Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Innovation and Learning


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International Journal of Innovation and Learning (39 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Video games with violent contents and family resilience factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirjana Radetic-Paic 
    Abstract: Researches have appeared recently which explain the correlation between video games and aggression and include the third variable. In this research the possible variables included were variables linked to family resilience. Its aim is to determine the correlation between playing video games with violent contents and certain students family resilience, as well as to determine their predictive value. The purpose of the research is linked to planning adequate preventive interventions for the young. The convenient sample of examinees was formed by first-year students of the Faculty of Educational Sciences of the Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Croatia. The regression analysis as a multivariate method for data processing has been used and it established the prognostic value of the group of predictive variables. In general, it can be concluded that showing emotions, responsibility and keeping promises inside a family can be linked to playing video games with non-violent contents.
    Keywords: video games; violent contents; aggressiveness; family resilience factors; emotions; long-term desensitization effects; university students.

  • Preliminary design and implementation of embedding information literacy into an undergraduate engineering course   Order a copy of this article
    by Hathairat Kunakornsakul, Pichet Pinit, Raghu Echempati 
    Abstract: Engineering students need content-relevant information literacy (IL) experience for critical acquiring and using information in academic to professional life. Modular learning becomes a self-directed and connectivism approach that blends IL and subject learning outcomes explicit to students. However, there is rarely applicable model for this entire integration. This paper presents the design and implementation of modular learning with embedding of IL into a learning course (ei2LC). The modules were designed with 1) Core concepts of an engineering subject; 2) Core concepts of IL; and 3) Instructional design, for a course on Machinery and Design, and presented to 32 undergraduate students. Pre and post-IL assessment were administrated to reveal their IL skills improvement. The results indicate their progress on IL skills and valuable feedbacks. This study shows how to embed a cohesive IL experience in all elements of an engineering course as a seamless instruction and a concept in other courses.
    Keywords: information literacy; self-directed learner; modular learning; learning outcomes; instructional design; feedback; reflection; Machinery and Design; engineering students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10013704
  • Evaluating the influence of error management culture factors on human resources productivity and strategic human capital - The case of Mobarakeh Steel Company   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Sheikhaboumasoudi, Ali Nasr Isfahani, Ali Shaemi Barzoki 
    Abstract: The main aim of this study is to determine factors influencing the error management culture and investigating the impact of such factors on the development of strategic human capital and human resources productivity. Mobarakeh Steel Company has been selected as the case study and mixed (qualitative-quantitative) method has been applied for data analysis. In the qualitative and quantitative analyses, 25 executive managers and 153 experienced employees have been selected, respectively. The influencing factors as prerequisites for effective management of error in the organization's culture were determined as changing the attitude and belief of management toward error, paying attention to all dimensions of error management, balanced learning in all departments of the company, integrated actions for establishing an error management culture and a fundamental development in the human resources system of the company. Findings indicate that the managers focused on the importance and stronger support of the importance of the main factors affecting the error management culture. Also, a platform was created for the development of strategic human capital with a learning-from-errors approach and encouraging the organization to improve human resource productivity.
    Keywords: error; learning from error; error management culture; strategic human capital; human resource productivity.

    by Nur Qudus, Adhi Kusumastuti, Samsudin Anis, Abdul Latif Ahmad 
    Abstract: Considering the harmful effects of lead as one of heavy metals commonly found in contaminated-groundwater to environment and living organism, its removal is a great challenge. This study focused on intensification of lead removal using emulsion liquid membrane with the aid of a low shear counter rotating Taylor-Couette column (TCC) extractor. The paper provides a technological innovation process to improve lead removal from liquid waste using TCC. Emulsion was prepared using TOA, Span 80, kerosene, and ammonia as extractant, surfactant, diluent, and stripper, respectively. Feed solution composed of lead nitrate in deionised water and HCl to adjust the pH. The emulsion and feed solution were then contacted in TCC for lead extraction at various conditions including HCl concentration, initial feed concentration, volume ratio of emulsion to feed phase, extraction time, and ratio of angular frequency of outer and inner cylinders. The results showed that the system was capable of extracting lead with high removal efficiency. The best extraction performance was obtained at HCl concentration of 0.1 M, initial feed concentration of 40 ppm, volume ratio of emulsion to feed phase of 1/5, extraction time of 7 min, and angular frequency ratio of 0.5. Overall, the use of low-shear TCC process intensified the mixing of emulsion and feed phases well that avoiding emulsion instability during the process.
    Keywords: Emulsion liquid membrane; lead removal; Taylor-Couette column; intensification; low shear extraction; novel extraction technology; innovation.

  • Interactive Electronic Textbook Use in Higher Education: Grades, Engagement, and Student Perceptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Jonathan Allred, Cheryl Murphy 
    Abstract: A trend towards electronic textbooks (e-textbooks) in higher education has given cause for additional research regarding their effectiveness when compared with traditional print textbooks. There is a lack of research specifically regarding interactive e-textbookstexts that have been enriched with embedded links, videos, quizzes, or other activities. This study presents the findings from an introductory education course within a large university in the United States that began using an interactive e-textbook as the dominant text for the course. Correlation was measured between student grades and three different elements of an interactive electronic textbook: total time spent logged into the e-textbook, student engagement level, and percent of interactive activities accessed. Student perceptions of the e-textbook were also gathered. Results showed significant positive correlation between overall course grades and two of the three variables tested (time and engagement). Survey results revealed a high level of comfort and convenience using the interactive e-textbook.
    Keywords: electronic textbooks; e-textbooks; interactive textbooks; engagement; textbooks; grades; learning; higher education; student perceptions; print textbooks; time; activities.

