International Journal of Innovation and Learning (40 papers in press)
Exploring Business Model Innovation in Business School Small Business Engagements: Understanding and helping small business leaders through action learning programmes
by Christopher Brown, Philip Frame
Abstract: This research studies the value and impact of small business leaders action learning programmes. Previous studies have suggested that understanding and interpreting a small business leaders business model is key to co-creating value for the small business, and for the business school too. Our study is part of an on-going series of research studies looking at the value of business schools in their local business community. The evolving nature of the programme and the differing engagement activities ensured a personalised fit to the small businesses specific requirements, and ultimately proved beneficial to the business school and the small businesses. It suggests that business schools, and universities in general, have a key role to play in local economic small business growth, particularly in helping these smaller businesses develop a sustainable business model.
Keywords: Business Model Innovation; Collaboration; Small Businesses; Collaborative Projects; Action Learning Programmes.
Enhancing Project Management Course Outcomes Using an Experiential Learning Approach
by Jeff May
Abstract: Project management skills have become increasingly important for information systems (IS) professionals. Like most skills, project management skills are developed through practice. This paper describes an innovative solution for integrating a structured project into an Information Systems curriculum Project Management course. The innovation applies best-practices drawn from the experiential learning literature to the design of a course project. Our solution enhances students project management knowledge and provides opportunities to apply that knowledge to develop project management skills. The paper presents the underlying theory, describes how that theory is incorporated in the project, provides and discusses the actual project so that others may use it as-is or adapt it to their courses, presents excerpts of students reactions and concludes with several suggestions from the authors.
Keywords: Project Management; Experiential Learning; Problem-Based Learning; Course Project; Pedagogy; Collaborative Learning.
Academic Performance of students on the grounds of their satisfaction with Distance Education
by Esmael Almeida Machado, Luis Eduardo Afonso
Abstract: This article aims to define how the learning outcomes in Distance Education (DE) in Brazil are influenced by student satisfaction. In particular, it will help us to understand which aspects of the Business courses in DE are providing higher satisfaction to their students. Thus, it was decided to adopt a mixed method research strategy consisting of a survey and archival investigations. Based on a special extraction of micro-data from the 2012 National Student Performance Exam (ENADE), records of 39,190 students enrolled in the Distance Education format were combined with 5,087 valid responses to a survey conducted using an electronic questionnaire. The use of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling allowed us to infer the nomological validity of the constructs. Among the results, it should be highlighted that the hypotheses of a positive association between satisfaction with Interactivity, and with Performance and the students learning results were sustained.
Keywords: Distance Education; Satisfaction; Partial Least Squares; higher education; UTAUT.
Evaluating and comparing ten-year (2006-2015) research performance between Malaysian public and private higher learning institutions: A bibliometric approach
by Voon-Hsien Lee, Jun-Jie Hew, Siew-Phaik Loke
Abstract: This study aims to bibliometrically evaluate and unprecedentedly compare the research performance accomplished by public and private Malaysian universities and their respective researchers from an international perspective, by examining publications that are indexed to Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI). Data was gathered from Web of Science, covering the most recent ten-year period from 2006 to 2015. Only 5,599 journal articles written in English were considered. Over the ten-year period, public or government funded universities have impressive number of publication counts and total citation received, while privately funded universities are better in terms of average citation per item. Moreover, the most prolific, most highly cited, and most influential author is currently affiliated with a private university. Besides, it was also discovered that both types of university do not collaborate much with each other.
Keywords: Bibliometric analysis; Social Science Citation Index; Arts and Humanities Citation Index; Web of Science; Malaysian higher learning institutions.
Impact of the recent economic crisis on tertiary education funding a comparative study
by Vesna Skrbinjek, Dušan Lesjak, Janez Šušteršič
Abstract: We examined how the recent global economic crisis and the necessary cuts in public expenditure affected the funding for tertiary education in European countries. We clustered the countries into two groups with respect to the severity of the impact of the global crisis on their economies. Then, we comparatively studied the changes in the funding of tertiary education during the recent economic crisis. We found that tertiary education was less exposed to austerity measures than the education sector as a whole and, in the group of countries that were more affected by the crisis, several countries decreased the share of public expenditure on tertiary education. We also found that, on average, countries with high pre-crisis public spending on tertiary education increased the share of GDP for tertiary education more than those with low pre-crisis spending. Overall, the results of our research show how the governments of different countries adjusted public funding for tertiary education during the economic crisis.
Keywords: tertiary education; economic crisis; public funds; public spending; public expenditure.
Identification and measurement of product modularity an implementation case
by Ahm Shamsuzzoha
Abstract: Product modularity offers extended benefits to the manufacturing companies with respect to reduce lead-time, improves assemble ability, promotes product family design and enhances customers satisfactions. This product design and development strategy also offers an opportunity to mix and match all the components of a product into a standardized modular product. The objectives of this research are to introduce and measure the concept of product modularity within manufacturing companies. In addition, a mathematical framework is also highlighted within the scope of this research, which can be used to measure the product modularity level within manufacturing companies. To measure and validate such product modularity level, necessary product design data from a case manufacturing companys products is collected and analyzed by using Design Structure Matrix (DSM) tool. The necessary product modularity level is measured through clustering the collected data related to the components interdependences within the case companys product portfolio. This research is concluded with future research directions on product modularity.
