International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management (50 papers in press)
- Dilemma of Work-Life Balance in Dual-Career Couples- A Study from the Indian Perspective
by Gnanadhas Delina, Rampalli Prabhakara Raya
Abstract: Work-life balance is a contemporary issue and is of great interest in studies related to quality of life. This paper is an empirical study that aims to examine the key factors affecting work-life balance of dual-career couples working in Knowledge-Based Organizations (KBOs). The research uses primary data collected through a questionnaire based on a five-point Likert scale. This study is an attempt to capture the perception of knowledge professionals towards various constructs of work-life balance and their own work-life balance. Data has been analyzed by employing the statistical methods, namely Independent sample t-test, One-way ANOVA, MANOVA, Correlation and Multiple Regression using statistical package SPSS 20 for windows. The research came out with profound findings on gender differences. This study supports previous research findings that dual-career couples face the dilemma of work-life balance severely. It is found that the constructs of work-life balance and respondents satisfaction towards work-life balance is influenced differently by their demographic characteristics. Significant difference is found in the work-life balance of dual-career couples based on their gender and family structure. The constructs of work-life balance hold a strong influence over the respondents satisfaction towards work-life balance. Finally, the study throws light on the fact that work-life balance is definitely a determinant of an individuals overall quality of life.
Keywords: Work-Life Balance, Dual-career couples, Quality of Life.
- Evaluating combination of individual pre-purchase internet information channels using hybrid fuzzy MCDM technique: Demographics as moderators
by Gaurav Khatwani, Gopal Das
Abstract: In recent years, the growth in technology has resulted in digital media fragmentation and the proliferation of Internet marketing mediums. As a result of the emergence of digital marketing channels, marketers have started to place an increased focus on understanding consumer preferences. Previous research has concentrated on the comprehensive study of consumer preferences for individual pre-purchase information search channels; however, very little research has been conducted on users preferences in terms of how a combination of these individual channels can be employed and the role that demographic parameters play in determining these preferences. This study employed a hybrid fuzzy multi criteria group decision (HFMCGD) system to measure the role that demographic parameters play in influencing individuals preference for pre-purchase information channels. Fuzzy AHP was employed to identify the criteria that influences consumers search for pre-purchase information on the Internet according to demographic parameters such as gender, age and monthly income. Fuzzy TOPSIS was then used to rank different combinations of pre-purchase channels according to the same demographic parameters.
Keywords: Consumer decision making, Decision support system, fuzzy AHP, fuzzy TOPSIS, Information search channels
- Impact of changing consumer lifestyles and website quality on online satisfaction and loyalty an emerging market framework.
by Shweta Pandey, Deepak Chawla
Abstract: Online loyalty or electronic loyalty is argued to be a key imperative for survival of the online retailers. The existing approach for studying it is largely fragmented, examining only certain stages of the purchase process or focussing on certain factors, with little or no clarity on the methodological incorporation of domain and context specificity. Previous studies done in the developed countries may not be applicable in emerging markets where consumers are still undergoing transformation from their encapsulation in traditional beliefs and values into a technology driven modern way of life. This study extends existing loyalty framework with due consideration to the methodology as well as the development level of e-commerce in the market. It proposes a framework which juxtaposes impact of advancing technology across each purchase stage using constructs of e-lifestyles, website quality and e-satisfaction and their impact on e-loyalty. A comprehensive understanding of these constructs will lead to better understanding of online consumer behaviour in emerging markets like India.
Keywords: India; electronic lifestyles; e-lifestyles; website quality; online satisfaction; e-satisfaction; online loyalty; e-loyalty; electronic loyalty; emerging market; framework.
- Effectiveness Drivers for Indian Information Technology Managers: An Empirical Study
by Yogesh Naik, Monika Bisht
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify the effectiveness drivers contributing to managerial effectiveness in Indian Information technology (IT) professionals through empirical study. Effectiveness assessments were administered to 2,080 IT professionals working as technical managers, their respective reporting officers, peers and subordinates. Intended as a comprehensive inquiry into the competencies of technical managers, three factors determined the design: repository of critical competencies through literature, 360 degree feedback on effectiveness attributes and empirical analysis to unearth underlying factor structure for effectiveness. Nineteen variables were found to be contributing to the effectiveness of the IT managers. They belong to competency areas such as technology management, business management, project management, domain know how, Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the value system. Inferences include Emotional intelligence is key to effective management of technical managers; technical ability alone is not enough to be an effective manager; domain and business skills are critical and robust individual value system contributes in achieving effectiveness. Given the growth, uncertainty and rapid change of technology associated with IT industry, findings provide organizations with specific competency development areas for their technology talents. It is expected to provide a guiding force for technology leadership development in times to come.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Technical Manager; Information Technology; Managerial Effectiveness; India.
- Analyzing Customer Responses to Migrate Strategies in Making Retailing and CRM Effective
by Gaurav Gupta, Himanshu Aggarwal
Abstract: As the world is growing more and more competitive, the customer experience is becoming more important to the businesses. There is a need for appropriately aligned customer-centric strategy to maintain synchronization between customers expectations and services provided to them. This can be achieved through Customer Relationship Management (CRM). CRM is a comprehensive strategy and a process of acquiring, retaining, and partnering with selective customers to create superior value for the business by using customer knowledge. A business strategy needs to be designed that reduces the cost by increasing customer loyalty and business profitability. The objective of the paper is to point out the relevant factors that may be helpful to the retailers in increasing their profit, sales and building long-term relationships with the customers. The factors have been extracted from the pool of factors that are surveyed from the customers at the shopping mall, marts and supermarket. The findings may help the retailers in developing their strategies during sales, promotions, marketing, business and customer build ups and maintaining log-term relationships with the customers.
