International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management (50 papers in press)
- AUGMENTED REALITY USAGE IN BUSINESS AND SOCIO-POLITICAL SCENARIO
by Susmi Routray, Madhavan Sriram, Praveen Choudhary
Abstract: Augmented Reality (AR) is an emergent technology which is fast gaining acceptance in varied business sectors and also in the socio-political environment. The purpose of this paper is to present augmented reality as an option to new-age entrepreneurs by providing a holistic overview on practical usages of augmented reality in global and Indian contexts. The paper uses an analytical approach to study various applications of AR from Indian and International business scenario based on secondary data. The paper also includes a case study of innovative AR application in Indian socio-political scenario. The paper identifies the potential opportunities of using Augmented Reality in business and socio political environment.
Keywords: Augmented reality, socio- political, India, Global
- Managing People in the Worlds Largest Commercial Employer: An Exploratory Study on Indian Railways
by Vijay Pereira
Abstract: The 21st century has witnessed India undergo sweeping economic changes. Riding on a host of factors, India today stands at the cusp of becoming one of the top four economies in the world. A growth rate of over 8%, prior to the slowdown, was despite the inadequacies of infrastructure. Yet, one organisation, which has shouldered the infrastructural burden of the transportation sector in Indias growth story, is the 160 year old Indian Railways (IR). IRs profits $5 billion over the last four years - are a far cry from its loss making days, which tempted the government of India to consider privatisation in 2001. The transformational turnaround would not have been possible but for IRs employees who are its true assets. The objective, therefore, was to understand the people side of IR - the worlds largest commercial employer. The study, while looking to increase awareness of contemporary HR challenges in India, is an attempt to first study the HR practices in the Indian Railways and second, to investigate changes in its HR practices and the role of HR in its turnaround strategies.
Keywords: Indian Railways, Public Sector, Largest Employer, People Management, HRM, SHRM USA
- Pattern of manufacturing strategy implementation and implications on manufacturing levers and manufacturing outputs and business performance
by Pradip Patil, Balkrishna Narkhede, Milind Akarte
Abstract: The strategic implementation of manufacturing improves competence of manufacturing function (Lawson, 2002) and develops capability in different areas of manufacturing system or levers or decisions such as human resource, production planning and control, organization structure and control, process technology, sourcing and facilities. This study explores the manufacturing strategy implementation (MSI) in Indian packaging industry (IPPMC) using three constructs namely manufacturing as competitive force, functional integration of manufacturing, strategic planning and communication. The recognition of manufacturing competency can be judged through improvement in the manufacturing output and business performance. This research proposes a comprehensive framework for linking and exploring the pattern of manufacturing strategy implementation (MSI), differences in manufacturing decisions/levers, manufacturing outputs and business performance of a firm. This is achieved by classifying the plants in four groups based on the increasing level of manufacturing strategy implementation using cluster analysis. Paper also highlights managerial implications, limitations and future scope of research.
Keywords: Manufacturing strategy implementation, manufacturing decisions/levers, manufacturing outputs, packaging product manufacturing industry.
- Teaching and Developing Leadership in Business Schools: A Multilevel Evaluative
Approach in Indian Context
by Koustab Ghosh
Abstract: Leadership development has been realized and appreciated as a pivotal area for business performance and organizational success over the last decade. A number of initiatives and strategic action plans are in place for both industry and academia. This paper has made an attempt to look into the industry expectations in terms of desired leadership attributes of business school graduates as well as the students orientations along with effective learning mechanisms involved for successfully imparting the leadership course in business schools. Brief industry opinion survey; meta-cognitive assessment of course participants in business schools; and in-depth Faculty interviews from India were conducted at different stages of this study. A number of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques have been applied to meaningfully interpret the responses obtained from the various group of respondents associated with the leadership development initiatives in business schools. The hierarchical regression analysis established the relevance of the set of course participants meta-cognitive factors as receptive facilitators for leadership course effectiveness. The analysis of qualitative responses showed that the diverse range of leadership attributes desired in work organizations require a combination of instruction mechanisms for participants enrolled with leadership course. The major finding from this study implies that for effective development of desired leadership skills and behaviours among the business school graduates, course centric as well as boundary spanning learning mechanisms are required. Accordingly, appropriate teaching-learning action plans should be prepared and endorsed by the top management, eminent academicians, and Faculty members of business schools. This study has explored a contemporary area of academic research that has been overlooked in Indian context, and hence requires attention in the context of changed industry expectations; business environment outlook; leadership crisis; and challenges and transitions faced by business schools all over the globe.
Keywords: Leadership development; Meta-cognitive learning; Teaching pedagogy; Business Schools; India
- DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY IN INDIA
by Sangeeta D Misra
Abstract: This study makes an attempt to examine the determinants of bank profitability in India taking panel data of 121 banks from the year 2000 to 2011. Two measures of profitability have been considered, namely return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) and two fixed effects regression equations have been run taking ROA and ROE as dependent variables. The regression results show asset quality; ratio of loans to total assets; net interest margin; and non-interest income as a percentage of total assets emerging as significant determinants of both measures of bank profitability. For the ROA measure, apart from these indicators, two more variables have come out to be significant determinants of profitability, namely size of bank; and capital adequacy ratio. Both regression equations also show that macroeconomic factors of the Indian economy are not significant determinants of bank profitability in India.
Keywords: profitability; return on assets; return on equity; net interest margin; asset quality;
non-interest income; capital adequacy ratio; loan ratio; GDP growth rate; inflation rate; liquid
assets to total assets ratio; real interest rate.
- INVESTIGATING DISTRIBUTION PRACTICES OF BANARASI SILK INDUSTRY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
by Alok Kumar Rai
Abstract: Distribution is a trade decision that is mainly responsible for bridging the gap between a manufacturer and his customers. There have been numerous advancements in business processes and avenues affecting almost all kinds of decision-making that take place in a commercial organization. e-Commerce, e-Business, mobile commerce, supply chain management, software enabled ERP etc. are few that have transformed the distribution format of the industries. Banarasi Silk Industry is a centuries old industry and is economic life line of millions of people of eastern Uttar Pradesh. There has been a serious downturn that the industry has been experiencing in the recent past. The present paper studies the distribution practices of Banarasi Silk Industry and evaluates its practices from the customers perspectives. The paper also attempts to suggest solutions to the industry for redesigning its distribution related decisions for securing sustained success.
