Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Innovation and Learning


These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in IJIL, but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.


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International Journal of Innovation and Learning (41 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Unsuccessful fan-centred innovation of thick value for a music festival What went wrong?   Order a copy of this article
    by Ivary Vimm, Erno Salmela 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to model the phenomenon of comprehensive fan innovation of thick value. The action research was utilised in studying innovation of jewellery for a music festival. As a result, the study proposes a new model how fans can participate in comprehensive thick value innovation. The model was tested in the jewellery case. However, something went clearly wrong. The article critically examines an unsuccessful, or, moreover, an erroneous thick value innovation experiment. The study provides practitioners with practical knowledge of how to avoid pitfalls in fan innovation.
    Keywords: fan innovation; value innovation; thick value; value creation; co-creation; learning through doing; action research; jewellery; music festival.

  • Personality Traits and Work Engagement: Does Team Member Exchange Make a difference?   Order a copy of this article
    by Khalifa I. Al Hosani, Hossam M. Abu Elanain, Mian Ajmal 
    Abstract: This study examines the impact that personality traits and team member exchange has on work engagement within the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) public sectors. The object of this study is to explore the influence of these factors on work engagement and to increase the level of understanding of employee work engagement. Moreover, the study contributes to the existing literature by providing a conceptual framework that demonstrates the mediating role of TMX between personality traits and work engagement. To date, this area of study has yet to be explored in sufficient depth in the context of the UAE, since researchers tend to overlook the role that TMX plays in shaping the impact of personality traits and work engagement. A self-administered questionnaire using a 5-item Likert scale consisting of personality traits, team member exchange, and work engagement was used with demographic variables in order to collect data on 550 employees working in two public sector organizations in the UAE, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, namely the Abu Dhabi food control authority (ADFCA) and the Abu Dhabi farmer service center (ADFSC). The study used different analytical methods, such as descriptive statistics and factor loading analysis. The study found personality traits to have a significant positive impact on team member exchange. Team member exchange was found to have a mediating effect on personality traits and work engagement. Implications of the study are discussed and lines for further research are suggested.
    Keywords: Personality traits; Team Member Exchange; Work Engagement; Work place learning; United Arab Emirates.

  • MOOC in a Malaysian University: Preliminary Perceptions and Perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Shazmira Zulkafli, Fitri Suraya Mohamad 
    Abstract: MOOC is gaining momentum in Malaysia as it is seen as a game changer in the delivery of university courses to a wider audience, beyond the campus walls. At Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, the first MOOC course was designed and developed to deliver learning about ICT Competencies to university students at all public universities throughout the country. The study examined the perceptions and satisfaction levels among on-campus students who have enrolled into the MOOC course, as a first step to investigate the impact of the web-based instructional approach on higher learning. Two key aspects were focused; the pedagogical and technical assembly of the MOOC. The pedagogical aspect looked into the instructional design and assessment of contents in the course, while the technical aspect covered areas such as user interface, presentation of video content, provision of learning and social tools, and learning analytics. Findings indicated a significant relationship between each these elements with participants' satisfaction levels. It is clear that these elements are crucial in making MOOC a successful instructional supplement for undergraduate learning in Malaysia.
    Keywords: Massive Open Online Courses; MOOC; higher education; student satisfaction; university learning.

  • HRM Practices and Innovation Performance with Mediating Effect of Knowledge Sharing: Empirical Evidence from Emirati ICT Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Amna A. Al Kaabi, Hossam M. Abu Elanain, Mian Ajmal 
    Abstract: Previous studies on innovation performance, knowledge sharing, and HRM practices have primarily been performed in Western contexts, so additional empirical evidence is required to understand the importance and role of knowledge sharing in a non-Western context. Therefore, this research has two objectives: to assess the impact of HRM practices on innovation performance as well as to test the mediating impact of knowledge sharing on the relationships among HRM practices and innovation performance. Using multiple regression analysis on a sample of 202 respondents from three organizations operating in the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi, this study shows that knowledge sharing is positively related to perceived firm innovation performance. This study also shows that selected HRM practices are positively related to a firms perceived innovation performance. The findings show positive relationships among knowledge sharing, HRM practices and innovation performance.
    Keywords: HR practices; Knowledge Sharing; Innovation management; Emirati ICT Industry.

  • Knowledge management, learning, social attitudes and organizational change in a Brazilian Public Organization   Order a copy of this article
    by Francisco Antonio Coelho Junior, Luciana Lower, Cristiane Faiad, Mariana Carolina Barbosa Rego, Ladilucy Armond, Alan Silva 
    Abstract: Even though change is implemented for positive reasons, employees often resist to change. The purpose of this paper is to provide a new perspective to the analysis of organizational learning and change, including organizational readiness to change and supervisory support during a planned organizational change in a Brazilian Organization. Survey data were collected during the change and the research presents how perceptions of individuals (N=160) can influence decisively on resistance or adherence to change. Results show there is commitment to change, emergent learning is encouraged by creating opportunities for informal sharing of knowledge and experience and the formal organizational structure facilitates learning, adaptation, and change. Sufficient opportunities are provided for staff to learn how to make use of available information and communication technologies for learning and knowledge sharing. The results present a set of issues to be managed in order to increase the chances of success of ongoing changes.
    Keywords: attitudes; knowledge creation; learning for technological innovation; organizational behavior; organizational learning; organizational change; organizational structure; public organizations; agile methodology; commitment to change; supervisory support; appropriateness of change; trust in management; management style.