Keywords: CRM; Customer; Retailing; Relationship; Services; Businesses; Marketing; Strategies
- Collaborative and Open Innovation: Supply Chain Planning as an effective source
by Rajeev Mukundan, Sam Thomas
Abstract: The importance of innovation to business is well-recognized. Collaborations, both internal to the firm and external, are a main source of innovation in firms. Inter-departmental collaboration is an important driver of innovation, while external collaboration facilitates open innovation. Building a collaborative network exclusively to achieve innovation can be expensive. Supply Chain management in firms requires both inter-departmental collaboration, and external collaboration with other firms in the supply chain. This paper investigates whether this collaboration can be harnessed to generate innovations. Through conceptual arguments, the paper concludes that firms stand to gain in their innovation efforts by leveraging the supply chain collaborations. To achieve this, alignment of supply chain managers with innovation champions in the firm has to be facilitated and supported by the top management. While potential cost savings can be realized by leveraging existing supply chain relationships, other practical implications have also been outlined. Continued empirical studies are suggested to further evolve this stream of research.
Keywords: Sales & Operations Planning, Open Innovation, Supply chain collaboration, Inter-departmental collaboration.
- Mis-selling of ULIPs Causes and Regulatory Approach towards Unethical Practices of Mis-selling of ULIPs
by ANAND BANSAL, Amarjeet Kaur
Abstract: Insurance sector is one of the booming sectors of India, as this sector along with the banking sector contributes 7% (approx.) to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India. With the opening up of insurance sector, innovative insurance products have been introduced by insurers in order to cater the needs of various segments of society. Innovations in insurance products have benefited the customers as insurance companies are competing each other by introducing insurance policies with improved features. Invention and introduction of Unit Link Insurance Policies (ULIPs) is one of the commendable achievements of Indian insurance industry. But at the same time mis-selling of ULIPs has become a serious concern for the customers, regulatory authorities and the government. This paper highlights the causes of mis-selling of ULIPs, scenario pre and post revised guidelines regarding ULIPs by Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) in September 2010 and suggests measures to eradicate mis-selling. The study is descriptive in nature and it is based on secondary data.
- LOKASAMGRAHA: PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS
by Shibani Belwalkar, Veena Vohra
Abstract: Workplace environments which recognize employees as human beings, and not just mere resources, tend to foster behavioral patterns which create significant benefits for the organization. Encouraging workplaces to cultivate such environments requires sturdy contextual crafting, elaborating systematically, the underlying assumptions as well as the rationale. A study of literature on prominent traditional philosophies which point to the necessity and benefits of creating such responsible workplaces also becomes imminent. This article is an exploration on the convergence of thoughts on workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behaviors, from the revered Lokasamgraha concept of the Bhagwad Gita. After analyzing the principal conceptual dimensions of workplace spirituality, and organizational citizenship behaviors, particular emphasis is placed upon Lokasamgraha as the most elaborate and inclusive framework for justifying workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behaviors. It places both concepts in the larger context of Lokasamgraha and outlines the associated research and its implications. The purpose is to allow for a deeper insightful understanding of these concepts through the development of Lokasamgraha, as an inquiry field, subsequently contributing to the successful application in organizational theories.
Keywords: Lokasamagraha, Workplace Spirituality,Organizational citizenship behaviors.
- Study on Corporate Governance Mechanisms
by Rakesh Mishra, Sheeba Kapil
Abstract: This paper aims to review the empirical studies done for finding relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. The review covers major theoretical and empirical papers on corporate governance and firm performance in developed economies. Apart from studies done in developed economies, studies done in emerging economies are also included in the review. Using a wide ranging literature review, the paper looks at corporate governance practices and value creation from managerial control perspective. As a result of the study it has been observed that corporate governance is related to corporate performance and adoption of better corporate governance practices lead to better firm performance. Another aspect from this study is that availability of legal recourse ensures effective working of corporate governance mechanisms. This being a review paper, one of the major limitations for this review paper is an unintentional omission of some literature because of non-availability or non-reachability. Literature that would have been present in languages other than English could also not be included in the review.
Keywords: Corporate governance, ownership structure, board of directors, control mechanisms
- Relation between human resource development climate and organizational commitment: Empirical study in Indian Banking Sector.
by Shweta Mittal, Vishal Gupta, Manoj Motiani
Abstract: The present study examines the relationship between the three subsets of HRD climate i.e. HRD mechanisms, general climate and OCTAPAC with the organizational commitment in the Indian banking sector. Data was collected using a survey questionnaire from 203 bank employees working in the public and private Indian banks. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modelling and study found that there is a positive relationship between HRD mechanisms, gen-eral climate and OCTAPAC with organizational commitment. So, the organizations which have a favourable HRD climate are more committed in their organization. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: HRD Climate, HRD Mechanisms, General Climate, OCTAPAC, HR practices, Organizational Commitment and Banking sector.
- Evaluation of Information retrieval: Precision and Recall
by Monika Arora
Abstract: The information retrieval system evaluation revolves around the notion of relevant and non-relevant documents. Based on the user information need, a document (test collection) gives binary classification (either relevant or non-relevant). The performance indicator such as precision and recall are used to determine how far the system satisfies the user requirements. The effectiveness of information retrieval systems is essentially measured by comparing performance, functionality and systematic approach on a common set of queries and documents. The significance tests are used to evaluate functional, performance (precession and recall), collection and interface evaluation. We must focus on the user satisfaction, which is the key parameter of performance evaluation. It identifies the collection of relevant documents under the retrieved set of collection in specific time interval. The recall and precision technique are used to evaluate the efficacy of information retrieval systems.The value of displaying the relevant records as a result of response to a query and has been assumed by information retrieval research strategies or paradigms. The user happiness depends on the user interface, which includes design, clarity, precision and responsiveness, and also on relevant results.
The present investigations discuss about the properly cited and not cited documents. It also uses the formal evaluation methodology, which is developed for evaluating retrieval results. The key measure of the utility is only the user happiness. The response time and the relevancy of the results are the significant factors in user satisfaction. The comparision of search engine yahoo and google based on precision and recall technique.
Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Information System Retrieval, Precision, Recall
- A Tri-Component Model of Parental Attitude: acceptance of childs role in family decision making
by Neena Sondhi, Rituparna Basu
Abstract: The present paper aims to understand the tri-components of parental attitude to assess the evolving decision making role of the child consumer while considering the moderating effects of the childs age and his level of involvement with the product.The study uses a quota sample of 141 urban Indian parents across 4 child segments to understand the connotation of the cognitive-conative-affective components of parental attitude in assessing the extent of consequent empowerment of their children in family purchase decisions across high and low involvement product categories for the child. The higher reliability for the affective attitudinal components of the urban Indian parents followed by the conative and cognitive components were established. The relation with the parents higher affective component and his greater affinity to involve the child in the purchase decision is also highlighted. The positive correlation between the childs age and his level of involvement in the purchase decision is also reestablished with the present study. The popular notion of the existing developed and developing consumer market divide is challenged with findings that suggest similarities of the evolving child consumption behavior between the urban markets specific to the developing markets and those in the developed markets. However, the diversity of Indian parents both in terms of their attitude towards parenting significantly deliver decisive signals for market specific segmentation strategies. The present study contributes with the novel use of the affective-conative-cognitive components of attitude for more categorical modeling of the parent-child dyadic relation to understand the growth and development of the child consumer in the context of an emerging market.
Keywords: Parental Attitude, Product Involvement, Emerging Market, Child ; family decision making; consumer buying behavior
- An empirical study to assess the impact of various relationship dimensions on supplier relationship in Indian scenario
by Manish Gupta, Akhilesh Choudhary
Abstract: Supplier relationship management is a discipline of working collaboratively with those suppliers that are vital to the success of the organization so as to maximize the potential value of supplier relationship. The supplier relationship is defined as the affiliation of companies that supply their business with goods and services with their suppliers to achieve their business objectives. Many growing companies focus on the price of their suppliers along with trust, satisfaction, communication, co-operation and commitment. A survey was carried out among Indian organizations to determine the most dominating relationship dimensions in Indian scenario. Various hypotheses were proposed to assess the impact of those selected relationship dimensions on supplier relationship and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was carried out for their validation. Finally the results reveal that the proposed relationship dimensions: competence, communication, co-operation, commitment, and conflict handling are correlated to trust and satisfaction, which in turn positively affects supplier relationship.
Keywords: Supplier relationship; Supplier selection; Relationship dimensions; Trust.
- A Corporate social responsibility initiative on primary education: the Engineers India Limited Case Study
by RUHEE SINGH, SWETA S. MALLA,
Abstract: This case is an endeavour towards analysing the primary education model that has
been adopted by Engineers India Limited (EIL) as part of its Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) program to educate children who live in and around its
project area of Dibrugarh, Assam. This case will help researchers, academicians
and students to analyse one of the modes through which organisations could
eradicate the problems related to primary education of lakhs of underprivileged
people in an economical and efficient way. The case illustrates in detail the
process of implementation of the primary education model called Ekal
Vidyalayas which means One Teacher School.
Keywords: Primary education; corporate social responsibility; Engineers India Limited; EKAL Vidyalaya; Dibrugarh; social initiatives
- The Need for Regulatory Intervention in Corporate Social Responsibility in India: Evidence from Corporate Social Disclosures
by Upali Arijita Biswas, Suresh Garg, Archana Singh
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) research in India is in its nascent stage and articles seldom provide a rigorous scholarship about CSR reporting, particularly of the time leading to the initiatives undertaken by regulatory institutions towards institutionalisation of CSR. The paper aims to provide a detailed insight about the type of CSR activities undertaken and reported by Indian companies and in the context of the ambiguities and loopholes in current reporting practices, discusses the need for intervention by regulatory institutions. Employing content analysis to evaluate the annual reports of 42 non-financial companies listed on the Nifty index of the National Stock Exchange of India, over 2004-2011, the paper details the quantity, quality, platforms and the scope of CSR communication, along with a sectorial comparison of corporate social disclosures (CSD). The findings establish that quantity of reporting has increased steadily, with maximum reporting noted in employee related categories, usually under the effect of regulation. The quality of reporting appears stagnant. The high incidence of declarative statements is often ambiguous about CSR evidence and beneficiaries, and has little reference to any strategy. The detailed account of CSD presented in this research will be of interest to academicians, regulatory institutions and to organisations looking to extend their CSR programmes in India.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; CSR; corporate social disclosure; CSD; reporting; annual reports; longitudinal; India; content analysis; regulatory intervention
- Impact of musical fits and image of different malls on consumer purchase behaviour
by R.K. Srivastava
Abstract: This paper aims to explore the process by which the influence of retail environment, especially the music on consumer perception and behaviour in eight males. The study is carried out to find the musical fit with the mall image. The data were obtained using a structured questionnaire from 436 respondents in eight malls survey conducted in India. This study-adapted questionnaire based on the work Foxall and Yani-de-Soriano, 2005; Foxall and Pearson, 2006 and Srivastava, 2013 and developed a research agenda for musical atmospherics phenomena on consumer behaviour.Our study confirms that if there is a musical fit with the image of the mall, consumers will have the best shopping experience due to the musical environment. Our study reveals that Females are happier with the music played in the background music played in the mall compared to male. However, music in the malls has more effect on males purchase behaviour compared to females Musical fit with the image of the mall increases the duration of stay.Emotional behaviour due to atmospherics will affect purchase decision specially of a low involved products. Higher the music fit, higher will be the shopping behaviour and frequency of visit. Females are happier with the music played in the background music played in the mall compared to male
To the best of the authors knowledge, their research is the first to study the impact of store environment with respect to the image of the mall (in conjunction with trait variables) on impulse buying in emerging markets, which is different from western culture.
Keywords: Musical environment, Malls, Consumer behaviour, Image, Musical fit
- Gaming Dependency Among Indian Adolescents: A Phenomenological Study
by Anjali Malik, Rajeev Kumra, Smitha Girija
Abstract: Multiple factors influence the development of gaming dependency among adolescents. Much of the extant literature identified risks associated with its development and its consequences. However, impact of Indian culture and family characteristics on gaming dependency in India is largely unknown. The paper reports the findings of an exploratory study, using phenomenological in-depth interview technique, examining whether the prevalence of gaming dependency varies according to cultural affiliation with specific reference to Indian culture. A group of 15 adolescents were phenomenologically interviewed after being identified as game dependent out of total 486 respondents. Three major themes explicated from participants spontaneous experiences are risk arising from gamer characteristics, familial factors and game characteristics. The results were discussed with respect to the influence of Indian culture and family system on gaming behaviour of adolescents. Family cohesiveness and close parental monitoring are some of the protective factors in Indian culture.