Keywords: Product modularity; modularity level; innovation; components interdependencies; standard components; Design Structure Matrix (DSM).
COMPARING LEARNING MOTIVATION AND LEARNING STYLE BETWEEN NATURAL SCIENCE AND SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
by Triyanto , Rifati Dina Handayani
Abstract: This study aim to assess and analyze the extent of motivation and learning styles between students of natural science and social science. This study was carried out by survey research method using online questionnaire. The sample consists of 320 students from faculty of education in University of Jember and Sebelas Maret University. The questionnaire used to measure students learning motivation was the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was used to measure student learning styles. Data gathered were analyzed descriptively and inferentially using the SPSS package. Result from the descriptive analysis found that there is a significant difference between science and social science students in learning motivation and learning styles. There was also a positive relation between learning motivation and learning styles. The results of this study give useful information for improving the teaching and learning process of teachers and students, because the effective teaching and learning requires flexibility, creativity and responsibility in order to provide an instructional environment to respond the learners individual needs.
Keywords: learning motivation; learning styles; natural science; and social science.
Context-Aware Learning using Augmented Reality and WebQuest to Improve Students Learning Outcomes in History
by Atichart Harncharnchai, Teeraporn Saeheaw
Abstract: History is perceived as among the most tedious subjects in school and the use of technology has been involved to improve teaching-learning experiences. In this study, a context-aware learning approach was used by applying Augmented reality (AR) and WebQuest to support different learning strategies: classroom-based, project-based and out-of-classroom based. Knowledge management was an approach used to capture vital knowledge for learners in history and culture. The participants were 62 grade 10 students assigned to the treatment and the control group. Focus groups, interviews and questionnaires were the methods of data collection used while AR worksheet, WebQuest and AR artefact were the instructional tools of the experiment. Results showed significant differences between the mean posttest score of the control group and the experimental group. The students were highly satisfied with the use of AR and WebQuest as well as the heightened awareness of caring and preserving historical and cultural heritage. Augmented Reality technology could also provide an effective solution to help local museum fill the gap of lacking experts.
Keywords: Context-aware learning; Augmented reality; WebQuest; Learning strategies; History and culture; Knowledge management.
Transformational Pedagogy through Curriculum Development Discourse
by Fiona O'Riordan
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the role of discourse in curriculum development, in particular the opportunity curriculum offers to transform learners in a way that benefits the graduate, economy and wider society. Conversely, lack of such discourse can lead to an unchanged and apathetic graduate which represents a lost opportunity for all. As educators and curriculum developers we have a responsibility to ensure we create a shared legacy in a renewed curriculum because we are privileged and entrusted with the learners journey in higher education. The literature urges engagement in curricula discourse and reflection promising transformed curricula as a result. Additionally discourse, in particular dissensus can challenge and question current curricula development practice in order to contribute to development of richer and more informed curricula. This paper presents findings presented in one aspect of a framework designed for curriculum development practice and discourse, which I argue, if used as an early intervention tool can offer transformative potential for curricula. It does so by facilitating the development team scope out the project through questioning and challenging existing practices across three key areas policy for curriculum development at institutional level; practice at development level; and discourse guiding practice. The final area, curriculum development discourse to guide practice, is the focus of this paper.rnrnThe research is part of an Ed.D dissertation which was an investigation into curriculum development practice and discourse across four higher education institutions in Ireland. It is positioned within a post-structural theoretical framework. The methodology adopted was discourse analysis. The research proposes a framework for curriculum development practice and discourse that facilitates greater advanced critical reflection and discourse thereby developing and embedding pedagogies that are fit for purpose in an informed manner rather than chosen in an arbitrary way. rn
Keywords: Curriculum development; curriculum discourse; pedagogy; discourse analysis.
A gender-based investigation of the determinants for information sharing in an open learner model environment
by Yong Wee Sek, Hepu Deng, Elspeth McKay, Wei Xu
Abstract: This study presents a gender-based investigation of the determinants for information sharing in open learner model based collaborative learning. Structural equation modeling is used for analyzing the survey data to explore the relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust and the information sharing intention of learners. The results reveal that all three factors have a significant impact on learners information sharing intention. There is a significant gender difference on the perceived ease of use for information sharing. Such findings are useful for better understanding the adoption of open learner models to improve information sharing in collaborative learning.
Keywords: open learner models; information sharing; collaborative learning; technology acceptance model; scenario-based and web-mediated prototyping.