Keywords: Banarasi Silk Industry, Wholesale, Retail and Institutional Sale, Customer Satisfaction,Price Regulation
- Psychological Ownership: Scale Development and Validation in the Indian Context
by Amit Shukla, Shailendra Singh
Abstract: The concept of psychological ownership is sparsely studied in India despite extant empirical evidence supporting its positive impact on organizational outcomes in diverse cultural settings. The problem gets compounded by absence of its scale in Indian (or Asian) context. Present study intends to addresses this concern. It describes a step-by-step scale development and validation process deploying a mix of qualitative and quantitative techniques. The process spanned three independent studies for item generation, scale construction (N=234) and scale validation (N=338), and resulted in 12-item three-dimensional psychological ownership scale that showed acceptable psychometric properties (consistent factor structure, reliability and, content, concurrent and construct validity). The scale is expected to provide the much needed fillip to studies concerning psychological ownership in India and other culturally similar regions.
Keywords: Psychological ownership, scale development, SEM, reliability, construct validity.
- ROLE OF MIDDLE MANAGERS IN STRATEGIC DECISIONS A TRIAD PERSPECTIVE
by Meeta Dasgupta
Abstract: Previous research has tried to bring out the critical role played by middle managers in formulation and implementation of strategic decisions. The current research builds and extends the typology of middle management role proposed by previous research. No previous study has tried to present a triad perspective to these roles. This research through an in-depth case study of an Indian power solution company has tried to present three perspectives, of top, middle and operational level management, of the role of middle level managers in strategic decisions. Although the paper suffers from the limitation of reporting findings from a single case study, it contributes to literature by bring out similarities and differences in the mentioned perspectives. It also presents the relative importance of the different roles of middle level managers. The study serves as an indicator to the top management of the efforts to be made to include middle managers in different strategic decisions. It can also serve as a motivator to the middle managers by bringing out clarity in role played by them.
Keywords: Strategy formulation, Strategy implementation, Strategic decisions, Middle level managers, Case study, Middle management role, Triad perspective, organizational performance, strategy process
- An Extended DeLone and McLeans Information System (IS) Model for Examining Success of Online Public Grievance Redressal System in Indian Context
by Nripendra Rana, Yogesh Dwivedi, Michael Williams, Niall C. Piercy
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the success factors of the online public grievance redressal systems (OPGRS) in the Indian context. This e-government initiative is based on the governments long term strategic policy that aims to reform and renovate the Indian bureaucracy. The model developed includes the constructs such as system quality, information quality, social influence, self-efficacy, perceived trust, user satisfaction, and intention to use. The empirical outcomes provided the positive significant connections between all 13 hypothesised relationships among seven constructs. The empirical evidence and discussion presented in the study can help the Indian government to improve upon and fully utilize the potential of OPGRS as a useful tool for transparent and corruption free country.
Keywords: Online public grievance redressal systems (OPGRS), success factors, e-government, DeLone and McLean, India
- Role of Socio-cultural factors in the Entrepreneurial Success of the Jain Community
by Malay R Patel, Patturaja Selvaraj
Abstract: Religion is the fundamental basis of the cultural system prevailing in India. It is crucial because it promotes social camaraderie and strengthens social norms and beliefs, although many economist and social scientist have been arguing about the impact of religion and culture on the economic development still, there exist a huge gap in proving the influence of religiosity and culture on individuals economic behaviour. In Present paper we have examined the influence of religion and culture among the 20 Jain Entrepreneurs and professionals in Western India and it essentially highlights the role of religion and culture in evolution of Jains as a prosperous business community, along with their present status and future aspirations.
Keywords: Religion, Culture, Jainism, Business Community
- Exploring the Nexus between Futures Contracts and Spot Returns
in the Indian Commodity Market
by Lakshmi P, Visalakshmi S., Padmavathy S.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the nexus between spot returns and futures contracts for crude oil, gold and study whether future trading volume react faster to news and help to predict spot returns. We examine the effect in the Indian context using data from the Multi Commodity Exchange of India (MCX) from January 2005 until May 2012. The vector autoregressive model (VAR), Granger Causality Wald test, Variance Decomposition and Impulse Response Function is applied to the data collected. The results exhibited that for both crude oil and gold, the future trading volume is influenced by its own past than the past spot returns. Further, bidirectional causality runs from gold spot returns to gold futures trading volume. Contrarily, we do not have sufficient evidence to support that crude futures trading volume aid in the forecast of crude spot returns in India. Overall, the finding implies that Gold futures trading volume react faster to information and help to predict the gold spot returns than crude oil in the Indian commodity markets.
Keywords: crude oil, Gold, MCX, VAR, Variance Decomposition, Impulse Response.
- Workers Occupational Stress Problem in Selected Industry
by Nilufa Yeasmin, Anjuman Ara, Shamima Khan, Mosharraf Hossain
Abstract: Abstract- Occupational stress becomes an important agenda for managers and management scholars now a days and it will remain in future. Occupational stress is receiving increasing attention in the academic literature and has become a salient issue for the organizations. Occupational stress is the harmful physical and emotional responses. Job life is one of the important parts of our daily lives which cause a great deal of stress. This study is an initiative to explore how does stress stressors influences on work life of workers in contemporary Jute Mills in Bangladesh. Study reveals that working conditions, environmental conditions, role ambiguity, organizational structure, home-work-interface etc are the greatest source of stress and workers perceived that working environment and home work interface have perceived as top most stressors of Jute Mills in Bangladesh. It is statistically significant that there is no perceived difference in stress level of two stressors i.e. environmental conditions and home work interface of Jute Mills in Bangladesh. After assessment of occupational stress a module of stress management technique is given for stress reduction.
Keywords: Keywords: Stress, Occupational Stress, Stressors, Questionnaire, Weiman Occupational Stress Scale.
