International Journal of Intelligent Enterprise (18 papers in press)
Manufacturing Execution Systems: An Accelerated Enablement Protocol
by Arnesh Telukdarie
Abstract: Production facilities deliver value as subsets of larger corporate entities with a key enabler being systems, inclusive of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and supplementary systems. The enterprise requires operational data for strategic and operational management. Interdependent, upstream and downstream units are also data dependent for optimal operations. The efficiency of top floor to shop floor communication and vice versa, is highly dependent upon the technological maturity of the middle layer or Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES). This research focuses on the development of an evaluation toolset for Manufacturing Execution Systems maturity, specifically determining a Business Units system maturity relative to best practice. The core purpose of this research is to deliver a toolset that expedites the evaluation of a current business specific system, relative to a best practice scenario providing key data to maximize business.
The methodology includes hierarchical segregation of the business together with focused, internationally referenced, questions facilitating system maturity evaluations. The Likert association methodology facilitates data gathering. The toolset development is approached on a tiered basis with a business process specific focus. Results analysis focus on current maturity, required maturity and gap emphasis. The potential application of the toolset includes any environment which requires business to manufacturing integration including, petrochemical, mining, manufacturing, pharmaceutical. The case study successfully highlights the key areas that are a priority for business enablement.
Keywords: Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES),IIOT; Systems; Evaluation tools; Business optimization.
A fuzzy imperfect quality inventory model with proportionate discount under learning effect
by Rojalin Patra, Milu Acharya, Mitali Madhusmita Nayak, Srikanta Patnaik
Abstract: The present article establishes both crisp and fuzzy Economic order quantity (EOQ) models with proportionate discount for items with imperfect quality under learning effect. In this proposed model, first we developed the crisp inventory model for the items with imperfect quality where the defective items follow a learning curve. Finally, we discussed on two different cases of fuzzy inventory models. Case -1: Defective rate follows a learning curve and the demand rate assumed to be a triangular fuzzy number. Case -2: Defective rate, fixed ordering cost and holding cost follow the learning curve and the demand rate taken to be a triangular fuzzy number. The aim of this study is to defuzzify the total profit function by using signed distance method. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the developed models. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to examine the effect of number of shipments on the order quantity and total profits of the models.
Keywords: Inventory; EOQ; Imperfect quality; Proportionate discount; Triangular fuzzy number; Signed distance; Learning effects; Defuzzification.rn.
Adoption of Sustainable Supply Operation Quality Practices and their impact on Stakeholders Performance & Sustainable performance for Sustainable Competitiveness in Indian Manufacturing Companies
by Sumit Gupta, G.S. Dangayach, A.K. Singh, M.L. Meena, P.N. Rao
Abstract: In the present scenario the manufacturing companies are emphasizing on the sustainability practices at all levels of the product life cycle. The companies are primarily focusing on the sustainability of supply operations and the quality of supply operations management. The purpose of this paper is to present a research model that defines sustainable supply operation quality (SSOQ) practices in context of stakeholders performance, sustainable performance and sustainable competitiveness outcomes. This paper identifies research issues related to sustainable supply operations quality practices. In total 345 companies were analyzed with structural equation modeling. From the analysis, it is found that sustainable supply operation quality practices leads to the better sustainable competitiveness of the organisation. The study confirmed that the company takes the lead in achieving excellent stakeholders performance and sustainable performance through SSOQ.
Keywords: sustainable supply operation quality; sustainable performance; stakeholder’s performance; sustainable competitiveness and structural equation modeling.
A Multi-Criterion based Integrated Methodology for the Selection of Expert System Shell
by Yashpal Singh, Rahul Mishra, S.S. Bedi, H.C. Yadav
Abstract: Expert Systems (ES) applications are being designed using Expert System Shell (ESS). Various ESSs are commonly available nowadays to design and develop the expert system in various fields. The options range from the choice of hardware platforms to the choice of computer languages and software interfaces. This study illustrates a method to select the most appropriate ESS where multiple criteria exist not only from functional requirements but also from technical and vendor-support perspectives. In the present study, an integrated approach is presented to help Expert System developers to select most suitable Expert System Shell among a set of existing alternatives for their current and future needs. For this purpose, a fuzzy TOPSIS integrated with entropy method is proposed to carry out ESS selection. The applicability of the proposed approach has been illustrated through a case study.