  • Enhancing Student Engagement and Immediate Feedback with Clickers and Response Cards   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohan Rao 
    Abstract: Engaging students with immediate feedback demonstrates improvement in student learning and success. There are both high-tech and low-tech strategies to enhance student engagement and learning. The study focuses on the effectiveness of clickers and response cards. The effectiveness of clickers in the classroom is done by implementing the device in Operations Management (OM) classes. Clickers are very effective with the exception of a few drawbacks. Response cards are limited in capabilities but are effective for immediate feedback and student engagement. Since the use of response cards in higher education is almost non-existent, this study fills the gap and proposes more studies.
    Keywords: Audience Response Systems; Classroom Response Systems; Clickers; Feedback; Immediate Feedback; Operations Management; Polling Instruments; Response Cards; Student Engagement; Student Response Systems.

  • An analysis of corporate sustainability disclosure and its relationship on financial performance in ASEAN   Order a copy of this article
    by Promporn Poowadin, Wanchai Prasertsri, Tharinee Pongsupat 
    Abstract: Corporate sustainability report has become a strategic plan for organizations and involved sustainability reporting will be voluntary since this is not mandatory in many countries. The most commonly used sustainability reporting frameworks are the Global Reporting Initiatives G3 and G4 guidelines. This study's main purpose is to investigate a relationship between the extent of corporate sustainability disclosures and financial performance in ASEAN countries: Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippine and Singapore. A GRI checklist is collected from corporate sustainability reports and financial data is obtained from annual report from 2010-2014 then the data is statistically analyzed by multiple regression. The results illustrated that corporate sustainability disclosure has a significant relationship with return on assets, return on equity and net sales. This findings help to understand how corporate sustainability disclosure is an important driver mechanism for organizations to be more innovative, efficient, effective and sustainable learning organization.
    Keywords: corporate sustainability disclosure; global reporting initiative; financial performance; organization learning.

  • Gamification as an Innovative Method in the Processes of Learning in Higher Education Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Gláuber Guilherme Signori, Julio Cesar Ferro De Guimarães, Eliana Andréa Severo, Claudio Rotta 
    Abstract: The increasing speed of technological innovations has made it easier for students to access information. In this context, Education/Learning standards have sought to keep pace with a new student profile geared towards the digital environment by introducing new ways of learning that represent a compelling and innovative alternative for the development of student competencies. The study aims to analyze the relationship between Innovation in Education, Engagement for Learning and Learning, as well as the moderating effect of the gamified method, within the scope of Higher Education Institutions. It is a quantitative research, operationalized through a survey, applied to students of management courses in Higher Education Institutions located in the South of Brazil. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of the research showed the moderating effect of gamification in the Learning process, indicating that students present a higher level of learning when exposed to the teaching method that uses the gamified method. It is worth noting that this study proposed to the academic community a framework for the analysis of Innovation in Education, Engagement for Learning and Learning.
    Keywords: Innovation in Education; Gamification based learning; Active Learning; Engagement for Learning; Higher education; Structural Equation Modeling.

  • Academic excellence of business graduates through nudging: Prospects in Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Sulphey M M, Alkahtani N S 
    Abstract: Globally academic excellence and quality education is receiving paramount importance. With innovations in methodology of teaching and rapid changes in technologies, delivering quality education has become easy. Nudging is a tool that is now used globally to enhance academic excellence. Nudge is defined as any attempt at influencing peoples judgment, choice or behavior in a predictable way (1) made possible because of cognitive biases in individual and social decision-making posing barriers for people to perform rationally in their own interest, and (2) working by making use of those biases as an integral part of such attempts. It is used in business and by Governments of welfare states to change behaviour of the masses. The study reviews a few successful implementations of nudges in academic filed, and explores the possibility of utilizing it in Saudi education sector to solve a few compelling problems faced by it. A few suggestions to this effect are also provided
    Keywords: Nudge; Decision making; Choice architecture; academic excellence; behavioural intervention; Saudi Arabia.

  • Knowledge Sourcing in a Traditional Industry: Prospects of Peripheral Regions   Order a copy of this article
    by János Gyurkovics, Zsófia Vas 
    Abstract: Despite its economic relevance, only a few studies focus on knowledge creation, diffusion and utilisation in traditional industries located in peripheral regions, and even fewer on the innovation interdependencies between industries and regions. The theory of differentiated knowledge bases is capable to explain both the industrial and spatial patterns of the knowledge flows. The present study aims to reveal the process of innovation-related knowledge sourcing in the printing industry located in the peripheral region of Kecskem
    Keywords: innovation; differentiated knowledge bases; traditional industry; peripheral region; Hungary.

