International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management (46 papers in press)
- The Impact of Religiosity upon Managers CSR Orientation: An Empirical Study in Indian Perspective
by Priyanka Verma, Anupam Singh
Abstract: Ethical Behaviour among businesses has gained significant prominence in recent years. Survey evidence shows that there is significant influence of religiosity and values on managers social responsiveness behaviour. Some of legal, economic and management literature has begun to explore numerous complex questions and concern that arise with the prospect of integrating religious perspectives, values and frameworks into businesses. This study examines the influence of religious values on ethical behaviour intentions (EBI) and managers corporate social responsibility orientation (CSRO). The empirical data for this study was generated through a self-administered questionnaire and was analysed using AMOS software. The findings of our study indicate that commitment to moral self-improvement (CMSI) mediates positive effects of religiosity on ethical behaviour intentions (EBI) and CSR orientations of managers.
Keywords: CSR orientation; religiosity; commitment to moral self-improvement; ethical Behaviour intention; managers; India
- A study on Empathetic Listening in Internalization of Emotional Intelligence among Engineers: Srimad Bhagavad Gita in Context
by Nikhil K Mehta
Abstract: In the recent past, studies highlighting the glories of Srimad Bhagavad Gita have been presented. These studies range from understanding of the micro-level unit of analysis such as emotional intelligence, personality among individuals to the macro unit of analysis such as corporate social responsibilities. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the empathetic listening in internalization of emotional intelligence among engineers. The basic idea for the study stems from an example that shows the connection between mentor Lord Krishna and His prot
Keywords: Srimad Bhagavad Gita, emotional intelligence, empathetic listening, empathy, listening, emotional intelligence traits, engineers.
- IMPACT OF TEN CS LEADERSHIP PRACTICES ON EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT WITH RESPECT TO SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: A STUDY OF HOTEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY IN NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION, DELHI, INDIA
by Anu Singh Lather, Vinod Jain, Shilpa Jain
Abstract: The present study was aimed to map the effect of specific leadership practices on employee engagement with respect to the socio-demographic profile of employees working in the hotel and tourism industry. A sample of 100 employees was selected using stratified random sampling. Ten Cs suggested by Dan Crim and Seijts (2006) were taken as leadership practices and employee engagement was measured through job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intent to stay, pride, advocate, and emotional connect. The results show that Males prefer democratic control while females want control as well as leaders focus on their career development. The results of the study also reveals different leadership practices (Ten Cs) which engage employees belonging to different income group, educational background, marital status, family type, schooling type, socio economic status, and area of location. Interestingly these socio demographic factors differentiate amongst individuals as regards with which specific leadership practices engage them in their jobs.
Keywords: Leadership practices, employee engagement, service industry, socio-demographic factors
- Luxury and Masses: Assessing the connect in India
by Manaswini Acharya, Abhishek Nirjar
Abstract: There was a time when luxury was meant only for the rich. Things have changed rapidly all over the world and India is no exception to this change. It is observed today that people's buying habits do not necessarily correspond to their income, as had always been the assumption. People, who once could only desire for luxury, have now come to own it. While there is no doubt that luxury has become a lot more affordable it is quite interesting to note that the common man today indulges in luxury even when he cannot actually afford it. This paper takes a qualitative assessment route to understand the various reasons that have now connected the previously disconnected luxury products and the masses. It seeks to understand reasons, as to why masses buy luxury products and the factors that influence them. The study is specific to India and hopes to provide insights about the changing Indian consumer. It was interesting to note that there were both personal and social reasons for the masses attempting to indulge in luxury.
Keywords: India, luxury products, consumer behaviour
- Determining Store Attribute Salience on Store Choice Behaviour In An Emerging Market The Case of Indian Grocery Market
by Shashank Mehra, Moonis Shakeel
Abstract: Grocery Retailing in India in the present environment is unchartered territory. Food and grocery is the most promising area for setting up retail business in India. This research is using descriptive research design and applying random sampling on 579 usable questionnaires across the National Capital Region of Delhi. Both descriptive and multivariate statistical tools like factor analysis used to analyze the data collected from 579 food and grocery retail customers from neighbourhood National capital region in India. The findings highlight consumers store choice criteria and extract six factors which play important role while selecting the grocery retailers out of 37 items, these factors will play vital role in the consumers format choice decisions. rnThis study will serve as a vital point for future studies in this area of concern. The research is also relevant to retail marketers in terms of format development and reorientation of marketing strategies in the fastest growing Indian retail market.rn
Keywords: Store choice, format choice, consumer behavior, socio-demographic profile, retailing, organised retail, unorganised retail India.
- Exploring service quality of the department stores: A study from India
by Nirmalya Bandyopadhyay
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to empirically explore retail service quality of the department stores in the Indian context. A measure is developed by modifying the RSQS scale as available in the literature to measure retail service quality. Data were collected from four competing department stores so as to assess retail service quality. Statistical analysis revealed a three-factor construct structure. The validity and reliability of the measure are assessed empirically. The study has managerial implications in strategic decision making.
Keywords: service quality, satisfaction, retail format, department store, model, India
- LOCAL VERSUS GLOBAL BRAND PREFERENCES AMONGST URBAN INDIAN CHOCOLATE CONSUMERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
by Deepak Chawla, Neena Sondhi
Abstract: The paper assessed the contribution of psychographic variables in predicting the likelihood of purchase for Indian vs foreign chocolate brands. The authors used a convenience sampling method to collect data from 311 urban Indian consumers who are buyers and consumers of chocolates. Logit regression model was used to predict the purchase decision of foreign vs Indian chocolate consumption decision. The logit model obtained for the respondent population had a significant LR statistics and predictive with 89 percent for the consumers of Indian brands and a 65 percent predictive capacity for consumers of foreign brand. The two groups differed significantly with regards six of the psychographic variables selected. The foreign brand consumers were more frequent and heavy buyers of chocolates in general. For both groups gifting was a major reason of purchase.