Entrepreneurial Learning and Innovation: Qualitative evidence from agri-business technology-based small firms in New Zealand
by David Deakins, Jo Bensemann
Abstract: The focus of this paper is on the nexus between entrepreneurial learning and the innovation process. In particular, the role that entrepreneurial learning plays in the innovation process. We have collected qualitative interview evidence with a sample of 30 technology-based small firms (TBSFs) engaged in the innovation process. TBSFs are highly diverse, defying consistent definitions, and operate across different sectors, but our sample is drawn solely from the agri-business sector within the unique environment of New Zealand. The literature on entrepreneurial learning is now well established and has identified the importance of both individual entrepreneurial learning and organisational learning for the determination of dynamic capability in TBSFs. Similarly, the literature on the innovation process in small firms and TBSFs is well established indicating the expected resource constraints and challenges from theory in the innovation process for TBSFs. However, no previous research has examined the role of entrepreneurial learning in the innovation process with TBSFs. We present qualitative interview evidence that demonstrates that entrepreneurial learning has a critical role in the innovation process enabling TBSFs to overcome resource constraints and challenges in a lean contextual environment such as New Zealand.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial learning; technology; small firms; entrepreneurship; innovation; agri-business.
The epistemological character of isomorphism in the generation of innovation
by Sued Souza, Flavio De Sao Pedro Filho, Maria Jose Aguilar Madeira, Inon Beydha Lukman
Abstract: This paper presents as its main objective an analysis of the epistemological nature of isomorphism in the generation of innovation in organizations. The present research observed current contents such as analyses of Design Thinking and Isomorphism, with their intra-organizational interactions. It concludes that isomorphism is a frequent practice of managers in organizations who seek to copy structures or actions in order to obtain greater visibility and competitiveness in a specific organizational field. However, innovation is also a prominent way of distinguishing a product for the sake of market competitiveness; as a theoretical contribution it is an excellent form of organizational change, in that it exposes selectively the conceptual proposals of several contributors, focusing on creative modelling for new solutions through design and planning. This study includes diagrams, charts and other elements to meet predictable expectations. They are intended to benefit researchers and other scholars of innovation, in light of the relevance and coverage of this theme.
Keywords: Design Thinking. Innovation. Isomorphism. Institutional Theory.
The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and the Academic Achievements of Hearing Impaired Students in Higher Education in Thailand
by Saisuda Pantrakool, Sumalee Chanchlor
Abstract: The research aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and the academic achievements of students with hearing impairments (deaf) in Thai and English and a computer course in higher education in Thailand. The population size consisted of 207 students, of which 56.04% were female, and 43.96% male. Their average age was 20.33 years old (SD=0.49). The study found that women have higher emotional intelligence than men, except for self-esteem and life satisfaction. Also, the study revealed that the Pearson correlation coefficients between gender and age are negatively correlated for the academic achievements in the classes for Thai, English, and the computer course. However, there appears to be a positive relationship between hearing achievements and those Thai and English courses. Furthermore, regarding the path diagram, the variables self-motivation, life satisfaction and self-esteem contribute positively to academic achievements; however, the variables relationship, happiness, and self-control negatively impact academic achievements.
Keywords: Academic Achievements; Emotional Intelligence; Deaf; Hearing Impaired; Higher Education; Students.
Malaysian student leaders perception of their leadership styles.
by Mabel H.J. Tan, Donnie Adams
Abstract: Student leadership is a distinct area in research and practice. This study explored the leadership styles of student leaders in Malaysian secondary and postsecondary schools based on the Bolman and Deals Leadership Orientations Survey (LOSself). Analysis was carried out on the four leadership styles: structural, human resource, political, and symbolic. Student leaders demographics such as gender, age and ethnicity were identified. Findings revealed there exists different leadership styles between genders, those still studying in secondary school with postsecondary school and between the three main ethnic groups of student leaders. The human resource frame is the predominant frame followed by the structural frame. The significance of the findings and suggestions for further developing multi-frame leadership styles are proposed, as the use of multiple frames is linked to leadership effectiveness. This will help to increase the student leaders knowledge of leadership frames and their personal capabilities as leaders in their organization.
Keywords: student leadership; leadership styles; Bolman and Deal; Malaysia; secondary schools; postsecondary schools.
Unsuccessful fan-centred innovation of thick value for a music festival
What went wrong?
by Ivary Vimm, Erno Salmela
Abstract: The aim of this study is to model the phenomenon of comprehensive fan innovation of thick value. The action research was utilised in studying innovation of jewellery for a music festival. As a result, the study proposes a new model how fans can participate in comprehensive thick value innovation. The model was tested in the jewellery case. However, something went clearly wrong. The article critically examines an unsuccessful, or, moreover, an erroneous thick value innovation experiment. The study provides practitioners with practical knowledge of how to avoid pitfalls in fan innovation.
Keywords: fan innovation; value innovation; thick value; value creation; co-creation; learning through doing; action research; jewellery; music festival.