Keywords: Gaming, Dependency, Risk factors, Indian Culture, Adolescent
- Youth Shoppers - Study of Psychographics, Motives and Shopping Behavior
by Suman Yadav, Sadaf Siraj
Abstract: Development of shopping malls has gained momentum in India and the youth is the major beneficiary for this metamorphosis. In this study an attempt has been made to map the shopping behavior of the Indian youth in shopping mall covering all the aspects starting from the time and frequency of their shopping visit, their motives, assortment of products they buy etc. Additionally, segments of the youth shoppers have been generated on the basis of their psychographic characteristics and shopping motives. Further the shopping behaviour of the different segment youth shoppers has been described in terms of their visit frequency, amount spent and time spent at the mall. Findings reveal that on the basis of shopping motives youth shoppers could be segregated into four segments viz. Entertainment seekers, Value seekers, Escapist and Adventure seekers and on the basis of Psychographic profile three segments emerged namely- Influential, Survivor and Experiencers.rn
Keywords: Key words: Youth Shopper, Shopping motives, Shopping behaviour, Psychographic profiles, shopping malls, Indian shoppers.rn
- Challenge in Traditional Service Delivery for Diabetes Management: Mobile Health, a Technology Driven System, is the Alternative?
by Vinod Kumar, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Uma Kumar, Bhasker Mukerji, Mahmud Shareef
Abstract: This case study is written on the Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM). This is the largest diabetes management hospital in Asia. The newly appointed Executive Director, Mr. Habib, is attempting to launch a new revolutionary mobile health service system driven by modern wireless technology for better service quality, higher efficiency, and patient convenience, which is ultimately targeted toward achieving a higher return on investment. This is a challenging issue as it is a complex concern based on users technological, behavioral, and cognitive beliefs. Nevertheless, Mr. Habib has decided to take this challenge.
Keywords: M-Health; Diabetes Management; Service Delivery
- A Quick Scan Audit of the socio-technical system in a leather accessories manufacturing SME
by Anita Kumar
Abstract: Leather fashion and footwear industry contributes significantly to the Indian economy through employment generation and earning foreign exchange. Both public and private sectors have increasingly emphasized on the planned development of this industry and encourage more SME involvement and participation. However, recent studies indicate that Indian leather manufacturing SMEs are, often, unable to compete effectively and efficiently on a global platform due to certain inherent and external constraints. This paper adopts a case research methodology with quick-scan audit tool to review the socio-technical system of a leather export SME. It draws attention to the inefficiencies in the production system and highlights the human resource gaps faced by the company. The two-fold findings of the case investigation point to a need to develop social competencies not only in an individual organization but also at the sectorial level. The selected case has been used as a fundamental prism through which current labour regulations and standards prevailing in the country need to be examined and possibly reformed.
Keywords: Leather fashion and footwear exports, case research methodology, quick-scan audit tool, socio-technical system
- The Impact of Religiosity upon Managers CSR Orientation: An Empirical Study in Indian Perspective
by Priyanka Verma, Anupam Singh
Abstract: Ethical Behaviour among businesses has gained significant prominence in recent years. Survey evidence shows that there is significant influence of religiosity and values on managers social responsiveness behaviour. Some of legal, economic and management literature has begun to explore numerous complex questions and concern that arise with the prospect of integrating religious perspectives, values and frameworks into businesses. This study examines the influence of religious values on ethical behaviour intentions (EBI) and managers corporate social responsibility orientation (CSRO). The empirical data for this study was generated through a self-administered questionnaire and was analysed using AMOS software. The findings of our study indicate that commitment to moral self-improvement (CMSI) mediates positive effects of religiosity on ethical behaviour intentions (EBI) and CSR orientations of managers.
Keywords: CSR orientation; religiosity; commitment to moral self-improvement; ethical Behaviour intention; managers; India
- A study on Empathetic Listening in Internalization of Emotional Intelligence among Engineers: Srimad Bhagavad Gita in Context
by Nikhil K Mehta
Abstract: In the recent past, studies highlighting the glories of Srimad Bhagavad Gita have been presented. These studies range from understanding of the micro-level unit of analysis such as emotional intelligence, personality among individuals to the macro unit of analysis such as corporate social responsibilities. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the empathetic listening in internalization of emotional intelligence among engineers. The basic idea for the study stems from an example that shows the connection between mentor Lord Krishna and His prot
Keywords: Srimad Bhagavad Gita, emotional intelligence, empathetic listening, empathy, listening, emotional intelligence traits, engineers.
- IMPACT OF TEN CS LEADERSHIP PRACTICES ON EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT WITH RESPECT TO SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: A STUDY OF HOTEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY IN NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION, DELHI, INDIA
by Anu Singh Lather, Vinod Jain, Shilpa Jain
Abstract: The present study was aimed to map the effect of specific leadership practices on employee engagement with respect to the socio-demographic profile of employees working in the hotel and tourism industry. A sample of 100 employees was selected using stratified random sampling. Ten Cs suggested by Dan Crim and Seijts (2006) were taken as leadership practices and employee engagement was measured through job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intent to stay, pride, advocate, and emotional connect. The results show that Males prefer democratic control while females want control as well as leaders focus on their career development. The results of the study also reveals different leadership practices (Ten Cs) which engage employees belonging to different income group, educational background, marital status, family type, schooling type, socio economic status, and area of location. Interestingly these socio demographic factors differentiate amongst individuals as regards with which specific leadership practices engage them in their jobs.
Keywords: Leadership practices, employee engagement, service industry, socio-demographic factors
- Luxury and Masses: Assessing the connect in India
by Manaswini Acharya, Abhishek Nirjar
Abstract: There was a time when luxury was meant only for the rich. Things have changed rapidly all over the world and India is no exception to this change. It is observed today that people's buying habits do not necessarily correspond to their income, as had always been the assumption. People, who once could only desire for luxury, have now come to own it. While there is no doubt that luxury has become a lot more affordable it is quite interesting to note that the common man today indulges in luxury even when he cannot actually afford it. This paper takes a qualitative assessment route to understand the various reasons that have now connected the previously disconnected luxury products and the masses. It seeks to understand reasons, as to why masses buy luxury products and the factors that influence them. The study is specific to India and hopes to provide insights about the changing Indian consumer. It was interesting to note that there were both personal and social reasons for the masses attempting to indulge in luxury.