Keywords: Chocolate consumption; consumer buying decisions; psychographic variables, Indian consumers; logit regression; emerging markets
- Social Commerce as a Business Tool in Saudi Arabias SMEs
by Salma S. Abed, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Michael D. Williams
Abstract: Social media adoption plays a significant role in economic development. Yet, many Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) do not believe that they could expand their market and reach customers on social media sites, especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study conducted a content analysis method to determine the elements of social media that SMEs are using to connect with consumers and its impact on consumers usage. The study has analysed sixty SMEs divided into four main categories including online information provided and shared by SMEs; online business strategies used by SMEs; technology and social media tools and platforms used by SMEs; and consumers social media tools and platforms usage to connect with SMEs. Finally, the analysis indicated that businesses are building online trust using social media; online business strategies influence consumers perceptions of the uncertainty; innovative businesses lead to innovative consumers; and quality of online information affects consumers adoption.
Keywords: Social Commerce; Social Media; SMEs; Content Analysis; Saudi Arabia
- A Study of Non-verbal Immediacy Behavior from the Perspective of Indian Cultural Context, Gender and Experience.
by Reeta Raina, Asif Zameer
Abstract: The present study explores the influence of culture, gender and experience on the nonverbal communication behavior in an Indian context. The results indicate that Indians often, use more multimodal style of communication - primarily nonverbal methods to relay information in conversations using eye movement, spacing, facial expressions, tone of voice and other nonverbal cues. Generally, they are seen as high on nonverbal immediacy behavior, but, at times, they do reveal, some kind of withdrawal symptoms like leaning away from the person or their bodies become tense - they would avoid gesturing and not look directly at the person. The Indian women, when compared with men in India, tend to be more emotive, they smile considerably more, maintain more eye contact and gesture more whereas men use more expansive gestures. The study did not show major difference in the nonverbal behavior of people with experience and non-experience background.
Keywords: Nonverbal communication, High-context culture, Proxemics, Gender, Eye contact, high power distancing, Indian Male, Indian Female, Gestures and Facial Expressions\r\n
- Exploring gender difference in organic clothing purchase intention and ecological behavior
by Geetika Varshineya, Gopal Das
Abstract: The present work aims to study the relationship of values with purchase intention for organic clothing and ecological behavior. It will also explore the relationship of ecological behavior and positive word-of-mouth. Further it will figure out the moderating role of gender in all these relationships. Six hypotheses were developed with the support of relevant literature. The hypothesis were tested with the help of primary data (n=202), collected through a structured questionnaire online from Indian consumers of age group 18 years and above. Regression analysis was done to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that value and purchase intention for organic clothing has a positive relationship. Also values and ecological behavior has a positive and significant relationship. Similar is the relationship between ecological behavior and positive word-of-mouth. Gender acts as a moderator in all the earlier mentioned relationships. The results of the current study are focused organic clothing and needs validation in other contexts. It is limited to Indian consumers of age group 18 years and above.
Keywords: Organic clothing, purchase intention, values, ecological behavior
- Understanding Expenditure on Different Commodity Groups in Indian Households: Emerging Patterns and Policy Implications
by Bipul Kumar, Piyush Kumar Sinha
Abstract: This study explores the expenditure pattern on different commodity groups such as food, fuel and lighting, clothing and other items across Indian households. The study also explores the variables apart from income which affect the expenditure on commodity groups across rural and urban population in India. Estimates made for expenditure elasticity taking into account the regional differences in India across rural and urban settings provide some important implications for the marketers on issues like income based segmentation as well as consumption pattern on commodities. This study also has policy implications with insights on social welfare programs depending upon the nature of expenditure elasticity for a particular commodity group linked with income of the household. The nature and magnitude of the elasticity also provides a policy tool for devising the tax structure based on expenditure towards necessity or luxury goods with respect to the income level of the household.
Keywords: Segmentation; commodity; income; elasticity; expenditure; necessity goods; luxury goods
- The Price of Heritage: An Investigation of Hotel Prices
by Prem Dewani, Sameer Mathur
Abstract: This paper investigates the price premium charged by hotels to heritage tourists. A field study shows that heritage hotels in India command a sizable price premium over comparable, conventional hotels in India. Another field study finds that hotel rooms facing the Niagara Falls, USA, are more expensive than hotel rooms facing the city. A third study investigates the preferences of heritage tourists visiting India to see the Taj-Mahal. The study finds that heritage tourists indicate higher quality perception, purchase intentions, word-of-mouth likelihood and willingness-to-pay for a hotel room with an ethnic room decor and overlooking the Taj-Mahal compared to a hotel room with a modern decor and overlooking the city. Overall, this paper demonstrates a significant "price of heritage".
Keywords: Heritage, Pricing, Hotels, Service
- E-Governance in developing countries: A case study of E-Disha initiative in the Indian state of Haryana
by Tejinder Sharma, George Mangalaraj, Vivek Natarajan
Abstract: Technological interfaces are increasingly being used, throughout the world, to reach out to larger sections for the delivery of e-governance services. Inadequacy of digitalization of records of the subsistence level citizens, lack of awareness of their rights, and little understanding of the processes to avail the governance services hamper the effectiveness and of delivery of the e-governance services to them. The study explores the adoption of E-disha services by the subsistence level citizens, offered by the north-Indian state of Haryana. Findings indicate that the subsistence level citizens easily learn the use of technology-assisted interfaces and the E-disha services measure upto the citizens expectation on the dimensions of spatial convenience, ease of use, cost, and trust. By adopting a marketing and customer service paradigm, considering governance as a service and leveraging technology as a facilitator, the subsistence marketplaces could be better served and foster their inclusiveness into the social mainstream.
