myloni, Dimitrios Theoharis
Abstract: Business Processes Automation is part of the general strategy of a company. However, its application can lead to extra resources that can be used for other strategic purposes such as marketing activities. This organizational function can simplify and make the control of marketing actions easier as well as automated processes can also give significant advantages to an organization by making the application of marketing choices and marketing strategy more effective and efficient. Higher and middle management employees, due to their position in an organization, have different perspectives regarding the use and the usefulness of Business Processes Automation. However, the participation, the knowledge and the commitment of both parties is a necessary factor for its success. On the other hand, e-marketing has greatly shaped consumer behaviour and it is a way of gaining competitive advantage against the competitors. The current study aims to detect any possible gaps and issues on the perceptions ofhigher and middle management employees and suggest possible and necessary actions that can ensure the effectiveness of Business Processes Automation and e-marketing strategies on firms performance.
Keywords: Business Process Automation; e-marketing; marketing; strategic planning; business management.
Special Issue on: ICCMI 2017 New Approaches for Innovative Business in the Era of Internet Marketing and Advertising
Tracking content marketing performance using Web analytics: Tools, metrics, and data privacy implications
by Julia Maintz, Fabienne Zaumseil
Abstract: This paper first compiles content marketing metrics based on an analysis of content marketing goals. Subsequently, current Web analytics tools are reviewed for their potential to support the introduced content marketing goals and associated metrics. This results in an overview of content marketing metrics and additional informative dimensions which can be tracked by Web analytics tools. The tracking of the described metrics and additional informative dimensions is discussed with respect to data privacy. For this discussion, the European General Data Protection Regulation to be enacted in May 2018 serves as reference framework. The findings of this study are based on interviews with eight experts working as chief digital officers and digital managers of multinational enterprises as well as managing directors and content strategists of leading media agencies. Moreover, tools and features of current Web analytics tools have been studied and compared, in order to realize this study.
Keywords: big data; content marketing; data privacy; European General Data Protection Regulation; marketing analytics; marketing metrics; personal data; pseudonymisation; semantic search; Semantic Web; social graph; social media; social search; Web analytics; Web analytics tools