Keywords: India, luxury products, consumer behaviour
- Determining Store Attribute Salience on Store Choice Behaviour In An Emerging Market The Case of Indian Grocery Market
by Shashank Mehra, Moonis Shakeel
Abstract: Grocery Retailing in India in the present environment is unchartered territory. Food and grocery is the most promising area for setting up retail business in India. This research is using descriptive research design and applying random sampling on 579 usable questionnaires across the National Capital Region of Delhi. Both descriptive and multivariate statistical tools like factor analysis used to analyze the data collected from 579 food and grocery retail customers from neighbourhood National capital region in India. The findings highlight consumers store choice criteria and extract six factors which play important role while selecting the grocery retailers out of 37 items, these factors will play vital role in the consumers format choice decisions. rnThis study will serve as a vital point for future studies in this area of concern. The research is also relevant to retail marketers in terms of format development and reorientation of marketing strategies in the fastest growing Indian retail market.rn
Keywords: Store choice, format choice, consumer behavior, socio-demographic profile, retailing, organised retail, unorganised retail India.
- Exploring service quality of the department stores: A study from India
by Nirmalya Bandyopadhyay
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to empirically explore retail service quality of the department stores in the Indian context. A measure is developed by modifying the RSQS scale as available in the literature to measure retail service quality. Data were collected from four competing department stores so as to assess retail service quality. Statistical analysis revealed a three-factor construct structure. The validity and reliability of the measure are assessed empirically. The study has managerial implications in strategic decision making.
Keywords: service quality, satisfaction, retail format, department store, model, India
- LOCAL VERSUS GLOBAL BRAND PREFERENCES AMONGST URBAN INDIAN CHOCOLATE CONSUMERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
by Deepak Chawla, Neena Sondhi
Abstract: The paper assessed the contribution of psychographic variables in predicting the likelihood of purchase for Indian vs foreign chocolate brands. The authors used a convenience sampling method to collect data from 311 urban Indian consumers who are buyers and consumers of chocolates. Logit regression model was used to predict the purchase decision of foreign vs Indian chocolate consumption decision. The logit model obtained for the respondent population had a significant LR statistics and predictive with 89 percent for the consumers of Indian brands and a 65 percent predictive capacity for consumers of foreign brand. The two groups differed significantly with regards six of the psychographic variables selected. The foreign brand consumers were more frequent and heavy buyers of chocolates in general. For both groups gifting was a major reason of purchase.
Keywords: Chocolate consumption; consumer buying decisions; psychographic variables, Indian consumers; logit regression; emerging markets
- Social Commerce as a Business Tool in Saudi Arabias SMEs
by Salma S. Abed, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Michael D. Williams
Abstract: Social media adoption plays a significant role in economic development. Yet, many Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) do not believe that they could expand their market and reach customers on social media sites, especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study conducted a content analysis method to determine the elements of social media that SMEs are using to connect with consumers and its impact on consumers usage. The study has analysed sixty SMEs divided into four main categories including online information provided and shared by SMEs; online business strategies used by SMEs; technology and social media tools and platforms used by SMEs; and consumers social media tools and platforms usage to connect with SMEs. Finally, the analysis indicated that businesses are building online trust using social media; online business strategies influence consumers perceptions of the uncertainty; innovative businesses lead to innovative consumers; and quality of online information affects consumers adoption.
Keywords: Social Commerce; Social Media; SMEs; Content Analysis; Saudi Arabia
- A Study of Non-verbal Immediacy Behavior from the Perspective of Indian Cultural Context, Gender and Experience.
by Reeta Raina, Asif Zameer
Abstract: The present study explores the influence of culture, gender and experience on the nonverbal communication behavior in an Indian context. The results indicate that Indians often, use more multimodal style of communication - primarily nonverbal methods to relay information in conversations using eye movement, spacing, facial expressions, tone of voice and other nonverbal cues. Generally, they are seen as high on nonverbal immediacy behavior, but, at times, they do reveal, some kind of withdrawal symptoms like leaning away from the person or their bodies become tense - they would avoid gesturing and not look directly at the person. The Indian women, when compared with men in India, tend to be more emotive, they smile considerably more, maintain more eye contact and gesture more whereas men use more expansive gestures. The study did not show major difference in the nonverbal behavior of people with experience and non-experience background.
Keywords: Nonverbal communication, High-context culture, Proxemics, Gender, Eye contact, high power distancing, Indian Male, Indian Female, Gestures and Facial Expressions\r\n
- Exploring gender difference in organic clothing purchase intention and ecological behavior
by Geetika Varshineya, Gopal Das
Abstract: The present work aims to study the relationship of values with purchase intention for organic clothing and ecological behavior. It will also explore the relationship of ecological behavior and positive word-of-mouth. Further it will figure out the moderating role of gender in all these relationships. Six hypotheses were developed with the support of relevant literature. The hypothesis were tested with the help of primary data (n=202), collected through a structured questionnaire online from Indian consumers of age group 18 years and above. Regression analysis was done to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that value and purchase intention for organic clothing has a positive relationship. Also values and ecological behavior has a positive and significant relationship. Similar is the relationship between ecological behavior and positive word-of-mouth. Gender acts as a moderator in all the earlier mentioned relationships. The results of the current study are focused organic clothing and needs validation in other contexts. It is limited to Indian consumers of age group 18 years and above.
Keywords: Organic clothing, purchase intention, values, ecological behavior
- Understanding Expenditure on Different Commodity Groups in Indian Households: Emerging Patterns and Policy Implications
by Bipul Kumar, Piyush Kumar Sinha
Abstract: This study explores the expenditure pattern on different commodity groups such as food, fuel and lighting, clothing and other items across Indian households. The study also explores the variables apart from income which affect the expenditure on commodity groups across rural and urban population in India. Estimates made for expenditure elasticity taking into account the regional differences in India across rural and urban settings provide some important implications for the marketers on issues like income based segmentation as well as consumption pattern on commodities. This study also has policy implications with insights on social welfare programs depending upon the nature of expenditure elasticity for a particular commodity group linked with income of the household. The nature and magnitude of the elasticity also provides a policy tool for devising the tax structure based on expenditure towards necessity or luxury goods with respect to the income level of the household.