Keywords: E-governance services, E-disha, Technology adoption, Customer service, Developing Countries, India, Haryana, Case Study
- Factors Affecting Adoption of Green Products among Youths: A Conceptual Framework Based on Evidence from India
by Bipul Kumar
Abstract: Green products have major contribution in changing the mind-set of consumers towards environmental protection, responsible consumption and overall value creation in an ethical manner. Despite efforts from marketers, the adoption of green products has not been in line with the expectations. Although developed economies have experimented and learned many important cues with respect to the adoption of green products, the emerging economies are still in the transition phase. Using qualitative method, this study explores different psychographic and cultural factors interplaying in the decision making process for adoption of green products in India. Based on Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory, the study then develops a conceptual framework which includes some pertinent factors including a potential moderating factor affecting the adoption of green products. The study provides some important insights for the practitioners and the policy makers.
Keywords: Green products; collectivistic culture; environmental reciprocity; self-efficacy; risk proneness; Value-Belief-Norm theory; youth; emerging economy
- Assessing Bihars Economic Growth: A Geweke Causality Analysis
by Khee Giap Tan, Tongxin Nie, Kartik Rao
Abstract: Despite being one of the most backward Indian states in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, the state of Bihar recorded double-digit growth from 2005 to 2011. Although this growth turnaround has been recognized as something significant, the literature to date has not probed the causes that have driven Bihars growth story. In this context, this paper attempts to contribute to the growing interest and literature in studying the causal factors driving growth patterns in India at the sub-national level. Specifically, the paper employs a Geweke Causality Analysis to investigate the drivers of economic growth in Bihar from 2001 to 2011. By decomposing and examining the linear feedback between the State-level economic growth and the vector consisting of law and order as well as fiscal variables, this paper finds that a combination of improvements in law and order as well as aid from the central government played an important role in Bihars economic turnaround in recent years.
Keywords: Geweke Causality, Economic Growth, Bihar, India
- Who Matters most in Services? Detractors, Passively Satisfied or Promoters
by Shivendra Pandey
Abstract: Understanding the differences in various types of consumers groups to the complaint resolution process in a Banking services industry was the objective of this research. The three groups compared were promoters, passively satisfied and detractors based on Reicheld (2001) framework. The multi-group comparison results indicated that all the three groups were different in their response to the complaint resolution process. The detractors emerged as the most important customer segment in complaint handling process with highest impact on recommendation of Bank to the peer group. Implications for complaint management in services industries are discussed as well as addition to the body of knowledge in consumer complaining behaviour.
Keywords: Complaining Behaviour, detractors, promoters, resolution time, satisfaction, recommendation, service rating, credit cards, Multi-group comparisons in Structural Equation Modelling
- Impact of Competitiveness on Business Performance: A Case Study of Manufacturing SMEs in Northern India
by Shakun preet Kaur, Jatinder Kumar, Rakesh Kumar
Abstract: The present manufacturing environment is characterized by a number of changes which poses challenges to a typical manufacturing unit. Time demands a shift from the traditional manufacturing strategies as they do not fit to present market competition. A flexible systems strategy has to be designed for remaining competitive and delivering high performance. In this regard, the aspects of competitiveness which influences the business performance in a particular industry has to be identified. The present study is conducted on the overall framework of flexible systems management. A questionnaire based survey is conducted in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) across northern India analysing three sectors namely automotive, machine tool and light engineering (mechanical components and equipment).The impact of the competitive priorities of SMEs on business performance in northern India is presented by a structural equation model. The whole process of synthesis of Situation-Actor-Process (SAP) leading to Learnings-Action-Performance (LAP) under the flexible systems management paradigm has been depicted in the paper.
Keywords: Competitiveness; Business Performance; SMEs; Structural Equation Modelling; Flexible systems management; SAP-LAP (Situation-Actor-Process Learnings-Action-Performance);Indian manufacturing industry
- Influence of socialisation agents on the materialism of Indian teenagers
by Sartaj Chaudhary, A.K. Dey
Abstract: Teenagers are rapidly becoming an important market segment for consumer products in India, but relatively little is known about the development of their materialistic consumption values. This study captures the influence of socialisation on materialism for teenagers. First, by dimension reduction the latent constructs of materialism have been unveiled. Next, by applying a social learning perspective, the influence of socialisation agents on materialism is probed. In addition, this study also checks if materialistic tendencies differ among boys and girls. The research paper draws upon a survey based data collected from 1216 teenagers studying in classes eight to twelve in National Capital Region of India and uses exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses; T-test and stepwise multiple regressions for data analyses. The results reveal that materialism is portrayed by three values: luxury orientation, happiness seeking and acquisition centrality seeking. Among the six socialisation agents: mother, father, peers, celebrity, athlete and Internet, celebrity emerged as the highest predictor of materialism. Boys depicted a higher level of materialism as compared to girls. The theoretical and practical implications of the research have been discussed with suggestions for future research.
