International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management (45 papers in press)
Measuring the Status and Identifying the Factors Influencing Child Immunization in Darjeeling District of West Bengal, India
by Maumita Ghosh, Shrabanti Maity
Abstract: Recently it is found that a signiﬁcant section of the nations children today are deprived of the fruits of development and been kept away from the basic amenities of life-health, education, sanitation, nutrition and so on. In this paper authors mainly concentrated to find mothers composite health index and to identify the factors influencing the immunization status of the child. This study is mainly based on the primary data collected from 200 households with 245 children from these households whose age comes under the required age group (12 months to 2 years). Yuels coefficient of association is used to find out the association of various socio economic variables with the phenomenon of child immunization. Mothers composite health index has been constructed using the multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and various socio economic determinants of such vaccination have been analyzed through the use of Logitic regression analysis. rn
Keywords: Child Immunization, Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), Mothers’ Composite Health Index, Logistic Regression.
Exploring the link between Impulsive buying tendency, self-esteem and normative influence: A structural equation Model
by Nirmalya Bandyopadhyay
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the role of self-esteem and consumers susceptibility to interpersonal influence in influencing IBT through survey of Indian consumers. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to 250 corporate executives through an online survey. Structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypothesized model. The empirical findings of the study revealed a negative relationship between self-esteem and impulsive buying tendency. Consumers susceptibility to interpersonal influence was found to have a positive impact on the impulsive buying tendency. Self esteem was found to be negatively related to the impulsive buying tendency. The mediation role of consumers susceptibility to interpersonal influence in the relationship between self-esteem and the impulsive buying tendency was established. The model was tested in the Indian context with corporate executives as participants.Result indicates a negative relationship between SE and IBT and a positive relationship between nCSII and IBT. The mediation intervention of nCSII in the relationship between SE and IBT is also established. Managerial implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Impulsive buying, impulsive buying tendency, self-esteem, Consumer's susceptibility to interpersonal influence
Causal Drivers of International Tourism Industry in Tamil Nadu: A Geweke Causality Analysis
by Khee Giap Tan, Anuja Tandon, Teleixi Xie
Abstract: This paper is an attempt to understand the causal development mechanisms of the international tourism sector in the State of Tamil Nadu in India. Being able to identify the factors that affect the growth of the international tourism sector would enable the local government to better facilitate the growth of the sector. To achieve this objective, we employ a novel empirical methodology using the Geweke causality framework to investigate the causal drivers of the tourism industry. Our empirical results suggest that safety, transport infrastructure as well as cleanliness, sanitation and healthcare conditions are causal factors that significantly affect the development of international tourism sector in Tamil Nadu. Our empirical analysis also identifies several key policy implications for not just the state of Tamil Nadu but also other states with similar conditions on how to develop a robust international tourism sector.
Keywords: Geweke Causality; Travel and Tourism; Tamil Nadu; India; Competitiveness
Workplace bullying among Indian managers: prevalence, sources and bystanders reactions
by Arpana Rai, Upasna A Agarwal
Abstract: The present study examines the prevalence of bullying, sources of bullying and bystanders reactions to bullying amongst Indian Managers. Data gathered from 205 managers using behavioral and self-labeling approaches of measuring workplace bullying suggest that like managers in the west, Indians experience high instances of bullying. In terms of direction of bullying, it was found that downward bullying predominates as most of the bullying acts were directed from superiors. The study also highlights bystanders reactions to bullying indicating that majority had preferred silence when they witnessed bullying. The findings of the study highlight a number of key avenues for future research that will help to extend the current workplace bullying literature.
Keywords: Workplace bullying, Indian managers, prevalence, sources, bystanders’ reactions
Why do Indian SMEs fail and succeed?: Insights from auto-component industry
by Dilip Nandkeolyar, Neeraj Pandey, Ravi Kiran, Shailendra Kumar
Abstract: A cursory look at data on Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) in India shows that large number of SMEs are failing. This study found fundamental reasons behind this failure besides providing insights into what makes few SMEs successfully manage competition. The data was collected from 517 auto-component manufacturing units in large automotive SME clusters of India. The research highlighted the key role of business planning in Indian SMEs. The SMEs need to proactively manage innovation and quality, improve financial agility, navigate change process and assess global impact. The study also looks at the role of benchmarking, negative attribution and buyer-supplier relationship in sustaining competitiveness by SMEs in post-WTO (World Trade Organization) era.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises, Benchmarking, Marketing, Business Planning, Auto-component, Manufacturing, Clusters, India
Elementary Education in Bharat (that is India): Insights from a Postcolonial Ethnographic Study of a Gurukul
by Ankur Joshi, Rajen K Gupta
Abstract: The education delivered in Bharat grapples with the issues of quality in terms of its content, pedagogy and the outcomes. The colonization of education system subsequently led to the demise of traditional institutions (like Gurukul) of education delivery. Afterwards with the political independence, the government neither could work for the decolonization of the education nor could it make significant efforts to revive or learn from the Gurukul system. However, a significant number of Gurukuls are still running in the country. This paper takes a post-colonial stance to the education and presents an ethnographic account of one such Gurukul. The propositions are presented based on this account for improvement in the quality of elementary education.