  • The Bologna Reform and Its Impact on the Motivation and Activities of the Academics A National Case Study: Slovenia   Order a copy of this article
    by Zvone Vodovnik 
    Abstract: In Europe and in Slovenia the Bologna reform of higher education has not yet been completed. This process was introduced with the aim of improving the efficiency and quality of teaching among others. A necessary condition for the successful implementation of the reform is the active involvement of teachers; however, this may be achieved only if the teachers are highly motivated for creative professional work.rnThe objective of this analysis is to establish whether the legal regulation governing this reform and its implementation has had a positive impact on the motivation of the teachers during the advanced reform of higher education on the basis of the Bologna Declaration. The results of this research indicate that the regulation of the legal position of teachers is not completely aligned with the values arising from international law. They lead to the conclusion that the legal regulation has negative effects on the motivation of teachers and the quality of teaching. Therefore the decisive action in direction of legal system is needed. The legislator as well as social partners should improve the legal regulations on the basis of findings of this research with the goal to give more ground practices which may lead to better motivation of academics. rn
    Keywords: higher education; employment law; academics; rights and duties; Bologna reform; lifelong learning.

  • Mentoring Community Pharmaceutical Technicians Incubator to Reduce High-alert drugs Pre-Dispensing Errors and Promote Functional Competency   Order a copy of this article
    by Teeraporn Saeheaw 
    Abstract: Unstructured training program caused new pharmaceutical technicians misinformation in pre-dispensing operation which reflects in increasing pre-dispensing error rates, and their poor functional competency.To improve hospital accreditation quality, this paper presents a learning innovation Mentoring Community Pharmaceutical Technicians Incubator by integrating i) Mentoring CoPs as an incubator to bring up conceptual knowledge and new experience layers; ii) CommonKADs Knowledge Model as a knowledge acquisition method; and iii)Common Functional competency standard as competency measurement criteria. Results show that the incubator reduced drugs and high-alert drugs pre-dispensing errors into hospital standard. Functional competency in week 1-5 improved 1.18 scores (29.5 %), and week 6-10 was at 0.50 scores (12.5 %). Knowledge Model illustrated that two inference layers were created, and domain knowledge was growing more than 50%. This paper suggests that the proposed incubator can promote Thai new pharmaceutical technicians in knowledge, competence, and performance layers by shifting from unstructured training program to reach higher levels of learning.
    Keywords: Mentoring CoPs; innovation and learning; defensive routine; pre-dispensing errors; Common Functional Competency of Pharmacist; a learning innovation.

  • The Role of Social Media in Collective Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Khalid Abdul Wahid, Wan Saiful ‘Azzam Wan Ismail, Haruthai Numprasertchai 
    Abstract: In the first decade of the 21st century elearning has become one of the key factors of the revolution in the learning process. E-learning combines modern interactive learning methods with knowledge management methods and provides a better evaluation of knowledge. In the first decade of the 21st century elearning has become one of the key factors of the revolution in the learning process. E-learning combines modern interactive learning methods with knowledge management methods and provides a better evaluation of knowledge. Social media, as one of ICT tools has brought revolutionary new ways of interacting, participating, cooperating and collaborating and involves users generating content and connecting with people through a many-to-many, rather than the traditional one-to-many, communication approach. However, collective learning using social media among higher institution students has not been given much attention especially within a Malaysian context. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the acceptance of social media in learning among higher institution students. Data from 365 students have been collected from both science & technology and social science clusters in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). Data was analysed using SmartPLS. The result shows that all the antecedents, performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating condition, of technology acceptance have positive significant effect on collective learning except social influence.
    Keywords: collective learning; effort expectancy; social influence; facilitating conditions; performance expectancy; social media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10017705
  • The Nature of Online Students Feedback in Higher Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Syerina Azlin Md Nasir, Wan Fairos Wan Yaacob, Nurazleena Ismail 
    Abstract: The advent of technology in education has not only changed the traditional classes but has also made students become more independent on the teacher for lifelong learning. Thus, the response of students to learning is a key element for measuring the extent to which the quality of education is perceived in online learning. Although many studies have adopted a formal instrument to gauge feedback on students experience in higher education and on teaching practice, questions exist about the nature and extent of feedback and its impact on student achievement. Analysing the nature of students feedback is important in improving student skills and shaping learning behaviour in online learning. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the nature of the feedback itself. We conducted an analysis on students feedback in web-based learning for two selected courses which were exam based and non-exam based courses. The data for students actual participation in online discussion was collected for the whole semester. As a result, the actual amount of time taken by students to read and respond in writing to the instructor or other students in the discussion board was obtained. The feedback received was then categorized using the thematic analysis according to different nature of feedbacks. Next, regression analysis was carried out on the count of discovered nature of feedback to determine its relationship and usefulness as evaluated by the instructor. This study disclosed four disparate natures of feedbacks based on the responses namely no posting, analysis, evaluation and explanation. We also found significant positive correlation between the use of feedback: the more students respond in the form of analysis, evaluation and explanation types of response, the more the instructor found it more useful for further revision.
    Keywords: blended learning; online discussion; regression analysis; student feedback; thematic analysis.