Keywords: Indian teenagers, materialism, socialisation agents, confirmatory factor analysis, multiple regression
- Evaluating the efficiency of Indian public sector banks
by Ashish Kumar, Sanjay Dhingra
Abstract: The present paper examines the efficiency of public sector banks in India. The public sector banks have been deliberately chosen for the study, given the fact that even in the third decade of liberalization, the dominance of public sector banks is still obvious in terms of market share, impact on economy, number of branches, general perception of the people and overall contribution to the financial system. At present there are 26 public sector banks in India including 6 State Bank of India and its associate banks. In this paper the efficiency of the public sector banks has been examined with the help of data envelopment analysis using CCR and BCC models. The study makes use of intermediation approach of output. The study is based on 3 inputs namely; Number of Branches, Deposits and Operating Expenses and 2 outputs viz. Loans & Advances and Non-Interest Income. The results of the study indicate that in all, only 2 banks are relatively efficient on the basis of CCR model i.e. overall technical efficiency and as per BCC model (pure technical efficiency) 9 banks are efficient. Further, it has been found that the reason for inefficiency of the public sector banks in India for the year 2012-13 is due to scale inefficiency.
Keywords: banks; efficiency; data envelopment analysis, technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency; scale efficiency; CCR model; BCC model
- Elements of task definition shopping situations: A study of Indian customers in context of products high on haptic salience
by Abhishek , Piyush K. Sinha
Abstract: Marketing literature has identified task definitions as one of the important situational influences. However, existing definitions of planned and emergency shopping situations are driven from practitioners perspective and suffer from operationalization issues. In this study, we make an attempt to understand and define the concept of task definition from customers perspective. Based on the thematic analysis of data collected through qualitative interviews, we identify the elements of task definitions which customers consider salient in distinguishing between different task definitions. We conclude, based on the additional analysis of comparison of these elements across different product categories, that it is also important to consider the finer point in elements across two product categories for same type of shopping trip.
Keywords: task definition, haptic touch, regular purchase, emergency purchase, fill-in trip, major trip
- Personality composition in Indian software teams and its relationship to social cohesion and task cohesion
by Sapnaa Aeron, Suman Pathak
Abstract: The study investigates the effect of teams big five personality composition (mean, variance, minimum, and maximum) on social and task cohesion. The authors illustrate an empirical study on information technology professionals that elaborates on preceding research and observed significantly divergent findings. Contrary to past studies, significant relation was found between conscientiousness and social cohesion and openness to experience and social and task cohesion. Further, no relationship was found between agreeableness and task cohesion. Results partly confer the relationship between extraversion and social cohesion; neuroticism and social and task cohesion. Implications of these findings and future research needs are discussed.
Keywords: big five, cohesion, five-factor model, IT, personality, software development, team
- Moderating role of locus of control in the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: a study of Indian IT sector
by Bindu Chhabra, R.P. Mohanty
Abstract: The present study was conducted to explore the direct relationship of job satisfaction and locus of control (LOC) on four dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) i.e. interpersonal helping, individual initiative, personal industry and loyal boosterism. The purpose of the study was also to see if locus of control moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and the above mentioned dimensions of OCB. The study was conducted using structured questionnaires for measuring the above mentioned variables. The sample consisted of 449 IT professionals working in Delhi and National Capital Region. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The analysis showed that job satisfaction and internal locus of control was positively related to all dimensions of OCB. However, the moderating role of LOC was seen in the relationship of job satisfaction and only two dimensions of OCB namely individual initiative and personal industry. The present study has important implications for human resource development in IT sector in India. Managers should use strategies to achieve high job satisfaction and OCB. They must be aware of the moderating role of different personality attributes on the relationship between job satisfaction and OCB.
Keywords: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction, Locus of Control, IT professionals, Hierarchical multiple regression, Human resource development
- Performance of Local Area Banks in India: An Empirical Study (2003-2012)
by Padmasai Arora, Hitesh Arora
Abstract: Conceived as an alternative source of innovation and credit to marginal and small agricultural farmers and retail business in remote rural areas through integrating local markets, the viability of Local Area Banks (LABs) in Indian banking sector has been a matter of debate ever since their inception in late nineties. This paper undertakes the first ever comprehensive assessment of the performance of LABs tracking their origin, role and performance during the ten-year period from 2003-04 to 2012-13. Important financial performance indicators of LABs are observed vis-
Keywords: commercial banks; local area banks; India; performance; regional rural banks; financial ratios; DEA
- Employee Engagement in the Pharmaceuticals Sector in Bangladesh: A Case Study of a Pharmaceuticals Company
by Brychan Thomas, Anthony Lewis, Md Al-Amin
Abstract: It is a strategic imperative that organisations continuously improve the levels of performance in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Research has shown that employee engagement positively correlates with organisational performance in relation to profitability, sustainability, turnover rate, absenteeism rate and staff advocacy. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the effect of employee engagement on organisational performance in the context of a Pharmaceuticals company.
The major results from this research have been compared with the grounded theory to draw an effective conclusion. In addition, the authors have employed a realism philosophy with an inductive research approach to investigate the empirical reality. This is a qualitative research method, whereby primary data was collected via questionnaires and interviews. However, the questionnaire was administered by the respondents and the interviews were conducted on Skype due to the degree of distance between respondents and researchers. The sample size of this research is 35 and comprises of 32 non-managers and 3 managers.
The research concluded that employee engagement positively influenced the performance of the case organisation. However, the overall levels of engagement in the case organisation are still considered to be lower than optimal. A number of key drivers of employee engagement have been carefully investigated to examine the viability of them in relation to the case organisation. After careful scrutiny, this research recommends specific employee engagement drivers which are feasible for the case organisation.