Keywords: Culture; Gurukul; Education; Ethnography; Postcolonialism; Bharat
Daily Beta Adjustment: Evidence from the Indian Equity Market
by Shweta Bajpai, Alok Dixit
Abstract: This research paper offers a comparative evaluation of the four well-known models of beta adjustment, viz., the Scholes-Williams, Dimson, Cohen, et al., and Fowler and Rorke. For the purpose, we cover a period of 10 years (January 2004 to December 2013), and analyse the data in two sub-groups, namely, before and after the sub-prime crisis. Out of the four models studied, the best model is used for the beta adjustment. Further, we utilise the adjusted beta for testing the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) in the Indian capital market. The results of this study are expected to provide necessary evidence on important aspects of beta estimation with a daily frequency dataset and its robustness.
Keywords: Adjusted Beta, CAPM, Indian Capital Market.
Enhancing Performance through Performance Contracting The Indian Government Approach
by Shulagna Sarkar
Abstract: The Indian government has taken numerous initiatives to ensure performance culture. Performance Contracting (PC) in India is one such initiative of government. The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) system is an age old PC process for Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSEs) in India which underwent several modifications over the years and has ensured greater involvement of people with higher individual as well as organizational performance. Government of India has also introduced Results Framework Document (RFD) which is another form of PC applicable to ministries and departments. Though MoU system and RFD system exists distinctly different yet, they are inter-related with regards to performance of India. The paper elaborates both the concept of MoU system and RFD process and its implementation in the India as a PC initiative and elaborates Results Framework Management Systems (RFMS) - MoU system which is a new online initiative of Indian government. Secondary data is used to identify the relation between the MoU and organizational and sectoral performance.
Keywords: Performance Contracting, Memorandum of Understanding, Results Framework Document, Indian government, Central Public Sector Enterprises
Postmodern Consumption in India: A Conceptualization and Case Synthesis
by Roshni Das
Abstract: This paper argues that postmodern consumption of material goods is as much a consumption of the goods themselves as that of networked information. In the process, it seeks to explore the plausible connection between social identity formation, identity enhancement by virtue of additional information in the form of warrants, identity dissemination by way of social flow of information and Brand Tribalism culminating in the final act of Social Consumption. A social theory of postmodern consumption is proposed. We adopt the Variable based Theory Building and Case based Theory Testing method as enumerated in The Sage Handbook of Innovation in Social Research Methods (2011). An emerging economy such as India being the case testing ground adds a contextual element to the model. This study contributes to the growing body of literature on active, co-created consumption and branding and marketing strategies specifically tailored to the digital-global market.
Keywords: Consumption, Postmodern, Extended self, Digital, Culture, Co-creation
Inter-linkages between Human Development and economic growth: A Sustainable Development Analysis across Indian States
by Sheetal Mundra, Manju Singh
Abstract: The basic purpose of sustainable development is to expand human choices. The people of the nation should be equitably benefited through the process of sustainable development. The Five Year Plans have generally been the fountainheads of policy for growth and sustainable development in India. In this study an attempt has been made to explore the success of Indian experience of sustainable development through Five Year Plans by examining the difference between planned and achieved growth rates of all Five Years Plans in India and of Tenth and Eleventh Five Year Plans across the different States of India. As the Human Development Index is one of the most important indicators of sustainable development. So, the other objectives of the study to assess the impact of the growth (GSDP) on an HDI score for selective states of India and further, also try to explore the disparities among different Indian states on selective HDI indicators. The study finds that the poor performance of the human indicators across the States highlights the fact that economic benefits arising out of the process of development failed in raising the human development in India and across the states, which is the eventual objective of the economic planning of each developing country. So such process is detrimental and unsustainable in the long run of a country. Thus, the study helps in opening not only the new areas to be explored to find out the factors which are detrimental in raising the human development in these selective states, but also provide a direction for the policy makers to formulate more effective and specific policies.
Keywords: Sustainable Development; Human Development; Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP); Education; Health.
What makes Sports Leagues Successful? A study on Indian professional sports leagues
by Sanjeev Tripathi, Ankur Kapoor
Abstract: Professional sports leagues have become the dominant form of sports in most of the developed sports markets. However, sports leagues are appearing for the first time in emerging sports markets like India. This research is exploratory in nature and is aimed at identifying the factors that contribute to the success of Indian professional sports leagues. A mixed methods approach was adopted using semi-structured interviews, focused group discussions, and surveys. Data was collected from sports' experts and fans. The results show that factors that impact success of leagues can be of broadly summarized into two types: Operational factors like league-federation relationship, scheduling and infrastructure; and fan acceptability factors like celebrities, quality of players, marketing communications and match-day experience. The findings from this research have implications for developing sports industry and research in emerging sports markets.
Keywords: Sports leagues; sports marketing; fan acceptability; celebrities; match day experience.
SMALL BUSINESSES CONTRIBUTION TO RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE GREATER GIYANI MUNICIPALITY AREA: PERCEPTIONS FROM OWNERS
by Ntwanano Mathebula
Abstract: There is an increasing acknowledgment of the prospective small businesses has on rural economic development and job creation in South Africa. Although deliberations on the discourse continue to trend about the virtual contributions of small businesses, substantiation from recent studies supports their imperative heroine as an economic engine of rural development. However, challenges in the industry such as lack of funding opportunities, crime, and management skills inhibit the emergence and thriving of small businesses. Through both the qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, this study probed the small businesses owners perceptions on the rural economic development role at the Greater Giyani Local Municipality, Limpopo Province. Data was collected through questionnaires and supplementary interviews among 70 small business operators. The study therefore revealed that although small businesses positively contribute to the socio-economic well-being, improving the local economy and job creation, support from government, business and civil society sectors is required to ensure a more immense contribution by small businesses.