  • Applying PBL to teaching robotics   Order a copy of this article
    by Yair Zadok, Nadav Voloch 
    Abstract: More than thirty years ago, new ventures in the field of robotics began to appear in the educational systems all over the world. Robotics projects can serve as a good platform for the implementation of meaningful learning characteristics, such as finding interest and challenge, sense of control in the learning process and personal empowerment. In addition, this practice contributes to the fostering of high-order skills, such as Meta cognitive thinking, problem solving, creativity and teamwork. In recent years, the Israeli Ministry of Education adopted the participation of students in robotics competitions, which exposes students to the world of engineering challenges by building an autonomous robot which performs a number of tasks on the job board, under the guidance of teachers and instructors. This article describes a case study that addressed two main issues related to the Project-Based Learning method. It examined the relationship between Project-Based Learning, Robotics and project management fundamentals, and the teachers preference for adopting a possible solution for implementing this method optimally.
    Keywords: Robotics; PBL- Project-Based Learning; Project Management;.

  • Unpacking cognitive skills engaged in web-search: how can log files, eye movements, and cued-retrospective reports help? An in-depth qualitative case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Esther Argelagos, Saskia Brand-Gruwel, Halszka Jarodzka, Manoli Pifarre 
    Abstract: Search the Internet with a specific purpose has become an important activity. Educational research informs that a better understanding of the cognitive skills involved in this activity is needed, but it is not clear which research techniques can be used for this purpose. One student performed a web-search task and was registered by three different techniques: log files, eye movements, and cued-retrospective reports. With a qualitative analysis, we attempt to provide a twofold contribution: (1) a thorough analysis about the information retrieved from the three techniques separately, and (2) developing a methodology for integrating the information captured from the three techniques. Results showed that log files and eye movements gave insight into cognitive outcomes of skills, and cued-retrospective delivered self-explanations of cognitive and regulation activities. This integration provided an overall and comprehensive picture of the cognitive skills performed and allowed building a synergism among the information captured from each technique.
    Keywords: web-search; information-problem solving; log files; eye movements; cued-retrospective reports; unpacking cognitive skills; Internet; in-depth case study; qualitative; techniques; synergism.

    by Anelise Rebelato Mozzato, Claudia Cristina Bitencourt 
    Abstract: This paper aims to understand the process of interorganizational learning (IOL) in spatial agglomeration. We propose an IOL model to analyze the horizontal relations between actors in different social spaces based on episodes of learning in a Brazilian stone-sector spatial agglomeration. We collected data on 81 participants and analyzed them based on content analysis with NVivo 9. The main results highlight an IOL integrative model that presents (1) the constituent elements of IOL, (2) the role played by different actors and (3) the relationships and the intensity of the bonds established between these actors.
    Keywords: interorganizational learning; spatial agglomeration; episodes of learning; cooperation; interorganizational relations; social learning spaces; developing country; trust; social proximity; social interaction; interdependence; Susceptibility for learning; Brazil.

  • Predicting young researchers' university-industry collaboration using theory of planned behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Ana Arzenšek, Katarina Košmrlj, Nada Trunk Širca 
    Abstract: The theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) was applied to explore intentions of young researchers involvement in research projects in order to evaluate knowledge transfer within the Slovenian Young Researchers programme. With this, research gap of university intention to cooperate in joint research projects with industry was addressed. The research uses data from a national survey to test which determinants affect their intention and behaviour with respect to cooperating actively with industry, and transferring their knowledge to end users. It was found that attitudes and subjective norms significantly influence the intention to engage in university-industry cooperation, explaining over 65 per cent of variability in intention, while perceived behavioural control is not an influencing variable. Results confirm that Ajzen's theory can be applied to the case of cooperation of universities with industry; however, only two of the model's influencing factors proved effective. According to the findings of the study, the implications for the programme and its university-industry cooperation are discussed.
    Keywords: university-industry collaboration; UIR; theory of planned behaviour; TPB; attitude; subjective norm; perceived behavioural control; intention; learning and innovation in higher education; HEI; higher education management; multiple regression analysis; discriminant analysis; young researchers; Young Researchers programme.

  • Using Student Voice in Creating Learner-Centred Course Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoxia Wei 
    Abstract: This study explores how to design a learner-centred undergraduate business course based on student voice. A pretest was adopted to identify existing course-related problems and students writing products were collected and analysed; the instruction and activities were deliberately designed to address learning issues identified in the pretest and help students achieve the course requirements. By the end of the course, students took the posttest and conducted critical reflections about their study. All 111 Thai students who enrolled in the course participated in the study in trimester two in 2016. The paired t test results indicate significant progress during the learner-centred course. Moreover, the success of the course design was demonstrated by the students enhanced confidence levels shown in their critical self-reflections. This work has theoretical and practical implications in combining concepts of student voice, creating learner-centred environments, and proposing an effective undergraduate course framework to which educational practitioners can refer.
    Keywords: Learner-centred; student voice; business communication educational framework; course design; Thai students; higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2018.10010127
  • Exploring the Technology Orientation Influence On The Innovativeness-Performance Relationship of Manufacturing SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by MUHAMMAD SAQIB, Robin , Zulkifli Mohamed Udin 
    Abstract: The present research shows that the combination of the individual innovativeness factors does not contribute significantly enough towards the overall innovativeness of manufacturing SMEs in Oman thus not impacting the innovativeness-performance relationship even with the presence of technology. This appears to be quite consistent across the manufacturing SMEs in Oman. To enhance the innovativeness-performance relationship moderated by technology within manufacturing SMEs in Oman there is a need to develop the capability for or supporting research & development in SMEs sector, promote collaboration among SMEs, review Government legislation and support towards the SMEs, have a well-focused capacity building plan, and strive for a more competitive market.
    Keywords: Innovativeness; Technology Orientation; SME; Performance;.