Personality Traits and Work Engagement: Does Team Member Exchange Make a difference?
by Khalifa I. Al Hosani, Hossam M. Abu Elanain, Mian Ajmal
Abstract: This study examines the impact that personality traits and team member exchange has on work engagement within the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) public sectors. The object of this study is to explore the influence of these factors on work engagement and to increase the level of understanding of employee work engagement. Moreover, the study contributes to the existing literature by providing a conceptual framework that demonstrates the mediating role of TMX between personality traits and work engagement. To date, this area of study has yet to be explored in sufficient depth in the context of the UAE, since researchers tend to overlook the role that TMX plays in shaping the impact of personality traits and work engagement. A self-administered questionnaire using a 5-item Likert scale consisting of personality traits, team member exchange, and work engagement was used with demographic variables in order to collect data on 550 employees working in two public sector organizations in the UAE, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, namely the Abu Dhabi food control authority (ADFCA) and the Abu Dhabi farmer service center (ADFSC). The study used different analytical methods, such as descriptive statistics and factor loading analysis. The study found personality traits to have a significant positive impact on team member exchange. Team member exchange was found to have a mediating effect on personality traits and work engagement. Implications of the study are discussed and lines for further research are suggested.
Keywords: Personality traits; Team Member Exchange; Work Engagement; Work place learning; United Arab Emirates.
MOOC in a Malaysian University: Preliminary Perceptions and Perspectives
by Shazmira Zulkafli, Fitri Suraya Mohamad
Abstract: MOOC is gaining momentum in Malaysia as it is seen as a game changer in the delivery of university courses to a wider audience, beyond the campus walls. At Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, the first MOOC course was designed and developed to deliver learning about ICT Competencies to university students at all public universities throughout the country. The study examined the perceptions and satisfaction levels among on-campus students who have enrolled into the MOOC course, as a first step to investigate the impact of the web-based instructional approach on higher learning. Two key aspects were focused; the pedagogical and technical assembly of the MOOC. The pedagogical aspect looked into the instructional design and assessment of contents in the course, while the technical aspect covered areas such as user interface, presentation of video content, provision of learning and social tools, and learning analytics. Findings indicated a significant relationship between each these elements with participants' satisfaction levels. It is clear that these elements are crucial in making MOOC a successful instructional supplement for undergraduate learning in Malaysia.
Keywords: Massive Open Online Courses; MOOC; higher education; student satisfaction; university learning.
HRM Practices and Innovation Performance with Mediating Effect of Knowledge Sharing: Empirical Evidence from Emirati ICT Companies
by Amna A. Al Kaabi, Hossam M. Abu Elanain, Mian Ajmal
Abstract: Previous studies on innovation performance, knowledge sharing, and HRM practices have primarily been performed in Western contexts, so additional empirical evidence is required to understand the importance and role of knowledge sharing in a non-Western context. Therefore, this research has two objectives: to assess the impact of HRM practices on innovation performance as well as to test the mediating impact of knowledge sharing on the relationships among HRM practices and innovation performance. Using multiple regression analysis on a sample of 202 respondents from three organizations operating in the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi, this study shows that knowledge sharing is positively related to perceived firm innovation performance. This study also shows that selected HRM practices are positively related to a firms perceived innovation performance. The findings show positive relationships among knowledge sharing, HRM practices and innovation performance.
Keywords: HR practices; Knowledge Sharing; Innovation management; Emirati ICT Industry.
Knowledge management, learning, social attitudes and organizational change in a Brazilian Public Organization
by Francisco Antonio Coelho Junior, Luciana Lower, Cristiane Faiad, Mariana Carolina Barbosa Rego, Ladilucy Armond, Alan Silva
Abstract: Even though change is implemented for positive reasons, employees often resist to change. The purpose of this paper is to provide a new perspective to the analysis of organizational learning and change, including organizational readiness to change and supervisory support during a planned organizational change in a Brazilian Organization. Survey data were collected during the change and the research presents how perceptions of individuals (N=160) can influence decisively on resistance or adherence to change. Results show there is commitment to change, emergent learning is encouraged by creating opportunities for informal sharing of knowledge and experience and the formal organizational structure facilitates learning, adaptation, and change. Sufficient opportunities are provided for staff to learn how to make use of available information and communication technologies for learning and knowledge sharing. The results present a set of issues to be managed in order to increase the chances of success of ongoing changes.
Keywords: attitudes; knowledge creation; learning for technological innovation; organizational behavior; organizational learning; organizational change; organizational structure; public organizations; agile methodology; commitment to change; supervisory support; appropriateness of change; trust in management; management style.
Enhancing Student Engagement and Immediate Feedback with Clickers and Response Cards
by Mohan Rao
Abstract: Engaging students with immediate feedback demonstrates improvement in student learning and success. There are both high-tech and low-tech strategies to enhance student engagement and learning. The study focuses on the effectiveness of clickers and response cards. The effectiveness of clickers in the classroom is done by implementing the device in Operations Management (OM) classes. Clickers are very effective with the exception of a few drawbacks. Response cards are limited in capabilities but are effective for immediate feedback and student engagement. Since the use of response cards in higher education is almost non-existent, this study fills the gap and proposes more studies.