Keywords: Small businesses; Rural economic development; Job creation; Poverty reduction.
Segmenting Emerging Markets based on Consumer Responses towards Social Network Advertising
by Shalini Tripathi, Masood Siddiqui
Abstract: A wealth of new digital technologies have enhanced the reach of marketers and enabled them to interact with consumers in a big way in emerging markets like India. The onset of the digital era has resulted in Social Network Advertising (SNA) becoming an integral part of the communication mix of firms. The current study attempts to offer a more subtle understanding of consumer engagement with social media by closely examining consumer responses to social network advertising and the consequences thereof. It uses psychographic and other lifestyle variables as segmentation variables. Hence it will particularly be of interest to marketers and researchers on the lookout for upcoming marketing opportunities. Also, the study investigates how advertising on social networks impacts preferences of consumers; and their acceptance and avoidance of this advertising, in terms of their belief in ads appearing on social networking sites.
Keywords: Digital marketing; emerging market opportunities; marketing communication; social network advertising; consumer responsiveness; advertising effectiveness; psychographic variables; segmentation; cluster analysis; discriminant analysis; canonical correlation analysis.
Sustainable Economic Governance: Learnings from Kautilyas Arthashastra
by Rishi Manrai, Utkarsh Goel
Abstract: Sustainable economic governance requires effectual rules and policies and their effective implementation. Arthashastra written by Kautilya more than two thousand years ago discusses various best practices on governance of markets, economics and trade to ensure happiness and well being of the subjects. Most of the wisdom of Arthashastra are still relevant and are being adopted knowingly or knowingly by present day governments. This paper discusses the teachings of Arthashastra on critical economic policy areas and their key elements and tries to relate its application with present day scenario. The paper discusses how Arthashastra lessons on public finance, trade, taxation and administration have been or can be incorporated in Indian context to achieve the ultimate objective of sustainable economic governance. The paper further combines the key teachings on economic governance and presents a model which can act as a guide for good economic governance.
Keywords: Arthashastra; Trade; Taxation; Public Finance; Sustainable; Economic Governance: Kautilya.
Relevance of ancient Indian scriptures - Business wisdom drawn from Ramayana, Gita and Thirukkural
by J.K. Sharma
Abstract: Such principles of management, which are beyond further research, are yet to be discovered. The principles discovered so far are both, the cause and effect of further research. However, the case of Indian scriptures is different. Scriptural research has been limited to their interpretation. The interpretation, with regard to the implementation in management practice, may be multi-dimensional. One of the dimensions may be to correlate this knowledge with managerial behaviour, especially in context of reported financial irregularities. The objective of this article is to demonstrate such a correlation. Hence, brief sections of three Indian scriptures have been reviewed. The methodology of hermeneutics, i.e. Identification, Investigation, Interpretation and Integration, has been utilized. The correlation between the scriptural knowledge and managerial effectiveness has been proposed in the form of a Spiritual Framework of Managerial Effectiveness. The attributes for increased effectiveness in important dimensions of managerial personality, decision-making and conduct have been proposed through the framework. Managerial implications have also been mentioned.
Keywords: Indian scriptures; spiritual values; managerial effectiveness; managerial ethics; Ramayana for management; Gita for management; Thirukkural for management; nishkam karma; spiritual framework for managerial effectiveness.
Stakeholder Initiatives for Promoting Corporate Social Responsibility: A Four Country Study
by Neha Saxena, Shamama Afreen
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has undergone many stages of evolution around the world and different models exist in different countries. The focus and priorities of CSR also vary from one country to another, being rooted in the social, economic, cultural, political and historical landscape of each region. This, combined with pressures exerted by the expectations of an increasingly aware and connected world, is shaping the way different stakeholders respond to the CSR agenda of a country. Governments, corporations, non-governmental organizations, consumers and other important entities are coming together to design and implement effective CSR policies and practices, aimed at solving social and environmental problems. This paper looks at such stakeholder responses to the CSR agenda of four countries Brazil, Germany, India and Canada to understand existing CSR models and how they are being promoted and implemented.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Stakeholder; Philanthropy; Brazil; Germany; India; Canada.
Development of model integrating determinants of Job Performance and Competitor Orientation
by Sumi Jha, Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop an integrated model on Job Performance (JP) and Competitor Orientation (CO) relating organizational variables namely, Creative Process Engagement Idea Generation (CPEIG), Organizational Culture (OC), Organizational Commitment (OCM) and Job Satisfaction (JS). Data were collected based on structured survey questionnaire. Response from 409 managers in India were taken. The data were analyzed for Structural Equation Modeling. The results of this study indicated that the model exogenous variables were OCM and OC. The model endogenous and intervening variables were JP, CO and CPEIG, JS respectively. The relationship between variables were found to be significant.
Keywords: Creative Process Engagement idea generation (CPEIG); Organizational Culture (OC); Organizational Commitment (OCM); Job Performance (JP); Job Satisfaction (JS) and Competitor Orientation (CO).
Does Diversification of Income source Influences Banks risk-return Characteristics? Evidence from Indian market
by Shweta Sharma, Anand
Abstract: This paper examines how diversification of banks income sources is associated with bank risk and return for Indian Banks. We document that income diversification is positively related to bank profitability and risk adjusted returns but does not have any significant impact on banks asset quality for full-sample. Although for large banks no direct diversification benefits are recorded. But for small and medium banks, diversification improves the profitability but adversely affects the banks asset quality. These results hold against an array of robustness tests using alternative diversification measures, testing for the role of banks asset size and ownership as moderating variables.