  • Evaluation of The Impact of The HyFlex Learning Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Chin-Yen Liu, Ruben Rodriguez 
    Abstract: The HyFlex learning model adopted by Texas A&M University-San Antonios College of Business offers students who are separated online from their peers and instructors the same opportunities to obtain impartial educational quality. This learning model accomplishes this by allowing students the flexibility to attend the class (1) face-to-face, (2) synchronously, or (3) asynchronously via the adobe connect online-based meeting platform. This study focuses on evaluating the impact that HyFlex has regarding student achievements by assessing their performances from one quantitative course section offered in the program. Quantitative data was collected to examine multiple perspectives in regards to relationships between students performance and their decision on attendance options in the same course. Findings include clarification on the preconception of quality assurance and efficacy on the HyFlex learning model, distance learning in general, as well as for quantitative courses deployed in a non-traditional online format. Future implications for research are discussed.
    Keywords: adobe connect; autonomous learning/learners; distance education; online learning; online course delivery; HyFlex course model; quantitative courses.

  • Artefact-based Approach for Improving Social Presence in E-learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Noorihan Abdul Rahman, Roslim Mohamad, Aminat Showole 
    Abstract: Requirements elicitation is an early process in software development whereby this process needs to gather an accurate set of requirements in order to produce unambiguous requirements for system developers. The element of social presence helps the students to socially interact and feel connected while using E-learning. Thus, there is a need to improve requirements elicitation process by identifying social presence factors in E-learning. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of artefacts in eliciting social presence for E-learning according to experts consensus. Usability evaluation for the artefacts is carried out in Study Two and Study Three by using multiphase approach. The artefact-based approach results prove that social presence requirements can be elicited and thus contribute to the knowledge of Requirements Engineering. The evaluation results also prove that artefact-based approach for social presence requirements is acceptable as the process for motivating social interaction in the E-learning domain.
    Keywords: E-learning; consensus; requirements artefact; requirements elicitation; social presence; social requirements; learner.

  • An integrated model of e-learning continuance intention in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramadiani Ramadiani, Ahmad Nizar Hidayanto, Azainil Azainil, Frisca Frisca, Herkules Herkules 
    Abstract: There had been some research concerning behaviour in using e-learning system. Most of the analysis focuses on the students behavioural intention to use the system, without doing further analysis to find out their continuance intention to use it again. Therefore, this research aims to develop a model that describes the influencing factors on e-learning continuance intention of Indonesian students. Analysis in this research is focused on the investigations of the e-learning satisfaction, e-learning usefulness, and e-learning effectiveness, from the four main aspects: e-learning materials/multimedia, service quality, interaction, and learner's characteristics. By using Structural Equation Modelling approach, several analyses were conducted to 635 respondents' data, obtained from various university in Indonesia. This research found that almost all of the factors analysed in this research have a significant influence on continuance intention of Indonesian students, with e-learning satisfaction and e-learning usefulness as the main factors that influence directly, and navigation, reliability, tangibles, self-efficacy, and learner-content interaction as the main factors that influence indirectly.
    Keywords: E-learning; continuance intention; Structural Equation Modeling; satisfaction; benefits; effectiveness; service quality; interaction; user characteristics. information technology.

  • To be or not to be an entrepreneur? Students perceptions of barriers to entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Jana Hojnik, Doris Gomezelj Omerzel, Tina Bratkovic Kregar 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore how students who are attending or have completed at least one course in entrepreneurship perceive barriers to entrepreneurship. Based on a sample of 193 students from University of Primorska (Slovenia), we first conducted exploratory factor analysis and found five factors related to barriers to entrepreneurship. We then employed cluster analysis and identified barriers to entrepreneurship for four groups of students. The findings of the conducted study enable us to advise and help students who seem to be prospective entrepreneurs to develop the lacking competencies and start their own ventures in the future.
    Keywords: Barriers to entrepreneurship; Clusters; Entrepreneurship; Higher education/university; Slovenia; Students.

  • Forward-looking approach in the accounting of financial instruments: Case Study of Slovenian Pension Company   Order a copy of this article
    by Mojca Gornjak 
    Abstract: The replacement of IFRS standard for financial instruments has an impact on new definitions of business models, on new forward-looking approach for measurement of financial instruments, like equities or bonds and on new loss allowance provisions with lowering the figures. The comparison between IAS 39 and IFRS 9 is essential because of the disclosures of the compared figures in the annual reports. The replacement is actual in more than 140 countries, where the organizations do the accounting under IFRS. We expect the innovativeness in accounting in the sense of implementing future expectation not only in daily operations but also in strategic levels. The model of expected credit losses (ECL) affects organizations performance as we shown in the case study research. The contribution to the management accounting is in defining the approach of the replacement of the IAS 39 with IFRS 9 and calculating the effects on financial statements and shareholders values.
    Keywords: innovation in accounting; IFRS 9; IAS 39; business model; expected credit loss; SPPI test; financial statements.