- Readiness of Young Indian Consumer for Mass Customised Products: An Exploratory Study
by Saloni Mehra, Ratna Paluri, Vandana Sonwaney
Abstract: The paper examines the preferences of young consumers for mass customised products and identifies the most preferred product classes. It also examines the readiness of young consumers for mass-customised products and their level of satisfaction. Framework developed by Bardakci and Whitelock (2004), to measure the readiness of consumers for mass customisation was used for the purpose of this study. The study shows that though the consumers want mass customised products they were not ready for buying these products. Demographic characteristics such as gender and family income had an impact on the purchase of these products. The study would help companies offering or willing to offer mass customised products to re-examine their strategies in terms of: the products for which the consumers want mass customisation, the time consumers are willing to wait for these products, their interest in designing these products, and their willingness to pay a premium for these products.
Keywords: Mass customisation, young consumers, readiness for mass customised products
- Socio-economic status of Bodo people: a case study of the Udalguri district, Assam
by SASTRI RAM KACHARI, SHRABANTI MAITY
Abstract: Abstract rnThe study of socio economic status is very much important to know any caste and communities economic development. The present article focuses the socio-economic status of Bodo people in Udalguri district, Bodoland. The Bodo people are socially and economically very backward comparison to other non-tribal peoples. The district of Udalguri is recently formed which is situated on the northern part of Brahmaputra valley (Assam). The present study is based on primary data. In this study authors have used most important determinants such as, per capita income, literacy rate, health and nutrition, sanitation, family size to assess the socio-economic status of the Bodo Community in Udalguri district, Assam. rn
Keywords: Key words: rnHousehold, Household size, household income, Literacy rate, Health and Nutrition, Sanitation facilities, and Discrepancy Index model etc.
- Conceptualizing the Role of Innovation-Attributes for Examining Consumer Adoption of Entertainment Related Innovations
by Kawal Kapoor, Yogesh Dwivedi
Abstract: Several enhancements and new features have been introduced in the television entertainment industry to offer the viewers with a high quality viewing experience when it comes to contemporary home entertainment services. Tata SKYs direct-to-home (DTH) service is one such service that has been recently introduced in the Indian context. For achieving an increased adoption rate of this innovation, it is important to gain an understanding of the behaviour of different factors that influence the potential consumers to form positive intentions about such innovations, in turn attracting them to accept and use such innovations. This paper thus aims at developing a theory-based conceptual framework for examining the consumer adoption of entertainment related innovations using the innovation-attributes that have been acknowledged in the recent literature, as having considerable influences on the acceptance of various innovations. Innovation-attributes from Rogers diffusion of innovations theory, Tornatzky and Kleins meta-analysis, and Moore and Benbasats perceived characteristics of innovating theory will be used here to develop a conceptual framework suitable for investigating the adoption of entertainment related innovations.
Keywords: Adoption; Behavioral Intention; Conceptual framework; Innovation-attributes; DTH; Indian context
- A Cultural Paradox in organizations in India
by Richa Awasthy, Rajen K. Gupta
Abstract: Indians at the modern workplace are facing a cultural paradox between their deep seated traditional values and the modern paradigm of western business values. In the current paper we use multiple published case studies of Organizations in India to understand how these organizations are responding to this paradox, using Cameron and Quinns (1999) Competing Values Framework (CVF). In terms of CVF, organizations in India face the paradox between clan and market type cultures. We are using conjecture to explain the paradox through dialectical theory. This paper proposes adhocracy as the synthesis of the thesis of clan-type culture and anti-thesis of market type culture for the organizations in India. Drawing lessons from the organizations which have managed to deal with the paradox successfully we draw two propositions for further research. By working with and through the paradox, the paper also presents some modifications in CVF to apt to the Indian context.
Keywords: Organizational culture; paradox; India; Competing Values Framework
- Identifying Training Problems of Travel Agency Employees across India using Structured Equation Modeling
by Sona Vikas, Anu Singh Lather, Shalini Garg
Abstract: Quality of trained manpower is one of the key factors contributing to the service quality in the travel and tourism industry. There is a perceived need for human resource development, to raise the profile of the industry, increase productivity and provide sustainable employment within the tourism industry and in such a situation, training plays a vital role for upgrading employee skills. However, apart from industry related issues, there are several other training problems besieging the travel industry. This study has been carried out from the employee perspective to identify the critical factors affecting training and development in travel agencies. A structured questionnaire was administered on 450 employees working in 50 travel agencies across India. The results through Structured Equation Modeling show that employees of travel agencies feel that the key issues affecting training and development initiatives in their organizations are Training Provisions, Employee Perception and Managerial Support.
Keywords: Training Problems, Training Provisions, Employee Perception and Managerial Support
- Organizational Commitment of B-School Teachers in India: An Empirical Study
by GUNJAN SHARMA, Feza Azmi
Abstract: The study examines the relationship between job related factors (pay, promotion opportunities, supervision & work-schedule flexibility), job satisfaction and organizational commitment of teaching staff of Indian B-schools using Structure Equation Modeling (LISREL 8.5). The study is based on a single cross-sectional survey. In all 310 responses were generated from teachers of management institutes located in India. A self-administered questionnaire with items related to the study dimensions was deployed for the study. It was found that pay satisfaction and work-schedule flexibility do have a positive relationship with job satisfaction and commitment. Satisfaction with supervision was positively correlated to job satisfaction only. The study is unique in the sense that it is among the very few studies conducted in the context of management institutes in India. Since there is acute shortage of teachers in Indian B-schools, gaining insights into dynamics of job satisfaction and commitment can provide valuable inputs to B-schools.
Keywords: Management education, Organizational commitment, SEM, Indian Teachers, B-Schools
- Prospective FDI opportunities for India and BRICS
by RATNA VADRA
Abstract: Emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) have acquired important role in the world economy as producers of goods and services. BRICS countries prominently attract larger capital because of their larger potential consumer market having the common characteristic of large population. FDI has increasingly been viewed by policy makers in developing and emerging market economies as a tool to finance development increase in productivity and import new technologies. In addition, the relative stability of FDI inflows constitutes a buffer against sharp reversals in portfolio inflows during periods of crisis, such as the one experienced in 2008-09. India has immense amenities which are untapped due to policy paralysis and other major factors such as lack of transparent taxation system, inflexible business regulations, difficulty in starting a business etc. This study proposes a comparative analysis of present situations prevailing in the FDI in and out of India, its relationship with respect to other BRICS nations The objective of the study is to compare the growth and forecasts of FDI inflows to BRIC countries. The growth of FDI inflows for the period of 1991-2010 and the forecasts of FDI inflows for the next ten years i.e. 2011 -2020 are computed in the study.