Keywords: Income diversification; Bank performance; HHI; Shanon entropy; Profitability; Risk adjusted returns; Asset Quality.
Six Sigma methodology for reducing defects in manufacturing Industry-A case study
by Jagdeep Sraun, Harwinder Singh, Deepinder Singh
Abstract: Owing to global competition in manufacturing sectors, customer demand for high quality product and for product variety is continuously increasing. Consequently, it has become necessary to enhance productivity and performance in order to make the process robust to quality. The present work deals with the application of DMAIC technique in manufacturing Industry for quality improvement and reduction of muffler line defects. The DMAIC cycle has been applied to critical product under study to ascertain the important benefits occurred for business improvement in the manufacturing Industry of Northern India. The findings revealed significant enhancement in sigma level from 2.89 to 3.16 and process yield was increased from 91.73% to 95.19%. This study is an attempt to access the performance of Six Sigma approach through systematically implementation of DMAIC cycle. These enhanced sigma levels leads to high quality and fewer variations. The results showed that the rejection rate was reduced from 8.27% to 4.81% and saving in cost of Rs. 940,800/- has been achieved.
Keywords: manufacturing; DMAIC and sigma level etc.
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM PERFORMANCE IN INDIAN COMPANIES
by M.C. Garg, Dalbir
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance in Indian context. The study includes the corporate governance variables which are ownership structure and board variable and Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE), Market to Book Value (MB) and Natural Log of Earning Per Share (LOGEPS) as measure of firm performance. The study used the panel data of 119 Indian companies from year 2008 to 2014. Panel data regression analysis is used to examine the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. The study found a positive relationship for ownership structure variables and negative relationship for board variables with firm performance.
Keywords: Corporate governance; Firm performance; Panel data; Ownership structure; Board variable; Regression analysis.
Service Delivery in a Religious Organization: Model and Insights
by Venkataramanaiah Saddikuti
Abstract: In this paper we present a queueing model for addressing long waiting time of devotees at a religious organisation (Hindu Temple) in southern India. We highlight various challenges faced by the temple administration and suggested suitable recommendations and managerial insights based on the proposed model. The temple is one of the richest in the world and attracts pilgrims from different parts of the country throughout the year. On an average 60,000 during normal days and around 80,000 to 1, 00,000 pilgrims during weekends, holidays every day and as high as 5,00,000 pilgrims on important festival times as well as holiday times. Temple authorities provide many amenities including darshan, accommodation, free meal, security, health and sanitation etc. The temple also has its own dedicated TV channel managed by a senior officer with required manpower and technology. There were nearly 71.25 million (around 24 million a year) devotees visited the temple during the year 2011 and 2013. Around 75% of the devotees have availed the free meal served provided by the temple at its large catering facility. Providing different services to the visiting pilgrims by the temple authorities is becoming difficult day by day due to ever increasing number of devotees and scarcity of resources as well as high levels of uncertainty in the arrival of pilgrims (demand) and socio cultural background (highly heterogeneous mix). One of the major challenges faced by both pilgrims as well as temple authorities is the long waiting time for the darshan of the presiding deity. During long waiting process, providing required services for diversified groups has become big challenge. We made an attempt to understand and present operational challenges in managing the long waiting time. We proposed a solution approach based on queueing model for managing the long waiting time. Based on the model, we identified key performance indicators like average waiting time, number of devotees waiting in the system at a given point of time etc. Effect of model based solution has been demonstrated with sample results under three scenarios (single, double and triple channel queueing system). Guidelines for implementation of recommendations during peak and non-peak demand were also suggested along with future scope of work.
Keywords: Pilgrims; Queueing Model; Religious Organisation; Service Delivery; Waiting Time Management.
The Influence of Personality on Political Skills and Impression Management Relationship: A Study of Middle Level Indian Managers
by Deepti Pathak, Shalini Srivastava
Abstract: The paper intends to study the relationship between Political skills and Impression Management as well as the moderating role of Personality (Type A & Type B) on the relationship in non-western world. 187 middle level managers belonging to IT sector were surveyed to study Political skills and Impression Management relationship and the moderating role Personality (Type A & Type B) on the stated relationship. The study found that both the variables i.e., Political skills and Personality (Type A & Type B) were significantly related to Impression Management but Personality (Type A) failed to moderate Political skills and Impression Management relationship. The present study constituted a relatively small number of companies belonging only to Delhi-NCR region. The study is novel of its kind in the sense little work has been done on these dimensions in Indian context.
Keywords: Impression Management; Political Skills; Personality (Type A & Type B); middle level managers ;IT Sector Asia.
Reframing the Frame: A Discursive Frame Analysis of Textual Markers in the Make in India Campaign
by Amrita Joshi
Abstract: This study of textual markers in the Make in India Campaign examines how specific frames are activated by actors and texts.Using discursive frame analysis we examine language units in the campaign as a micro (output) - meso (framework) - macro (context) strategy enabled by various acts of framing. We show how meaning-generation in this campaign is constitutive of the context that shapes it, as also the context that challenges it. We also examine how the MII campaign attempts an act of reframing to replace the older restricting institutional frame (plateau) with a new field frame (forward movement) which may stabilize as a new institutional frame (continuous change) if the campaign achieves its short term and long term marketing and communication objectives. Finally, we discuss the implications of framing as a useful construct and tool in management and organizational research and one that can enable effective marketing campaigns by bridging the mainstream-critical divide.