    by Anderson Pacheco, Maria Santos, Karin Silva 
    Abstract: The objective of this research project involved establishing a scientific framework out of the most relevant research outputs on social innovation. To this end, we carried out bibliometric research of 1,150 works to provide an outline of the historical evolution of social innovation studies, the scientific fields that have done the most research on this theme as well as those works with the greatest influence over subsequent research. Drafting a map of citations traced the epistemological foundations of social innovation research and identified the micro-foundations to the field as well as the predominant conceptual references. Analysis of the most cited articles furthermore portrayed the most relevant theoretical approaches interconnected with the conceptual boundaries, the characteristics of social innovation processes and in addition to the more holistic perspective focusing on the surrounding contextual factors. The key contribution stems from setting out a theoretical guide to the research produced on social innovation.
    Keywords: Social Innovation; Bibliometric Research; Social Entrepreneurship; Local Development.

  • Antecedents of Cost Innovation: The Combined Impact of Strategy and Organizational Culture   Order a copy of this article
    by Itiel Silva, Felipe Borini, Germano Reis, Maria Tereza Fleury, Leandro Santos 
    Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to verify how is the combined impact of organizational culture and organizational strategy on cost innovation development in Brazilian multinational enterprises. The research has quantitative approach performing a survey questionnaire to Brazilian multinationals. From an universe of 253 multinational enterprises a response was obtained from 60 of them. The multiple regression technique was used considering cost innovation as dependent variable, measured through a construct based in three dimensions, which verifies the enterprises effort to get cost innovation. In regards the independent variables, the approach was cultural profile and generic internationalization strategies of emerging enterprises. The results showed that the competition for cost innovation depends on the alignment between cultural profile and strategy.
    Keywords: Cost Innovation; Organizational Strategy; Organizational Culture; Internationalization; Brazilian Multinationals.

    by Raquel Engelman, Serje Schmidt, Cristiane Froehlich, Edi Madalena Fracasso 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of absorptive capacity (ACAP) on product innovation in industries of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. A total of 391 southern Brazilian firms of different sizes, from different sectors and technological intensities were considered by using a quantitative approach and structural equation modeling. The main results on this research confirm the influence of ACAP on innovation. More than 30% of innovations can be attributed to absorptive capacity. Furthermore, different dimensions of ACAP impact innovations in different ways, depending on the firms technological intensity. The paper contributes to a better understanding of these topics. The results showed which dimensions have a different influence on product innovation, considering firms technological intensity, which is an important finding to managerial practice. In terms of theoretical implications, the studys results show that ACAP has three dimensions, as initially proposed, rather than two or four
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities; absorptive capacity; product innovation; Brazilian industries; technological intensity; Brazil.

  • Study on Problem-Based Learning towards Improving Soft Skills of Students in Effective Communication Class   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadia Deep, Berhannudin Mohd Salleh, Hussain Othman 
    Abstract: A bulk of studies indicates an improvement of various soft skills through applying Problem-based learning (PBL) approach but there is still a dearth of such pedagogies in the Asia region. The core objective of this study was, therefore, to identify the effects of electronic PBL on the soft skills, conflict resolution traits, and aspects of enhancing group learning among undergraduate. Through a mixed method approach, a total 57 students from different faculties at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia participated in the semester-long research study. Pretest and posttest were administered at the beginning and end of the semester along with observing the sessions and analysing the documents. The computation of mean compared with the standard value of the mean of the pre and post-test revealed the significant effect of PBL on improving the soft skills of the students and enhancing group learning including overcoming communication conflicts. The observation and document analysis supported the findings obtained from the questionnaire.
    Keywords: Problem-Based Learning; Soft Skills; Conflict Resolution Skills; Group Learning; Mixed Methods; Social Media; Communication conflicts.

