International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (14 papers in press)
Competitive Analysis of Social Media Data in the Banking Industry
by Afolabi Ibukun, Azubuike Ezenwoke, Charles Ayo
Abstract: Recently, most company interact more with their customers through the social media, particularly the Facebook and twitter. This has therefore made provision of large amount of textual data, freely available on the Internet for competitive Intelligence analysis which is helping to reposition more and more companies for better profit. In order to carry out competitive intelligence, financial institutions need to take note of and analyse their competitors social media sites.\r\nThis paper, therefore aims to help the banking industry in Nigeria understand how to perform a social media competitive analysis and transform social media data into knowledge, which will form the foundation for decision making and internet marketing of such institutions. The study describes an in-depth case study which applies text mining to analyse unstructured text content on Facebook and Twitter sites of the five largest and leading financial institutions (banks) in Nigeria: Zenith bank, First bank, UBA, Access bank and GTBank. \r\nAnalysing the social media content of these institutions will increase their competitive advantage and also lead to more profit for the banking institutions in question. The results gotten from this research showed that text mining is able to reveal uncommon and nontrivial trend for competitive advantage from social media data and also provide specific recommendations to help banks maximize their competitive edge.\r\n
Keywords: Social Media; Twitter; Facebook; Text Mining; banking; Competitive intelligence; Clustering; Sentiment Analysis.
Consumer Attitude towards Website Advertising Formats: A Comparative Study of Banner, Pop-up and In-line Display Advertisements
by Tri D. Le, Hien Vo
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare dimensions of consumer attitude toward different formats of web display advertising. Since Internet advertising is a rapidly growing industry in transitional economies like Vietnam, there is an emerging call for further study about the effectiveness of advertising on news portal websites, which are usually top accessed web pages. Data was gathered from an online survey of 200 respondents to compare attitudinal forms toward traditional banner ads, in-line ads and pop-up ads. The research applies the attitudinal dimensions of information, irritation and entertainment. Findings indicate a somewhat positive attitude toward traditional banner ads with high informative value and negative attitude toward pop-up ads with irritating attitude. Besides, entertainment is not evaluated as a significant attitudinal form of web advertising.
Keywords: consumer attitude; web advertising; internet advertising; ad format; Vietnam.
Propagation of User-Generated Content Online
by Harsha Gangadharbatla, Masoud Valafar
Abstract: In this paper, using a large amount of data collected from social media, we test theories of information propagation that are popular and have been applied extensively as theoretical frameworks in advertising and marketing literature. More specifically, we crawled Twitter in two waves for over 30 days to capture information from a sample of 300,000 users to test two-step flow and diffusion of information theories. Findings support the two-step flow theory and suggest that a minority of users account for a majority of influence, opinion leaders follow other opinion leaders to form a community of influencers, and information dissemination on Twitter follows a power-law distribution. These results are contrary to the popular notion that social media are democratic and, without a gatekeeper, everyone with a smartphone can broadcast messages. Managerial implications for advertising professionals are drawn.
Keywords: User-generated content; big data; social media; social networking sites; two-step flow; information propagation; information dissemination; and diffusion of information.
Corporate Facebook Posts in the UK and Greece: A Content Analysis
by Kyriakos Riskos, Leonidas Hatzithomas, Christina Boutsouki, Yorgos Zotos
Abstract: Despite the proliferation of research on the value of Facebook as a marketing tool, there is limited understanding on how companies use Facebook to interact with consumers. At the same time, very little is known about consumers response to corporate Facebook posts. The present study adopts a cross-cultural approach and investigates (1) the differences in the content of corporate Facebook posts between the UK and Greece with respect to the use of informational and emotional content, and (2) consumers response to these posts. A content analysis of 2.000 corporate Facebook posts reveals that message content is country specific. UK corporate Facebook posts focus on informational content, whereas Greek corporate Facebook posts emphasize emotional content. Our results also reveal differences in the behavior of Facebook users in the two countries. In the UK, corporate Facebook posts with informational content collect more Likes compared to posts with non-informational content, whereas corporate Facebook posts with emotional content attain more Likes than non-emotional posts in Greece.