Keywords: Frames; Acts of Framing; Diagnostic Framing; Prognostic Framing; Motivational Framing; Inter-text; Embedded frames; Counter-frames; Reframing; Nation Branding.
THE INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE ON TRUST: EMPIRICAL INSIGHTS FROM A SEM APPLICATION
by Shivani Agarwal, Anjali Jindal, Pooja Garg, Renu Rastogi
Abstract: Purpose:The main purpose of this study is to link quality of work life with various forms of trust among IT employees.
Design/Methodology/Approach:The study deploys path analysis method to generate and tested a model of quality of work life and its constituting factors toward trust.The model was analysed and evaluated with the help of SEM software AMOS 20.0 version.
Findings: The findings indicated that most indices of the model were desirable and the fitness of the model was proved. It was found that quality of work life is an important factor to be considered for infusing trust among employees.
Implications/Limitations:The sample size was limited to NCR (India) conducted inIT industry and it is recommended that relationship between QWL and Trust in these findings can be extended to other professionals and non-professionals employed in other industries.
Originality/Value: This study is new as there has been little recent research undertaken examining the IT sector. More generally, there is a scarcity of work focusing on quality of work life with trust.The research has developed a comprehensive model linking quality of work life and trust.
Keywords: Quality of work life; Trust; IT industry; Support from Supervisor; Freedom from work related stress; Autonomy; Communication; Decision making; Job satisfaction; Cognition based trust; Affect based trust.
A multiple perspective view to rampant fraudulent culture in Indian insurance Industry
by Ruchi Agarwal
Abstract: Insurance fraud is a complex term understudied in management and governance literature. Insurance fraud consists of policyholder fraud, internal fraud and intermediary fraud. It can be measured at four stages ranging from hard frauds to rampant fraudulent culture. An attention is needed to understand the reasons of rampant fraudulent culture in India. This is the first study (as per authors knowledge) on fraudulent culture in Indian insurance industry that provides broad overview of what insurance fraud is, types of insurance fraud, role of different parties involved, reasons of rampant insurance frauds, strategies adopted and the way forward. The results revealed that direct responsibility of combating insurance fraud is not provided to any institutions, therefore fraud redressal takes backseat in priorities. Corporates have adopted proactive, reactive and vigilant approaches and used fraud investigation cells, cause and effect analysis and trend analysis to understand the fraudulent culture.
Keywords: Corporates; Insurance Fraud; India; Culture; Case study; Risk.
Influence of antecedents of expectations on perceived quality: a study of rural and urban subcultures
by Sanal Kumar Velayudhan
Abstract: Creating and delivering perceived quality requires understanding the antecedents of perceived quality. This study examines the influence that antecedents of consumers prior expectations have on perceived quality. The variables of rural and urban subcultures and those identified from the review of literature as antecedents of expectations and perceived quality are independent variables. They were examined for establishing an association with perceived quality using ordinal regression. The results showed that rural and urban subcultures, personal needs and perceived alternatives were some of the significant factors that influenced the consumers assessment of quality. Neither personal needs nor subculture was tested in previous studies as antecedents of expectation. The results suggest that creating and delivering perceived quality needs to consider the extent of competition, personal needs and subculture.
Keywords: Antecedents of expectations; perceived quality; Rural and urban subcultures; Consumers’ expectations; Culture.
Effective Leadership Traits from Bhagavad Gita
by Akhaya Kumar Nayak
Abstract: Bhagavad Gita, according to the Indian philosopher Adi Sankaracharya is a summary of all the Vedic Literatures. Divided into 18 chapters, this Indian scripture deciphers five major branches of knowledge: Isvara (The Supreme God), Jiva (The Spirit Soul/living entities), Prakriti (The material nature), Kala (the time), and Karma (the activities) in seven hundred verses. Many important traits of an effective leader emerge from various chapters of this text. The objective of this paper is to describe the attributes and activities of an effective leader as prescribed in Bhagavad Gita. The paper employs the methodology of hermeneutics to do so.
Keywords: Leadership; Bhagavad Gita; Yoga; material nature; time and karma yoga.
Impact assessment of supply chain constraints over performance of public distribution system
by Rajesh Bhagwat, Dadarao Raut
Abstract: The Public Distribution System (PDS) provides subsidized food grains through a network of fair price shops (FPS) to ensure food security for the poor people. The PDS fraught with many difficulties such as poor performance in terms of cost and customer satisfaction due to several constraints such as targeting error, delivery mechanism and information asymmetry of food grain. Structural equation model (SEM) was applied to test the causal relationships between PDS constraints and performance. A survey containing Likert scale questions was conducted to collect data from 400 household who had been purchasing food grain from the PDS. With the help of SEM, six constructs were identified for scales used in the study namely targeting error, information asymmetry, delivery mechanism of food grain, customer satisfaction, cost and performance. The paper investigates the relationship among targeting error, information asymmetry, delivery mechanism, customer satisfaction, cost saving and performance using SEM. Results indicated that the targeting error, information asymmetry, delivery mechanism of food grain has a positive influence on customer satisfaction and cost. Also customer satisfaction and cost saving has a positive influence on performance. The loadings suggest the existence of a statistically significant relationship among constructs. However, these findings suggest that the performance of PDS can be improved if some corrective measures are taken i. e. to reduce cost and improve customer satisfaction in order to the realization of the objective of ensuring food security for the poor.
