International Journal of Happiness and Development (20 papers in press)
Examining the Mediating Effect of Subjective Vitality in the Proactive Personality and Life Satisfaction Relationship
by Eyüp Çelik
Abstract: The present research examines whether the relationship between proactive personality and life satisfaction is mediated by subjective vitality. This study surveyed 337 university students. The Subjective Vitality Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale, and Revised Proactivity Scale were used to collect research data. The mediating effect of subjective vitality was tested with regression-based mediation analysis. The findings of the study demonstrate that the relationship between proactive personality and life satisfaction is mediated by subjective vitality in university students. Limitations of this research and the importance of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: life satisfaction; proactive personality; subjective vitality; mediating effect; and regression.
Not all that glitters is gold: ICT and inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Simplice A. Asongu
Abstract: This paper examines the short and long term effects of information and communication technology (ICT) on inclusive human development in a panel of 49 Sub-Saharan African countries for the period 2000-2012. ICT is measured in terms of mobile phone penetration, internet penetration and telephone penetration rates. While mobile phone penetration has positive short run and long term effects on inclusive human development, the effects of internet and telephone penetrations are insignificant. Moreover, the long term inclusive human development benefits of the mobile phone are higher than the corresponding short term rewards. Policy implications are discussed.
Keywords: ICT; inclusive human development; Africa.
Happiness and Domain Satisfaction in Turkey
by Onur Köksal, Harun Uçak, Faruk Şahin
Abstract: Literature on the economics of happiness usually indicates that happiness depends on actual life circumstances (income, health, marital status & cetera). In contrast, a psychological view of happiness suggests that subjective satisfaction with actual life domains comes together to predict happiness. Little is known about the relation of happiness to the different life domains in developing countries. The present study explores the factors that shape individual happiness at a micro-level in Turkey, in terms of satisfaction with several life domains. Using the 20082012 Turkish Life Satisfaction Survey (n = 36.362) this study adds to existing literature on happiness in developing countries in its focus on Turkey. The data reveal that among the satisfaction-related predictor variables, satisfaction with income, marriage, and health were the top three predictors of happiness in all years. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
Keywords: Happiness · Domain Satisfaction · Micro-Level · Turkey · Life Satisfaction.
Poverty, happiness, and risk preferences in rural Ethiopia
by Solomon T. Tesfu
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between risk preferences and self-reported assessments of happiness in life for a sample of peasants from 15 different sites in rural Ethiopia. The relationships were estimated using ordered probit models and the results show that happier subjects were more likely to choose risky alternatives in both real and hypothetical experimental games. The correlation between happiness and willingness to take risk remains positive even when endogeneity of happiness is accounted for using the instrumental variables estimation technique. It doesnt seem that happiness is working just as a proxy for material possessions since we observe little changes in the results when controls for household assets are included in the models. The empirical results seem to be consistent with the hypothesis that innate optimism and the resulting overestimation of the probabilities of favorable outcomes by the subjects is the dominant force driving the correlation between happiness and risk-preferences. This implies that creating an environment where optimism can flourish may not only help improve social well-being but may also encourage entrepreneurial endeavors.
Keywords: happiness; risk; experimental game; ordered probit model; two-stage residual inclusion estimation method.
Resilience of Buddhist Sexual Minorities Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
by Fung Kei Cheng
Abstract: Many individuals with non-heterosexual orientation or gender non-conformity are afflicted by prejudice, discrimination, and isolation. This issue has been discussed in the religious field; however, little research has explored it from a Buddhist perspective. This qualitative inquiry investigates the coping strategies of Buddhist sexual minorities, including American, British, Chinese, and Malay LGBTs, to overcome adversity in a heterosexual-dominated context. It uses semi-structured interviews to collect data that are analysed by interpretative phenomenological analysis, with the aid of a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis package. Member-checking is utilised to enhance academic trustworthiness. The participants address the importance of self-acceptance (part of self-compassion) through their narratives, together with support resources, when they attain a better understanding of the nature of suffering, impermanence, karma, and mindfulness. It also unveils the importance of support from religious leaders, peers, and family. These significantly help them strengthen their resilience and improve mental health, resulting in well-being.
Keywords: Buddhism; LGBT; mental health; mindfulness; self-acceptance; self-compassion; well-being.
ECONOMIC INEQUALITY CAN GENERATE UNHAPPINESS THAT LEADS TO VIOLENT CRIME IN SOCIETY
by Mario Coccia
Abstract: Many studies in social sciences have suggested different approaches to explain the violent crime in society, such as the heat hypothesis that more violence is associated to very hot weather. However, these approaches provide a partial explanation of this social issue. This study shows that, controlling the climate, the socioeconomic inequality at country level negatively affects human behaviour and leads to high rates of violent crime in society. The socioeconomic inequality is one of contributing factors that generates aversive environments, unhappiness and, as a consequence, high rates of intentional homicides in society. Overall, then, these interdisciplinary findings here can clarify whenever possible, a vital source of the unhappiness in society that may lead to aggressive behaviour and vio-lent crime to design appropriate socioeconomic policies directed to preempt these critical problems.
Keywords: Economic Inequality; Unhappiness; Hot Weather; Warm Climate; Violent Crime; Inten-tional Homicides; Heat Hypothesis; Human Development; Economic Development; Spirit Level Hypothesis.