Keywords: employee; engagement; pharmaceuticals; case study
- Exploring Service Quality: A critical Review of Literature
by Nirmalya Bandyopadhyay
Abstract: With the phenomenal growth of the service sector in the last few decades, research related to the creation and delivery of services has been intensified. Four well documented characteristics of services intangibility, inseparability, variability and perishability pose challenges to the marketers to develop appropriate strategies to meet a consumers service need profitably. The researchers were keen in developing models to identify the attributes and understand quality dimensions of services across varied service settings and their applicability in the service industry to facilitate the service marketers in their efforts of service excellence development. This paper discusses a review of literature on service quality and presents key managerial insights to enable service marketer to formulate strategies appropriate to enhance the quality of their offerings to satisfy service customers and achieve their objectives.
Keywords: Customer expectation, Perceived quality, Satisfaction, Service quality dimensions.
- Modelling situational factors in variety seeking behaviour: A conceptual approach
by Rajesh Nanarpuzha, Abhishek
Abstract: The importance of situational factors in variety seeking behaviour of consumers has been acknowledged in marketing literature. However, this paper is potentially the first to attempt to explicitly model situational factors in variety seeking behaviour. The conceptual model developed demonstrates that the incorporation of situational variables can result in a more comprehensive model to explain variety seeking behavior. The paper also introduces the Indian retail scenario as a particularly apt context for operationalising the variables of the proposed model. This has implications for several emerging markets where similar retail contexts are present.
Keywords: Variety seeking, situational factors, choice modelling, Indian kirana store, lightning bolt model, retail
- Role of culture in celebrity endorsement: Brand endorsement by celebrities in Indian context
by Abhishek Abhishek, Arvind Sahay
Abstract: Celebrity endorsement is a big market in India and continues to grow bigger. However, inspite of prevalent use of celebrities for endorsement, not all celebrity endorsements have been successful. The list of unsuccessful examples suggest that it will be wrong to consider celebrity endorsement as an effective response to media clutter in all situations inspite of the intensity of involvement people have with celebrities in India. In absence of existing celebrity endorsement theories to satisfactorily explain the phenomenon in India, this paper uses the lens of culture to develop propositions on how customer attitude towards celebrity endorsements is a function of cultural parameters in emerging countries like India. We build our argument by using culture to explain the congruence between celebrity and consumers for elaborating celebrity endorsement in Indian markets.
Keywords: celebrity endorsement, culture, congruence, power-distance, individualism-collectivism, long-term versus short-term orientation
- Community Based Agri-Chain Network: Sustainable Alternate Pathway towards Development in India
by Rohit Joshi, Sanjeeb Kakoty, Rohit Dwivedi
Abstract: The Public Distribution System (PDS) in India is a reform initiated way back. This scheme was started with the stated objective of provide food grain, ensuring the welfare of poor and maintaining price stability for the essential commodities for all citizens. However, because of number of factors such as, insufficient management, lack of proper targeting, etc., the functions of PDS never matched with its intended objective. Through the case study methodology a thorough analysis is done in Assam, a State of India, on various issues linked with supply chain of agricultural commodities, from farmer side production to customer side consumption, including subsidy, cost, price fluctuation, transportation, storage, agriculture trade, etc. The paper tried to seek an alternative pathway towards the mandate of Assam PDS by a sustainable architecture which would base itself on the strengths of the community but organizing and supported by a redesigned professional structure.
Keywords: Social Democracy, Farmers, Poverty, Public Distribution System, Community Based Agri-Chain Network, India
- Government Intervention and Corporate Social Responsibility in India
by Upali Arijita Biswas, Suresh Garg, Archana Singh
Abstract: The change in the nature of relationship between the Indian government and business has been accompanied by a transition in the governments policies for CSR and heralds the rise of the relational state, which embodies co-responsibility between the state, society and public and private sectors. Using an analytical framework, the paper analyses the strategies adopted by the Indian government in recent years in order to promote the adoption of CSR in business initiatives. A questionnaire survey of 191 CSR personnel, further examines the role of the government in the CSR scenario. Employing principle component analysis to the questionnaire responses, revealed that CSR personnel deem the involvement of the government in promulgating CSR through both hard and soft approaches like Facilitation, Participation, Awareness Generation, CSR Regulation, Peripheral Legislation and Penalising. The paper will be of interest to CSR stakeholders and in particular to governments contemplating a more active role in encouraging organisations, in their countries, to undertake CSR activities.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, CSR, government, India, relational state, CSR regulations
- Performance Related Pay Perception in Indian Central Public Sector Enterprises
by Punam Singh, Ramkumar Mishra
Abstract: Linking pay with performance is commonly referred as Performance Related Pay (PRP). It is one of the most preferred pay technique followed worldwide in all sectors for attracting, motivating and retaining talent. Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) in India have recognized the need for building a performance oriented culture in order to survive and sustain competition. A concrete step in this direction was to integrate performance and compensation management system through the implementation of Performance Related Pay concept. The implementation of PRP is expected to help CPSEs to attract, motivate and retain talent by bringing CPSEs compensation at par with its competitors in private sector. PRP has been made an integral part of CPSEs pay package through the implementation of latest pay revision for the Indian CPSEs. In the given context, it is important to study executives perception towards PRP and also to understand the real challenges in the implementation of PRP process.
Keywords: Performance Related Pay, Performance Management System, Central Public Sector Enterprises, India, and Perception.