Keywords: Trade liberalization, regionalism, Trade expansion, BRICS countries Key words: FDI, Outflows, Investment Opportunity
- HR Service Dimensions of Quality of Work Life Factors: IT Enabled Services Perspectives in India
by Tripti Singh, Shefali Nandan, Ginni Chawla
Abstract: With the changing work-life parameters, Quality of Work Life (QWL) is becoming an important issue from the perspective of an organization as well as employees. Indias competitive cost advantage of Information Technology Enabled Services Industry (ITES) can be attributed to its people, particularly HR practices. The present paper identifies various dimensions of HR Services of QWL factors through empirical study. The five QWL factors identified are: Social Aspects, Task and Work Aspects, Human Resource Policies and Programs, Work Environment, and Other Life Domain factors. The study makes an attempt to integrate the concepts of HR service quality and QWL factors. The identified HR Service dimensions are Empathy, Responsiveness, Tangibility, Safety and Security and Reliability.
Keywords: Quality of Work Life, Employees, Information Technology Enabled Services, Work Environment, HR Service Dimensions, SERVQUAL
- Sub-National Competitiveness Analysis and Simulation Studies for 35 States and Union Territories of India
by Khee Giap Tan, Kartik Rao
Abstract: This paper uses the Asia Competitiveness Institute (ACI) competitiveness index to rank the competitiveness of the 35 states and union territories of India and conducts simulation studies to recognise how each state or union territory can improve its competitiveness. The results highlight, in general, a distinct pattern of high competitiveness in the western and the southern states of the country. A similar geographic concentration emerges with the north-eastern states characterised by their low competitiveness. Paradoxically, the mineral-rich states in eastern India rank in the Bottom-10 though access to rich natural resources present several areas of opportunity for the development of these states.
Keywords: Sub-national competitiveness, Indian states and union territories, competitiveness, simulations.
- Impulse buying behavior: an emerging market perspective
by Sheetal Mittal, Neena Sondhi, Deepak Chawla
Abstract: Impulse buying accounts for a substantial volume of goods and services, across product categories and geographies. The phenomena takes on interesting possibilities in the emerging economies where the changing socio-economic situation has led to a substantial rise in consumers dispositional needs alongside emergence of modern retail. While the construct has been widely researched, the studies have been largely fragmented in their approach, either examining isolated antecedents or the stages in the process. Thus, there is a dire need to comprehend the phenomena in its unique entirety. This paper, on the basis of extensive literature review proposes a conceptual framework that considers impulse buying both as a proactive phenomenon driven by personality factor as well as a reactive phenomenon driven by the stimulus: product and physical surroundings; which is further moderated by various personal, social, demographic and situational factors. The authors posit that these various forces tend to act upon a consumer simultaneously and not necessarily in the same direction.
Keywords: Impulse buying behavior, Situational factors, Impulse buying tendency, Normative evaluations, Conceptual framework, Emerging markets
- A MODEL OF MOBILE COMMERCE PRACTICES IN THE STATE OF PUNJAB: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION
by Kanwalvir Singh
Abstract: This paper focuses on determining the effect and relationship between the factors concerning various mobile commerce practices and the responses of the citizens regarding different demographic profile variables such as gender, age group, qualification, etc. The research has been carried out on randomly selected citizens belonging to the State of Punjab in India. The principal components have been extracted from the various factors that are part of the questionnaire design used to explore the association between the mobile commerce practices and citizen demographic profile responses. These components have been further tested using hypotheses for any significant relationships. The findings of the study also ascertained the factors affecting the adoption of mobile commerce practices that have been interpreted using the developed Regression Model showing the output as various factors in the form of positive and negative estimators. There is high positive association of Gender with M-commerce application services, awareness aspects, advanced security aspects, cost and security concerns and mobiles. The effect of mobile commerce practice on citizen demographic profile response is significant for all Models except Model 2 (Region). The results from this research study on technology adoption of various mobile commerce practices provide an insight perspective and analysis of the opinions of the common citizens to the various product developers and marketers for the development of mobile commerce applications.
Keywords: M-commerce; mobile commerce practices; mobile technology adoption, principal components, regression model; Punjab; India.
- Customer Oriented Service Culture and its impact on Customer Loyalty in Organized Retail Context
by Tejas Shah, Amit Jain
Abstract: Customer service plays important role in customers purchase decisions. Culture is the vital ingredient in the service delivery process. The service dominant logic of retail organizations has led to emphasis on development of service culture and its outcomes. The objective of this paper is to find the characteristics of retail service culture. This research also tends to study the relationships between antecedents of development of retail service culture and impact of service culture on its outcome variables. The final sample size includes 202 employees of organized retail organization. The results of factor analysis revealed five dimensions of retail service culture, namely, reliability, responsiveness, support, attitude towards customers and competitive framework. Top management commitment, cultural socialization and participative / supportive leadership were found to create significant positive impact on building customer oriented service culture. Customer oriented service culture was found to create significant positive impact on customer satisfaction, trust and loyalty.
Keywords: Service Culture, retail organization, marketing, leadership style, satisfaction, trust, loyalty
- Assessing impact of collaborative practices on the performance of automotive SMEs: An exploratory study
by Nitin Bhalkikar, Milind Akarte
Abstract: SMEs involved in automotive components manufacturing, offer a sizable contribution in wealth creation and GDP of a nation. Better performance and higher productivity are imperative for an enterprise to sustain increasing global pressures, customer demands and market volatility. Major life cycle decisions are finalized in product design development stage as they affect performance of enterprise and late design changes are often undesirable. Collaboration is an approach that helps resolve late design changes by sharing knowledge and data. Collaborative practices in SMEs have found to improve performance appreciably. In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess the impact of collaborative practices on performance. Data collected from SMEs through questionnaire was analyzed and results thus obtained were subjected to validation through structural equation model, establishing positive correlation between collaborative practices and productivity. The research findings confirm that collaborative practices are highly correlated for improving productivity.