Keywords: Segmentation; commodity; income; elasticity; expenditure; necessity goods; luxury goods
- The Price of Heritage: An Investigation of Hotel Prices
by Prem Dewani, Sameer Mathur
Abstract: This paper investigates the price premium charged by hotels to heritage tourists. A field study shows that heritage hotels in India command a sizable price premium over comparable, conventional hotels in India. Another field study finds that hotel rooms facing the Niagara Falls, USA, are more expensive than hotel rooms facing the city. A third study investigates the preferences of heritage tourists visiting India to see the Taj-Mahal. The study finds that heritage tourists indicate higher quality perception, purchase intentions, word-of-mouth likelihood and willingness-to-pay for a hotel room with an ethnic room decor and overlooking the Taj-Mahal compared to a hotel room with a modern decor and overlooking the city. Overall, this paper demonstrates a significant "price of heritage".
Keywords: Heritage, Pricing, Hotels, Service
- E-Governance in developing countries: A case study of E-Disha initiative in the Indian state of Haryana
by Tejinder Sharma, George Mangalaraj, Vivek Natarajan
Abstract: Technological interfaces are increasingly being used, throughout the world, to reach out to larger sections for the delivery of e-governance services. Inadequacy of digitalization of records of the subsistence level citizens, lack of awareness of their rights, and little understanding of the processes to avail the governance services hamper the effectiveness and of delivery of the e-governance services to them. The study explores the adoption of E-disha services by the subsistence level citizens, offered by the north-Indian state of Haryana. Findings indicate that the subsistence level citizens easily learn the use of technology-assisted interfaces and the E-disha services measure upto the citizens expectation on the dimensions of spatial convenience, ease of use, cost, and trust. By adopting a marketing and customer service paradigm, considering governance as a service and leveraging technology as a facilitator, the subsistence marketplaces could be better served and foster their inclusiveness into the social mainstream.
Keywords: E-governance services, E-disha, Technology adoption, Customer service, Developing Countries, India, Haryana, Case Study
- Factors Affecting Adoption of Green Products among Youths: A Conceptual Framework Based on Evidence from India
by Bipul Kumar
Abstract: Green products have major contribution in changing the mind-set of consumers towards environmental protection, responsible consumption and overall value creation in an ethical manner. Despite efforts from marketers, the adoption of green products has not been in line with the expectations. Although developed economies have experimented and learned many important cues with respect to the adoption of green products, the emerging economies are still in the transition phase. Using qualitative method, this study explores different psychographic and cultural factors interplaying in the decision making process for adoption of green products in India. Based on Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory, the study then develops a conceptual framework which includes some pertinent factors including a potential moderating factor affecting the adoption of green products. The study provides some important insights for the practitioners and the policy makers.
Keywords: Green products; collectivistic culture; environmental reciprocity; self-efficacy; risk proneness; Value-Belief-Norm theory; youth; emerging economy
- Assessing Bihars Economic Growth: A Geweke Causality Analysis
by Khee Giap Tan, Tongxin Nie, Kartik Rao
Abstract: Despite being one of the most backward Indian states in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, the state of Bihar recorded double-digit growth from 2005 to 2011. Although this growth turnaround has been recognized as something significant, the literature to date has not probed the causes that have driven Bihars growth story. In this context, this paper attempts to contribute to the growing interest and literature in studying the causal factors driving growth patterns in India at the sub-national level. Specifically, the paper employs a Geweke Causality Analysis to investigate the drivers of economic growth in Bihar from 2001 to 2011. By decomposing and examining the linear feedback between the State-level economic growth and the vector consisting of law and order as well as fiscal variables, this paper finds that a combination of improvements in law and order as well as aid from the central government played an important role in Bihars economic turnaround in recent years.
Keywords: Geweke Causality, Economic Growth, Bihar, India
- Who Matters most in Services? Detractors, Passively Satisfied or Promoters
by Shivendra Pandey
Abstract: Understanding the differences in various types of consumers groups to the complaint resolution process in a Banking services industry was the objective of this research. The three groups compared were promoters, passively satisfied and detractors based on Reicheld (2001) framework. The multi-group comparison results indicated that all the three groups were different in their response to the complaint resolution process. The detractors emerged as the most important customer segment in complaint handling process with highest impact on recommendation of Bank to the peer group. Implications for complaint management in services industries are discussed as well as addition to the body of knowledge in consumer complaining behaviour.
Keywords: Complaining Behaviour, detractors, promoters, resolution time, satisfaction, recommendation, service rating, credit cards, Multi-group comparisons in Structural Equation Modelling
- Impact of Competitiveness on Business Performance: A Case Study of Manufacturing SMEs in Northern India
by Shakun preet Kaur, Jatinder Kumar, Rakesh Kumar
Abstract: The present manufacturing environment is characterized by a number of changes which poses challenges to a typical manufacturing unit. Time demands a shift from the traditional manufacturing strategies as they do not fit to present market competition. A flexible systems strategy has to be designed for remaining competitive and delivering high performance. In this regard, the aspects of competitiveness which influences the business performance in a particular industry has to be identified. The present study is conducted on the overall framework of flexible systems management. A questionnaire based survey is conducted in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) across northern India analysing three sectors namely automotive, machine tool and light engineering (mechanical components and equipment).The impact of the competitive priorities of SMEs on business performance in northern India is presented by a structural equation model. The whole process of synthesis of Situation-Actor-Process (SAP) leading to Learnings-Action-Performance (LAP) under the flexible systems management paradigm has been depicted in the paper.