- Assessment of In-depth Content Coverage by Indian Universities Websites: End Users Expectations versus Perceptions
by Bhim Sain Singla, Himanshu Aggarwal
Abstract: The websites created by the Indian universities mainly serve the purpose of advancing their mission and brand name by providing trouble-free online services and valuable academic information to their target users. However, it always remains a challenge to cater to the needs of its varied target users, i.e., faculty, students, parents, alumni, donors, trustees, etc. The current study aims to explore which of the contents influence users perceptions most in the context of Indian universities websites by way of Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) as the theoretical foundation. The field survey points out that every content item has its own importance in the viewpoint of end users. The main findings of this study underline the gaps between the experiences and expectations of end users towards the scope of information covered by Indian universities websites, and suggest appropriate measures to plug these gaps. Therefore, the results of this study serve as guidelines for evaluating content coverage in a typical university website and understanding the extent to which the website could meet the expectations of its intended users. Besides, it will provide the Web designers much needed information that can be used to construct or improve the websites of other Universities.
Keywords: content categories; content items; expectations versus perceptions; effective website; focus group; India; importance performance analysis; IPA; universitiesâ€™ websites.
- Can moral development lead to upward influence behavior? The mediating role of transformational leadership in an empirical inquiry
by Koustab Ghosh
Abstract: This empirical study examined the impact of transformational leadership with its antecedent of moral development on upward influence behaviour taking managerial responses from two power sector organizations located in India.A total of 210 valid responses from two power sector organizations represented by junior, middle, and senior level executives were found valid for data analysis. Descriptive, correlations, post-hoc and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to empirically examine the hypothesized framework. The structural equation modeling analysis showed that moral development (moral sensitivity, moral motivation, and moral implementation) were positively related to transformational leadership, whereas transformational leadership was positively related to positive upward influence behaviours, and negatively related to negative upward influence behaviours. The analysis of post-hoc showed the moderating effect of transformational leadership on positive upward influence behaviours through moral development of individual managers.
Keywords: Moral development; transformational leadership; upward influence behavior; India
- Quality Issues Affecting Organizational Performance: A Review of Indian Technical Education
by Lalit Upadhayay, Prem Vrat
Abstract: Indian technical education, in the recent past, experienced an exponential growth causing degradation in the employability of engineering graduates. This affected the business performance of many private technical institutions in India which are now on the brink of extinction. Low employability of engineering graduates may render them jobless and may convert the so called Indias Demographic Dividend into the Demographic Disaster. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze the quality issues affecting the performance of technical institutions in India. The aim of this paper is to analyze quality issues in the technical education and examine the application of quality improvement tools and techniques in this area. The paper presents an extensive review of literature in the area of technical education. The study identifies the enablers and barriers to quality of technical education at strategic and operational level. The paper discusses policy implications and suggests corrective measures to address quality related issues in technical education
Keywords: Quality issues in Technical Education; QFD in Technical Education; Performance of Technical Institutions, Employability
- Price Discovery in Indian Stock Index Futures Market: New Evidence Based on Intraday Data
by Sarveshwar Inani
Abstract: This study revisits price discovery process in Indian stock index futures market for spot and futures of S&P CNX Nifty, by using high-frequency one-minute time-interval data for the period from January 2014 to August 2015 to gain fresh insights. Stationarity and cointegration tests reveal that spot and futures prices are I(1) and cointegrated. Three different econometric methodologies component share method of Gonzalo and Granger (1995), information share method of Hasbrouck (1995), and modified information share of Lien and Shrestha (2009) have been employed to determine the extent of price discovery contribution by spot and futures markets. The results reveal that futures market is performing its price discovery function which satisfies the transaction cost hypothesis. Also, these results support the notion that futures market is more efficient vis-
Keywords: Price Discovery; Vector Error Correction Model; Johansen Cointegration; Component Share; Information Share; Modified Information Share; Common Factor Methods; Futures Market
- Enhancing Reliability and Quality for SMEs in India by using Failure Mode Effect Analysis and Total Productive Maintenance
by Sachin N. Waghmare, D N Raut, S K Mahajan, S S Bhamare
Abstract: Abstract- The globalisation of markets, growth of customers expectations, widening competition puts pressure on SMEs in India. To withstand with such issues and contend with large and global enterprises, SMEs need to implement inventive approaches in their operations. This study has empirical tested the effect of critical faults for machinery manufacturing such as equipment problem, procedure problem, personnel error, and design problem, training deficiency, and management problem, external phenomena and tpm pillars such as 5s, autonomous maintenance, continuous improvement (kaizen), planned maintenance, quality maintenance, education & training, safety, health-environment control on SMEs in India. A survey was carried out on a sample of 473 manufacturing SMEs operating in the manufacture of machinery and equipment, packaging, automobile, chemical, food processing and metal processing in India. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16 & scilab 5.3.3 is used to analyse data obtained. The hypotheses are tested and a generic model of FMEA and TPM is proposed for SMEs in India to improve their reliability and quality.
Keywords: Keywords- Equipment Problem, Procedure Problem, Personnel Error, Design Problem, Training Deficiency, Management Problem, External Phenomena, Tpm Pillars, SMEs India.
