International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (17 papers in press)
Quantifying the Long-Term Effect of Social Media
by Manisha Mathur
Abstract: The retail industry is ripe with uncertainties despite making significant strides in the past few years, particularly, since the recent economic downturn. The social media landscape has further complicated the customer connections with retail brands, creating serious challenges for retailers. Marketers are baffled by the constant urgent call by practitioners regarding the social media trend among customers, and they are finding it difficult to determine whether the social media effects can have a long term impact on both the customer perception of a brand and on the long-term trends in brand value. Quantifying the influence of social media in the long-run is essential for the development of branding and marketing strategies that lead to sustained competitive advantage. Empirical assessment includes vector autoregressive econometric modeling to determine whether a brands value is stable or trending over time and quantify the persistent effect of social media factors using the real-world data available on social media. Further, implications for both marketing theory and practice are outlined.
Keywords: Social media marketing; social advocacy; relationship marketing; brand value.
What makes eWOM Viral?
by Charu Sijoria, Srabanti Mukherjee, Subhojit Sengupta
Abstract: With an increasing need of being connected with rest of the world 24
Keywords: electronic Word of Mouth; satisfaction; product; patronage; information quality; satisfaction and patronage; source credibility; source attractiveness; loyalty; and subjective norms.
Your comments are important to me! The impacts of online customer reviews in shopping websites
by Ismail Erkan, Abdulaziz Elwalda
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the influence of online customer reviews (OCRs) on consumers purchase intentions; and to understand the role of attitude on information adoption within the computer mediated communication platforms. For this purpose, a research model was developed based on the information adoption model (IAM). The model was empirically tested and validated through structural equation modelling (SEM). The data was collected from a sample of 384 university students. The results confirm that attitude plays an important role on information adoption; and the following are among the key factors which influence consumers purchase intentions: eWOM quality, eWOM credibility, attitude towards eWOM, perceived eWOM usefulness, and eWOM adoption. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as recommendations for future studies.
Keywords: Online Customer Reviews (OCRs); Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM); Shopping Websites; Purchase Intention; Information Adoption Model; OCRs Adoption Model.
QR Code Advertising: A Cross-Country Comparison of Turkish and German Consumers
by Ela Sibel Bayrak Meydanoğlu, Ahmet Mete Çilingirtürk, Stephan Böhm, Müge Klein
Abstract: Among various mobile-based communication technologies, QR codes have recently gained a great popularity in mobile advertising. These codes are used by marketers for advertising in various ways such as in print media, in outdoor advertising, or even on the product packages so that consumers could get relevant information at instance. In the current literature perceived usefulness, behavioural intention, previous experience, knowledge and environmental constraints have been identified as the factors that lead consumers to scan QR code ads. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors and their extent in influencing the QR code ad scanning behaviour of Turkish and German consumers. The results demonstrate that perceived usefulness and previous experience affect the scanning behaviour of both the groups, whereas knowledge about scanning and environmental constraints affects only the scanning behaviour of Turkish consumers. Contrary to our expectations, behavioural intention does not influence the behaviour of either Turkish or German consumers.
Keywords: advertising; Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM); QR code; Turkish consumers; German consumers.
The effects of privacy concerns, perceived risk and trust on online purchasing behaviour
by Nuno Fortes, Paulo Rita, Margherita Pagani
Abstract: This study aims to analyse how privacy concerns have an impact on the consumer's intention to make online purchases. A research model was developed establishing the mediating role of trust and perceived risks. The results of the empirical survey (n=900) show that the relationship between privacy concerns and purchasing intention is partially mediated by trust, perceived risk, and attitude. The results of a multi-group analysis show a different impact of privacy concerns on trust and perceived risks for males and females. Implications and further research suggestions are presented.
Keywords: Privacy concerns; E-commerce; Purchasing Behaviour; Trust; Perceived Risk.
CONSUMER ATTITUDE FORMATION FROM eWOM: INTERPLAY BETWEEN COGNITION AND AFFECT
by Jinsoo Kim
Abstract: The goal of the current study is to investigate how affective and cognitive processing two of the main components in forming an attitude play roles in the impact of online consumer reviews on brand/product attitude formation, and, consequently, on purchase intention formation under various conditions (e.g., valence of consumer reviews, product type, and level of involvement). The main experiment was conducted under 2 x 2 x 2 experimentally designed conditions with manipulated valence (positive vs. negative), product type (hedonic vs. functional), and involvement level (high vs. low). The study found a dominant moderating effect from valence of consumer review whereas the effects from the other moderating variables product types and involvement levels were merely detected. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: word of mouth; Electronic Word of Mouth; eWOM; consumer; attitude; purchase intention; emotion; cognition; affect; consumer reviews; product reviews; ELM (Elaboration Likelihood Model); product types; hedonic and functional products; involvement level; valence; experiment.