  • Evaluation of e-Learning as a Learning Agent   Order a copy of this article
    by Gede Rasben Dantes, Ni Ketut Suarni, Nyoman Dantes, I. Ketut Dharsana, I. Nyoman Laba Jayanta, Ni Komang Arie Suwastini 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the e-learning as a learning agent. The main feature of this system is to identify a learning style of the student through a log system that relate the students achievement in mastering the learning content. The students learning style was determined by Bayesian Network Algorithm that enabled the system to classify the students learning style into textual, audio, or video. With this identifiation, the system would be able to recommend suitable learning contents for the students. The study revealed that the e-learning was capable of identfying the students learning style. From the total 34 research subjects involved in the study, the system successfully identified 16 students learning syles, where 14 students were revealed to have textual learning style, 1 student was revealed to prefer audio content, and the other student was revealed to prefer video content. Thus, the study concluded that the adaptive e-learning system evaluated in the study was capable of identifying the students leaning styles, and thus capable of recommending suitable materials for the students, hence rendering the e-learning system as a mere content management system, but also as an agent of learning.
    Keywords: e-Learning as a learning agent; e-Learning; Learning style; Bayesian Network.

  • The role of engineering education for innovation in the 21st century   Order a copy of this article
    by Wisuit Sunthonkanokpong, Elizabeth Murphy 
    Abstract: This conceptual paper first presents a synthesis of the central target and related concepts of five innovation policies from Asia. The paper then identifies how engineering education (EE) can help realize this target. Methods involved online, quantitative, key concept analysis combined with qualitative analysis of units of meaning. Analysis of the polices revealed that the overall target was social and economic prosperity. The prosperity is powered by a capacity for sustainability and inclusivity and by five other sub-categories of capacity as follows: human; relational; research and development; science, technology and innovation and; entrepreneurship and competitive. EE can contribute to social and economic prosperity by helping to build this capacity. Building capacity requires a shift from teaching as telling, to teaching as doing, from transmission of knowledge, to construction of knowledge, from teacher- to learner-centered learning and from didactic teaching to project- and problem-based learning situated in authentic, scientific, social and technological contexts.
    Keywords: prosperity; 21st century engineer; sustainability; inclusion; capacity; social.

  • Improving English Pronunciation via Automatic Speech Recognition Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaobin Liu, Meihui Li, Meiting Han, Zejia Chen, Yiling Mo, Xiujuan Chen, Minjia Liu, Manfei Xu 
    Abstract: This study presents a research study on applying ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) technology in English pronunciation correction. We also discuss the relationship between ELF/ESL learners self-improvement and English teachers classroom teaching. The results show that ASR technology can help Chinese English learners improve their English pronunciation. The research aims to provide a new and practical way for ELF/ESL learners to improve English pronunciation as well as provide a new mode of English pronunciation teaching for relevant educators.
    Keywords: ASR technology; English pronunciation improvement; English pronunciation teaching.

  • ASSESSMENT-ORIENTED FORMATIVE TEST   Order a copy of this article
    by Siti Tamah, Johannes Vincentius Djoko Wirjawan 
    Abstract: Administering formative tests during instructional process in one academic year is prevalently individual-oriented expecting students to do the quizzes individually similar to the one when a summative test is carried out. The challenge appears when teachers have implemented group work, but they still implement non-group work oriented formative tests. The underlying argument is that it is essential for formative test administration to come closer to the paradigm implemented regularly. The class session for regular basis should be reflected in the test class session. This paper aims at introducing the insights of executing authentic assessment in the formative test administration while keeping student engagement. They include (1) the change from individual assessment into group assessment, (2) the change from individual assessment into representative assessment, and (3) the change from individual assessment into representative assessment with structured discussion. Furthermore, the encouraging voice of a group of language teachers following group assessment workshop will be revealed.
    Keywords: formative test; group work; representativeness; structured discussion; authentic assessment; innovation.

  • Start-ups accelerators support open innovation in Portugal   Order a copy of this article
    by Silvia Fernandes, Guilherme Castela 
    Abstract: Modern competitiveness is tough, mainly due to new technologies and platforms. Managers must cope with these challenges to keep their businesses innovative and successful. An important step is to exploit the potential of open innovation. This work analyses where Portugal stands in terms of innovation in general, propensity for open innovation and innovation sustainability. A HJ-Biplot methodology was applied to a valid sample from the CIS (Community Innovation Survey) for Portugal. The analysis suggests that Portuguese firms must cut back on activities that are not leading to the right outcomes. And the choice of right partners can cause more ideas to be executed and diffused. Innovation accelerators can help in this approach toward better innovation turnovers and countrys innovation index. These issues are relevant to research in the face of fast trends such as the fourth industry (IoT, ciber-physical environments) and smart cities.
    Keywords: innovation accelerators; open innovation; innovation return; entrepreneurship; IoT; CIS; HJ-Biplot.