- Capital Asset Pricing Model & Sub-prime crisis: Evidence from Indian Equity Market
by SHWETA BAJPAI, Anil Sharma
Abstract: The sub-prime crisis of 2008 affected a vast majority of economies across the globe. The impact of the crisis on economies varied depending on their degree of integration with countries most affected by the crisis.. Naturally, the crisis caused considerable instability across stock markets as well. It is expected that well-known equilibrium relationships on asset prices would demonstrate a severe departure from their equilibrium levels. This study is an attempt to examine Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) empirically in its standard form with the help of two-stage regression method in the light of the crisis of 2008. The study uses select CNX 500 stocks for ten years, from Jan. 01, 2004 to Dec. 31, 2013. Since this period includes sub-prime crisis recessionary period of 2008, an attempt has been made to examine the CAPM for the whole period as well as before and after the recessionary period. Additionally, to establish the robustness of the model, the CAPM has been tested on a rolling sample daily data of one year with a monthly updating scheme. That is, the CAPM has been examined on a total number of 109 rolling samples of one year each. While testing the CAPM, the rolling regression technique is applied to individual assets as well as on portfolios thereof. This study suggests that the CAPM is not able to explain the return generating process of stocks in an efficient manner. However, the model without the intercept term cannot be ignored grossly, as it marks its significance around 16% of times. Out of 109 Rolling samples, 17 samples of the constrained model had standard errors less than the same number of samples of the unconstrained model
Keywords: CAPM; Rolling Regression; Cross Sectional Regression.
- Trading Trends in Indian Commodity Exchanges with special reference to Agricultural Commodities
by ANAND BANSAL, Satinder Kaur
Abstract: Globally commodity markets have gone through a long journey. In India, the emergence and augmentation of the organized commodity derivative market is relatively a recent phenomenon. Since its inception in June 2000, derivative exchanges have exhibited exponential growth in terms of volume and value of trade. The setting up of the three exchanges was the turning point in the history of commodity market of India. Hence, the study is undertaken to analyze the trends and progress of the national commodity exchanges of India and comparing value of trade of the selected agricultural commodities (soybean, mustard seed, soy oil, guarseed and channa). Data for the commodities unÂ¬der study covers period from the year 2004-05 till the year 2014-15. The study is based on the secondary data related to exchanges i.e. MCX, NCDEX, NMCE, ICEX and ACE.
Keywords: Commodity Exchanges; India; Agricultural Commodities
- DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION THROUGH A DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES LENS: AN EXPLORATION OF THE AUTO COMPONENT SECTOR IN INDIA
by Deepak Pandit, Maheshkumar P. Joshi, Rajen K Gupta
Abstract: Innovation has gained momentum for the development, spread, and survival of auto industrial firms in India. In this paper, we study the less-explored aspect of organizational response focusing on discontinuous innovation. The Indian auto sector requires a tool for long-term market dominance, particularly owing to the rapid change in the business environment. This can be achieved through a special kind of discontinuous innovation known as disruptive innovation (DI). We further affirm how developing DI is facilitated by the firmâ€™s dynamic capability (DC), to substantiate our claims, we develop and utilize a survey instrument to test a hypothesized model with responses from various firms affiliated with the Indian auto component industry. Our findings confirm the positive roles of DC and research and development (R&D) expenditure as antecedents to DI. We further conduct exploratory analysis to study factors such as R&D and environmental turbulence as moderators of the DC-DI relationship. We offer the following contributions: (a) the operationalization of DC and DI for the Indian context, (b) a sector specific study, and (c) critical results pertaining to moderating role of R&D and environmental turbulence on the positive DC-DI relationship.
Keywords: Dynamic Capability,Disruptive Innovation,Automotive Sector,Emerging Economy, Indian Economic Liberalizationrn
- An analytical model for supplier selection
by Darshan Kumar, Seema Seema
Abstract: Supplier selection acts as the pivotal role in an enterpriseâ€™s business development, with future competitive ability in an industrial environment. The selecting process mainly involves evaluation of different alternative suppliers based on different criteria. Both qualitative and quantitative factors have to be considered and a trade-off is made between tangible and intangible factors while selecting a supplier. In the present paper, an analytical model has been developed for selecting supplier for Indian chemical organizations using TOPSIS method. In the present example, we have attempted to give empirical evidence to provide manufacturing managers a practical methodology for selecting suitable suppliers. It has been concluded that quality products are beneficial only if their customers are satisfied with the service being provided by the suppliers.
Keywords: Supplier selection; TOPSIS; service; quality; cost.
- A corporate social responsibility initiative on primary education: the Engineers India Limited case study
by Ruhee Singh, Sweta S. Malla
Abstract: This case is an endeavour towards analysing the primary education model that has been adopted by Engineers India Limited (EIL) as part of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) programme to educate children who live in and around its project area of Dibrugarh, Assam. This case will help researchers, academicians and students to analyse one of the modes through which organisations could eradicate the problems related to primary education of lakhs of underprivileged people in an economical and efficient way. The case illustrates in detail the process of implementation of the primary education model called 'Ekal Vidyalayas' which means One Teacher School.
Keywords: Engineers India Limited; EIL: corporate social responsibility; CSR; Ekal Vidyalaya; primary education; social initiatives; business management; India; case study; underprivileged; lakhs.
- The need for regulatory intervention in corporate social responsibility in India: evidence from corporate social disclosures
by Upali Arijita Biswas, Suresh Garg, Archana Singh
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) research in India is in its nascent stage and articles seldom provide a rigorous scholarship about CSR reporting, particularly of the time leading to the initiatives undertaken by regulatory institutions towards institutionalisation of CSR. The paper aims to provide a detailed insight about the type of CSR activities undertaken and reported by Indian companies and in the context of the ambiguities and loopholes in current reporting practices, discusses the need for intervention by regulatory institutions. Employing content analysis to evaluate the annual reports of 42 non-financial companies listed on the Nifty index of the National Stock Exchange of India, over 2004-2011, the paper details the quantity, quality, platforms and the scope of CSR communication, along with a sectorial comparison of corporate social disclosures (CSD). The findings establish that quantity of reporting has increased steadily, with maximum reporting noted in employee related categories, usually under the effect of regulation. The quality of reporting appears stagnant. The high incidence of declarative statements is often ambiguous about CSR evidence and beneficiaries, and has little reference to any strategy. The detailed account of CSD presented in this research will be of interest to academicians, regulatory institutions and to organisations looking to extend their CSR programmes in India.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR reporting; corporate social disclosure; CSD; annual reports; longitudinal study; India; content analysis; regulatory intervention; reporting quality; regulation.
