International Journal of Happiness and Development (13 papers in press)
Respect toward Partner Mediates the Relationship between Authenticity and Subjective Happiness
by EROL UĞUR
Abstract: The present study investigates the extent to which respect toward partner play as a mediator role on the relationship between authenticity and subjective happiness. Participants were 211 teachers who completed a questionnaire package that included the Respect toward Partner Scale, the Authenticity Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Findings demonstrated that subjective happiness is predicted positively by authenticity and respect toward partner. Respect toward partner is predicted positively by authenticity. Also the relationship between authenticity and subjective happiness is partially mediated by respect toward partner. The results are discussed in the light of the related literature and dependent recommendations to the area were given.
Keywords: Authenticity; respect toward partner; subjective happiness; mediator.
The effects of urbanization level and mobility on happiness in OECD countries
by Donghwan Kim
Abstract: This article examines the effects of urbanization level and mobility on happiness in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries using data provided by World Bank and OECD statistics. Although the focus on the relationship between urbanization and happiness has been growing, the researchers have not been able adequately to define an urban or rural class due to the complex characteristics of a cross-national analysis. The link between mobility and happiness has not been studied extensively, and the relationship between mobility and happiness has not been proven consistently. The data in this study were calculated and compiled with relatively homogeneous and consistent criteria. This article concluded that the urbanization level and mobility have a negative relationship with happiness. In addition, it identified different geographical patterns of happiness. Eastern Asian countries are characterized by high levels of urbanization compared to other countries. Northern and Western European countries were happier compared to other countries with similar levels of economic developments. Eastern and Southern European countries were unhappier, even though their urbanization levels are like those in Northern and Western European countries. The results obtained in this paper could help create public policies to enhance happiness.
Keywords: urbanization; happiness; subjective well-being; OECD; mobility.
LIFE SATISFACTION IS MORE A MATTER OF FEELING WELL THAN HAVING WHAT YOU WANT. Tests of Veenhoven's Theory
by Sakari Kainulainen
Abstract: When assessing how satisfied we are with our life as a whole, we draw on two sources of information: a) how well we feel most of the time and b) to what extent life has brought us what we want from it. The sub-appraisals are referred to as components of happiness. Although it is generally agreed that both affective and cognitive appraisals are involved, there is difference in opinion as to their relative weight in our overall evaluation of life. This difference is related to the debate on the nature of happiness; need-theory predicts a greater weight for affective experience, while comparison theory predicts greater weight for perceived success in meeting wants. This issue was investigated in two studies among the working age population in Finland in 2012 and 2016. The following research questions were addressed: 1) Do people recognize this difference between how well they feel affectively and to what extent they get what they want from life? 2) Do these two components together predict overall happiness better than each does separately? 3) Is the affective component more closely related to overall happiness than the cognitive component? 4) Is the effect direct, rather than indirect through contentment? 5) Do the two components draw on different determinants? All these questions were answered affirmatively, which fits the theory that judgments of life-satisfaction draw first on affective experience.
Keywords: happiness; life satisfaction; contentment; affect level; life evaluation.
Health-Related Quality of Life in Consequences from Frequency-Quantity Measures of Alcohol Consumption Patterns
by Chong-Hwan Son
Abstract: This study examines the effect of frequency and quantity measures of alcohol consumption patterns on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL). The data, a cross-sectional state-level survey, is obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 2004 to 2014. The cross-sectional time series multiple regression analyses are conducted for the analyses. The empirical results indicate respondents who are current drinkers regardless of their alcohol consumption patterns are less likely to have physically unhealthy days than respondents who are nondrinkers. The results also suggest HFLQ drinkers are the biggest beneficiary from their alcohol use for physical health. Contrarily, this study observes that alcohol consumption has a negative association with mental health outcomes except LFLQ drinkers. Low-quantity alcohol drinkers have no significant differences in mentally unhealthy days from nondrinkers regardless of alcohol consumption frequency.
Keywords: Health-Related Quality of Life; Physical Health; Mental Health; BRFSS; Alcohol Consumption Patterns.