Keywords: Productivity, performance measurement, automotive SMEs, collaboration, collaborative
- Evaluation of Movie Piracy Using an Integrated Approach of Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and MICMAC Analysis
by Pradeep Kumar Gupta, Bhama Venkataramani
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to identify the factors which lead to movie piracy and develop a theoretical framework for its prevention. With the growth in movie piracy since the appearance of BitTorrent in 2003, pirated films have become available immediately after official release across the world, while they are not available for authorised viewing abroad until their premieres in each country. This is one of the growing menaces in India and Indian sub-continent where movie is one of the major sources of entertainment. In spite of several efforts made by the Indian film industry in general and Hindi Film Industry, Mumbai in particular to prevent the piracy, the outcome of such efforts is strongly correlated negatively. In this study we have made an effort to identify variables through systematic literature review and understand contextual relationships among these variables using Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis. The findings suggest that illiteracy and lack of infrastructure are two important driving variables of piracy.
Keywords: Piracy, ISM, MICMAC
- A Review of Career Women in the New Economy: Research Directions in the Indian Context
by Shailja Agarwal
Abstract: The ever-evolving dynamics of interplay of gender in organizations has been an intriguing force to practitioners, academicians and researchers. Literature is replete with a plethora of research encapsulating the role of gender in organizational and work-life balance, with a special focus on female workers. In this article I assess the extant literature on womens careers appearing in selected career and management journals from 2000 to the present to determine developments in the state of womens careers after more than a decade of the dawn of the 21st century. I have attempted to summarize and synthesize this growing body of literature and outline an agenda for future research, specifically for Indian researchers, in this direction. The purpose of this review is to examine the current state of the literature on women and careers at the outset of the new century and identify gaps in research in terms of Indian women in career.
- Customer Complaining Behaviour and its consequences in the Credit Card Industry: An Empirical Investigation in the Developing Indian Economy
by Shivendra Pandey
Abstract: Understanding complaining behaviour in Indian credit card industry was the objective of this research. A foreign bank operating in India had collected customer complaint data in a natural environment and data on 957 such customers were provided by the bank. The antecedents of the complaint process were objectively measured with variables like number of times contacted and time taken for resolution of the complaint. The analysis revealed that customers are willing to wait a bit more for resolution of the complaint provided they are not required to do follow ups. The banks service quality mediates between the satisfaction from complaint process and recommendation to a friend. Implications for managers and researchers are discussed.
Keywords: Complaining Behaviour, resolution time, satisfaction, recommendation, service rating, structural equation modelling, credit cards, India
- EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KERALA TOURISM
by PRADEEP KUMAR, R. Sakthivel, Hareesh N. Ramanathan
Abstract: International tourism has continued to show robust growth in year 2013, and has increased by 15 percent for a significant number of destinations. Tourism growth of India in total has been about 22 percent. The trends show that there is enough space for emerging economies to grow and acquire newest heights. By seeing these opportunities Government of Kerala, by way of modern marketing strategy has envisaged to achieve a yearly growth rate of 15 percent in foreign tourist arrivals, and 7 percent on domestic tourist arrivals. Government is formulating a plethora of new strategies to strengthen the existing international markets like USA, UK, Australia, France, and Germany together with the untapped markets like Russia, South Africa, the Middle East etc. Thus, the tourism industry in Kerala by means of various marketing techniques, sophisticated advertisement methods, and diversified products, have decided to achieve the targets by 2021. The present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of social media marketing techniques adopted by tourism operators and developers, who operate in Kerala. The researchers evaluated the context and content factors of advertisement sites for ease of use and attractiveness. During the study, an assessment of effectiveness of tourism promoters or operators and users have been undertaken to understand the need of social media communication. A trend analysis has been carried out on the top tourism destinations.
Keywords: KERALA TOURISM;SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING;USER CREATED SOCIAL MEDIA COMMUNICATION;FIRM CREATED SOCIAL MEDIA COMMUNICATION
- Consumer Online Purchase Behavior: Perception versus Expectation
by Vinod Kumar, Uma Kumar, Yogesh Dwivedi
Abstract: Conceptualizing online customer behavior is very important, as more and more customers are interested in buying products through online. To capture online customer behavior, this study has conducted empirical research in Bangladesh among general online customers who have experience in online buying or have an intention to buy from online boutique websites in Bangladesh. In this regard, the Quality-Purchase Interaction Model that was developed, based on both customer perception and the expectation of buying online from business-to-consumer Electronic-commerce in Bangladesh, was used to capture actual customer behavior or behavioral intention for online purchasing. We conducted path analysis through LISREL to reveal the causal relation between independent and dependent variables. There are some significant differences between online buying behavior and the behavioral intention to buy online, that is between customers who have experience of online buying from a boutique website and those who have the intention to buy online but have not yet gotten an online buying experience.
Keywords: Consumer, Consumer behavior, Online buying behavior, Behavioral intention, Electronic-commerce, Perception, Expectation
- Mentoring Social Entrepreneurs in India: Attributes and Functions
by S Raghu Raman, C Vijayalakshmi
Abstract: This paper identifies factors that contribute to an effective mentoring relationship. It focuses on social entrepreneurs in India -- a growing segment populated by small enterprises but considered vital for addressing the development needs of the poor. Extant literature in the area of mentoring is predominated by works on employee mentoring and scant attention has been paid to mentoring entrepreneurs and in particular social entrepreneurs. This research addresses this gap by exploring the attributes of the mentor and entrepreneur that contributes to effective mentoring and identifies certain critical functions of mentoring. The conclusions from this study indicate that experience and empathy, intensity and interest, transparency, development of individual and social spark are the attributes that are required for an effective mentoring relationship. In addition the mentor also needs to perform the following functions for successful mentoring; creation of appropriate climate for mentoring, inculcation of structured thinking process, leveraging on differences of views, encouraging multiplicity of mentors and mentoring and reiteration of enterprise objectives.
Keywords: Social enterprises; entrepreneurs; mentoring; India; mentors; social entrepreneurship.
- IRCTC Mobile Ticketing Adoption in an Indian Context
by Kawal Kapoor, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Mike D Williams
Abstract: This study is an investigation of the contributory roles of innovation attributes borrowed from the Technology Acceptance Model in influencing the behavioural intention and actual adoption of the IRCTC mobile ticketing application in the Indian context. The TAM model was empirically tested. The SPSS tool was used to test the data reliability, and also, linear and logistic regressions were run to test the model performance. Whilst relative advantage, perceived ease of use, cost, and riskiness shared a significant and positive relationship with behavioural intention, perceived ease of use positively influenced the relative advantage, and behavioural intention and cost significantly impacted the adoption of this mobile ticketing application. Alongside discussing the findings from this study, its potential limitations and implications were also identified and future research suggestions were made. There has been no previous attempt on examining the adoption of mobile ticketing application in Indian context. The findings from this study are thereby original, and are potentially expected to offer value to the mobile service providers, Indian railway, and any other third party organisations that may be interested in implementing mobile based innovations.
