International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (15 papers in press)
Gamification in a servicescape context: A conceptual framework
by Miralem Helmefalk, Leif Marcusson
Abstract: While gamification has gained in popularity across different research domains, there is still scarce knowledge on gamification in a servicescape context. The little research that exists in this field does not point in any clear direction. However, further investigation of gamification can provide researchers and practitioners with opportunities to further understand, embed and implement gamification into their marketing activities. To solve these issues, this research reviews contemporary servicescape and gamification literature and conceptualizes a framework showing how gamification and its mechanics are linked to the concept of servicescapes and its marketing outcomes. This review highlights gamified mechanics in servicescapes as visible, nonvisible and platform dependent. These are shown to influence cognitive and affective responses such as engagement, motion, flow and emotions, which subsequently have impact on long and short-term marketing outcomes. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.
Keywords: Atmospheres; Customer behaviour; Engagement; Gamification; Marketing; Motivation; Retailing; Servicescape; S-O-R; Value.
The effect of social media and advertising activities on affiliate marketing
by Rainer Olbrich, Carsten D. Schultz, Patrick M. Bormann
Abstract: The study uses data from a service company to analyse if social media and advertising activities affect affiliate marketing results. The data set spans a six month period, registering 611,081 ad impressions, 15,082 clicks, and 2,672 social media messages. The results from affiliates using social media are analysed and then compared to the results of affiliates not using social media. The study adds to the affiliate marketing literature by analysing the used ad media, commission amount, length of partnership, and business focus as campaign variables. Further, it adds to the multichannel literature: Microblogging social media activities of affiliates positively affects the number of ad impressions and to a lesser extent the number of affiliate leads. As social media activities of affiliates affect the results of the affiliate marketing campaign, merchants may include social media data to get a more detailed picture of affiliate activities and performances.
Keywords: advertising; ad impressions; affiliate marketing; business focus; clicks; commission amount; leads; length of partnership; microblogging; multichannel advertising; social media; social media messages; social media reach.
The Complementary Role of Advertising and Electronic Word-of-Mouth for Blockbusters and Low-Budget Motion Pictures
by Guillermo Armelini, Jorge Gonzalez, Julian Villanueva
Abstract: Rooted on Integrated Marketing Communication theory, the main purpose of this paper is to study the complementary role between advertising and Electronic Word-Of-Mouth (eWOM) in motions pictures with high and low investments (i.e. production costs). This distinction is critical for studios because of the risk they face when market the movies. The research question is tested using a novel methodology in experience goods modeling, that endogenize the effect of eWOM, advertising, revenues per screens and screens the main constructs of our study - We apply the methodology to a random sample of 202 movies.
The advertising impact on revenues and eWOM is more critical for high than for low-production budget movies. However, a higher positive effect of advertising on screen allocation is found for movies with lower budgets. We believe, our results have two important implications for managers: From the demand side, advertising affects moviegoers attention after a certain threshold and it has a ripple effect on eWOM. Therefore, marketing campaigns based exclusively on eWOM are unlikely to succeed. From the supply side we found that theater owners consider advertising investments as a signal of quality for movies with a limited production budget.
Keywords: Advertising; Electronic Word-Of-Mouth; movies; social contagion; publicity; threshold effect.
Exploring the Anteceding Impact of Personalized Social Media Advertising on Online Impulse Buying Tendency
by Naa Amponsah Dodoo, Linwan Wu
Abstract: Online impulse buying is a critical factor that can result in desired outcomes for online retailers and advertisers. Personalization is progressively being used in marketing practices on social media. However, largely unexplored is the potential relationship between personalization and online impulse buying tendency on social media. This study provides insights about the significance of personalization on social media as an antecedent of customers online impulse tendency, an especially important topic for online retailers. Specifically, this study develops and tests a conceptual model using different factors to determine the predictive power of perceived personalization of social media ads on online impulse buying tendency. A noteworthy finding from the survey was the positive influence of perceived personalization of social media ads on perceived relevance, which subsequently predicted customers online impulse buying tendency. Results also indicate the impact of perceived personalization on perceptions of value, relevance and novelty of social media ads. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: personalization; perceived personalization; social media; perceived relevance; online impulse buying tendency.
Engagement and Brand Loyalty Through Social Capital in Social Media
by Mohammad Abuljadail, Louisa Ha
Abstract: This paper examines the process of brand-customer engagement based on the establishment of social capital through social mediaFacebook. An online survey of 576 Facebook users in Saudi Arabia was conducted to examine customer engagement in Facebook. Although individuals indicated that they are more likely to engage in brands Facebook pages if the posts offer more hedonic benefits (e.g., socializing and entertainment) than utilitarian benefits (e.g., coupons and discounts), they are more likely to become loyal to the brand if they receive utilitarian benefits from the brands Facebook page. Many marketers depend on engagement metrics found in the common social media such as likes, shares and comments. But using only those engagement measures will be misleading because the effectiveness of utilitarian content might not be visible as hedonic content for marketers because it tends to generate less likes. Utilitarian content is the one that directly drives brand loyalty.