Keywords: Expert System Shell; Software Selection; Fuzzy TOPSIS; MCDM; Entropy.
Tussle to Trust: Developing an Appreciative Climate for a Hydro-Power Organization in India
by Hardik Shah, Shilpa Surana
Abstract: Many large organizations are often concerned with issues of conflicts (constant tussle), building trust and engagement at workplace. Conflict between two managers, groups, or departments is commonly witnessed in organizations as a grab for power, position, or pay/budget. The conflict seeps into the groups and departments and its visible outcomes become manifested in groups and organizations--people dont see eye to eye, miscommunicate, hold resources, misinterpret communications, disobey, play politics, display low level of trust, become disengaged etc. In view of this, department heads, project heads and team leaders have been trying to answer questions like Can conflict be functional?; Can conflict help to have better decisions?; Can conflict be transformed into trust & engagement? This is critical since employee engagement is becoming an important indicator of organizational success. This research paper describes how Appreciative Inquiry (AI) has been used and applied to transform the tussle into trust & engagement. The paper illustrates use of experiential workshop methodology for different groups of managers selected based on their designation (Managers to DGM levels) and years of experience. Firstly, various conflict experiences for selected midlevel managers (Sample of 55) were discovered (in story form) as a starting point. Various themes were identified out of these stories. In the next step, they were divided into groups of 6-8 people and dreamed about the most engaging climate using visualization activities. Following this, the groups worked on action plans or mechanisms for managing tussle and developing appreciative climate of trustworthiness and engagement.
Keywords: Conflict; Appreciative Climate; Trust; Engagement.
Interpretive Structural Modelling of Risk Factors in New Product Development Process: Development of an Integrated Framework
by Avanish Singh Chauhan, Gunjan Soni, Ajay Pal Singh Rathore
Abstract: The focus of this study is on exploring the risk factors affecting new product development (NPD) processes in manufacturing enterprises. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach is utilised in this research for analysing the interactions between different risk pillars, and among various risk factors within each risk pillar. The findings of this study reveal the underlying relations between various risk factors prevalent in NPD process. The ISM based integrated framework developed in this study would enable engineering managers and practitioners of NPD in understanding the inter-dependencies among the risk factors and would help them in directing their resources towards mitigating these factors occurring in NPD initiatives of their enterprises. These finding would be beneficial for identifying the driving risk factors having major impact on product development process, enabling the decision makers to make informed choices while managing NPD projects.
Keywords: New product development (NPD); risk factors; risk pillars; interpretive structural modelling (ISM); integrated framework.
Redundancy optimisation of a coal fired power plant using simulated annealing technique
by Ravinder Kumar
Abstract: Due to limited reserve potential of petroleum and natural gas, eco-conservation restriction on hydroelectric projects followed by geopolitical perception of nuclear power; coal can be considered as the backbone for the present energy production scenario. From a purely economic point of view, the maximisation of overall profit of coal-fired thermal power plant is a very complex activity. In the present work, the focus is given to identify the redundancy level on various components or subsystems of the coal fired power plant using modelling, simulation and optimisation tools, so and so, that the overall profit of coal-fired plant could be maximised. Simulated annealing technique for optimisation has been used for maximisation of profit in terms of net present value (NPV) of complex coal fired power plant. At maximum NPV, the optimum numbers of redundancies on boiler sub-system, condensate extraction pump and boiler feed water pump are found to be one, three and one respectively.
Keywords: net present value; NPV; optimisation; simulated annealing technique; economic analysis; thermal power plant.