Keywords: Facebook; Informational Cues; Emotional Appeals; Content Analysis; Cross-Cultural Analysis.
CSR and CRM: The impact on purchase intentions
by Jeffrey Overall
Abstract: Positive word-of-mouth, trust, and satisfaction are important antecedents to consumer purchase intentions. However, the social responsibility activities and the focus of an organization on their long-term success are also important antecedents of consumer purchase intentions whereas aggressive attempts to control the decisions of others are not. From this, it appears that each of these theories separately explains a portion of consumer purchase intentions, but put together, they provide a more holistic account of the process. To understand how each of these influences consumer purchase intentions, QCA is used to analyze data collected from 29 randomly selected companies from the 2013 Fortune 500 List. The core causal conditions that lead to consumer purchase intentions involve the presence of: long-term success, perceived social responsibility, word-of-mouth, satisfaction, and the absence of influence attempts. I contribute to theory by challenging the relationship quality literature by demonstrating that trust does not influence consumer purchase intentions.
Keywords: Altruism; CSR; egoism; QCA; relationship quality; trust; satisfaction; word-of-mouth; influence attempts; power.
Quantifying the Long-Term Effect of Social Media
by Manisha Mathur
Abstract: The retail industry is ripe with uncertainties despite making significant strides in the past few years, particularly, since the recent economic downturn. The social media landscape has further complicated the customer connections with retail brands, creating serious challenges for retailers. Marketers are baffled by the constant urgent call by practitioners regarding the social media trend among customers, and they are finding it difficult to determine whether the social media effects can have a long term impact on both the customer perception of a brand and on the long-term trends in brand value. Quantifying the influence of social media in the long-run is essential for the development of branding and marketing strategies that lead to sustained competitive advantage. Empirical assessment includes vector autoregressive econometric modeling to determine whether a brands value is stable or trending over time and quantify the persistent effect of social media factors using the real-world data available on social media. Further, implications for both marketing theory and practice are outlined.
Keywords: Social media marketing; social advocacy; relationship marketing; brand value.
What makes eWOM Viral?
by Charu Sijoria, Srabanti Mukherjee, Subhojit Sengupta
Abstract: With an increasing need of being connected with rest of the world 24
Keywords: electronic Word of Mouth; satisfaction; product; patronage; information quality; satisfaction and patronage; source credibility; source attractiveness; loyalty; and subjective norms.
Your comments are important to me! The impacts of online customer reviews in shopping websites
by Ismail Erkan, Abdulaziz Elwalda
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the influence of online customer reviews (OCRs) on consumers purchase intentions; and to understand the role of attitude on information adoption within the computer mediated communication platforms. For this purpose, a research model was developed based on the information adoption model (IAM). The model was empirically tested and validated through structural equation modelling (SEM). The data was collected from a sample of 384 university students. The results confirm that attitude plays an important role on information adoption; and the following are among the key factors which influence consumers purchase intentions: eWOM quality, eWOM credibility, attitude towards eWOM, perceived eWOM usefulness, and eWOM adoption. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as recommendations for future studies.
Keywords: Online Customer Reviews (OCRs); Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM); Shopping Websites; Purchase Intention; Information Adoption Model; OCRs Adoption Model.
QR Code Advertising: A Cross-Country Comparison of Turkish and German Consumers
by Ela Sibel Bayrak Meydanoğlu, Ahmet Mete Çilingirtürk, Stephan Böhm, Müge Klein
Abstract: Among various mobile-based communication technologies, QR codes have recently gained a great popularity in mobile advertising. These codes are used by marketers for advertising in various ways such as in print media, in outdoor advertising, or even on the product packages so that consumers could get relevant information at instance. In the current literature perceived usefulness, behavioural intention, previous experience, knowledge and environmental constraints have been identified as the factors that lead consumers to scan QR code ads. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors and their extent in influencing the QR code ad scanning behaviour of Turkish and German consumers. The results demonstrate that perceived usefulness and previous experience affect the scanning behaviour of both the groups, whereas knowledge about scanning and environmental constraints affects only the scanning behaviour of Turkish consumers. Contrary to our expectations, behavioural intention does not influence the behaviour of either Turkish or German consumers.