Keywords: Targeting error; Information asymmetry; Delivery mechanism; Customer satisfaction; Cost; Performance; structural equation model.
Capital Expenditure and Persistence of Firm Performance: An Empirical Study for the Indian Automobiles Industry
by Dinesh Jaisinghani, Deepak Tandon, Dharminder Batra
Abstract: The purpose of the present work is to analyze the dynamic relationship between Capital Expenditure intensity (CAPEX) and firm performance for the automobiles Industry in India. A dynamic panel methodology has been deployed. A sample of 95 listed automobiles firms in Indian for the period 2005 to 2014 has been considered. The results show that there exists a negative and persistent relation between performance and CAPEX. Also, a moderate level of persistence in the firm performance is observed for the sample companies. The results also indicate a possible U-shape relationship between CAPEX and firm performance. The study highlights the need for proper identification of the appropriate capital expenditure levels. This may lead to positive benefits for the Indian automobiles firms in the long-run.
Keywords: Indian Automobile Industry; Dynamic Panel; Capital Expenditure Intensity; Firm Performance.
Does it pay to reveal good deeds? Evidence from India
by Aditi Singh, Madhumita Chakraborty
Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the relation between corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) and financial performance (FP) of firms in India. There are a few studies that have explored the linkage of CSRD and FP in context of India. The empirical analysis is conducted on a longitudinal data set comprising of CNX Nifty 100 firms for three years (2012-14). Multiple regression analysis has been employed to analyze the relation between CSRD and FP variables. The overall empirical results of the study suggest that the companies that disclose spending on CSR to stakeholders do not make significantly more profit than the firms that do not make this disclosure. This type of research can help regulatory bodies, practitioners and stakeholders in understanding the state of transparency in CSR reporting and its impact on the profitability of firms in India.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; Corporate social disclosure; Return on asset; Return on equity.
CSR Disclosures and Transparency among Top Indian Companies
by Sushil Kumar, Anab Kidwai
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives help firms balance their economic, social, and environmental imperatives. These initiatives strengthen stakeholder-firm relationship and enhance corporate image. Transparency in disclosure of CSR policies and programs is an important aspect if firms have to fully benefit from such initiatives. By analyzing the extent of CSR disclosure on websites of top 100 ET2014 companies in India, CSR Disclosure Score and Transparency Categories are created. Of the 100 companies analyzed, only eight companies show very high transparency in their CSR disclosure. Comparison across four industry sectors has been done using these two indices. The findings have implications for practitioners as well as academicians in standardizing CSR reporting, in turn helping the stakeholders.
Keywords: CSR; Corporate Social Responsibility; Disclosures; CSR Disclosures; Transparency; Disclosure Index; Transparency Index; CSR Reporting; India; Indian Companies.
Factors Contributing to Female Educators Underrepresentation in School Management Positions in Lulekani Circuit, Limpopo Province, South Africa
by Dominique E. Uwizeyimana, N.S. Mathebula
Abstract: Literature shows that women remain underrepresented in management positions in both the private and public sector organisations in South Africa. While several research studies have been conducted and several articles, books, and newspaper commentaries have been published on the subject of the causes of underrepresentation of women in leadership positions (or management positions) in both public and private institutions, most of these publications tend to rely on womens views and to ignore the views of males. While there is nothing wrong with focusing on females when conducting these type of studies, it is the view of the authors of this article that males, who are generally accused of being the authors and beneficiaries of the females underrepresentation in management positions in all sectors of life, could play a critical role in correcting this problem. Thus the objective of this article is to explore the views of educators (both male and female) with regard to the underrepresentation of female educators in management positions at primary schools in the Lulekani circuit in the Mopani district, Limpopo province, South Africa. In conducting this research, the researcher relied on data collected via semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 20 participants from five primary schools in this circuit. The results revealed that the underrepresentation of female educators in management positions is a highly complex issue which is influenced by many factors, ranging from lack of confidence, insufficient or lack of support from colleagues and families, gender stereotyping, lack of aspiration, family commitments, and pressure from conflicting roles. The fact that most, if not all, of these barriers seem to affect women in different countries, cultures, and socio-economic contexts suggest the need for collective and coordinated efforts to combat them. It is therefore recommended that urgent steps be taken by all stakeholders to ensure equal representation of both male and female educators in management positions at schools.
Keywords: Women promotion; women in management; school management; glass ceiling; gender stereotypes.
Experience-centric Leadership Development Process: Challenges and Way forward for Organizations in India
by Abinash Panda
Abstract: Various academic scholars from leadership development discipline have found that experience-centric approach, compared to formal education and training based approach is more effective for grooming organizational leaders. The world of academe offers a plenty of insights on experience-centric leadership development process. In spite of such rich insights, business organizations have been stuck to formal training and education based approach for grooming leaders. This paper has briefly discussed key findings of "Lessons of Experience, India" (LOEI) study, which offers insights on how leaders in India learn to lead. The author in this paper has proffered a few suggestions to organizations that might help organizations to effectively deal with the challenges an organization may encounter, while leveraging on the job assignments for leadership development. He has also proposed a few pointers for creating a learning ecosystem that synergistically blends both education and training based formal and experience-centric informal approaches to groom effective organizational leaders.
Keywords: Leadership development; Experience-centric leadership development; Developmental experiences in India; Learning to lead; Talent Development; Grooming organizational leaders.