Keywords: Audience Response Systems; Classroom Response Systems; Clickers; Feedback; Immediate Feedback; Operations Management; Polling Instruments; Response Cards; Student Engagement; Student Response Systems.
An analysis of corporate sustainability disclosure and its relationship on financial performance in ASEAN
by Promporn Poowadin, Wanchai Prasertsri, Tharinee Pongsupat
Abstract: Corporate sustainability report has become a strategic plan for organizations and involved sustainability reporting will be voluntary since this is not mandatory in many countries. The most commonly used sustainability reporting frameworks are the Global Reporting Initiatives G3 and G4 guidelines. This study's main purpose is to investigate a relationship between the extent of corporate sustainability disclosures and financial performance in ASEAN countries: Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippine and Singapore. A GRI checklist is collected from corporate sustainability reports and financial data is obtained from annual report from 2010-2014 then the data is statistically analyzed by multiple regression. The results illustrated that corporate sustainability disclosure has a significant relationship with return on assets, return on equity and net sales. This findings help to understand how corporate sustainability disclosure is an important driver mechanism for organizations to be more innovative, efficient, effective and sustainable learning organization.
Keywords: corporate sustainability disclosure; global reporting initiative; financial performance; organization learning.
Gamification as an Innovative Method in the Processes of Learning in Higher Education Institutions
by Gláuber Guilherme Signori, Julio Cesar Ferro De Guimarães, Eliana Andréa Severo, Claudio Rotta
Abstract: The increasing speed of technological innovations has made it easier for students to access information. In this context, Education/Learning standards have sought to keep pace with a new student profile geared towards the digital environment by introducing new ways of learning that represent a compelling and innovative alternative for the development of student competencies. The study aims to analyze the relationship between Innovation in Education, Engagement for Learning and Learning, as well as the moderating effect of the gamified method, within the scope of Higher Education Institutions. It is a quantitative research, operationalized through a survey, applied to students of management courses in Higher Education Institutions located in the South of Brazil. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of the research showed the moderating effect of gamification in the Learning process, indicating that students present a higher level of learning when exposed to the teaching method that uses the gamified method. It is worth noting that this study proposed to the academic community a framework for the analysis of Innovation in Education, Engagement for Learning and Learning.
Keywords: Innovation in Education; Gamification based learning; Active Learning; Engagement for Learning; Higher education; Structural Equation Modeling.
Academic excellence of business graduates through nudging: Prospects in Saudi Arabia
by Sulphey M M, Alkahtani N S
Abstract: Globally academic excellence and quality education is receiving paramount importance. With innovations in methodology of teaching and rapid changes in technologies, delivering quality education has become easy. Nudging is a tool that is now used globally to enhance academic excellence. Nudge is defined as any attempt at influencing peoples judgment, choice or behavior in a predictable way (1) made possible because of cognitive biases in individual and social decision-making posing barriers for people to perform rationally in their own interest, and (2) working by making use of those biases as an integral part of such attempts. It is used in business and by Governments of welfare states to change behaviour of the masses. The study reviews a few successful implementations of nudges in academic filed, and explores the possibility of utilizing it in Saudi education sector to solve a few compelling problems faced by it. A few suggestions to this effect are also provided
Keywords: Nudge; Decision making; Choice architecture; academic excellence; behavioural intervention; Saudi Arabia.
Knowledge Sourcing in a Traditional Industry: Prospects of Peripheral Regions
by János Gyurkovics, Zsófia Vas
Abstract: Despite its economic relevance, only a few studies focus on knowledge creation, diffusion and utilisation in traditional industries located in peripheral regions, and even fewer on the innovation interdependencies between industries and regions. The theory of differentiated knowledge bases is capable to explain both the industrial and spatial patterns of the knowledge flows.
The present study aims to reveal the process of innovation-related knowledge sourcing in the printing industry located in the peripheral region of Kecskem
Keywords: innovation; differentiated knowledge bases; traditional industry; peripheral region; Hungary.
Applying PBL to teaching robotics
by Yair Zadok, Nadav Voloch
Abstract: More than thirty years ago, new ventures in the field of robotics began to appear in the educational systems all over the world. Robotics projects can serve as a good platform for the implementation of meaningful learning characteristics, such as finding interest and challenge, sense of control in the learning process and personal empowerment. In addition, this practice contributes to the fostering of high-order skills, such as Meta cognitive thinking, problem solving, creativity and teamwork. In recent years, the Israeli Ministry of Education adopted the participation of students in robotics competitions, which exposes students to the world of engineering challenges by building an autonomous robot which performs a number of tasks on the job board, under the guidance of teachers and instructors. This article describes a case study that addressed two main issues related to the Project-Based Learning method. It examined the relationship between Project-Based Learning, Robotics and project management fundamentals, and the teachers preference for adopting a possible solution for implementing this method optimally.