Towards knowledge-based flexibility for manufacturing enterprises: with a case study
by Jolta Kacani
Abstract: Foreign direct investment can help developing countries to participate in various segments of the supply chain as these countries can benefit from additional knowledge, improved industrial capacity, and higher economic growth. This paper focuses on the importance of knowledge flexibility in enhancing the production activity of clothing manufacturing enterprises located in developing countries beyond the production segment of the supply chain. In this paper, the level of knowledge flexibility is determined by building a model that includes both the channels and the factors affecting the transfer of knowledge from the head office to their subsidiaries located in developing countries. The main channels of knowledge transfer included in the model are: 1) employment and training of local employees; 2) linkages established with the host economy; 3) demonstration effects, while the key factors considered are: 1) knowledge management; 2) investments made in the host territory; 3) possession of alternative production plants in other host territories.
Keywords: business analytics; case study methodology; channels of knowledge transfer; clothing industry; demonstration effects; flexibility; foreign direct investment; knowledge management; linkages; supply chain.
Modelling manufacturing system effectiveness: an integration of analytical hierarchy process and linear programming
by Ram Prakash, Sandeep Singhal, Ashish Agarwal
Abstract: Manufacturing system effectiveness depends on several factors which include qualitative as well as quantitative factors. In the present paper, the management of the case company has to take a decision about the prioritisation of manufacturing systems on the basis of their effectiveness and has to decide about their production capacity. In the available literature, approaches like linear programming and AHP, mixed integer linear programming, and goal programming have been applied by some authors to tackle similar type of problems. These techniques are mathematical in nature and also consider qualitative factors which are crucial in determining the effectiveness of any manufacturing system, particularly when manufacturing systems are to be prioritised. The result from the research work with AHP framework indicates higher manufacturing effectiveness to leagile manufacturing system followed by agile manufacturing system, lean manufacturing system and flexible manufacturing system.
Keywords: effectiveness; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; linear programming; lean manufacturing system; LMS; agile manufacturing system; AMS; leagile manufacturing system; LaMS.
Investigation and measurement of effective factors of information technology solutions on customer relationship management with fuzzy logic approach
by Sajjad Shokouhyar, Banafsheh Ataafarin, Esmaeil Tavassoli
Abstract: Today, many managers tend to be a profitable investment on information technology to improve relationship with their customers. The literature review reveals that a large number of social and managerial parameters proposed but an integrated model missed that directly focus on effective factors of IT in improving communication with customers. In this study, those factors extracted from literature and known factors investigated and analysed according to developed model. At the first level of the model placed four criteria and at the second level placed 13 criteria. Then, by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) technique, IT effective factors on CRM ranked and analysed. The developed model and management solutions provide guidelines about which improvements in IT aspects should be noted in development of their CRM. Finally, the proposed model examined through an illustrative case study from CRM solution in the banking industry.
Keywords: information technology; customer relationship management; fuzzy analytical hierarchy process; FAHP; banking services.
An exploratory analysis of knowledge management in business cooperation agreements: the Hidrolution case in Colombia
by L.A. Sandoval Hamón, F. Casani
Abstract: The objective of this study is to identify and analyse the alliances between small and medium-sized enterprises for internationalisation purposes pointing out how knowledge and information are managed. An agreement between a Colombian and a Spanish enterprise focused on an innovative water purification system will be analysed. A case study, based in semi-structured interviews, was used as the methodology for this project. Results show that the enterprises will work better within the alliance once they have protected their resources, especially their knowledge and information and when there is transparency about achieving their goals.
Keywords: cooperation agreement; knowledge management; information systems; internationalisation; case study; SPN; Spain; COL; Colombia.