Explaining older consumers low use of the Internet
by Jul Thanasrivanitchai, George P. Moschis, Randall Shannon
Abstract: Abstract: Many studies show that the usage rate of the Internet by older adults is the lowest of any demographic group. This paper explores the reasons for older adults lower inclination to use the Internet by employing control theory. The theory suggests that as people increasingly experience losses with age they also experience loss of control of their environments, including technology. Secondary control strategies, which allow the individual to protect him or herself from the perceived negative consequences associated with the older persons inability to control their technological environment, may help explain their low propensity to adopt and make use of the Internet. Findings based on a large-scale study in Thailand suggest that secondary control, may provide an explanation for the low rates of Internet adoption and usage among older consumers. Implications for theory and practice are offered and directions for future research are suggested.
Keywords: Older consumers; consumer behaviour; Internet adoption; control theory.
Forecasting Online User Activeness for Behavioural Targeting: the Effect of Data Sampling
by Yuelin Shen
Abstract: Probability models have been built to model online ad click and conversion, but few studies have examined user activeness, which is the start of any further online behaviour. Using a discrete-time setting, this study builds a three-parameter Bayesian model to forecast user activeness. Users with the same arrival count in the training period are grouped into a segment and their activeness in the test period is forecasted accordingly. The forecasting results are affected by data sparsity and history, while the first factor impacts how to sample the users and the second decides how much historic data should be used in forecasting. Using data from a major ecommerce website, we find that the model performs well when the training period is short while the users are active.
Keywords: probability model; behavioural targeting; data history; data sparsity; Bayesian forecasting.
Going native on Facebook: a content analysis of sponsored messages on undergraduate student Facebook pages
by Cynthia Hanson
Abstract: This paper examines the prevalence and nature of sponsored messages on Facebook. Results of a content analysis of desktop and mobile Facebook pages from 52 undergraduate student subjects showed 53% of sponsored messages in the desktop sample and 100% of sponsored messages in the mobile sample would be categorized as native advertising, as they were located in the user’s news feed. Approximately 12% of all news feed posts were sponsored posts and almost 90% of sponsored news feed posts were based on the user’s or user’s friends’ actions. The majority of the sponsoring advertisers were from companies established after the year 2000, and only 11% were leading US advertisers.
Keywords: advertising, content analysis, Facebook, native advertising, social media, sponsored messages
Modeling Antecedents of Skepticism toward Green Advertising: Evidence from India
by Vibhava Srivastava
Abstract: The present study models the antecedents of skepticism toward green advertising. Post literature review a research framework was conceptualized wherein environment consciousness, green consumerism, green ad guilt appeal, perceived brand credibility and attitude toward sponsor were hypothesized as possible antecedents of skepticism toward green advertising. Data collection was done through a self-administered questionnaire based online survey from a sample of 271 respondents, drawn using convenience sampling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to validate the said framework. Findings suggested that perceived brand credibility, attitude toward sponsor, green consumerism and green ad guilt appeal were found significant predictors of skepticism toward green advertising while though was found forming the perceived brand credibility and attitude toward sponsor but not affecting skepticism. Interestingly environment consciousness was found having no relationship with green consumerism. The present study reiterates the antecedents of skepticism toward green advertising and is one of its kinds in the context of India.
Keywords: Green advertising; Skepticism; Environment consciousness; Green consumerism; SEM.
Examining Relational Benefits and Costs in an online non-transactional context
by Georgios Tsimonis, Sergios Dimitriadis, Christos Koritos
Abstract: The paper explores which relational benefits and costs are appropriate for capturing relationship-building efforts within the context of informational, non-transactional, websites and assesses their effect on behavioral outcomes. Firstly, a preliminary study consisting of two focus groups was organized in order to identify what relational benefits and costs users perceive. At the second stage, quantitative data were collected with the use of an e-questionnaire from 444 users/members of a well-known FMCG company’s informational website. Results, based on Structured Equation Modeling, indicate that users perceive functional, social and special treatment benefits. Functional benefits have the strongest effect on relational outcomes followed by relational costs and social benefits. Special treatment benefits have no significant effect on behavioral outcomes. From a managerial perspective, findings provide initial evidence on how the development of informational websites can be used as a relationship building tool.
Keywords: Relational benefits; Relational costs; Consumer-brand relationships; Relationship marketing; Relationship-building; Online Brand Communities; Informational websites
The Paradigm of Whatsapp Campaign Management: Breaking the Vicious Cycle of Traditional Campaigns.
by Theerthaana Panneer Selvam
Abstract: Despite the increasing popularity of whatsapp campaigning, factors critical to such a new communication medium remain largely unknown. This paper examines the critical factors to enhance the response rate in whatsapp campaign. Much research has already examined the intentions of consumer’s responses in online campaigns; however there is no united point of view concerning the factors conditioning customer response rate in whatsapp campaigning, and means of its assessment and determination. The aim of the paper is to create a theoretical model of enhancing response rate in Whatsapp Campaigns. The empirical research results showed that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between factors identified in the theoretical model: and response rate in Whatsapp Campaigns.