Keywords: Robotics; PBL- Project-Based Learning; Project Management;.
Unpacking cognitive skills engaged in web-search: how can log files, eye movements, and cued-retrospective reports help? An in-depth qualitative case study
by Esther Argelagos, Saskia Brand-Gruwel, Halszka Jarodzka, Manoli Pifarre
Abstract: Search the Internet with a specific purpose has become an important activity. Educational research informs that a better understanding of the cognitive skills involved in this activity is needed, but it is not clear which research techniques can be used for this purpose. One student performed a web-search task and was registered by three different techniques: log files, eye movements, and cued-retrospective reports. With a qualitative analysis, we attempt to provide a twofold contribution: (1) a thorough analysis about the information retrieved from the three techniques separately, and (2) developing a methodology for integrating the information captured from the three techniques. Results showed that log files and eye movements gave insight into cognitive outcomes of skills, and cued-retrospective delivered self-explanations of cognitive and regulation activities. This integration provided an overall and comprehensive picture of the cognitive skills performed and allowed building a synergism among the information captured from each technique.
Keywords: web-search; information-problem solving; log files; eye movements; cued-retrospective reports; unpacking cognitive skills; Internet; in-depth case study; qualitative; techniques; synergism.
THE PROCESS OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING IN THE CONTEXT OF SPATIAL AGGLOMERATION
by Anelise Rebelato Mozzato, Claudia Cristina Bitencourt
Abstract: This paper aims to understand the process of interorganizational learning (IOL) in spatial agglomeration. We propose an IOL model to analyze the horizontal relations between actors in different social spaces based on episodes of learning in a Brazilian stone-sector spatial agglomeration. We collected data on 81 participants and analyzed them based on content analysis with NVivo 9. The main results highlight an IOL integrative model that presents (1) the constituent elements of IOL, (2) the role played by different actors and (3) the relationships and the intensity of the bonds established between these actors.
Keywords: interorganizational learning; spatial agglomeration; episodes of learning; cooperation; interorganizational relations; social learning spaces; developing country; trust; social proximity; social interaction; interdependence; Susceptibility for learning; Brazil.
Predicting young researchers' university-industry collaboration using theory of planned behaviour
by Ana Arzenšek, Katarina Košmrlj, Nada Trunk Širca
Abstract: The theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) was applied to explore intentions of young researchers involvement in research projects in order to evaluate knowledge transfer within the Slovenian Young Researchers programme. With this, research gap of university intention to cooperate in joint research projects with industry was addressed. The research uses data from a national survey to test which determinants affect their intention and behaviour with respect to cooperating actively with industry, and transferring their knowledge to end users. It was found that attitudes and subjective norms significantly influence the intention to engage in university-industry cooperation, explaining over 65 per cent of variability in intention, while perceived behavioural control is not an influencing variable. Results confirm that Ajzen's theory can be applied to the case of cooperation of universities with industry; however, only two of the model's influencing factors proved effective. According to the findings of the study, the implications for the programme and its university-industry cooperation are discussed.
Keywords: university-industry collaboration; UIR; theory of planned behaviour; TPB; attitude; subjective norm; perceived behavioural control; intention; learning and innovation in higher education; HEI; higher education management; multiple regression analysis; discriminant analysis; young researchers; Young Researchers programme.
Special Issue on: User Modelling and Learning Analytics
eALGO, An Automated Assessment Tool of Flowchart Programs for novices
by Rym Aiouni, Anis Bey
Abstract: Programming skills become ever more important and a core competency in 21st Century and for its learning students need learning environments where they can practice and receive immediate assessment that help them to progress. In this paper we have developed eALGO, an automated assessment tool of flowchart programs that allows the students to practice algorithms problems. The assessment method used in eALGO is based on graph matching. To validate the method, an experimental study was conducted for investigating the effects of the automated flowchart algorithms scoring system compared to teachers scoring. About 35 flowchart algorithms were selected during a lab session and scored by eALGO system and after that scored by five teachers. Statistical analysis of the results reveals that eALGO tool seems to correlate well with teachers. Furthermore, a strong correlation was noticed between eALGO and the average scores of teachers. Hence, the findings of this study show that using automated assessment of flowcharts algorithms based on graph matching methods can help teachers to alleviate the scoring load, while allowing students learning designing algorithms.
Keywords: Computer Based Assessment; Automated Assessment; Programming; Graph matching; Similarity; Novice programmers; Flowchart; Computer Science Education.
Topic-aware Staff Learning Material Generation in Complaint Management Systems
by Li Guangjie, Ling Junmin, Shengguang Meng, Liao Yumin, Wei Chen
Abstract: In this paper, a topic-aware staff learning material generation approach is proposed in complaint management systems. Historical processing logs are extracted to form a complaint space. Complaint processing skills of staff members are assessed in terms of quantity, efficiency and quality on various topics. Similar staff members are clustered according to their behavioural characteristics. A resource recommendation algorithm is proposed to recommend complaint processing records from highly skilled colleagues in the cluster for the staff member to learn. Preliminary experiment results show good performance of the proposed method.