Keywords: Engagement; social media; Saudi Arabia; social capital; Facebook marketing; brand loyalty; local brands; global brands.
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The power of mobile word of mouth on mobile purchase intention
by Ismail Erkan, Abdulaziz Elwalda, Mushfiqur Rahman, Seden Dogan, Sinan Nardali
Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine the impacts of MWOM conversations in mobile
messaging applications on mobile purchase intention. With this purpose, we developed a conceptual model based on the Information Acceptance Model (IACM). Data collected from 385 participants were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results support the proposed model and provide both theoretical and practical implications for marketers. This study demonstrates that MWOM in messaging applications has a significant positive impact on mobile purchase intention, which in turn affects both social commerce intention and offline purchase intention.
Keywords: mobile word of mouth (MWOM); mobile purchase intention; messaging applications; WhatsApp; Information Acceptance Model.
Consumer Attitudes towards Mobile Advertising: an Updated Vision
by Maria Elena Aramendia-Muneta, Cristina Olarte-Pascual
Abstract: Mobile advertising plays a significant role in the digital world, where consumers respond and react according to the content of the message. The Short Messaging Service (SMS) is one of the mobile phone communication tools marketers use. This research examines the well-known and widely cited paper by Tsang, Ho, and Liang (2004), and replicates their research. We obtained some contradictory results, specifically, we found that the only variable that substantially affected attitude was entertainment. Within the proposed model, attitudes, intentions and behaviour are interconnected, confirming the hypothesis. At the same time, permission-based mobile marketing is on the rise due to high consumer exposure to advertisements. Our findings about mobile advertising have important theoretical and practical, managerial implications.
Keywords: mobile phone; SMS; mobile advertising; consumer attitudes; permission-based; incentives; informativeness; credibility; irritation; entertainment.
DECISION-MAKING STYLES OF YOUNG INDIAN CONSUMERS IN THE CONTEXT OF ONLINE SHOPPING
by Sanjeev Kumar, Rakesh Belwal, Kartikeya Raina
Abstract: The paper examines applicability of Sproles and Kendalls Consumer Styles Inventory (CSI) of young Indian shoppers in context to online shopping. The study was conducted in two phases.Based on sample of 229 decision making styles were discovered using exploratory factor analysis,and further confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to validate the dimensions discovered with an additional sample of 207 students. Six of the original eight factors from CSI were found to be applicable in the Indian sample. Additionally, risk avert and shopping avoiding were identified as two new factors to contextualize the instrument to the Indian situation.
Keywords: Consumer decision-making styles; Online Shopping; Young consumers; ExploratoryrnFactor Analysis; Confirmatory Factor Analysis; India.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN-HOUSE AFFILIATE MARKETING NETWORK - A CASE STUDY
by Ladislav Beranek
Abstract: The aim of this case study is to present the influence of some organizational and managerial activities on the structure of an in-house affiliate marketing network. The data has been obtained particularly based on interviews with the affiliate marketing manager during a period of over two years. The influence of incentives, monitoring, and enforcement carried out within the operation of in-house affiliate marketing on the evolution of a respective affiliate marketing network is demonstrated. This case study enriches the literature devoted to affiliate marketing by the identification and specification of how managerial activities affect relationships and structure in the affiliate marketing network.
Keywords: E-commerce; Affiliate marketing network; Network structure; Case study.
Special Issue on: ICCMI 2017 New Approaches for Innovative Business in the Era of Internet Marketing and Advertising
Understanding the Role of Personality Traits on Facebook Intensity
by Leonidas Hatzithomas, Nikolaos Misirlis, Christina Boutsouki, Maria Vlachopoulou
Abstract: The present study aims to examine the influence of the five personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness) on both Facebook usage and users preferences for specific Facebook features. Hierarchical regression analysis was used for hypothesis testing. Survey data from 367 university students in Greece indicate that, agreeable individuals use Facebook to express their orientation to other people rather than to themselves. Extroverts use Facebook as a relationship building mechanism, whereas neurotics strive to bring out the best of themselves. Openness and conscientiousness do not seem to affect significantly Facebook use.
Keywords: Personality traits; Extraversion; Neuroticism; Agreeableness; Facebook Intensity.
The role of Cloud Computing and Citizens Relationship Management in Digital Government Transformation
by Ioannis Nanos, Eugenia Papaioannou, Efthymia Androutsou
Abstract: Cloud Computing is expected to be a fundamental part of e-government strategy in the upcoming years, contributing to the digital government transformation at national, regional and local-municipal levels. Citizens Relationship Management (CiRM) represents a combination of methods and ICT applications used by governments to manage their relationship with citizens. Provided through appropriate cloud computing deployment and services models, CiRM can support governments to adopt a new paradigm shift by viewing and managing citizens as customers, in order to respond quickly and accurately to citizen requests or inquiries and to provide access to e-government services, thus fostering more open, innovative, participatory and trustworthy communities. The paper analyzes the role of cloud computing and citizens relationship management and proposes a theoretical model for the exploration of digital government transformation. Furthermore, it explores the advantages, barriers and challenges that are associated with cloud computing and CiRM in the public sector and suggests appropriate cloud computing models for CiRM deployment.