The Influence of Intra-Cultural Diversity on Self-Efficacy Beliefs: Evidence from India
by Franziska Engelhard, Ritam Garg
Abstract: Taking self-efficacy beliefs as a proxy for work performance, this study aims to explore the impact of intra-cultural diversity on self-efficacy beliefs of Indian employees. Based on Hofstedes cultural dimensions, along with religiosity and religious affiliation, we developed and tested six hypotheses against a dataset of 162 Indian employees. Multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant impact of religious affiliation, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance on self-efficacy beliefs, contradicting previous findings for India in this context. Our study contributes to the cross-cultural research in general and to the emerging literature on intra-cultural diversity in particular.
Keywords: cross-cultural management; Indian culture; self-efficacy; intra-cultural diversity; cultural dimensions; religion; religious affiliation; Indian employees; multinational coporations.
Bridging the rigor- relevance gap in management research through collaboration: An empirical investigation and implications
by Ritanjali Panigrahi, Praveen Ranjan Srivastava
Abstract: The academic research relevance to industry is an on-going debate, and it is considered of little relevance to practitioners. The wider gap between academic research and practitioner disciplines leads to irrelevant theory formulation and invalid practice. This paper reassesses the rigor-relevance gap in the context of management research in India and suggests that collaboration between academicians and researchers can bridge the gap. The collaborative research state is empirically examined among top 5% management researchers in India, and the growth of collaborative research is modeled. The model shows that the collaborative research among top Indian management researchers has reached its peak at around the year 2014 and has entered declining phase. While many of the researches are carried out in the light of the rigor-relevance debate in examining the problem and providing solutions, the present study focuses on the empirical analysis of the present state of collaborative research in India and models its growth.
Keywords: Rigor-relevance gap; Management research; Collaborative research.
Blinded or Branded? : Effect of Brand Cues on Customer Evaluation of Store Brands versus National Brands in an Emerging market
by Rashmi ., Hamendra Dangi
Abstract: Following the recent growth of organized grocery retail and increase in competition, Indian retail chains are starting to market their own brands. Store brands can be viewed as brand extensions of the retailers‟ overall brand. The present study attempts to understand the importance of brand knowledge (through extrinsic cues) in determining quality perception and brand preference for store brands and national brands through an experiment using 93 subjects and 744 evaluations for four products. Results suggest that extrinsic cues displayed by products drive consumers' (negative) evaluation of store brands by overshadowing their intrinsic characteristics. This observation is especially remarkable for products categories characterised by social consumption and high brand-differentiation. Results indicate that shoppers‟ willingness to purchase store brands is dictated by their perception of private label brands offering value-for-money. Retailers have been positioning their own brands as value-for-money alternatives to manufacturer brands from early on. The study found that this orientation continues to stick and is still a successful strategy for retailers.
Keywords: Store brand; blind test; retailer brand equity; retailing; brand preference; manufacturer brand; sugar; mango drink; breakfast cereal; detergent.
Whoever Said Corporations Dont Care? Evidence of CSR from India
by Ritam Garg, Judith Ambrosius
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) entails a high level of commitment and resources, especially in emerging markets, since in most of these developing countries corporate social responsibility is still an emerging concept. In India, however, this concept has been prevalent for decades. This paper examines the role of CSR activities adopted by modern Indian firms through the lens of the ancient Indian concept of giving. In doing so, this study argues that Indian firms deploy corporate social responsibility to not only comply with good governance, business ethics, human rights, or the environment, but also to focus on the overall nation building. In the wake of increasing internationalisation of Indian firms, it provides a descriptive exposition based on select cases of Indian firms, how the ancient Indian practice of giving is still relevant in the modern management context.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; India; Philanthropy; Philanthropic Giving.
Chanakyas Arthashastra: Management Practices by Indian Values
by Jayant Sonwalkar, Chandan Maheshkar
Abstract: India is the country with the longest history. It is worlds most culturally varied country. Athashastra is the ancient book by Chanakya presented a balanced socio-economic and political structure of ancient India. Revelation of the texts in the Arthashastra informs a range of concepts of administration, economic development, management principles and practices, and society. This study presents the management practices propounded in this ancient scripts of Arthashastra and has compared with the modern practices of management.
Keywords: Arthashastra; Chanakya; Management Practices; Manager Characteristics; Indian Thought on Management; Value based Management; Ancient Management.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in Indian Corporate Sector: Presence, Predictors and Practices
by Divya Verma Gakhar, Deepti Prakash
Abstract: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a national campaign by the Government of India, to clean cities and towns, roads and infrastructure of the country. The government is encouraging corporate sector is to participate in this endeavour. In the present study, we attempt to identify the presence of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan amongst sample companies of SENSEX and the practices they are carrying out. To identify the factors/ predictors of involvement of any company in Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, logistic regression was applied on 17 financial and organisational variables. Seven variables were included in the final model which explain the reasons of involvement of companies in Swachh Bharat Abhiyan which includes organisational culture, involvement of senior management, employees involvement in CSR, price earning ratio, product of the company, CSR to sales ratio and earning per share.
Keywords: swachh bharat abhiyan; logistic regression; predictors; practices; price earning ration; organisational culture; senior management; CSR; earning per share; health and hygiene.