Keywords: Campaign management; Whatsapp Marketing; Viral Marketing message; Social Media Marketing
Online Reviews and Its Impact on Brand Equity
by Uttam Chakraborty, Savita Bhat
Abstract: The significant rise of online social media increases consumer’s power over brands. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the impact of online reviews on brand equity dimensions, namely, brand awareness, brand associations (in terms of perceived value, brand personality and organizational associations) and perceived quality. The present study integrates source credibility theory and attribution theory to understand the impact of online reviews on brands. The study follows mixed method approach by using quantitative analysis (structural equation modeling) and qualitative text analysis (netnography). For quantitative study, data has been collected from select Facebook brand pages with the help of Google form application. For qualitative study, "Apple Users India" brand community is considered to conduct netnography. Quantitative analysis reveals that online reviews have more significant impact on brand awareness and perceived value. Qualitative analysis also finds evidences of brand equity dimensions in the online brand community.
Keywords: Online reviews; Brand equity; Structural equation modeling; Netnography.
Timing Effects of Opinion Leader’s Electronic Word of Mouth
by Tung-lung Steven Chang, Tong (Tony) Bao
Abstract: Companies are increasingly interested in recruiting opinion leaders to spread electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Prior research has demonstrated the sales effects of such eWOM. An unexplored question for this practice is when the opinion leaders should disseminate their eWOM. An implicit assumption is that companies should use opinion leaders at the beginning of product launch. Using a dataset of Amazon customer review, we demonstrate that opinion leader’s eWOM should be spread out by arriving as early as possible, and continuing to be present. In addition, the impact of variance of timing on sales follows an inverse U shape. The marketing implications of timing effects of opinions leaders’ eWOM in terms of entry, span and intensity are addressed.
Keywords: online user reviews; opinion leader; electronic word-of-mouth
A Quantitative Examination of the Factors that Influence Users’ Perceptions of Trust towards Using Mobile Banking Services
by Mohammad Hamdi Al Khasawneh, Omar Hujran, Tariq AbdRabbo
Abstract: An examination of previous research related to M-banking in developing countries revealed that research conducted on the drivers of trust in mobile banking is somewhat limited and less focused on by researchers. Therefore, this study attempted to quantitatively investigate the factors that influence users’ perceptions of trust towards using mobile banking services. The model is empirically tested using an online survey from a convenience sample of 404 respondents, and analyzed using structural equation modeling. The comprehensive, yet parsimonious model, developed in the current study makes a significant contribution to the existing literature by integrating variables from the trust literature and applying them to the context of mobile banking. The empirical results provided strong evidence for the explanatory power of the current research model. In particular, the study found that the six variables (perceived benefits, perceived credibility, perceived behavioral control, social influence, privacy and security risks) have direct impact on users’ trust in m-banking. However, the betas (standardized coefficient) are different for each individual independent variable. Perceived credibility has the highest positive effect on users’ trusts in m-banking, followed by perceived benefits and PBC while social influence has the lowest effect. In contrast, security risk and privacy risk exhibited a moderate negative impact on users’ trust in mobile banking.
Keywords: Mobile Banking, Trust, Credibility, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Behavioral control, Social Influence, and Risk.
Does freight insurance really work? Effect of freight insurance on consumers’ attitude in online shopping
by Tong Chen, Ke Ma, Chundong Zheng
Abstract: This research aims to find whether the free freight insurance provided by online retailers plays its role or not. It examines the effects of free freight insurance on consumers’ product purchase intention and product return intention and also examines the mediation role of perceived benefit and perceived risk and the moderation role of product category and product price. Through an empirical study (study 1), the research results show that free freight insurance provided by online retailers will have a positive impact on consumers’ product purchase intention, but it is also demonstrated that free freight insurance may lead to higher product return intention. Specifically, consumers react more perceived benefits and less perceived risks toward free freight insurance during online shopping. Furthermore, product category and product price have an interaction moderation effect on the effect of free freight insurance on consumers’ purchase intention. For experience product with higher price, free freight insurance was demonstrated that it does not functions well, and the results in study 2 (an actual experiment) also verify on this point. The results of this study have important and meaningful implications for online retailers. On the one hand, online retailers need to make product classification and carefully decide to implement free freight insurance activity toward different kinds of product. On the other hand, it is also worthy for online retailer to decide whether to provide free freight insurance for all consumers.
Keywords: freight insurance, perceived risk and benefit, product category, product price, purchase intention, return intention
Impact of perceived social media marketing activities on brand- and value consciousness: Roles of usage, materialism and conspicuous consumption
by Ahmed Rageh Ismail, Bang Nguyen, TC Melewar
Abstract: This research investigates the impact of perceived social media marketing activities on brand- and value consciousness. It further examines the effect of social media usage on materialism, brand consciousness and conspicuous consumption, as examining materialism-centric behavior is becoming important in a consumption-based economy. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of 346 undergraduate students. Two different research models are tested and confirmed. The findings of this research indicated that perceived social media marketing activities have a significant effect on brand loyalty; brand consciousness and value consciousness mediate the relationship between perceived social media marketing activities and brand loyalty. Moreover, evidence supports the idea that the greater the use of social media, the greater the tendency towards materialism and conspicuous consumption. This study confirms the growing importance of perceived social media marketing activities in envisioning brand loyalty and provides insights on impact of social media on materialism and conspicuous consumption.
Keywords: Perceived Social Media Marketing Activities; Brand Loyalty; Brand Consciousness; Value Consciousness; Materialism; Conspicuous Consumption.