Keywords: advertising; Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM); QR code; Turkish consumers; German consumers.
The effects of privacy concerns, perceived risk and trust on online purchasing behaviour
by Nuno Fortes, Paulo Rita, Margherita Pagani
Abstract: This study aims to analyse how privacy concerns have an impact on the consumer's intention to make online purchases. A research model was developed establishing the mediating role of trust and perceived risks. The results of the empirical survey (n=900) show that the relationship between privacy concerns and purchasing intention is partially mediated by trust, perceived risk, and attitude. The results of a multi-group analysis show a different impact of privacy concerns on trust and perceived risks for males and females. Implications and further research suggestions are presented.
Keywords: Privacy concerns; E-commerce; Purchasing Behaviour; Trust; Perceived Risk.
CONSUMER ATTITUDE FORMATION FROM eWOM: INTERPLAY BETWEEN COGNITION AND AFFECT
by Jinsoo Kim
Abstract: The goal of the current study is to investigate how affective and cognitive processing two of the main components in forming an attitude play roles in the impact of online consumer reviews on brand/product attitude formation, and, consequently, on purchase intention formation under various conditions (e.g., valence of consumer reviews, product type, and level of involvement). The main experiment was conducted under 2 x 2 x 2 experimentally designed conditions with manipulated valence (positive vs. negative), product type (hedonic vs. functional), and involvement level (high vs. low). The study found a dominant moderating effect from valence of consumer review whereas the effects from the other moderating variables product types and involvement levels were merely detected. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: word of mouth; Electronic Word of Mouth; eWOM; consumer; attitude; purchase intention; emotion; cognition; affect; consumer reviews; product reviews; ELM (Elaboration Likelihood Model); product types; hedonic and functional products; involvement level; valence; experiment.
Explaining older consumers low use of the Internet
by Jul Thanasrivanitchai, George P. Moschis, Randall Shannon
Abstract: Abstract: Many studies show that the usage rate of the Internet by older adults is the lowest of any demographic group. This paper explores the reasons for older adults lower inclination to use the Internet by employing control theory. The theory suggests that as people increasingly experience losses with age they also experience loss of control of their environments, including technology. Secondary control strategies, which allow the individual to protect him or herself from the perceived negative consequences associated with the older persons inability to control their technological environment, may help explain their low propensity to adopt and make use of the Internet. Findings based on a large-scale study in Thailand suggest that secondary control, may provide an explanation for the low rates of Internet adoption and usage among older consumers. Implications for theory and practice are offered and directions for future research are suggested.
Keywords: Older consumers; consumer behaviour; Internet adoption; control theory.
Forecasting Online User Activeness for Behavioural Targeting: the Effect of Data Sampling
by Yuelin Shen
Abstract: Probability models have been built to model online ad click and conversion, but few studies have examined user activeness, which is the start of any further online behaviour. Using a discrete-time setting, this study builds a three-parameter Bayesian model to forecast user activeness. Users with the same arrival count in the training period are grouped into a segment and their activeness in the test period is forecasted accordingly. The forecasting results are affected by data sparsity and history, while the first factor impacts how to sample the users and the second decides how much historic data should be used in forecasting. Using data from a major ecommerce website, we find that the model performs well when the training period is short while the users are active.
Keywords: probability model; behavioural targeting; data history; data sparsity; Bayesian forecasting.
Going native on Facebook: a content analysis of sponsored messages on undergraduate student Facebook pages
by Cynthia Hanson
Abstract: This paper examines the prevalence and nature of sponsored messages on Facebook. Results of a content analysis of desktop and mobile Facebook pages from 52 undergraduate student subjects showed 53% of sponsored messages in the desktop sample and 100% of sponsored messages in the mobile sample would be categorized as native advertising, as they were located in the user’s news feed. Approximately 12% of all news feed posts were sponsored posts and almost 90% of sponsored news feed posts were based on the user’s or user’s friends’ actions. The majority of the sponsoring advertisers were from companies established after the year 2000, and only 11% were leading US advertisers.
Keywords: advertising, content analysis, Facebook, native advertising, social media, sponsored messages