  • Reverse Open Innovation: Open Innovation as a Relevant Factor for Reverse Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Pedro Cortonesi, Fernanda Cahen, Felipe Borini 
    Abstract: We investigated the role of open innovation in the reverse innovation process. Reverse innovation is an innovation initially launched in a developing country and later introduced to an advanced country. Von Zedtwitz et al. (2015) developed a typology of global innovation with sixteen innovation flows between advanced and emerging countries, ten of which are reverse innovation flows. We argue that their typology can be expanded. By adopting an inductive case study, we provided a nuanced analysis of open innovation as a trigger for reverse innovation based on an in-depth case analysis of a foreign subsidiary and its network of local partners in an emerging market. Our research extended the typology of Von Zedtwitz et al. (2015) by identifying open innovation occurring in emerging markets and influencing the process of reverse innovation in multinational companies. By adding analyses of open innovation, we theorized that new reverse innovation configurations emerge. The managerial contributions are related to how multinational companies can benefit from open innovation and leverage the potential of reverse innovation to increase innovation performance and competitiveness in the global setting.
    Keywords: open innovation; reverse innovation; emerging country.

  • AccurIT: a Prototype of a Machine Translation Engine for English to Arabic Translation   Order a copy of this article
    by Basem Alkazemi, Mohammed Nour, Atif Naseer, Ammar Natto, Gami Mohammad A. Grami 
    Abstract: Current machine translators have reached an unprecedented level of sophistication in dealing with not only isolated words, but also longer sentences and paragraphs. Despite the advances achieved in this field, several challenges remain to be resolved for machine translation (MT) to be on par with professional human translation, including the quality of grammar and context accuracy, pragmatics, relevance, choice of vocabulary and ability to translate large files effectively based on this lists criteria. Another extremely problematic area that we have observed is incorrect literal translation of English phrases, proverbs, idioms, figurative speech and clich
    Keywords: Translation; Machine Translation; ESL Learning.

  • Effects of Business Model Innovation on Corporate Sustainability: Intervening role of Organizational Learning and Strategic Flexibility   Order a copy of this article
    by Nitin Vihari 
    Abstract: In the current competitive economic environment, business models through their value creation mechanisms act as a support system in fostering the sustainability of a firm. Business model innovation is typically performed either by renewal or replication strategy. Drawing on the instrumental and integrative theories, a framework of hypotheses is developed that underlines the effects of business model innovation (renewal and replication) on a firms corporate sustainability practices. The operational responsiveness of the relationship between business model innovation and corporate sustainability practices is tested using organizational learning, strategic flexibility as sequential mediating variables and environmental dynamism as a moderating variable. Using a conclusive research design, the present study employed survey questionnaire to managerial workforce of the select Indian pharmaceutical companies. Out of a total of 354 questionnaires circulated across the select pharmaceutical companies, 248 were returned and 22 were discarded due to incompletely filled responses, resulting in a response rate of 68.84%. The study uses Structural Equation Modeling and Sequential Mediation Analysis, to test the proposed research model. Some of the findings indicate that both the types of business model innovation significantly predict corporate sustainability practices; organizational learning and strategic flexibility acts as sequential mediators and environmental dynamism strengthens the relationship. Furthermore, the study proposes key theoretical and practitioner underpinnings along with future research avenues.
    Keywords: Corporate Sustainability; Business model innovation; Organizational Learning; Strategic Flexibility; Environmental Dynamism.

  • Influence of job dissatisfaction on recent raise of employee turnover intention in UAE banks: A mixed-methods approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamad Alqubati, Christopher Dixon, Chowdhury Hossan 
    Abstract: High employee turnover can be a serious setback to the fulfilment of the strategic objectives of any organization. Statistics reveal that turnover intention among UAE nationals in the banking sector is increasing. Between 2011 and 2014, the ratio of UAE nationals in the banking sector has decreased from 35% to 34% despite growth in the sector. This study intends to focus on and identify the factors affecting the turnover among UAE nationals in the banking sector. Empirical estimates of the regression models from a sample of 100 respondents are integrated with qualitative analysis from 30 interviewees using a mixed methods approach. The estimated betas reveal that the cost of leaving a job, the retirement/after service benefits, the financial benefits, the peer-to-peer relationship, the leader-employee relationship, and the career growth prospects significantly affect turnover intention. The quantitative results reveal that financial benefits, after-service benefits such as pension, and other retirement benefits are the most important variables affecting job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, the qualitative analysis suggests that work overload and stress along with financial benefits and after-service benefits determine job satisfaction. This paper attempts to enhance the rigour and validity of the data and findings by using a mixed methods approach. Furthermore, the factors highlighted in the study that cause turnover intention among UAE nationals in the banking sector call for a review of current managerial and policy-oriented practices in a multicultural and diverse work environment.
    Keywords: Mixed Method approach; Regression Analysis; Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction; Turnover Intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10017729
  • Assessing the Effectiveness of business incubators   Order a copy of this article
    by Monika Dhochak, Satya Ranjan Acharya 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of business incubators, those mentoring and guiding the startups to survive and grow. To assess the effectiveness of the selected business models of 29 incubators by DST (Department of Science & Technology), GoI, we reviewed the incubation process and their business model from incubators and tenants perspective. Business incubators are considered as an effective tool to develop the new ventures, leads to employment generation, innovation and economic growth. Better understanding of the driving factors of business incubators will improve the success rate of the new ventures. Furthermore, assessing business incubators effectiveness and services will help the business incubators to align their offerings according to the needs of the tenants, and tenants may work for better utilization of resources and make rational decision while deciding the incubators to work with. This integrative framework seeks to provide conceptual clarity of the various services provide by business incubators.
    Keywords: Business incubators; incubation process; incubators’ effectiveness; innovation.