What Makes Lahoris Happy? Economic or Non-Economic Factors or Both?
by Zartaj Khawaja, Bilal Mehmood
Abstract: Happiness is not something ready-made; it is something to strive for. For that reason, this paper intend to scrutinize the impact of both economic (i.e. income, employment status, inflation and economic policy) and non-economic (i.e. health, education, terrorism and friends, family & relationships) variables on happiness. The analysis relies on the data collected through the questionnaire, using convenience sampling method, representing a sample for the city of Lahore (N = 390), during February to April 2015. Results of descriptive statistics and Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) revealed that both economic and non-economic variables are responsible for the happiness of individuals. This study offers substantial theoretical contributions regarding the factors individuals should value in their pursuit of happiness.
Keywords: Happiness; Income; economic policy; health; Structural equations modeling.
What makes you happy? Mapping the Main Factors Based on the Brazilian Context
by Alessandra De Vito Inhesta, Paula De Camargo Fiorini, Nathaly Nicolosi Garcia, Enzo Barberio Mariano, Charbel Jose Chiappetta Jabbour
Abstract: Reflecting upon happiness is as old as humanity itself. The objective of this work is to identify and systematize the studies that verify the determinants of happiness in Brazil, and also specify future research opportunities. This was achieved through a literature review. The results identified that the factors income and social relations are crucial to the happiness of Brazilians. It was also found that overall the happiness of the Brazilian population depends on factors that are equally important in other countries. However, there are peculiar factors that result from the culture itself, such as the relevance of relationships or social conditions, and the importance given to the factor safety. Advances in the literature are still needed, and the gaps were presented throughout the results. Thus far, this is the first work that systematizes the factors intervening in the happiness of the Brazilian population.
Keywords: Happiness determinants; happiness; happiness main factors; subjective well-being; Brazil; literature review.
Subjective well-being in Europe: a multidimensional statistical analysis of ESS data
by Vasileios Ismyrlis, Efstratios Moschidis
Abstract: Subjective well-being (SWB) refers to peoples own evaluations of their lives, evaluations that are both affective and cognitive where the affective part is better known as happiness and the cognitive as life satisfaction. Many studies have been conducted to discover the determinants of well-being and most of them have outlined the importance of households income. Nevertheless, the relationship of income and SWB is not so simple and many other factors can intervene. In this study, the main source of the data analyzed is ESS, a large multi-country survey, which has as the main scope to evaluate social characteristics of European citizens. We attempted to discover the most important social factors that influence two determinants of SWB, happiness(H) and life satisfaction(LS) and whether H and LS have the same impact on other variables. For the analysis of the data a method from the multidimensional field is applied, Correspondence analysis (CA). The final results extracted, seem to prove that LS and H display the similar attitude with most variables of the study and it was deduced that income is not the most important determinant of SWB.
Keywords: European Social Survey; Subjective-Well Being; Correspondence Analysis; Life satisfaction; Happiness.
Is work satisfaction dependent on wage levels? Insights from a cross-country study
by Stefan Mann
Abstract: Inspired by the debates within happiness research, this paper approaches the question whether the average job satisfaction in a country depends on the financial situation. In a survey among agricultural researchers in Romania, Austria, Germany and Switzerland, we used a simple job satisfaction item, similar to that used in happiness research, and the more complex Job Description Index. The single item did not indicate significant differences between countries. The Job Descriptive Index, however, revealed a lower job satisfaction in Romania if compared with the three western countries. In addition, these differences were explained fully by differences in the perceived financial situation.
Keywords: happiness; work satisfaction; comparative research; Romania; Switzerland; Germany; Austria; JDI.
Understanding Distal and Proximal Relational Underpinnings of Positive Schemas in Emerging Adulthood
by Sarah E. Newcomb-Anjo, Brae Anne McArthur, Margaret N. Lumley
Abstract: Positive cognitive schemas have been linked to various indicators of well-being including reduced anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased resilience and life satisfaction. Schema Theory underscores toxic parenting, and to some extent, later relationships as foundational for negative schemas. Yet, little is known about parental and intimate partner relational underpinnings of positive schemas, important and unique predictors of well-being. Thus, the current study examined the potential mediating role of proximal romantic attachment in the relation between distal childhood emotional maltreatment (EMT) and positive cognitive schemas in emerging adulthood. Participants (N = 118; M = 18.43 years) completed questionnaires about childhood EMT, romantic attachment and positive schema content. Hierarchical multiple regression models as well as bootstrap path coefficients revealed that romantic attachment significantly mediated the relation between childhood EMT and positive schema development. This research illuminates contributions of parenting and romantic relationships to positive cognitive schemas in emerging adulthood.