Keywords: user modelling; staff learning; user clustering; complaint management system.
Automatic Exercise Sequencing based Algorithmic Skills
by Meriem Abdessemed, Takie Eddine Belhaoues, Tahar Bensebaa, Anis Bey
Abstract: In any learning systems and especially automated assessment tools, the most common task is to assess the students performance using training exercise. The selection of the next exercise is generally performed as static set of exercise or free by students. But, it would clearly be advantageous if this exercise selection process were to be automated based on their previous performances. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the development of a method capable of determining exercise progression and sequencing during a training session on the basis of the students' past performance. We developed a dynamic planning of algorithmic exercises based on a semantic and pedagogical description to be used in training exercise.
Keywords: Exercises; Sequencing; Algorithmic; Assessment; Learning programming.
Assessment of Student Competency for Personalized Online Learning Using Objective Distance
by Sataworn Chaichumpa, Punnarumol Temdee
Abstract: Like traditional learning, online learning also requires effective personalized learning so that the appropriate feedback can be given individually for the students to achieve their goals. This paper proposes the objective distance which is the measurement representing the distance between current status of students competency to the satisfied competency level required for accomplishing the entire course. This paper aims to study to what extent the proposed objective distance can be used for effective classification of students competency comparing to raw score data and its combination. The experiments are conducted with 2 different online courses including Computer skill and English language course having 55 and 111 students respectively. The students are classified with three classifiers including K-Nearest Neighbour, Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree into different classes accordingly to different competency levels. The classification results show that the proposed objective distance can be effectively used for competency classification of online students.
Keywords: Online Learning; Personalized Learning; Classification; Objective Distance; K-Nearest Neighbour; Artificial Neural Network; Decision Tree.
Modeling Second Language Learners for Learning Task Recommendation
by Haoran Xie, Di Zou, Tak-Lam Wong, Fu Lee Wang
Abstract: How to recommend suitable learning tasks according to the characteristics of a second language learner is a vital question in the research community of the second language learning. This research question can be further divided into two sub-questions. The first sub-question is how to model the characteristics of second language learners, since different learners may have varied expertise on and subjective preferences of many topics. The second one is how to select learning tasks according to a constructed learner model. While the investigation of the latter question has been already widely conducted in other domains such as recommender systems. In this article, we focus on one specific aspect of the first sub-questions: how to model the preferred learning contexts of a second language learner in a non-intrusive manner. More practically speaking, this question is same as how to obtain the preferred learning contexts in an implicit way according to the learning logs. The preferred learning contexts (or context familiarity) can promote word learning more effective by recommending personalized word learning tasks. For example, a cloze test with the essay in a preferred topic may stimulate the learning interest of learners. Furthermore, the experimental results on real participants have verified that the proposed framework can promote significantly more effective word learning and gain better learning enjoyment than conventional task recommendation approaches which adopt a unified learning context for all learners.
Keywords: Learner modeling; context familiarity; task recommendation; word learning; e-learning.rnrn.
Towards an Architecture for e-Learning Infrastructures on a National Level: a Case Study of the Afghanistan Research and Education Network
by Salim Saay, Alex Norta
Abstract: National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) are for sharing resources among member organizations. NRENs play an important role in e-learning activities as they enable cross-organizational communication. Heterogeneous infrastructures used for e-learning are a challenge for system design, data integrity, and interoperability. This paper proposes an NREN e-learning reference architecture and affiliated NREN e-learning design patterns that consider communication, reliable access, a collaboration and interoperability between e-learning infrastructures. Research exists about different architectures including traditional e-learning systems, service-oriented cloud computing such as the service-oriented architecture (SOA) adaptations for education systems, e-learning systems and a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA). However, no research has been carried out for NREN e-learning architectures. For deeper insight, we investigate in this paper an e-learning architecture based on the Afghanistan Research and Education Network (AfgREN). The reference e-learning architecture based on AfgREN provides guidance for the rapid development of different e-learning services and learning-analytical infrastructure for Afghanistan.
Keywords: reference model; architecture pattern; NREN e-learning; e-governance; standard; reference architecture; MDE; ATAM; learning analytic.
Special Issue on: Technological Innovation in Teaching and Learning Practices
STEP on connected classroom climate in a hybrid learning environment
by Juan Xu, Harrison Yang, Jason MacLeod
Abstract: This study provides a best-practice model for addressing the connectedness of a hybrid classroom and explores the effectiveness of connected classroom climate from the students-to-student perspective. Based on the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory, research findings suggest the connected classroom climate in hybrid classrooms can be equal to or greater than traditional face-to-face classrooms. Course implementation is discussed and recommendations for design characteristics are proposed for elevating student connectedness in hybrid classroom contexts.