  • Moodle quizzes as a teaching tool in English for Academic Purposes course   Order a copy of this article
    by Wajeeh Daher, Ahmad Amer 
    Abstract: Moodle is a learning management system (LMS) whose popularity, as an adjunct to traditional courses ("blended" or "hybrid") or as a tool for distance education programs in various disciplines, is rapidly increasing. The research goal was to examine college students acceptance of this LMS for learning English for Academic Purposes course (EAP), when Moodle is rich in quizzes. One hundred twenty-nine B.Ed. college students from two specializations (special-education and early-childhood) participated in the research. The Technology Acceptance model was used to examine college students acceptance of this version of Moodle. The research results demonstrate that the participants rated the experience above average. In addition, the results show that the three components PU, CSE, and PEU are proved key determinants, not only of EAP students attitudes towards Moodle platform that is rich in quizzes, but also their future use of this platform as academic learners, and thus as teachers. The participants intrinsic and extrinsic motivations had significant correlations with the five components of Moodle acceptance for EAP.
    Keywords: Moodle quizzes; English for Academic Purposes; technology acceptance; college students.

  • Identification and measurement of product modularity - an implementation case   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahm Shamsuzzoha 
    Abstract: Product modularity offers extended benefits to the manufacturing companies with respect to reduce lead-time, improves assemble ability, promotes product family design and enhances customers' satisfactions. This product design and development strategy also offers an opportunity to mix and match all the components of a product into a standardised modular product. The objectives of this research are to introduce and measure the concept of product modularity within manufacturing companies. In addition, a mathematical framework is also highlighted within the scope of this research, which can be used to measure the product modularity level within manufacturing companies. To measure and validate such product modularity level, necessary product design data from a case manufacturing company's product's is collected and analysed by using design structure matrix (DSM) tool. The necessary product modularity level is measured through clustering the collected data related to the components interdependences within the case company's product portfolio. This research is concluded with future research directions on product modularity.
    Keywords: product modularity; modularity level; innovation; components interdependencies; standard components; design structure matrix; DSM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2018.10010724
  • Context-aware learning using augmented reality and WebQuest to improve students' learning outcomes in history   Order a copy of this article
    by Atichart Harncharnchai, Teeraporn Saeheaw 
    Abstract: History is perceived as among the most tedious subjects in school and the use of technology has been involved to improve teaching-learning experiences. In this study, a 'context-aware learning' approach was used by applying augmented reality (AR) and WebQuest to support different learning strategies: classroom-based, project-based and out-of-classroom-based. Knowledge management was an approach used to capture vital knowledge for learners in history and culture. The participants were 62 grade ten students assigned to the treatment and the control group. Focus groups, interviews and questionnaires were the methods of data collection used while AR worksheet, WebQuest and AR artefact were the instructional tools of the experiment. Results showed significant differences between the mean post-test score of the control group and the experimental group. The students were highly satisfied with the use of AR and WebQuest as well as the heightened awareness of caring and preserving historical and cultural heritage. Augmented reality technology could also provide an effective solution to help local museum fill the gap of lacking experts.
    Keywords: context-aware learning; augmented reality; WebQuest; learning strategies; history and culture; knowledge management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2018.10010726
  • Comparing learning motivation and learning style between natural science and social science students in higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Triyanto, Rif'ati Dina Handayani 
    Abstract: This study aim to assess and analyse the extent of motivation and learning styles between students of natural science and social science. This study was carried out by survey research method using online questionnaire. The sample consists of 320 students from Faculty of Education in University of Jember and Sebelas Maret University. The questionnaire used to measure students learning motivation, was the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) and inventory of learning styles (ILS), was used to measure student learning styles. Data gathered were analysed descriptively and inferentially using the SPSS package. Result from the descriptive analysis found that there is a significant difference between science and social science students in learning motivation and learning styles. There was also a positive relation between learning motivation and learning styles. The results of this study give useful information for improving the teaching and learning process of teachers and students, because the effective teaching and learning requires flexibility, creativity and responsibility in order to provide an instructional environment to respond to the learner's individual needs.
    Keywords: learning motivation; learning styles; natural science; social science.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2018.10010770
  • Entrepreneurial learning and innovation: qualitative evidence from agri-business technology-based small firms in New Zealand   Order a copy of this article
    by David Deakins, Jo Bensemann 
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is on the nexus between entrepreneurial learning and the innovation process. In particular, the role that entrepreneurial learning plays in the innovation process. We have collected qualitative interview evidence with a sample of 30 technology-based small firms (TBSFs) engaged in the innovation process. TBSFs are highly diverse, defying consistent definitions, and operate across different sectors, but our sample is drawn solely from the agri-business sector within the unique environment of New Zealand. The literature on entrepreneurial learning is now well established and has identified the importance of both individual entrepreneurial learning and organisational learning for the determination of dynamic capability in TBSFs. Similarly, the literature on the innovation process in small firms and TBSFs is well established indicating the expected resource constraints and challenges from theory in the innovation process for TBSFs. However, no previous research has examined the role of entrepreneurial learning in the innovation process with TBSFs. We present qualitative interview evidence that demonstrates that entrepreneurial learning has a critical role in the innovation process enabling TBSFs to overcome resource constraints and challenges in a lean contextual environment such as New Zealand.
    Keywords: New Zealand; entrepreneurial learning; innovation; agri-business; technology-based small firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2018.10010771
  • The epistemological character of isomorphism in the generation of innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sued Santos Rocha De Souza, Flávio De São Pedro Filho, Maria José Aguilar Madeira, Inon Beydha Lukman 
    Abstract: This paper presents as its main objective an analysis of the epistemological nature of isomorphism in the generation of innovation in organisations. The present research observed current contents such as analyses of design thinking and isomorphism, with their intra-organisational interactions. It concludes that isomorphism is a frequent practice of managers in organisations who seek to copy structures or actions in order to obtain greater visibility and competitiveness in a specific organisational field. However, innovation is also a prominent way of distinguishing a product for the sake of market competitiveness; as a theoretical contribution it is an excellent form of organisational change, in that it exposes selectively the conceptual proposals of several contributors, focusing on creative modelling for new solutions through design and planning. This study includes diagrams, charts and other elements to meet predictable expectations. They are intended to benefit researchers and other scholars of innovation, in light of the relevance and coverage of this theme.
    Keywords: design thinking; innovation; isomorphism; institutional theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2018.10010774
  • The relationship between emotional intelligence and the academic achievements of hearing impaired students in higher education in Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Saisuda Pantrakool, Sumalee Chanchalor 
    Abstract: The research aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and the academic achievements of students with hearing impairments (deaf) in Thai and English and a computer course in higher education in Thailand. The population size consisted of 207 students, of which 56.04% were female and 43.96% male. Their average age was 20.33 years old (SD = 0.49). The study found that women have higher emotional intelligence than men, except for self-esteem and life satisfaction. Also, the study revealed that the Pearson correlation coefficients between gender and age are negatively correlated for the academic achievements in the classes for Thai, English and the computer course. However, there appears to be a positive relationship between hearing achievements and those Thai and English courses. Furthermore, regarding the path diagram, the variables self-motivation, life satisfaction and self-esteem contribute positively to academic achievements; however, the variables relationship, happiness and self-control negatively impact academic achievements.
    Keywords: academic achievements; emotional intelligence; deaf; hearing impaired; higher education; students; relationship; self-motivation; innovation learning; life-satisfaction; self-esteem; happiness; self-control; Thailand.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2018.10007599
  • Malaysian student leaders' perception of their leadership styles   Order a copy of this article
    by Mabel H.J. Tan, Donnie Adams 
    Abstract: Student leadership is a distinct area in research and practice. This study explored the leadership styles of student leaders in Malaysian secondary and postsecondary schools based on the Bolman and Deal's leadership orientations survey (LOS-self). Analysis was carried out on the four leadership styles: structural, human resource, political and symbolic. Student leaders' demographics such as gender, age and ethnicity were identified. Findings revealed there exist different leadership styles between genders, those still studying in secondary school with postsecondary school and between the three main ethnic groups of student leaders. The human resource frame is the predominant frame followed by the structural frame. The significance of the findings and suggestions for further developing multi-frame leadership styles are proposed, as the use of multiple frames is linked to leadership effectiveness. This will help to increase the student leaders' knowledge of leadership frames and their personal capabilities as leaders in their organisation.
    Keywords: student leadership; leadership styles; Bolman and Deal; Malaysia; secondary schools; post-secondary schools.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2018.10010776