  • Infusing Functionality of Social Media as a Transformative Higher Education Teaching and Learning Process into Social Learning System   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanty Oktavia, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Meyliana Meyliana, Suhono Harso Supangkat, Harjanto Prabowo 
    Abstract: In Web 2.0 era, social media are increasingly receiving attention in many sectors of the industry, including higher education institution. Social media can facilitate learning in various ways. It provides extensive learning support in line with social learning concept. With social media, there are substantial and pervasive changes to communication. Besides, it has become an essential part of personal life. A large volume of content is generated and diffused by online users. In this environment, there is an urgent requirement to infuse functionality of social media into teaching and learning activity in the higher education institution. The objective of this study is to identify the adoption of the functionality of social networks in higher education to increase learning performance. The methodology used in this study is conjoint analysis to map social media features into social media functionality based on student preferences. The result obtained in this study consist of two perspectives. For theory perspective, the mapping of the functionality of social media for higher education to build social learning systems must focus in presence functionality which represent status of users, so it can build intimacy and immediacy to increase learning process. Moreover, for institution perspective this social learning model can be an input for institution which want to integrate social media features into their learning process to enhance their learning process.
    Keywords: Social media; social learning; functionality; higher education institution.

  • Antecedents of student retention: the influence of innovation and quality of teaching in Brazilian universities   Order a copy of this article
    by Julio Cesar Ferro De Guimarães, Eliana Andréa Severo, Kleber Cavalcanti Nóbrega, Vilmar Antonio Gonçalves Tondolo 
    Abstract: Innovation in Teaching is related to a form of service delivery, in which teaching methods contribute to students learning process. Higher Education Institutions are looking for ways to engage and retain students. In this sense, this study aims to analyze the relationships between Innovation in Teaching, Quality in Teaching, Organizational Commitment and Student Retention. In order to achieve this goal, a quantitative, descriptive research was carried out with analysis through Modeling of Structural Equations, applied to 8 Higher Education Institutions (Public and Private), in the courses of Administration, Accounting Sciences and Production Engineering, with participation of 703 students in the southern states of Brazil. results show that innovation must generate quality, in order to compromise students. This study presents a framework for analysis of Innovation in Teaching, Quality in Teaching, Organizational Commitment and Student Retention.
    Keywords: Innovation in Teaching; Quality in Teaching; Organizational Commitment; Student Retention; Active Learning; Higher Education; Structural Equation Modeling.

  • Application of the means-end chain theory to study of the value perception on professional clients markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Zbigniew Pastuszak, Mieczyslaw Pawlowski, Ali Turkyilmaz 
    Abstract: The authors present the results of research on the perception of value in the relations of companies on the B2B market. The research was carried out using the the means-end chain (MEC) theory and the laddering interview method. Entrepreneurs' research in the form of structured interviews was used. Perception of value in organizational relationships can be considered in the aspects of the efficiency of running a business and the interaction between people. In times of easy-accessed information and easy-to-use means of communication, interpersonal interactions and societal values are becoming more and more important. They are willingly articulated by entrepreneurs in the form of a professed system of value. The mutual learning of business process participants at both individual and organizational level is of great importance.
    Keywords: value perceiveness; B2B relations; organisational learning; laddering interview method; means-end chain (MEC) theory.

  • TQM and Organizational Innovation: A systematic review and research framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Ai-Fen Lim, Radha Krishnan Nair, Pik-Yin Foo 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to build a conceptual framework to study the impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on organizational innovation. Past and recent literatures that linked TQM concept with organizational innovation served as the backbone to develop the conceptual framework. The built framework consists of six chosen TQM practices and two-dimensional organizational innovation, namely product innovation and process innovation. Varying degree of the impact of each of the six proposed TQM practices towards product innovation and process innovation is worthy of subsequent empirical investigation to identify the most suitable combination as proposed in the framework. The best combination in the framework is expected to achieve process and product innovations which emphasizes on operational efficiency and effectiveness respectively. Since product and process innovations are important for organizations to operate in an efficient and effective manner, the management needs to invest time and effort to identify and implement the best TQM practices necessary to achieve organizational goals. This framework has the potential to serve as the solution to efficiently and effectively implement a set of organizational best practices to enhance the competitive position of an organization with the aspirations of becoming an industry leader.
    Keywords: Total Quality Management; Process innovation; Product innovation; Conceptual framework.

  • Repetitions as Communication Strategies in L2 Oral Interactions   Order a copy of this article
    by Suryani Awang, Wan Nuur Fazliza Wan Zakaria, Siti Shazlin Razak 
    Abstract: The implementation of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in early 1970s has greatly impacted second language (L2) learning worldwide and Malaysia is no exception. Since CLT approach focuses on the conveyance of a message while the grammatical rules are taught in an integrative manner, it is expected that students would use any sources available to them in getting their message across in oral interactions, including the use of various communication strategies (CSs) which is generally defined as intentional attempt to cope with any language-related problem of which the speaker is aware during the course of communication. Among the various types of CSs stated in the literature, repetitions became the focus of the current study because the authors initial observations showed they played different functions in communication, hence indicating their additional functions in oral communication aside from coping with something perceived as problematic in the interlocutors speech and gaining time during interactions, as stated in the literature. In order to elicit the strategies, six selected pairs were asked to act out role play tasks on specified topics given by their instructor in their English class. The role play sessions were video-recorded and the oral data were transcribed before they were analysed based on D
    Keywords: communicative competence; communication strategies; communicative language teaching (CLT); role play tasks; second language learners.