Lean Six Sigma application in healthcare of patients
by Basant Chaurasia, Dixit Garg, Ashish Agarwal
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the Lean Six Sigma application in healthcare of patient with bone and brain metastasis through chemotherapy, to reduce process waiting time and improve first-time quality. The Lean Six Sigma project was carried out by the group of five experts (Six Sigma champion = 01, master black belt = 02, black belt = 02) having more than ten years of experience in the healthcare sector. An exploratory case study was indigenously conducted to reveal Lean Six Sigma method implementation in healthcare with the existing available facilities. The study also explores differences between lean and Six Sigma approach and integration together. The results were witnessed process cycle time of patients reduced from ten days to the single day and first-time quality was 100%. This study suggests intuitive Lean Six Sigma approach to the healthcare of patients, suffering from chronic diseases anticipates getting proper and timeliness healthcare services. Relating healthcare with Lean Six Sigma is a leading approach for super-specialised patient care.
Keywords: lean thinking; patient satisfaction; Six Sigma; quality healthcare.
Special Issue on: Supply Chain Quality and Sustainability
Sustainable Supplier Selection by Way of Managing Knowledge: A Case of Automotive Industry
by Ahmad Jamalian, Abdolhamid Safaei Ghadikolaei, Mohammad Zarei, Rohollah Ghasemi
Abstract: For a long time, Knowledge Management (KM) has globally known as an enabler for Supply Chain Management (SCM). In addition, by developing the literature of sustainability in SCMs, Sustainable Supplier Selections (SSS) have widely been an importance issue. Thus, the main aim of the current research is to investigate the relationship between Knowledge Management Process Capability (KMPC) with SSS in one of the Iranian automobile manufacturer, so called SAIPA. In this regard, after reviewing the related literature the researchs model was extracted. Meanwhile, well-designed questionnaires were distributed among the 191 SAIPA Corps experts, who have had the adequate understanding of KM. Besides, an applied research has been used in this study as a research method, as well as a Canonical Correlation Coefficient for collecting the data. Furthermore, cross-sectional study has been used. Finally, based on the acquired results of the study in regards to the SAIPAs SCM, it can be claimed; there is a meaningful, as well as positive linkage between KMPC and SSS criteria.
Keywords: Sustainable Suppliers Selection; Knowledge Management Process Capabilities; Canonical Correlation Analysis.
Coordination Quality Index: A metric for measuring the quality of coordination efforts in humanitarian supply chain
by Anand Gurumurthy, Lijo John
Abstract: Coordination challenges in humanitarian supply chain (HSC) have plagued logistician for long in the humanitarian domain. Since coordination requires deployment of resources in terms of manpower, material and money, it is a cost center by (Balcik et al., 2010; Stephenson, 2005) all the associated members of the HSC. The effectiveness of the coordination practice has a direct consequence on the performance HSC operations. Therefore, it becomes imperative for the managers to quantify the effectiveness of the coordination activities for improving the operations of HSC. This study aims to address this gap and provide humanitarian agencies with a decision support tool to measure effectiveness of its coordination strategies in achieving the related benefits such as improved resource utilization, better information sharing, improved perception of value of coordination, streamlined organizational mandates, etc. Coordination Quality Index (CQI) is introduced to address this need. CQI is an aggregate measure of the degree of implementation of various coordination practices carried out by the humanitarian agencies. Furthermore, the application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated in the setting of Chennai Flood relief activities.The results indicate that the overall quality score obtained for coordination during the Chennai floods was moderate to low. Though, the perception of value for coordination and effectiveness of resource utilization was from moderate to high, the major reason for the poor coordination was due to the poor information sharing, large diversity of actors and lack of streamlined organizational mandates. It was also found that, though there were efforts to improve coordination between the stakeholders in HSC during the relief operation of Chennai floods, benefits of the coordination were not achieved.
Keywords: Coordination quality index; Coordination; Humanitarian supply chain; Case study; Chennai floods.
A Practical Quality Management System Implementation Framework for Small-Sized Companies
by Om Prakash Yadav
Abstract: An effective quality management system is critical for having a smooth and efficient supply chain system. Establishing and maintaining quality systems is more challenging for smaller companies compared to larger organizations. This paper presents a cost effective and do-it-yourself approach to design and implement a quality management system for smaller organizations. It proposes a quality system implementation framework for small-medium sized companies to enable their transition from a no-quality system to having a more effective quality system. The study also proposes an effective continuous improvement and system maintenance plan after implementing the quality system. The proposed framework is validated using a case study of a small door manufacturing company. The findings of this study reveal several setbacks during quality management implementation and suggest means to overcome them. Benefits and results achieved by implementation of proposed framework will be useful for quality practitioners, quality managers, consultants, and engineers, especially in small companies.