Keywords: cloud computing; citizens relationship management; e-government; digital transformation.
Attitudes of college students towards online advertisement in social networking sites: a structural equation modelling approach.
by Ioannis Antoniadis, Costas Assimakopoulos, Ioannis Koukoulis
Abstract: Social media and Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are now considered to be an integral part of the marketing mix of firms and organizations across the world. Advertisement in SNSs takes a growing part of the advertising budget, replacing traditional media, due to its characteristics in terms of ROI and interactivity. However, the attitudes of consumers towards advertisement affect the efficiency of advertisements in SNSs as well. In this paper we are examining the attitudes of 512 college students in the region of Western Macedonia towards advertisement in the SNSs. In accordance with relevant literature, 5 main categories of attitudes towards SNSs advertisement are identified, namely information, entertainment, credibility, irritation, value corruption through confirmatory factor analysis, and the effect they have on the attitudes towards advertisement and advertisement value is assesed with the use of a Structural equation model. Our results validate the positive effect that entertainment, information and credibility have in advertisement value.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites; Attitudes; Online Advertisement Value; Greece.
E-marketing and BPA Coordination on Business Strategy
by Nikolaos Katsonis, Michael Sfakianakis, Barbara Myloni, Dimitrios Theoharis
Abstract: Business Processes Automation is part of the general strategy of a company. However, its application can lead to extra resources that can be used for other strategic purposes such as marketing activities. This organizational function can simplify and make the control of marketing actions easier as well as automated processes can also give significant advantages to an organization by making the application of marketing choices and marketing strategy more effective and efficient. Higher and middle management employees, due to their position in an organization, have different perspectives regarding the use and the usefulness of Business Processes Automation. However, the participation, the knowledge and the commitment of both parties is a necessary factor for its success. On the other hand, e-marketing has greatly shaped consumer behaviour and it is a way of gaining competitive advantage against the competitors. The current study aims to detect any possible gaps and issues on the perceptions ofhigher and middle management employees and suggest possible and necessary actions that can ensure the effectiveness of Business Processes Automation and e-marketing strategies on firms performance.
Keywords: Business Process Automation; e-marketing; marketing; strategic planning; business management.
Tracking content marketing performance using Web analytics: Tools, metrics, and data privacy implications
by Julia Maintz, Fabienne Zaumseil
Abstract: This paper first compiles content marketing metrics based on an analysis of content marketing goals. Subsequently, current Web analytics tools are reviewed for their potential to support the introduced content marketing goals and associated metrics. This results in an overview of content marketing metrics and additional informative dimensions which can be tracked by Web analytics tools. The tracking of the described metrics and additional informative dimensions is discussed with respect to data privacy. For this discussion, the European General Data Protection Regulation to be enacted in May 2018 serves as reference framework. The findings of this study are based on interviews with eight experts working as chief digital officers and digital managers of multinational enterprises as well as managing directors and content strategists of leading media agencies. Moreover, tools and features of current Web analytics tools have been studied and compared, in order to realize this study.
Keywords: big data; content marketing; data privacy; European General Data Protection Regulation; marketing analytics; marketing metrics; personal data; pseudonymisation; semantic search; Semantic Web; social graph; social media; social search; Web analytics; Web analytics tools.
The Effect of Online Video Advertising Design on Online Shopping Goals: an Experiment based on Gender (Case Study: DigiKala Company)
by Morteza Moharami, Faramarz Tahmaseb
Abstract: The present study is aimed at studying the effect of online video advertising design on online shopping goals (an experiment based on gender) in DigiKala Company. The method applied in this study is descriptive survey method. Statistical population in this study consists of all customers of DigiKala Company. Sample size was determined to 384 people using Cochran formula and sampling method in this study is simple random sampling. The data used in this study was collected using library and field methods and the instrument used in this study is questionnaire. Reliability of questionnaire was obtained to 0.894 using Cronbach's alpha and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed using content and construct validity. The data analysis was done using Lisrel software and using statistical tests and descriptive and inferential statistics. The results obtained from this study showed that visual designation of web advertisements can have positive and significant effect on attitude to advertisements, attitude to brand and customer intention for online shopping. Moreover, the effect of attitude towards web ads on customer intention for online shopping is positive. Moreover, attitude towards brand can have positive effect on customer intention for online shopping.
Keywords: online video advertising design; attitude to advertisements; attitude to brand; customer intention for online shopping; DigiKala.