Keywords: Competitiveness; Business Performance; SMEs; Structural Equation Modelling; Flexible systems management; SAP-LAP (Situation-Actor-Process Learnings-Action-Performance);Indian manufacturing industry
- Influence of socialisation agents on the materialism of Indian teenagers
by Sartaj Chaudhary, A.K. Dey
Abstract: Teenagers are rapidly becoming an important market segment for consumer products in India, but relatively little is known about the development of their materialistic consumption values. This study captures the influence of socialisation on materialism for teenagers. First, by dimension reduction the latent constructs of materialism have been unveiled. Next, by applying a social learning perspective, the influence of socialisation agents on materialism is probed. In addition, this study also checks if materialistic tendencies differ among boys and girls. The research paper draws upon a survey based data collected from 1216 teenagers studying in classes eight to twelve in National Capital Region of India and uses exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses; T-test and stepwise multiple regressions for data analyses. The results reveal that materialism is portrayed by three values: luxury orientation, happiness seeking and acquisition centrality seeking. Among the six socialisation agents: mother, father, peers, celebrity, athlete and Internet, celebrity emerged as the highest predictor of materialism. Boys depicted a higher level of materialism as compared to girls. The theoretical and practical implications of the research have been discussed with suggestions for future research.
Keywords: Indian teenagers, materialism, socialisation agents, confirmatory factor analysis, multiple regression
- Evaluating the efficiency of Indian public sector banks
by Ashish Kumar, Sanjay Dhingra
Abstract: The present paper examines the efficiency of public sector banks in India. The public sector banks have been deliberately chosen for the study, given the fact that even in the third decade of liberalization, the dominance of public sector banks is still obvious in terms of market share, impact on economy, number of branches, general perception of the people and overall contribution to the financial system. At present there are 26 public sector banks in India including 6 State Bank of India and its associate banks. In this paper the efficiency of the public sector banks has been examined with the help of data envelopment analysis using CCR and BCC models. The study makes use of intermediation approach of output. The study is based on 3 inputs namely; Number of Branches, Deposits and Operating Expenses and 2 outputs viz. Loans & Advances and Non-Interest Income. The results of the study indicate that in all, only 2 banks are relatively efficient on the basis of CCR model i.e. overall technical efficiency and as per BCC model (pure technical efficiency) 9 banks are efficient. Further, it has been found that the reason for inefficiency of the public sector banks in India for the year 2012-13 is due to scale inefficiency.
Keywords: banks; efficiency; data envelopment analysis, technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency; scale efficiency; CCR model; BCC model
- Elements of task definition shopping situations: A study of Indian customers in context of products high on haptic salience
by Abhishek , Piyush K. Sinha
Abstract: Marketing literature has identified task definitions as one of the important situational influences. However, existing definitions of planned and emergency shopping situations are driven from practitioners perspective and suffer from operationalization issues. In this study, we make an attempt to understand and define the concept of task definition from customers perspective. Based on the thematic analysis of data collected through qualitative interviews, we identify the elements of task definitions which customers consider salient in distinguishing between different task definitions. We conclude, based on the additional analysis of comparison of these elements across different product categories, that it is also important to consider the finer point in elements across two product categories for same type of shopping trip.
Keywords: task definition, haptic touch, regular purchase, emergency purchase, fill-in trip, major trip
- Personality composition in Indian software teams and its relationship to social cohesion and task cohesion
by Sapnaa Aeron, Suman Pathak
Abstract: The study investigates the effect of teamsâ€™ big five personality composition (mean, variance, minimum, and maximum) on social and task cohesion. The authors illustrate an empirical study on information technology professionals that elaborates on preceding research and observed significantly divergent findings. Contrary to past studies, significant relation was found between conscientiousness and social cohesion and openness to experience and social and task cohesion. Further, no relationship was found between agreeableness and task cohesion. Results partly confer the relationship between extraversion and social cohesion; neuroticism and social and task cohesion. Implications of these findings and future research needs are discussed.
Keywords: big five, cohesion, five-factor model, IT, personality, software development, team
- Moderating role of locus of control in the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: a study of Indian IT sector
by Bindu Chhabra, R.P. Mohanty
Abstract: The present study was conducted to explore the direct relationship of job satisfaction and locus of control (LOC) on four dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) i.e. interpersonal helping, individual initiative, personal industry and loyal boosterism. The purpose of the study was also to see if locus of control moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and the above mentioned dimensions of OCB. The study was conducted using structured questionnaires for measuring the above mentioned variables. The sample consisted of 449 IT professionals working in Delhi and National Capital Region. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The analysis showed that job satisfaction and internal locus of control was positively related to all dimensions of OCB. However, the moderating role of LOC was seen in the relationship of job satisfaction and only two dimensions of OCB namely individual initiative and personal industry. The present study has important implications for human resource development in IT sector in India. Managers should use strategies to achieve high job satisfaction and OCB. They must be aware of the moderating role of different personality attributes on the relationship between job satisfaction and OCB.
Keywords: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction, Locus of Control, IT professionals, Hierarchical multiple regression, Human resource development
- Performance of Local Area Banks in India: An Empirical Study (2003-2012)
by Padmasai Arora, Hitesh Arora
Abstract: Conceived as an alternative source of innovation and credit to marginal and small agricultural farmers and retail business in remote rural areas through integrating local markets, the viability of Local Area Banks (LABs) in Indian banking sector has been a matter of debate ever since their inception in late nineties. This paper undertakes the first ever comprehensive assessment of the performance of LABs tracking their origin, role and performance during the ten-year period from 2003-04 to 2012-13. Important financial performance indicators of LABs are observed vis-Ă -vis scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) and regional rural banks (RRBs) using ratio analysis. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is employed to study the changes in productivity and efficiency experienced by the commercial banks during the period of study. Results show that (i) LABs are more profitable than SCBs and RRBs; (ii) LABs are less efficient than SCBs and RRBs; (iii) productivity growth in SCBs, RRBs and LABs has been experiencing a downward trend. The paper also attempts to explain these results. Based on a reasonably long ten year period, the present study is expected to go a long way in determining the future viability of LABs through policy inferences derived.