Keywords: emotional maltreatment; positive schemas; romantic partner attachment; emerging adults.
Employee wellbeing in the Indian IT/ITES sector: The role of empowering leadership and work-family enrichment
by Rajesh Premchandran, Pushpendra Priyadarshi
Abstract: Using a sample of 508 married professionals from the IT/ITES sector in India, this study examines hedonia, operationalized as subjective wellbeing (SWB) and eudaimonia operationalized as psychological wellbeing (PWB), to shed light on the debate on the significance of distinguishing between two traditions of wellbeing research. We use structural equation modelling (SEM) to analyse a multi-dimensional conceptualization of wellbeing, by examining empowering leadership(EL) as antecedent, and work-family enrichment(WFE) as a mediator. Results indicate that EL is positively linked to both forms of wellbeing. WFE was found to partially mediate the relationship between EL and SWB /PWB. Hedonia and eudaimonia were found to be correlated but distinct constructs. This study contributes to existing research on EL and wellbeing by showing that WFE is a significant pathway through which EL influences employee wellbeing. It is also the first study from the Indian context to explore hedonia and eudaimonia in the same study.
Keywords: employee wellbeing; eudaimonia; hedonia; empowering leadership; work-family enrichment; subjective wellbeing; India.
Pathways between authentic happiness and health promoting lifestyle profiles of the university students in Tabriz, Iran
by Zahra Alizadeh, Abdolrasul Safaian, Hassan Mahmoodi, Abdolreza Shaghaghi
Abstract: Abstract Level of happiness is an exigent issue for university students that could affect other aspects of their wellbeing, educational achievements and lifespan development. To bridge evidence gap, level of happiness and its association with health-promoting behaviors was envisaged in a random sample of 393 Iranian students at the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TBZMED), North West of Iran. The data collection tools were validated Persian versions of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) and the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II). Based on the findings, happiness level could positively predict the students total and subscales HPLP-II scores. Male students represented a better physical activity scores (53.05
Keywords: Happiness. Health Promoting Behavior. Students. Iran.
A comparative case study of well-being in a rural versus an urban coal mining community in Mpumalanga, South Africa
by Kim Baldry, Leila Patel, Eleanor Ross
Abstract: Given the costs and benefits of mining to local communities, and the difference in availability of resources between rural and urban communities, the study compared well-being in the South African coal mining communities of Chief Albert Luthuli and Mhluzi. Questionnaires were administered to random samples of households from these two communities. Results indicated that both communities could be described as poor in terms of household income, food insecurity, and receipt of social grants; however, poverty levels were more severe in rural Chief Albert Luthuli. While both communities acknowledged the negative environmental impacts of mining, more people in urban Mhluzi felt that their lives had improved and that the benefits of mining outweighed the costs. Overall, well-being was better in the urban than the rural mining community, thereby providing support for the assumption regarding urban-rural differences underpinning the study.
Keywords: coal mining; well-being; urban-rural; environmental impacts; poverty; South Africa.
Special Issue on: Happiness and Wellbeing in Africa
External Flows and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Simplice A. Asongu
Abstract: The study assesses how external flows influence inclusive human development in a panel of 48 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2000-2012. The empirical evidence is based on Tobit regressions and Generalised Method of Moments. The findings from both estimation techniques reveal that remittances and FDI increase inclusive development whereas foreign aid has the opposite effect. The results suggest some positive and negative impacts of interest for further analysis. First, remittances are negatively associated with: (i) Middle income countries compared to Low income countries where the effect is not significant; (ii) French Civil law countries compared to English Common law countries where the effect is positive and (iii) Resource-rich countries compared to their Resource-poor counterparts where the effect is positive. Second, foreign aid is more negatively linked to Low income, French Civil law, Islam-dominated, Un-landlocked, Resource-rich and Politically-unstable countries. Third, FDI is positively associated with: (i) Low income, French Civil law and Landlocked countries compared to respectively Middle income, English Common law and Un-landlocked countries where the effect is insignificant and (ii) Politically-stable countries compared to their Politically-unstable counterparts where the effect is negative.
Keywords: Foreign investment; Remittances; Foreign aid; Inclusive development; Africa.