Special Issue on: Technological Innovation in Teaching and Learning Practices

  • STEP on connected classroom climate in a hybrid learning environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Juan Xu, Harrison Yang, Jason MacLeod 
    Abstract: This study provides a best-practice model for addressing the connectedness of a hybrid classroom and explores the effectiveness of connected classroom climate from the students-to-student perspective. Based on the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory, research findings suggest the connected classroom climate in hybrid classrooms can be equal to or greater than traditional face-to-face classrooms. Course implementation is discussed and recommendations for design characteristics are proposed for elevating student connectedness in hybrid classroom contexts.
    Keywords: Connectedness; Connected Classroom Climate; Student Perception; Student-to-student; STEP Model; Hybrid; Blended; Google; Classroom; Comparison.

  • CRESDA: Extending Data Landscape of Learners   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Keung Hui, Lam For Kwok, Horace H. S. Ip 
    Abstract: Current student record management systems in universities focus only on academic activities of learners and are reflected in a formal transcript showing only academic results. To assist learners in whole person development, we proposed a new system model to also record extracurricular activities and their associated achievements with linkage to the corresponding graduate outcomes. In this paper, we proposed a new form of e-Portfolio which captures both academic results and non-academic activities; discussed its challenges and resolution; and reviewed a practical implementation, named as CRESDA, in the City University of Hong Kong. By extending data landscape of learners, it provides a platform for learning analytics in future, especially in enhancing the prediction capability of student success. Such an implementation may provide a useful reference to all educational stakeholders.
    Keywords: Outcome-based Learning; Extracurricular Activity; Achievement; Personal Development;.

  • The Design and Exploitation of Blended Learning Concept: Comparative Study of Two Universities   Order a copy of this article
    by Ivana Simonova, Katerina Kostolanyova 
    Abstract: The results of comparative study on the blended learning concept of two higher education institutions are introduced in the article University of Ostrava, Faculty of education and University of Hradec Kralove, Faculty of Informatics and Management, Czech Republic. Having the research sample of 591 and 466 students of both institutions, the data collected within Moodle and Blackboard LMSs were processed by the method of frequency analysis, structured according six criteria (learners
    Keywords: Technologies for education; higher education; ESP; English for specific purposes; online courses; blended learning; Moodle; Blackboard; visit rate; performance; tracking.