Keywords: commercial banks; local area banks; India; performance; regional rural banks; financial ratios; DEA
- Developing and validating critical success factors of TQM implementation in MSMEs of Punjab in India
by Vishal Kumar Manhas, Parmarth Gupta, Himanshu Gupta
Abstract: Manufacturing organisations are facing challenges due to growing competition to sustain themselves. Enhancing their quality and also quality of the products is absolutely essential to sustain growth. From an extensive review of the literature in the field of total quality management (TQM), eight critical success factors (top management commitment, customer focus, process management, continuous improvement, supplier quality management, employee participation, training, teamwork) and four outcome factors (customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, internal quality result, external quality results) of TQM implementation were identified. A questionnaire survey instrument was developed, reliability and validity of the questionnaire were tested. Data from 118 micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) related to manufacturing sector was analysed using structural equation modelling. Structure equation modelling was used to examine hypothesis. It was concluded finally that the many critical success factors of TQM are significantly related with outcome factors of TQM. Researchers will be able to use this instrument for developing quality management theory. Industrial practitioners will be able to use this instrument to evaluate their TQM implementation.
Keywords: total quality management; TQM; micro small and medium enterprises; MSMEs; customer satisfaction; top management commitment; structural equation modelling; SEM; training; teamwork; employee satisfaction; India.
- An empirical investigation of effective science learning through simple experiments
by S. Chamundeswari, Deepa Franky
Abstract: The present study envisages science learning through simple experiments. Experimental method of investigation is designed on the basis of the problem, assumption and hypotheses formulated and it also warrants a psychometrically sound design, procedure, tools and execution. This experimental study was conducted for students, both boys and girls belonging to classes V and VI in government, government-aided and matriculation schools. The outcome of the study revealed that students in whatever school they may be did show a significant improvement in their science learning performance despite the gender after exposure to experimentation. It is pertinent to explain that knowledge and understanding has been made easy through experiential learning.
Keywords: science learning; simple experiments; experimental method.
- Determinants of dividend policy: a study of the Indian banking sector
by Sangeeta D. Misra
Abstract: This study attempts to analyse the factors which influence the dividend policy of Indian banking firms. Using panel data pertaining to 121 Indian banks, two regression models have been proposed, one showing dividend payout ratio and the other showing dividend rate as a dependent variable. The study considers both bank specific internal variables as well as macroeconomic variables as explanatory variables influencing the dividend policy of Indian banks. The results of the determinants of dividend payout ratio of Indian banks show growth rate of real GDP affecting dividend payout ratio positively and significantly, and also show return on assets and total deposits to total assets ratio of Indian banks affecting their payout ratio negatively and significantly. The results of the determinants of dividend rate show no variable emerging as a significant determinant, indicating the fact that Indian banks consider dividend payout ratio to be a better measure of their dividend policy.
Keywords: dividend payout ratio; dividend rate; Basel; return on assets; GDP; capital adequacy ratio; India.
- Supplier selection using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm
by Nitesh Asthana, Manish Gupta
Abstract: This paper presents the integration of GA with ANN to develop a decision making model for the selection of the best supplier. This work integrates multi-attribute decision making models that give grades to suppliers on a set of criteria with the mathematical programming techniques that model the constraints and an objective function to select the best supplier. There exists a number of criteria for supplier selection and in this work based on the preliminary field visits some of the criteria are chosen for supplier selections that are more dominant in the Indian scenario. These selected criteria are: quality, delay time, unit cost, quantity and service. Supplier score was calculated based on the data collected from the reputed automobile industry. This supplier score was further used for ranking the suppliers among the number of options available.
Keywords: supplier selection; genetic algorithm; artificial neural network; ANN; decision making model; optimisation; multi-criteria decision making; MCDM.
- The impact of leaders' spirituality at work and their reputation on teams' spiritual climate
by Ashish Pandey, Debaprasad Chattopadhyay, Sucheta Bose
Abstract: Conceptual and empirical linkage between spiritual leadership and team climate or followers' attitudes, behaviours, and performance outcomes have not been fully developed. The focus of this article is to provide some initial foundation for the broader empirical evidences of how spirituality of leaders influence followers to co-create a spiritual climate. We argue that leaders' spirituality at work affects spiritual climate and a leader's reputation as a spiritual leader mediates this relationship. We draw from contemporary literature of spirituality in management and notion of swadharma and loksangrah (in Karm yoga in Bhagwad Gita) for development of instrument of spiritual climate at work. Interestingly, the findings did not reveal a direct effect of the spirituality of leaders' at work on spiritual climate, however leaders' reputation as spiritual showed strong association with to spiritual climate. The self-perception of leaders' spirituality at work does not relate to leaders reputation being spiritually connected to work.
Keywords: spiritual leadership; spiritual climate; team climate; identity; loksangrah; swardharma; karma yoga; leader reputation.
- Metamorphosis of Indian electoral campaigns: Modi's social media experiment
by Kawaljeet Kaur Kapoor, Yogesh K. Dwivedi
Abstract: India's 2014 prime ministerial elections witnessed an unprecedented outcome, where the Bharatiya Janta Party callously defeated the Indian National Congress by majority votes, and Narendra Modi stood elected as the 15th prime minister of India. This outstanding electoral victory is being extensively debated and analysed across print and broadcast media for its remarkable campaigning strategies that successfully established a two way dialogue between the prime ministerial elect, Narendra Modi, and the voter population of India. The use of social media and adoption of campaigning tactics from the Obama US-presidential campaign have been centric to this winning campaign for brand NaMo. The amalgamation of social media and election campaigning has clearly redefined the face of political movements in India. The stratagem that team Modi followed to break the congress era running in the country over the past decade will be concisely anatomised, with particular interest in the role and power of social media in giving a political party that winning edge over its opposition.
Keywords: social media; digital media; India; elections; Narendra Modi; NaMo.
- Musical environment and its effect on restaurant patrons' behaviour in emerging market
by R.K. Srivastava
Abstract: The present study explores the possibility of frequency of visits, duration of stay; types of music consumer will like to listen in different types of restaurants. Research comprised of a field study carried out at different restaurants (N = 27) serving Indian, fast food, Thai, Chinese and Italian food in Mumbai - a financial capital of India with diverse culture. Results suggest that consumers purchase behaviour, frequency of visit, duration of stay and eating habits in a restaurant is affected by the musical environment. Duration of stay at the restaurant influenced by the type of music played quality of music, liking for a particular type of music, feeling that music refreshes the mind and liking for musical environment. This study contributes to the services marketing and consumer behaviour literature with reference to restaurant affected by music in emerging markets. The data will be of great use for global brands.
Keywords: atmospheric; music; restaurant; consumer behaviour; service element.