Keywords: Connectedness; Connected Classroom Climate; Student Perception; Student-to-student; STEP Model; Hybrid; Blended; Google; Classroom; Comparison.
CRESDA: Extending Data Landscape of Learners
by Yan Keung Hui, Lam For Kwok, Horace H. S. Ip
Abstract: Current student record management systems in universities focus only on academic activities of learners and are reflected in a formal transcript showing only academic results. To assist learners in whole person development, we proposed a new system model to also record extracurricular activities and their associated achievements with linkage to the corresponding graduate outcomes. In this paper, we proposed a new form of e-Portfolio which captures both academic results and non-academic activities; discussed its challenges and resolution; and reviewed a practical implementation, named as CRESDA, in the City University of Hong Kong. By extending data landscape of learners, it provides a platform for learning analytics in future, especially in enhancing the prediction capability of student success. Such an implementation may provide a useful reference to all educational stakeholders.
Keywords: Outcome-based Learning; Extracurricular Activity; Achievement; Personal Development;.
The Design and Exploitation of Blended Learning Concept: Comparative Study of Two Universities
by Ivana Simonova, Katerina Kostolanyova
Abstract: The results of comparative study on the blended learning concept of two higher education institutions are introduced in the article University of Ostrava, Faculty of education and University of Hradec Kralove, Faculty of Informatics and Management, Czech Republic. Having the research sample of 591 and 466 students of both institutions, the data collected within Moodle and Blackboard LMSs were processed by the method of frequency analysis, structured according six criteria (learners
Keywords: Technologies for education; higher education; ESP; English for specific purposes; online courses; blended learning; Moodle; Blackboard; visit rate; performance; tracking.
Exploring different types of interaction on collaborative learning in online platforms
by Ruixue Liu, Changdi Shi
Abstract: We are immersed in the era of online and mobile networks. The development of collaborative studies in learning has led to a renewed interest in the field of online education. There is a need for collaborative learning that promotes student's diverse interactions in online platforms. This study investigates the two types of interaction (social, learning) and students interaction knowledge building level in online and mobile collaborative learning environments in higher education. WeChat, which is a mobile synchronous communication tool, and modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment (Moodle), were used as mobile and online collaborative learning settings. Seventy-eight college students in china majoring in information engineering participated in the experiment. The following findings were determined by the method of content analysis. (1)The study showed that Moodle is more suitable for learning interaction, while the WeChat platform is more suitable for social interaction. (2)A shallow level of interaction knowledge building is present in Moodle and WeChat. The findings presented in this study could serve as the basis for future research in blended collaborative learning.
Keywords: collaborative learning; social interaction; learning interaction; knowledge building level; online platforms; Moodle; WeChat; blended learning environment.
When and how does learning satisfy? Working collaboratively online with a clear purpose
by Jing Hin Lam, Will Ma
Abstract: Social-media platforms have become increasingly popular and important in daily life, and their use may affect students learning satisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine whether social media enhance or detract from students learning satisfaction by analyzing the relationships between learners social media usage behavior, purpose in using social media, collaborative learning, and learning satisfaction. The research question was as follows: do social media enhance students learning satisfaction? A questionnaire survey was administered to 204 university students. Social media usage behavior (beta = .128, p < .05) and academic purpose (beta = .667, p < .001) were found to be directly, significantly, and positively related to collaborative learning (beta = .763, p < .001), which in turn had a significant and direct positive effect on students learning satisfaction (R2 = .582). The roles of social-media behavior, purpose in using social media, and collaborative learning towards satisfaction were discussed.
Keywords: academic purpose; collaborative learning; learning satisfaction; social media.
A Flexible Graph-based Model for Facilitating Digital Learning Activities
by Di Zou, Fu Lee Wang, Haoran Xie, Tak-Lam Wong, Reggie Kwan
Abstract: The development of big data techniques in recent years has created great opportunities for more powerful e-learning systems. Online platforms such as MOOCs, distance learning communities and mobile learning applica-tions are therefore able to have larger data capacity and allow more users to ac-cess. Learning in multi-modal environments can also provide diverse learning materials to users. However, a big challenge accompanied with the rapid devel-opment of e-learning systems is information overload for learners. Users may get lost in such a large volume of learning resources. To address this issue, it is essential to have a model for better understanding of user intentions, prefer-ences and prior knowledge. Therefore, in this article, a flexible graph-based model for users is proposed by incorporating various relationships in this con-text, including the social relations among users, content relations among the learning resources and pre-requisite relations among knowledge units. By con-solidating various kinds of relationships in a unified graph model for the users, the model can then facilitate digital learning activities in e-learning systems. In particular, we have verified e-learning activities facilitated by this model in our recent studies and summarized the results in this article. Additionally, some ex-amples of using this model are discussed for the future studies on the model.
Keywords: graph-based model; e-learning systems; user model; multiple relationship; digital learning.