Keywords: Adoption, Innovation, IRCTC, Mobile ticketing, TAM
- Impact of Social, Intellectual and Personal Competencies on Managerial Performance: An Empirical Investigation
by Sambedna Jena, Chandan Sahoo, Santosh Tripathy
Abstract: The review of literature on managerial competencies illustrates the importance ofaugmented managerial performance. However, empirical researches on managerial competencies; that are essential for improved performance for manufacturing executives are scarce. Keeping in view the gaps in research, thispaper examines the relationships among social, intellectual and personal competencies on managerial performance conducted at some manufacturing units in the state of Odisha in eastern India, making use of a structured questionnaire consisting of 30 items. In total, 380 responses were obtained and were subjected to analysis using the SPSS statistical software. The research concentrates on identifying the most important aspects of social, intellectual and personal competencies that link towards maximization of managerial productivity within the organization. The findings suggest that the variables of these three competencies are positively correlated with managerial performance. This paper suggests some measures of social, intellectual and personal competencies that the executives can adopt to improve their managerial performance within the organization.
Keywords: Social competencies; Intellectual competencies; Personal competencies; Managerial performance.
- Shoppers Attitude and Demographics influence on Store patronage A Comparison of Formal Vs Informal Food Retail Stores in India
by Prashant Mishra, Guda Sridhar, Tinu Jain
Abstract: The study examines the influence of shoppers demographic characteristics (age, income, and education) and their attitude towards product and/or retailer related attributes on their store patronage behavior in food retail context in an emerging market setting. The results indicate a clear distinction between formal and informal markets as measured through shoppers orientation. Shoppers retail patronage behavior towards formal and informal food retail stores shows a distinct pattern. The study reveals that shoppers preference for formal vs. informal retail location is influenced by their concern towards merchandise, safety, freshness, bargaining, service, and satisfaction from past experience. Additionally demographics such as age, income and educational status also have a positive influence over shoppers patronage behavior.
Keywords: Retail Patronage, Attitude towards retail, Demographics, Food Retail, Informal retail, India
- Factors Prompting Impulse Buying Behaviour Study among Shoppers In India
by Sanjeev Prashar, Chandan Parsad, T Sai Vijay
Abstract: Impulsive buying has long been identified as a significant behaviour in retail industry. Such purchases are manifested through consumers tendency to buy spontaneously. A number of researchers have found that high impulse shoppers are likely to have shopping lists that are open and are receptive to sudden unexpected buying ideas. It is expected that approximately 70 per cent of all purchasing decisions are made at the point of purchase, with impulse purchases emerging as the prominent buying pattern.
The objective of this paper is to identify and rank the factors that influence the impulse
buying behaviour among shoppers in India
This study, conducted in one of the top five retail markets of the world, adds to the existing knowledge on shoppers impulse buying behavior. Accordingly, multitude of factors influences this spontaneous and unplanned shopping behavior and reflects how merchandising display and in-store influences have stronger impact than promotional stimuli and socialization in Indian context. Retail marketers in India can take this cue in designing their strategies to attract consumers.
Keywords: Impulse Buying Behaviour; Factor Analysis; Principal Component Analysis.
- Perceived Attitudes towards Sudden Wealth: An Exploratory Study
by Shalini Kalra Sahi, Vinay Kumar Dutta
Abstract: A sudden increase in money which is unexpected, brings with it attitudes and behaviors much different than those associated with earned money. Previous research states that sudden wealth can lead to internal conflict as the individual struggles to manage and accept his/her changed status. Apart from understanding the phenomenon of sudden wealth, this exploratory study examines the underlying beliefs and perceived attitudes that people experience when they were asked to put themselves, in a scenario of, sudden increase in their wealth. A measure for Perceived Attitudes towards Sudden Wealth (PASW) was developed. Six dimensions were determined using factor analysis, which was conducted on 252 participants, who were administered a lottery question based survey. The dimensions were Helplessness, Prudence, Fear and Stress, Empowerment, Indulgence and Gratitude towards God. The dimensions of PASW measure were found to be different from the factors of the money ethic scale (MES), thereby supporting the fact that money attitudes are different from PASW.
Keywords: Sudden wealth, Money attitude, Factor analysis, Money psychology, well-being
- A dynamic analysis of Variety Seeking Behavior with reference to Indian Continent
by Jayanthi Thanigan, Rajendran G, Priya Sethuraman
Abstract: The brand managers are spending huge amount on brand building and for other promotions. In spite of the enormous outlay, the variety seeking nature of the consumers are leaving the brand managers perplexed. A clue of the factors that determine the customer variety seeking and decision making process would help the brand managers to understand the consumers better. This research identifies the determinants that influence variety seeking behavior in low-involvement product category particularly in FMCG. Survey was conducted to collect data from variety seeking consumers. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) technique was used to analyze the data. The results established that need for variety is the key influencing variable across all product categories. This study contributes to the stream of research on variety seeking behavior and provides important marketing implications for the practitioners in designing effective marketing programs as well as attraction strategies to retain their valuable customers.