- Impact of musical fits and image of different malls on consumer purchase behaviour
by R.K. Srivastava
Abstract: This paper aims to explore the process by which the influence of retail environment, especially the music on consumer perception and behaviour in eight malls. The data was obtained using a structured questionnaire from 436 respondents in eight malls survey conducted in India. Our study reveals that females are happier with the music played in the background in the mall compared to males. However, music in the malls has more effect on males purchase behaviour compared to females musical fit with the image of the mall increasing the duration of their stay. Emotional behaviour due to atmospherics will affect purchase decision especially of low involved products. The higher the music fit, the higher will be the shopping behaviour and frequency of visit.
Keywords: musical environment; shopping malls; consumer behaviour; mall image; musical fit; purchase behaviour; consumer perception; India; gender; background music; emotional behaviour; visit frequency; purchasing decisions; muzak.
- Youth shoppers - study of psychographics, motives and shopping behaviour
by Suman Yadav, Sadaf Siraj
Abstract: Development of shopping malls has gained momentum in India and the youth is the major beneficiary of this metamorphosis. The present study empirically examines the shopping behaviour of the Indian youth in shopping malls, encompassing different aspects of their shopping behaviour in terms of the time and frequency of their shopping visit, their motives, product choice, etc. Additionally, clusters of the youth shoppers have been generated on the basis of their psychographic characteristics and shopping motives. Further, the shopping behaviour of the different segment youth shoppers has been described in terms of their visit frequency, amount spent and time spent at the mall. Findings reveal that on the basis of shopping motives youth shoppers could be segregated into four segments viz. entertainment seekers, value seekers, escapist and adventure seekers and on the basis of psychographic profile three segments emerged namely - influential, survivor and experiences.
Keywords: youth shoppers; shopping motivation; shopper segments; shopper clusters; shopping behaviour; psychographic profiles; shopping malls; India; young people; purchase behaviour; visit frequency; product choice.
- Gaming dependency among Indian adolescents: a phenomenological study
by Anjali Malik, Rajeev Kumra, Smitha Girija
Abstract: Multiple factors influence the development of gaming dependency among adolescents. Much of the extant literature identified risks associated with its development and its consequences. However, impact of Indian culture and family characteristics on gaming dependency in India is largely unknown. The paper reports the findings of an exploratory study, using phenomenological in-depth interview technique, examining whether the prevalence of gaming dependency varies according to cultural affiliation with specific reference to Indian culture. A group of 15 adolescents were phenomenologically interviewed after being identified as game dependent out of total 486 respondents. Three major themes explicated from participants spontaneous experiences are risk arising from gamer characteristics, familial factors and game characteristics. The results were discussed with respect to the influence of Indian culture and family system on gaming behaviour of adolescents. Family cohesiveness and close parental monitoring are some of the protective factors in Indian culture.
Keywords: problematic gaming; risk factors; India; adolescents; gaming dependency; phenomenology; youth; young people; culture; family cohesiveness; parental monitoring; cultural affiliation; game characteristics; gamer characteristics; gaming behaviour.
- Challenge in traditional service delivery for diabetes management: mobile health, a technology driven system, is the alternative?
by Mahmud Akhter Shareef, Vinod Kumar, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Uma Kumar, Bhasker Mukerji
Abstract: This case study is written on the Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM). This is the largest diabetes management hospital in Asia. The newly appointed Executive Director, Mr. Habib, is attempting to launch a new revolutionary mobile health service system driven by modern wireless technology for better service quality, higher efficiency, and patient convenience, which is ultimately targeted toward achieving a higher return on investment. This is a challenging issue as it is a complex concern based on users' technological, behavioural, and cognitive beliefs. Nevertheless, Mr. Habib has decided to take this challenge.
Keywords: m-health; diabetes management; service delivery; consumer attitudes; mobile health; healthcare management; Bangladesh; healthcare technology; e-healthcare; electronic healthcare; service quality; service efficiency; patient convenience; return on investment; ROI.
- A quick scan audit of the 'socio-technical' system in a leather accessories manufacturing SME
by Anita Kumar
Abstract: Leather fashion and footwear industry contributes significantly to the Indian economy through employment generation and earning foreign exchange. Both public and private sectors have increasingly emphasised on the planned development of this industry and encourage more SME involvement and participation. However, recent studies indicate that Indian leather manufacturing SMEs are, often, unable to compete effectively and efficiently on a global platform due to certain inherent and external constraints. This paper adopts a case research methodology with 'quick-scan' audit tool to review the socio-technical system of a leather export SME. It draws attention to the inefficiencies in the production system and highlights the human resource 'gaps' faced by the company. The two-fold findings of the case investigation point to a need to develop 'social' competencies not only in an individual organisation but also at the sectorial level. The selected case has been used as a fundamental prism through which current labour regulations and standards prevailing in the country need to be examined and possibly reformed.
Keywords: leather accessories; leather manufacturing; case study; quick-scan audit tools; socio-technical systems; STS; auditing; manufacturing SMEs; exporting SMEs; small and medium-sized enterprises; social competencies; labour regulations; labour standards; India.