    by Leila Fanaee Marhamat, Reza Tadayoni, Mohammad Reza Zali 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial learning can be observed in many innovative activities that take place in established organizations such as media companies. In recent years, the media industry is experiencing a dramatic transition in many aspects such as creating content, distributing content to consumers, and monetizing audiences. These changes oblige media companies to engage in entrepreneurial learning dealing with existing and potential opportunities of the market for surviving and growing. Despite the acknowledged importance of entrepreneurial learning, research explicitly addressing the question of what organization learns entrepreneurially is still in poor supply. Using grounded theory method and drawing on (5) in-depth case studies of Danish media companies involved in innovative services, this study addresses the aspects of entrepreneurial learning and develops a model that suggests three dimensions of entrepreneurial learning named learning opportunity recognition, learning opportunity discovery, and learning opportunity creation. We discuss how our model contributes to the entrepreneurial learning literature, and also we present its implications for future research and practice.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial learning; entrepreneurial opportunities; organizational learning; innovation; entrepreneurial activities; media companies; grounded theory.

  • Can Collaborative Relationship stimulate Innovation Capability and improve Performance in the Hospitality Industry?   Order a copy of this article
    by Akkaranan Pongsathornwiwat, Chawalit Jeenanunta, Kalaya Udomvitid 
    Abstract: An external source becomes one of important factors for sustaining long-term competitions. However, little is known about whether collaborative relationships enhance innovation capability, and consequently firm performance in hospitality contexts. The purpose of this paper is to examine complex relationships of collaboration, innovations, and performance in the hospitality industry. Based on a survey of 84 hotel in Bangkok, Thailand, the statistical analysis is first analysed using OLS regression method, and then utilizing Two Stage Least-Square method for robustness of the results. The findings indicate that collaboration has a positive impact on both internal and service innovation capabilities. However, only internal innovation capability has a direct positive sign on hotel performance. Interestingly, service innovation does not directly influence performance, but collaboration mediates the effect of service innovation capability on hotel performance.
    Keywords: supply chain collaboration; hotel innovation capability; supply chain innovation; hotel performance; survey research.

  • Development of Soft Skills Learning Management Model for Automotive Parts Industry in Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Blinda Changkajonsakdi, Sittichai Kaewkuekool 
    Abstract: This research aims to (1) study the labour competency, (2) design a learning management model, and (3) propose a conceptual framework that can be references for further research on soft skills for business management. The learning management model in this research was being designed by a total of 17 Thai specialists and foreign experts in the automotive parts production field, whereby its design was based on the labour competencies studies in the industry and accordingly to the survey results from specialists. Moreover, the model was being incorporated into vocational education curriculums to study its effects. Thus, the study results have shown that the labour competencies in the automotive parts industry are divided into four categories, namely attributes, soft skills, hard skills, and knowledge, while according to the specialists, the learning management model can then be organised into 14 different learning stations for workers in the automotive parts industry.
    Keywords: labour competency; learning management model; automotive parts; attributes; soft skills; hard skills; knowledge; vocational education.

    by Iswan Riyadi, Hersulastuti Hersulastuti, Theresia Kriswianti Nugrahaningsih, I. Made Sudana 
    Abstract: Reading comprehension is a significant aspect of students' gaining understanding through reading. Low achievements in reading comprehension have long been linked to a lack of motivation and strategies. This study attempted to implement a model of reading comprehension based on metacognitive learning strategies. This study involved the following stages: developing metacognitive learning strategies in reading comprehension practice, and testing the validity, practicality and effectiveness of the model. Observation, interviews, document analysis, and questionnaires were used for data collection, while interactive modelling, evaluative analysis, and comparative analysis were employed for data analysis. Prior to implementation, this model was tested in two schools. Two classes from these schools were selected for this study, one as the treatment group and the other as the control group. Students' reading comprehension skills were found to improve significantly after application of metacognitive learning strategies. The model demonstrated its validity, practicality, and effectiveness for helping students gain a deeper understanding of the text. The results could be applied in developing better methods for enhancing reading skills.
    Keywords: metacognitive; learning; strategy; comprehensive; reading skills.

Special Issue on: ICBL 2017/ISET 2017 Innovative Applications of Technology in Education

  • Evolution and Effectiveness of E-learning in Accounting Education: The Case of Hong Kong   Order a copy of this article
    by Billy Tak-Ming Wong, Kam Cheong Li, Beryl Yuen-Yee Wong, Joseph Shiu-Wing Yau 
    Abstract: This paper reviews the evolution of e-learning in accounting education in Hong Kong tertiary institutions. As a case study, it also reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of e-learning in an accounting programme. E-learning has been broadly employed in the higher education in Hong Kong as an important blended learning mode of knowledge-sharing and for motivating the accounting students to develop lifelong learning skills. This paper examines the historical development and adoption of e-learning in accounting education during the past decades, showing how its evolution has been in line with the overall technological developments in education delivery as well as the accounting industry. On this basis, the e-learning practice of an accounting programme was evaluated for its effectiveness. The findings showed that students were satisfied with the overall quality of the e-learning facilities provided on campus, but provision of technical support and user training was the area which may hinder the effective use of the facilities.
    Keywords: e-learning; accountancy profession; accounting education; blended learning.

