International Journal of Higher Education and Sustainability (7 papers in press)
Investigating the Key Factors for Socially Excluded Groups in College
by Hongying Sun
Abstract: This paper aims to identify the key factors that are essential to the behavior and life of socially excluded groups in colleges. We first conduct a questionnaire filled by undergraduate students from different colleges in China. Then the data collected by the questionnaire was studied by descriptive analysis, chi-square test and correlation analysis on the relationships between the seven key factors and three aspects. For better understanding the distribution of socially excluded groups, we propose a self-organizing artificial neural network model to cluster and analyze the proportion of socially excluded group and non-socially excluded group based on the seven factors. We find that the rate of social exclusion in college is about 18 percent. This paper offers an analytical method to determine whether a student is socially excluded or not in college by measuring the key factors of the social exclusion of campus life.
Keywords: Socially excluded group; chi-square test and correlation analysis; self-organizing artificial neural network model; cluster.
Sustainability Management System (SMS): Measuring Sustainability Performance of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia
by Dilshod Elmuradov
Abstract: This research aims to identify the sustainability assessment tools used in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) globally to assess performance and identify whether such tools could be applied for assessment in Malaysian HEIs. The review of the literature indicates that each sustainability assessment tool has its own weaknesses and therefore findings can be challenged. Identification of existing assessment tools and related issue has been collated through comprehensive studies during last two decades. Eleven assessment tools have been identified for review that is being used to assess HEIs sustainability and all these 11 were found to have different scoring methods. But some studies of the assessment tools did not involve all stages of stakeholders; especially the main users in the campus, such as students, whose opinions were not taken into consideration. One of the conclusions of the study was that an assessment tool is required to improve their scoring system to reflect the actual sustainability of HEIs performance. Recommendations are given to practice a systematic way of implementation of assessment tools, such as the environmental management system ISO14001 and to include the involvement of all stakeholders in the process of assessment. The article has assessed numerous studies and has concluded that existing assessment tools are inadequate to assess Malaysian HEIs. Therefore, it was concluded that a new and more comprehensive sustainability management system (SMS) required to be developed with the integration of existing assessment tools and management systems. The involvement of Malaysian experts in the entire process would create a SMS with a localized approach.
Keywords: Assessment Tools; EMS; SMS; Stakeholders; Sustainability Performance.
Rethinking progression of (Black) South African doctoral graduates to professorship
by Mavhungu Abel Mafukata
Abstract: It remains empirically inconclusive that fewer South African Black doctoral graduates enter academia, and that fewer of those who enter progressed to professorship. This paper uses literature and document review, small-scale survey and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) to gather data. Twenty nine (n=29) doctoral graduates were purposively sampled through snowballing to obtain primary data. This paper established that the majority of doctoral graduates would already be old at graduation, and already have had better paying formal employment away from academia and therefore never entered academia. Conditions and requirements for progression to professorship are difficult for the majority doctoral graduates. The South African university education has to be reformed and remodelled to reflect the Dutch and Turkish models in order to fast-track entry and completion of doctoral studies and progression to professorship.
Keywords: professors; academia; university transformation; faculty; doctoral graduates.
The Risk of Intellectual Decadence: Stakeholder Organizations and the Neglect of the Human Sciences in Universities in the Arabian Gulf
by Samia Costandi, Allam Mohammed Hamdan
Abstract: Higher education institutions in the Arabian Gulf region today, which have mushroomed and proliferated in the past ten to fifteen years, have been constructing themselves along models of Western universities at the levels of governance, programs, and structure. At the outset of the twenty first century, universities have globally experienced a drastic shift in their governance from republics of scholars to stakeholder organizations. In this paper, we discuss and deconstruct some of the consequences of that drastic shift, paramount among which is the downsizing and neglect of the human sciences/humanities departments. Since critical thinking thrives in the departments of the social sciences/humanities, we believe that universities in this region in their present state face the serious challenge of generating indigenous knowledge that fulfils the needs of citizens within this region, knowledge that draws upon the culture, history, and geography of the area and responds to the specific needs of citizens in this area. We draw on the literature, on our philosophy of education, and on our personal experiences as academics who work in a higher education institution in this region.
Keywords: Risk of Intellectual Decadence; Academic Freedom; Human Sciences/Humanities; Universities in the GCC.
Building Effective Organizations through Learning Organizational Practices: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions of India
by Shalini Srivastava, Deepti Pathak
Abstract: The present study intends to gauge the relationship between learning organization dimensions and organizational effectiveness dimensions as perceived by faculty members of private management institutes. The study further intends to find out the major dimensions of learning organization as perceived by faculty members that contributes in making their Institution effective. Further, it also tries to assess the contribution of varied dimensions of organizational effectiveness as perceived by faculty members. The study consisted of 210 faculty members of management institutes belonging to Delhi-NCR region. Two standardized instruments were used to from an integrated 41 items instrument. Statistical tools like correlation, factor analysis, regression analysis were used to assess the data. The study found that learning organization practices have a positive effect on organizational effectiveness.
Keywords: Organizational Learning Practices; Organizational Effectiveness; Faculty Members; Higher Educational Institutions.
Private coaching factories: widening educational divide and exclusion in India
by Naresh Kumar
Abstract: India registered significant growth in engineering and technological education and expanded infrastructure to meet the future requirement in engineering education. Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) are termed as premier technical institutes and getting admission in these institutes is a matter of academic as well as social esteem and a guarantee of good jobs. IITs have become a global brand for big companies to hire engineering professionals hence entrance examination for admission in these institutes has become a challenging task; resulted high competition among the IIT engineering aspirants. Consequently, market of private coaching has emerged over the past few years which has turned into a big business. As a result private coaching promoted high competition among the aspirants and disability such as educational divide and exclusion. Students are facing social and peer pressure and sometimes talented students commit suicide which is a matter of concern. Therefore, an attempt is made in this paper to highlight such issues which require certain policy initiatives to diminish the role of private coaching for preparing competitive examinations such as IIT-JEE examination as private coaching adversely affecting the performance of students who are unable to access coaching due to several social and economic barriers.
Keywords: Educational Divide; Social Exclusion; IIT-JEE examination; Coaching Institutes; Social Mobility; Centre of Excellence.
Reforming a national university to meet the development needs of a smaller developing country: Lessons from the international community
by Stafford Griffith
Abstract: This article examines the role of a university in national development and considers how the University of Guyana may be transformed to play that role better. It calls attention to lessons from the international community of researchers and from the experiences of other universities, primarily those in developing countries, which have taken steps to improve their role as instruments of national development. It highlights a number of specific areas in which action must be taken to transform the University of Guyana to serve the role reasonably expected of it. These include: making research and knowledge generation a major focus of the University; emphasizing the development and delivery of programmes to meet the human capital needs of Guyana; reimaging the University to raise its profile as a place for an education that is fit for the purpose of personal and national development; and establishing an appropriate governance structure.
Keywords: University of Guyana; reforms; national development; human capital development; developing countries; university governance; environmentally green institution; university reimaging; research university; rebranding