  • Exploring different types of interaction on collaborative learning in online platforms   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruixue Liu, Changdi Shi 
    Abstract: We are immersed in the era of online and mobile networks. The development of collaborative studies in learning has led to a renewed interest in the field of online education. There is a need for collaborative learning that promotes student's diverse interactions in online platforms. This study investigates the two types of interaction (social, learning) and students interaction knowledge building level in online and mobile collaborative learning environments in higher education. WeChat, which is a mobile synchronous communication tool, and modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment (Moodle), were used as mobile and online collaborative learning settings. Seventy-eight college students in china majoring in information engineering participated in the experiment. The following findings were determined by the method of content analysis. (1)The study showed that Moodle is more suitable for learning interaction, while the WeChat platform is more suitable for social interaction. (2)A shallow level of interaction knowledge building is present in Moodle and WeChat. The findings presented in this study could serve as the basis for future research in blended collaborative learning.
    Keywords: collaborative learning; social interaction; learning interaction; knowledge building level; online platforms; Moodle; WeChat; blended learning environment.

  • When and how does learning satisfy? Working collaboratively online with a clear purpose   Order a copy of this article
    by Jing Hin Lam, Will Ma 
    Abstract: Social-media platforms have become increasingly popular and important in daily life, and their use may affect students learning satisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine whether social media enhance or detract from students learning satisfaction by analyzing the relationships between learners social media usage behavior, purpose in using social media, collaborative learning, and learning satisfaction. The research question was as follows: do social media enhance students learning satisfaction? A questionnaire survey was administered to 204 university students. Social media usage behavior (beta = .128, p < .05) and academic purpose (beta = .667, p < .001) were found to be directly, significantly, and positively related to collaborative learning (beta = .763, p < .001), which in turn had a significant and direct positive effect on students learning satisfaction (R2 = .582). The roles of social-media behavior, purpose in using social media, and collaborative learning towards satisfaction were discussed.
    Keywords: academic purpose; collaborative learning; learning satisfaction; social media.

  • A Flexible Graph-based Model for Facilitating Digital Learning Activities   Order a copy of this article
    by Di Zou, Fu Lee Wang, Haoran Xie, Tak-Lam Wong, Reggie Kwan 
    Abstract: The development of big data techniques in recent years has created great opportunities for more powerful e-learning systems. Online platforms such as MOOCs, distance learning communities and mobile learning applica-tions are therefore able to have larger data capacity and allow more users to ac-cess. Learning in multi-modal environments can also provide diverse learning materials to users. However, a big challenge accompanied with the rapid devel-opment of e-learning systems is information overload for learners. Users may get lost in such a large volume of learning resources. To address this issue, it is essential to have a model for better understanding of user intentions, prefer-ences and prior knowledge. Therefore, in this article, a flexible graph-based model for users is proposed by incorporating various relationships in this con-text, including the social relations among users, content relations among the learning resources and pre-requisite relations among knowledge units. By con-solidating various kinds of relationships in a unified graph model for the users, the model can then facilitate digital learning activities in e-learning systems. In particular, we have verified e-learning activities facilitated by this model in our recent studies and summarized the results in this article. Additionally, some ex-amples of using this model are discussed for the future studies on the model.
    Keywords: graph-based model; e-learning systems; user model; multiple relationship; digital learning.

Special Issue on: EIC 2017 Innovation and Learning of Vocational Education

  • The instructional media development of welding practice course based on PjBL model: enhance student engagement and student competences   Order a copy of this article
    by Nizwardi Jalinus, Rahmat Azis Nabawi 
    Abstract: This paper aims to describe the quality of the instructional media based on project based learning model at welding practice course. The research method used was research and development. The subjects were lecturers and students of Mechanical Engineering program of Vocational Education department. The results of research and development were: (1) the validity of the instructional media was categorized as valid by expert judgments; (2) the practicality of instructional media, syllabus and lecture unit for lecturers were practical and very helpful as a guidance in the implementation of project based learning model, and the students responded that the learning module were practical and very useful to use as a guidance and a source of learning of project based learning model; (3) the effectiveness of instructional media was effective in enhancing student engagement and student competencies.
    Keywords: instructional media; project based learning; student engagements; student competences; vocational education; welding practice.