Keywords: Variety seeking behavior, Need for variety, Purchase frequency, perceived brand difference, hedonic, utilitarian, perceived risk and promotions
- Socio-Cultural Impact of Film Celebrities on Teenagers: An Empirical Study
by Amit Jain, Pushplata , Amita Raj Goyal, Swati Khandelwal, Garima Jain
Abstract: Film Celebrities have always been in the glare of publicity and the center of attention. However, currently, this obsession has touched new and even greater pinnacle. These days the celebrities are gaining more popularity because of television shows, advertisements and talk shows. The literature indicates that most of the people look to celebrities and favorite actors for fashion, impressive life style and personal grooming. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the film celebrities on the teenagers in terms of their relationship with friends, parents and elders; life style; values, customs and traditions; etiquette, health and education. This study is designed to collect information so as to know the extent and types of their influence on teenagers. For this study an interview sheet was prepared and interviews were conducted with 40 guardians. Their responses have been tabulated and analyzed and findings have been discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Consumer Culture, Cultural influence, Social Behavior, Celebrity influence
- Analysis of employee training needs in Information Technology Industry
by Neetima Agarwal, Neerja Pande, Vandana Ahuja
Abstract: Information Technology industry is the fastest booming and high- gross profit making industry in the world. The employability size of this industry is no wonder very high and covers a major proportion of the service sector. IT industry has changed the entire concept of the working and has built-up the flat structures or matrix structures against the rigid hierarchical ones. Importance of skills is always under the scan in Information Technology industry as people from diverse geographical locations, experiences, age, gender, race etc work in the same adobe. This industry is the perfect model of individual skills, team-cohesion and organisational success hence it is a complete role-model industry to visualise both people-oriented and work-oriented approach at the same time. This paper aims to assess various people-skills or soft skills required by the professionals at the time of joining the IT-industry. This paper will put forward all essential skills like communication, team-work, critical thinking etc. needed most at the time of employability and will try to find the way to make the training of these soft skills more effective. The data has been collected from few IT companies by interviewing different sets of people working at different levels. It is of high importance to every person in this industry to acquire adequate soft skills as its the parameter to judge the whole personality.
This paper aims to find out the training requirements of the candidates according to the level and need of their skill-set. Through this study we want find out the most appropriate areas of weakness so as to make training need analysis more effective and specific.
Keywords: Information Technology industry, Flat structure, Matrix structure, Soft skills, Employability, Training-need analysis
- Surge in bilateral Economic Relationship : India Malaysia Trade
by Ratna Vadra
Abstract: India-Malaysia trade relations have expanded significantly since 1991 so much so, that currently, India is Malaysias largest trading partner in Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN).Malaysia is the fourth country after Singapore, South Korea and Japan with which India has a bilateral Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement. India and Malaysia will operationalise a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement, aiming to boost bilateral trade to $15 billion by 2015 from nearly $10 billion last year. The paper studies the trends and changes in the composition of exports and imports of Indian trade with Malaysia during the study period 1991-2009. The study dwells upon analyzing the present status of bilateral trade in goods and services, investment and other areas of economic cooperation. It also assesses the feasibility, potential and nature of cooperation in these areas under the CECA.
Keywords: Indiaâ€™s Trade, Malaysia, trade pact, bilateral trade, factor endownment CECA
- MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: A FIT CASE FOR RE-ENGINEERING
by Abinash Panda
Abstract: Business management education is shaped by many factors, including the needs and preferences of consumers of business education; the knowledge, abilities, and skills, employers expect graduates to possess; the choice of providers available to those interested in pursuing management degrees; and the resources business schools need to serve their customers. These are among the factors that make up the context for management education, which is very different today than it was even as recently as the mid-1990s.In recent times, business schools in India seem to be struggling to stay relevant. There is a need to look at 'what we have been teaching' and the 'way we have been imparting' the same. It calls for revamping the course content and innovating teaching and learning method supported by industry-institute collaborations.
Keywords: Management Education; India; Business Schools; Relevant curriculum; Contextual Knowledge; Innovation in management education
- Building retailer loyalty: An empirical study
by Gopal Das
Abstract: This study adopts the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework to illustrate how retailer loyalty is built through shopping values and customer satisfaction. In addition, this study investigates the moderating role of gender in the shopping value-customer satisfaction relationships. The sample for this study comprises of 310 Indian retail shoppers. A structural equation model is employed to identify the interrelationships of shopping values, customer satisfaction and retailer loyalty and the moderating role of gender in the shopping value-customer satisfaction relationships. The analytical results of this study indicate that shopping values positively influence customer satisfaction. The results also indicate that customer satisfaction has a positive impact on store loyalty. Finally, results reveal that gender moderates the shopping value-customer satisfaction relationship. This study enlarges the application of the S-O-R framework in Indian retailing context by including gender as a moderating variable.
Keywords: Shopping value, customer satisfaction, retailer loyalty, S-O-R framework, Gender.
- Developing and Validating Critical Success Factors of TQM Implementation in MSMEs of Punjab in India
by vishal manhas, Himanshu Gupta
Abstract: Manufacturing organizations are facing challenges due to growing competition to sustain themselves. Enhancing their quality and also quality of the products is absolutely essential to sustain growth. From an extensive review of the literature in the field of total quality management (TQM), 8 critical success factors (top management commitment, customer focus, process management, continuous improvement, supplier quality management, employee participation, training , teamwork) and 4 outcome factors (customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, internal quality result, external quality results) of TQM implementation were identified. A questionnaire survey instrument was developed, reliability and validity of the questionnaire were tested. Data from 118 micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) related to manufacturing sector was analysed using Structural equation modelling. Structure equation modelling was used to examine hypothesis. It was concluded finally that the many critical success factors of TQM are significantly related with outcome factors of TQM. Researchers will be able to use this instrument for developing quality management theory. Industrial practitioners will be able to use this instrument to evaluate their TQM implementation.
Keywords: Total quality management, MSMEs, customer satisfaction, top management commitment, structural equation modeling, training, teamwork, employee satisfaction, India.
- An Empirical Investigation of Effective Science Learning through Simple Experiments
by Chamundeswari Rajendran, Deepa Franky
Abstract: The present study envisages Science learning through simple experiments. Experimental method of investigation is designed on the basis of the problem, assumption and hypotheses formulated and it also warrants a psychometrically sound design, procedure, tools and execution. This experimental study was conducted for students, both boys and girls belonging to classes V and VI in government, government-aided and matriculation schools. The outcome of the study revealed that students in whatever school they may be did show a significant improvement in their Science learning performance despite the gender after exposure to experimentation. It is pertinent to explain that knowledge and understanding has been made easy through experiential learning.