  • Advancing Teaching with Massive Open Online Courses: A Review of Case Studies   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong 
    Abstract: This paper reviews the adoption of massive open online courses (MOOCs) by higher education institutions for teaching on-campus courses, and summarises the good practices from relevant case studies. From a total of 28 case studies, it identifies the characteristics of MOOC adoption platforms, course materials, approaches to facilitate interaction, and assessment methods. The good practices highlight the importance of (1) the division of labour in implementing MOOCs; (2) the effective use of technology; and (3) course redesign based on experience with MOOCs. Examples of institutional practices in adopting MOOCs are provided, illustrating the diverse ways of utilising them to offer students a flexible and personalised learning experience in on-campus courses and tackle the challenges encountered during the adoption of MOOC.
    Keywords: Classroom; Teaching; Higher education; Massive open online courses; MOOCs; blended MOOCs; bMOOCs.

  • Improving the Experience of Teaching and Learning Kindergarten-level English Vocabulary Using Augmented Reality   Order a copy of this article
    by Lap-Kei Lee, Cheuk-Him Chau, Chun-Hin Chau, Chun-Tim Ng, Jun-Hao Hu, Chun-Yin Wong, Lap-Chung Yu, Nga-In Wu 
    Abstract: This paper explores the possibility of using the Augmented Reality (AR) technology to improve the learning experience of kindergarten students, the teaching experience of teachers, and to address the parents concern that a long-time usage of electronic devices may affect their childs health. We developed two AR mobile application prototypes to teach kindergarten students English vocabulary in an interactive and attractive way. The first application allows kindergarten students to learn in any place and at any time using a mobile device. To address the parents concern on health, a monitoring system is implemented to allow parents to monitor their childs usage and stop the application remotely. The other application targets to use AR to ease teachers class preparation and teaching, and to improve students learning experience. Preliminary evaluation and teacher feedbacks gave insights how practitioners can use AR in early childhood education and brings benefits to students, teachers and parents.
    Keywords: augmented reality; English learning; early childhood education; educational games; parental perspectives.

  • Instructional Support for the Faculty Members to Promote Flipped Classroom Based on the IDEAL Model in Japanese Higher Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Chiaki Iwasaki 
    Abstract: This research was conducted to suggest a design for instructional support that faculty members could use to promote an effective flipped classroom. To accomplish this, a questionnaire survey was first conducted on the current state of flipped classrooms for university faculty members in order to obtain teacher support methods. Second, the survey results were used to design instructional support for faculty members to promote an effective flipped classroom based on the Integrated Design, Evaluation, and Assessment of Loadings (IDEAL) model. By examining the survey results, the author identified four points as problems and opportunities to define goals, and from which to explore possible strategies. Based on these points, the author developed and prepared a learning environment about writing and a staff development course for teachers to experience the flipped classroom as both learners and teachers. After experiencing the flipped classroom, instructors developed lessons based on their reflections as learners.
    Keywords: Flipped-Classroom; Instructional Support; Faculty Development; IDEAL Model; e-Learning; Active Learning; Higher Education.

  • A Review on Learning Analytics   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Keung Hui, Lam For Kwok 
    Abstract: Learning analytics is a new research stream developed from other previous related streams such as academic analytics and educational data mining. We conducted a literature review on recent publications related to data analytics in education in various journals and conferences. With the reference model proposed by Chatti et al (2012), we proposed a refined model by introducing the second layer elements to two out of the four dimensions and propose changes to the list of options of some dimensions. We then analysed publications of the initial three years (2014-2016) in the Journal of Learning Analytics based on the refined model. We discovered five trends in learning analytics applications including extending the data landscape to non-academic data and shifting of objectives and analysis methods. Finally, we proposed four future research directions in this area and rationalized the relationship between dimensions in the model.
    Keywords: Learning Analytics; Student Success; Student Performance; Intervention.

Special Issue on: Innovative Application of Technology in Education

  • Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as Open Educational Resources (OERs) in a Blended Teaching and Learning Mode of Instructional Delivery in Higher Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Melinda Dela Pena Bandalaria 
    Abstract: Education system, especially in developing countries, faces many challenges which include the quality of instruction as concretized by the quality of instructional content and qualifications of the teachers. The increasing adoption of Open Education Practice (OEP) especially Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and Open Educational Resources (OER) presents some potentials to address the concern of access to quality education. Many studies already provided some results on the use of OERs to improve instructional content. Harnessing MOOCs potential, on the other hand, is still constrained by factors like low completion rates and sustainability model. A preliminary study was done to look at the potential of using MOOCs as OERs in a blended teaching and learning mode. Specifically, the study determined the mechanics involved in the adoption of the model; the learners experience and perceived effectiveness of the model in terms of facilitating their learnings; and the advantages and challenges in the adoption of the MOOCs as OERs model.
    Keywords: MOOCs; OERs; teaching innovation; teaching model; higher education.