Keywords: quality management system; implementation framework; small-sized; ISO 9001; continuous improvement; maintenance.
Supply Chain Risk Management and Quality: A Case Study and Analysis of Indian Automotive Industry
by Aditya Gautam, Surya Prakash, Umang Soni
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study supply chain risk management and quality aspects of Indian automotive industries. The potential risks are identified in the supply chain by taking the inputs from available literature. The supply chain risk management enablers are further identified so that most critical supply chain risks can be prioritized and ranked. The study successfully identified enablers from Indian automotive industry perspective which includes, relationship, multiple sourcing, redundancy, flexibility, coordination, visibility, collaboration, and postponement. This work also performed analysis of each enables and guidance to identify the most appropriate supply chain risk management strategy is presented. The survey tool for twenty highly experienced professionals is implemented. The results show that the top enablers are relationship and multiple sourcing in Indian context to design the most efficient risk management and supply chain quality improvement policies. It was also found out that production problem at supplier end, internal machine breakdown, and raw material fluctuations are most critical risks in modern Indian automotive supply chain environment.
Keywords: Supply Chain Risk; Risk Analysis; Risk Identification; Supply Chain Risk Management; Indian Automotive Industry; Quality Improvement.
An Insight into Centralized Sourcing Strategy for Enhancing Performance and Sustainability of Multi-tier Supply Network
by Avinash Bagul, Indrajit Mukherjee
Abstract: In a multi-tier supply network, sourcing strategy, consisting of supplier selection (SS) and order quantity allocation (OQA) to selected supplier(s), is a critical and challenging task for practitioners. Every player, in every tier of sourcing network, attempts to select quality conscious suppliers and optimize its own inventory cost per unit time for OQA. However, this may results in sub-optimal solution(s) for overall multi-tier supply network. Considering centralized sourcing strategy for SS and OQA may provide global best solution and sustainable supply network. This paper attempts to quantitatively illustrate inventory cost saving for coordinated centralized sourcing strategy for all tiers compared to independent decentralized sourcing strategy at individual tier in the supply network. Suitable mathematical models (single and multi-tier) and corresponding solution framework is used to determine local optima and global best solution for a comparative analysis. A real life electric goods manufacturing industry case study is used to demonstrate significant cost advantage for a centralized as compared to decentralize sourcing strategy. Sensitivity analysis with varied unit material price is also illustrated in this study.
Keywords: Supply network; Sustainability; Multi-tier supply; Supplier selection; Supplier Quality; Sourcing; Order quantity allocation; Inventory cost.
Developing the preferred supplier relationships A case study
by Sunil Kumar C V, Srikanta Routroy
Abstract: The manufacturer-supplier relationships along the manufacturing supply chains have become the rich sources for generating the sustainable competitive advantages. Consequently in developing these relationships, often the manufacturers are inclined to have preferred supplier relationships established so as to cater their long term requirements. In this regard, a manufacturer must adopt a scientific process to favourably associate with few selected suppliers and eventually choose to develop the right suppliers in order to generate the supply base advantages over the other manufacturers. However, in practice often the right suppliers are not systematically promoted and thereby the opportunities for achieving the potential growth of manufacturing supply chains are greatly lost. Considering this issue, the current study is focused on proposing a systematic approach for establishing the preferred supplier relationships. By implementing the proposed process, a manufacturer can ensure that the right suppliers are professionally endorsed and the manufacturer-supplier relationships are optimally flourished.
Keywords: Preferred supplier concept; fuzzy analytical hierarchy process; fuzzy TOPSIS; manufacturer-supplier relationships; preferred supplier status.