  • Enhancing Student Clustering to Generate Adaptive Metacognitive Instructions in Learning System for Vocational High School   Order a copy of this article
    by Indriana Hidayah, Teguh Bharata Adji, Noor Akhmad Setiawan, Norliza Abd.Rahman 
    Abstract: Adaptivity in learning systems depends on accuracy of learner modelling. Specifically, for generating cluster-based instructions, quality of student clustering is critical. Studies on student clustering are abundant; however, a system for clustering metacognitive that considers proper analysis technique of Likert-scaled dataset is unavailable. This article proposes a student clustering method which uses a new Likert scale analysis. It is performed on a dataset collected from 81 students of a vocational high school. The performance was compared to previous methods; enhancement is shown by higher silhouette-index and strong correlation with work readiness score. To evaluate the clustering effectiveness, it is implemented on an e-learning system to generate adaptive instructions. The e-learning system is a supplement for fundamental programming course in the school. The t-test result shows that learning gain of experiment group is significantly higher that of the control group. Therefore, the proposed method is effective in improving students learning quality.
    Keywords: student clustering; Likert scale analysis; vocational high school; cluster-based metacognitive instructions.

  • Short Answer Scoring using W-Bleu for Regular Assessment In Vocational High School   Order a copy of this article
    by Feddy Setio Pribadi, Teguh Bharata Adji, Adhistya Erna Permanasari, Takashi Ninomiya 
    Abstract: The assessment process in a vocational school needs tools that can integrate both knowledge assessment and skill assessment, among which are the construct response question. One example of the construct response question is automated short answer scoring, which automatically assigns a score to the student short answer based on the reference answer. However, there is a problem with automated short-answer scoring that is how to overcome the difference in sentence length between student answer and reference answer that has the same meaning. The difference in the length of these sentences occurs because each student provides answers with different additional information. This paper proposes a method for handling the problem by weighting the key words that make up the sentence in the reference answer. This weighting process is done by modifying the Bleu method into Weighted Bleu (W-Bleu). The proposed method produces a process of automated short answer scoring that obtains a correlation value of 0.64 and root mean square error of 1.01.
    Keywords: short answer scoring; vocational high school; text-to-text; weighted bleu.

  • LdesV, Computer-operated video: overcoming students difficulties in understanding automotive starting system   Order a copy of this article
    by Dwi Widjanarko, Wahyudi Wahyudi, Herminarto Sofyan, Herman Dwi Surjono, Abdurrahman Abdurrahman 
    Abstract: The invisible flow of electric current in the automotive electrical system circuit becomes a major problem for students to learn how electrical systems work. To overcome these problems, visualization of flow of electric current in automotive electrical circuit is necessary. In this study, short duration video was developed to visualize the flow of electric current and the video was applied during the learning process of automotive electrical system. The video was developed using DDD-E models and validated by some experts to assure that the video qualifies as a learning medium. The field trial was conducted through quasi-experimental design with single group pretest-posttest design. This experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of LdesV during learning process. The results showed that the students mastery of the starting system increased and varied significantly compared with before using LdesV. Therefore, the use of LdesV in learning was proven effective.
    Keywords: LdesV; video; automotive electrical system; starting system.

  • Implementation of Monitoring System in Facial Acupressure Learning Media   Order a copy of this article
    by Eny Widhia Agustin, Arimaz Hangga, Anis Fikri Azhari, Muhammad Iqbal Fahrian, Erni Eka Ariyanti 
    Abstract: Some of facial acupressure learning media doesnt have monitoring system for learning evaluation so that the teacher could only predict the position accuracy of facial acupressure based on individual experience and assumption. This research aimed to provide monitoring system of facial acupressure learning media using mannequin head prototype and smartphone application. The results showed that the success rate of students who have practiced facial acupressure by looking at the display of monitoring system and got teaching repetition was 95.23% while it was 61.12% for those who havent. This indicate that the display of monitoring system could help students to remember the position of facial acupressure and improved their confidence. There was no significant difference between the success rate of students who got no teaching repetition whether they have practiced facial acupressure by looking at the display of monitoring system (85.05%) or not (84.03%). The use of monitoring system in facial acupressure learning media is one of the alternatives to improve the competence of the students.
    Keywords: learning media; monitoring system; facial acupressure.

  • Model of local excellence-based on entrepreneurship education management for prospective vocational school teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Sri Endah Wahyuningsih, Sugiyo Sugiyo, Samsudi Samsudi, Trisnani Widowati, Arasinah Kamis 
    Abstract: The objectives of this study are to describe the needs of entrepreneurship education management model and to develop the local excellence-based model of entrepreneurship education management. The respondents of this study were the head, lecturers, and prospective vocational school teachers in Fashion Design Program. The results showed the highly needs of the entrepreneurship education management model for prospective fashion design teachers in vocational school. Moreover, overall responses from the respondents indicated agreement of the development of local excellence-based entrepreneurship education evaluation model. The local excellence-based entrepreneurship education management model can be used effectively to enhance entrepreneurial attitudes, knowledge and skills based on local excellence.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education management model; local excellence; prospective fashion teachers; vocational schools.

    by I. Made Sudana, Atika Atika 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research was to elaborate the implementation of process standard on one of the aspects which determines the schools quality namely supervision, analyze the level of the gap, and design the solution regarding the gap in the implementation of process standard. It was a descriptive research with quantitative approach. The aspect of this research was the principal supervision. The data were collected using observation, interview, and documentation method. The result on supervision component showed that some principals did not function as the internal supervision.
    Keywords: gap; process standard; supervision; vocational school.