My Store My Brand- A Critical Review of Online and Offline Private Label Brands in India
by Ruchita Pangriya, Rupesh Kumar. M
Abstract: Private Label brands are in the nascent stage in India. Therefore, the market for private labels in India is attractive, promising and prospective. Private label brands have a strong presence in offline retailing and are gradually but steadily establishing themselves in online retailing as well. The objective of this paper is to critically review the Indian private label market and to disclose the prominent factors that affect the sales of private label brands. In tune with the objective, 33 relevant articles were selected from a large pool of database and analyzed critically. The various factors affecting the private label performance have been critically analysed and the gap in the existing literature of private label brand has been identified. From the various analyses and reviews presented in this paper, it is expected that this review can be further referred in the new studies for the understanding of private label brands.
Keywords: Private label brands; in-store brands; national brands; retailer; e-tailer; India.
Assessing learning style preference of working professional cohorts in India: An empirical study using Honey-Mumfords Learning Style Questionnaire
by Ranjan Kumar, Neerja Pande
Abstract: Even though the learning needs of working professionals have become more context-centric and application-oriented, scant research has been conducted in India on their learning style preferences. This inadequate understanding of what learning styles and approaches align best with various professional cohorts, predisposes the design and delivery of a learning intervention to being more output-oriented instead of outcome-oriented. This paper is based on an empirical study of working professionals in India (n = 155) to assess their learning style preferences, by deploying Honey-Mumfords Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ). The study provides critical insights into learning style preference of various working professional cohorts in India, in terms of functional specialization, level of education and work experience tenure. The outcome of this research provides critical inputs which can be factored into the design and delivery of outcome-centric learning interventions for working professionals in India.
Keywords: Honey-Mumford’s Learning Style Questionnaire; Indian working professionals learning style; LSQ; learning style preferences; management education in India.
Value Innovation: For and with Customers
by Meeta Dasgupta
Abstract: Contemporary organizations, to be successful, have to think in terms of creating value for their customers. Should organizations collaborate with customers to understand how value can be created for them? Such understanding would not only create value for the focal firm but also increase acceptance of the product or service by the customers. The purpose of this paper is to first present a theoretical model linking co-creation with value innovation, and secondly to through two in-depth case studies re-examine empirically the role of customers in a service value innovation initiative. The study discovers the role of customers as co-implementers in the value innovation process. As co-implementers customers also serve a mechanism for increasing the acceptance of the service value innovation. Involvement of customers in the stages prior to implementation is fraught with challenges.
Keywords: Perceived customer value; co-creation; value innovation; education services; creative value.
Special Issue on: National Conference on Managerial Perspectives, Issues, and Challenges of Swachch Bharat Abhiyan 2014 Managerial Perspectives, Issues and Challenges of Swachch Bharat (Clean India) Campaign
EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION ON ORGANIZATIONAL CONCERN FOR SWACHH BHARAT CAMPAIGN: A STUDY ON MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN DURGAPUR
by INDRANIL MUTSUDDI
Abstract: The Swachh Bharat Campaign was launched in India with an objective of improving the quality of life in rural India by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and improving the basic living standards. Later on this noble cleanliness model was adopted and shared by the corporates, industries, entrepreneurs, NGOs and academic institutions across the country so as to facilitate cleaner, safer and healthier workplaces for the people and the society at large. With the implementation of the Swachh Bharat Campaign in industries and businesses in and around Durgapur, the present study had made an attempt to understand the perception of the employees working in various manufacturing firms regarding organizational concerns for the Swachh Bharat initiative. The study indicated that Technology Support, Top Management support & commitment, and Managerial Support were important as causal factors influencing the Swachh Bharat Campaign.
Keywords: Organizational Concern; Swachh Bharat Campaign; quality of life; Manufacturing Firms; Durgapur.
E-waste management awareness and intentions among youth consumers: the mediating role of motivation
by Sanjay Dhingra, Nitika Sharma
Abstract: The paper empirically explores the role of general awareness, motivation and intentions in e-waste. It proposes an original framework to explore the influence of e-waste awareness on e-waste management intentions of consumers through the mediating role of e-waste management motivation. The data collected from young users were analyzed using mediation model proposed by Hayes (2008). The questionnaire was administered to study the identified the pertinent issues in e-waste management and the study found that e-waste general awareness of users significantly affects the e-waste management intentions through motivation of the users for their better health and environment.
Keywords: e-waste awareness; e-waste motivation; e-waste management intentions; mediation model.
Special Issue on: National Conference on Managerial Perspectives, Issues, and Challenges of Swachch Bharat Abhiyan 2014 Managerial Perspectives, Issues and Challenges of Swachch Bharat (Clean India) Campaign
INVOLVEMENT LED ATTITUDES TOWARDS RESPONSIBLE WASTE MANAGEMENT UNDER SWACHCH BHARAT CAMPAIGN: A STUDY OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES WORKING IN NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION OF INDIA
by Shilpa Jain, Nitya Khurana
Abstract: India (and by extension, Indians) has a notorious reputation of being ‘dirty’. Such reputation is both embarrassing, as well as deeply ironic. But despite our failures, successive governments have focused on various aspects of public health, hygiene and sanitation. The present government too has declared a war against unhygienic sanitation through the Swachch Bharat Mission (SBM) launched on October 02, 2014. This mission will remain incomplete without creating a behavioral change among the Indian populace as also mentioned in the vision documents of SBM. Studies investigating the impact of the SBM on the attitudes and behaviours of people will help government and other stakeholders to review and streamline the strategies to achieve the mission. This paper is an attempt to study such attitudes led by involvement in responsible waste management of employees working in government organizations located in the National Capital Region of India regarding the SBM.
Keywords: Involvement, Attitudes, Organizational Interventions, Awareness, Responsible Waste Management