Keywords: Keywords: Science Learning, Simple Experiments, Experimental Methodrnrn
- Determinants of Dividend Policy: A Study of the Indian Banking Sector
by Sangeeta D Misra
Abstract: This study attempts to analyze the factors which influence the dividend policy of Indian banking firms. Using panel data pertaining to 121 Indian banks, two regression models have been proposed, one showing dividend payout ratio and the other showing dividend rate as a dependent variable. The study considers both bank specific internal variables as well as macroeconomic variables as explanatory variables influencing the dividend policy of Indian banks. The results of the determinants of dividend payout ratio of Indian banks show growth rate of real GDP affecting dividend payout ratio positively and significantly, and also show return on assets and total deposits to total assets ratio of Indian banks affecting their payout ratio negatively and significantly. The results of the determinants of dividend rate show no variable emerging as a significant determinant, indicating the fact that Indian banks consider dividend payout ratio to be a better measure of their dividend policy.
Keywords: dividend payout ratio; dividend rate; Basel; return on assets; GDP; capital adequacy ratio
- Supplier Selection Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm
by Nitesh Asthana, Manish Gupta
Abstract: This paper presents the integration of GA with ANN to develop a decision making model for the selection of the best supplier. This work integrates multi-attribute decision making models that give grades to suppliers on a set of criteria with the mathematical programming techniques that model the constraints and an objective function to select the best supplier. There exists number of criteria for supplier selection and in this work based on the preliminary field visits some of the criteria are chosen for supplier selections that are more dominant in the Indian scenario. These selected criteria are: Quality, Delay Time, Unit Cost, Quantity and Service. Supplier score was calculated based on the data collected from the reputed automobile industry. This supplier score was further used for ranking the suppliers among the number of options available.
Keywords: Supplier Selection; Genetic Algorithm; Artificial Neural Network; Decision Making Model; Optimization; Multi criteria decision making.
- The Impact of Leaders Spirituality at Work and Their Reputation on Teams Spiritual Climate
by Ahish Pandey, D.P. Chattopadyay, Sucheta Bose
Abstract: Conceptual and empirical linkage between spiritual leadership and team climate or followers attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes have not been fully developed. Although several articles on spiritual leadership exist, the focus of this article is to provide some initial foundation for the broader empirical framework of how spirituality of leaders influence followers to co-create a spiritual climate. We argue that a leaders reputation as a spiritual leader is a strong mediating factor for a spiritual climate. We draw from contemporary literature of spirituality in management and notion of swadharma and Loksangrah (in Karm yoga in Bhagwad Gita) for development of instrument of spiritual climate at work. On the theoretical basis of positive organizational behavior, emotion, identification, and identity theories, we describe the construct of spiritual climate and hypothesize the association between leaders self perceived spirituality at work and spiritual climate of the team. Interestingly, the findings did not reveal a direct effect for the spirituality of leaders at work on spiritual climate, however leaders reputation as spiritual showed strong association with to spiritual climate. Moreover, the self perception of leaders spiritual connection to work does not relate to leaders reputation being spiritually connected to work. Significance of the findings and implications for future theory and practice is discussed.
Keywords: Spiritual Leadership, Spiritual Climate
- Metamorphosis of Indian Electoral Campaigns: Modis Social Media Experiment
by Kawal Kapoor, Yogesh K. Dwivedi
Abstract: Indias 2014 prime ministerial elections witnessed an unprecedented outcome, where the Bharatiya Janta Party callously defeated the Indian National Congress by majority votes, and Narendra Modi stood elected as the 15th prime minister of India. This outstanding electoral victory is being extensively debated and analysed across print and broadcast media for its remarkable campaigning strategies that successfully established a two way dialogue between the prime ministerial elect, Narendra Modi, and the voter population of India. The use of social media and adoption of campaigning tactics from the Obama US-presidential campaign have been centric to this winning campaign for brand NaMo. The amalgamation of social media and election campaigning has clearly redefined the face of political movements in India. The stratagem that team Modi followed to break the congress era running in the country over the past decade will be concisely anatomized, with particular interest in the role and power of social media in giving a political party that winning edge over its opposition.
Keywords: Social Media, Digital Media, India, Elections, Narendra Modi, NaMo
- Musical environment and its effect on Restaurant Patrons' behaviour in emerging markets
by R.K. Srivastava
Abstract: It also explores the possibility of frequency of visits, duration of stay; types of music consumer will like to listen in different types of restaurants. Research comprised of a field study carried out at different restaurants (N=27) serving Indian, Fast food, Thai, Chinese and Italian food in Mumbaia financial capital of India with diverse culture. The present research suggest that consumers purchase behaviour, frequency of visit ,duration of stay and eating habits in restaurant is affected by the musical environment. Duration of stay at the restaurant influenced by type of music played quality of music, liking for a particular type of music, feeling that music refreshes the mind and liking for musical environment. Types and tempo of music based on the type of restaurant may get better results in terms of sales. This is interesting finding for emerging market like India. There is a paucity of research in this area in emerging markets like India compared to the western world
This study contributes to the services marketing and consumer behaviour literature with reference to restaurant affected by music in emerging markets. The data will be of great use due to changing consumers habit and increasing income in emerging market, as they are the destination for global brands
Keywords: Atmospheric, Music, Restaurant, Consumer behavior, Service element.
- Dilemma of Work-Life Balance in Dual-Career Couples- A Study from the Indian Perspective
by Gnanadhas Delina, Rampalli Prabhakara Raya
Abstract: Work-life balance is a contemporary issue and is of great interest in studies related to quality of life. This paper is an empirical study that aims to examine the key factors affecting work-life balance of dual-career couples working in Knowledge-Based Organizations (KBOs). The research uses primary data collected through a questionnaire based on a five-point Likert scale. This study is an attempt to capture the perception of knowledge professionals towards various constructs of work-life balance and their own work-life balance. Data has been analyzed by employing the statistical methods, namely Independent sample t-test, One-way ANOVA, MANOVA, Correlation and Multiple Regression using statistical package SPSS 20 for windows. The research came out with profound findings on gender differences. This study supports previous research findings that dual-career couples face the dilemma of work-life balance severely. It is found that the constructs of work-life balance and respondents satisfaction towards work-life balance is influenced differently by their demographic characteristics. Significant difference is found in the work-life balance of dual-career couples based on their gender and family structure. The constructs of work-life balance hold a strong influence over the respondents satisfaction towards work-life balance. Finally, the study throws light on the fact that work-life balance is definitely a determinant of an individuals overall quality of life.
Keywords: Work-Life Balance, Dual-career couples, Quality of Life.