An empirical study of Social Support, Stress & Life satisfaction among Engineering Graduates: Mediating role of perceived work/study life balance
by Khushboo Kumar, Rachna Chaturvedi
Abstract: Escalating stress, depression and suicidal attempts in universities have led to the increased importance of research into the impact of perceived stress, support, work-life balance and life satisfaction amongst engineering graduates. This study is an initiative to assess the dimensions of work-life balance among university graduates and finding its impact on their overall life satisfaction. Additionally, this study investigates the joint effects of social support and stress on the work-life balance and the likely mediating effect of work-life balance on support-satisfaction relationship using structural equation modeling approach. A self-report questionnaire was administered to collect primary data from 232 final year engineering students. Findings indicate a significant positive relationship between variables like social support, work-life balance and life satisfaction while stress has a negative impact on work-life balance and life satisfaction among students. However, the relationship between social support and life satisfaction is partially mediated by work-life balance of graduates. Limitations of this research and the
implications to both work-life balance literature and engineering graduates are discussed in accordance with the findings.
Keywords: Social Support; Stress; Life Satisfaction; Work-life Balance; Engineering; Student; College student; Education; Quality of life; Graduates; Structural equation modeling; School-life balance.
Show me the compassion! Changing the organizational mind within construction industry
by Dirk Barrett, Malik Khalfan
Abstract: The construction industry is highly adversarial, with multiple parties each with their own agenda and needs drowning in the sea of uncertainty. As Judge Kern (1981) of the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, once put it,rnrnexcept in the middle of a battlefield, nowhere must men coordinate the movement of other men and all materials in the midst of such chaos and with such limited certainty of present facts and future occurrences as in a huge construction project rnrnThrough this extended literature review, a qualitative approach has introduced a theoretical model of how the organizational mind can influence organizational culture, with implications for all aspects of the construction industry. Finding new and innovative ways of building is going to take the shared experience of all the minds within the Organization. The outcomes of the research show that certain mental attributes are trained as a result of practicing self-compassion, compassion, empathy, perspective and mindfulness. Those practices for example and others potentially enable the culture within the organization to flow through imitative learning, having a positive effect on stakeholders who interact.
Keywords: Compassion; Organisational Mind; Construction Industry.
Comparative Determinants of Quality of Growth in Developing Countries
by Simplice A. Asongu
Abstract: This study explores a new dataset in order to present the comparative determinants of growth quality in 93 developing countries for the period 1990-2011. We employ both cross-sectional and panel estimation techniques with contemporary and non-contemporary specifications. The determinants are quite heterogeneous in significance and magnitude with substantial inclinations to specifications and estimation techniques.We present and discuss the findings in increasing magnitude of significance so as to ease comparative readability. We also discuss how specificities in the modelling techniques are relevant for targeting growth quality.The results are timely and relevant for the post-2015 inclusive and sustainable development agenda.
Keywords: Quality of growth; Development.
Development of Personal Wellbeing Index - The Validation of Spirituality-Religion Satisfaction as a Life Domain
by Lufanna LAI, Robert A. Cummins, Anna L. D. LAU
Abstract: This study concerned the development of the Personal Wellbeing Index as a valid instrument by which to measure subjective wellbeing. Specifically, the psychometric validity of spirituality-religion satisfaction as a domain of the Personal Wellbeing Index for the religions of Christianity, Buddhism and Taoism in Hong Kong was investigated. Seven hundred and sixteen Chinese respondents were recruited in Hong Kong comprising 178 Christians, 153 Buddhists, 145 Taoists and 240 people who identified as having no religious belief. Data obtained through self-report questionnaires indicate that the spirituality-religion domain is valid for the religions of Christianity and Taoism, but not for Buddhism. The implications of these findings for the future development of Personal Wellbeing Index are discussed.
Keywords: development of the Personal Wellbeing Index; subjective wellbeing;religion; spirituality-religion satisfaction; Christianity; Buddhism; Taoism; Theory of subjective wellbeing homeostasis; homeostatically protected mood; general life satisfaction.
Social Emotional Learning and Emotional Intelligence: The Predicting Role of Emotional Intelligence
by Serhat ARSLAN, İlker İşeri
Abstract: The research aimed to explore the relationship with social emotional learning and emotional intelligence. Participants of the study were 736 high school students that fulfilled social emotional learning scale and emotional intelligence scale. According to results; dimensions of emotional intelligence; perception, understanding and management positively related to social emotional learning. The result of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that dimensions of emotional intelligence effect social emotional learning and perception was vigorous predictor of social emotional learning. The findings of research is discussed with the literature.
Keywords: Social emotional learning; emotional intelligence; multiple regression analysis.
Identifying Happiness Index Parameters in the United Arab Emirates to Develop Better User Feedback Tools
by Laila Alsaadi, Sami Miniaoui
Abstract: This study attempts to determine the concept and meaning of happiness for customers in the United Arab Emirates by understanding user preferences for governmental services. Focusing on three sectors, health, education, and utility, this study intends to highlight the main happiness indices and show how the level of priority or importance of these indices can differ between sectors. The results reveal that time is the most vital happiness factor for customers in the utility sector, followed by quality and cost. In contrast, in both the education and health sectors, quality is the most vital factor, followed by time and cost. Three models were generated for the selected sectors based on keywords extracted from interviewee responses. Furthermore, customers in the United Arab Emirates prefer on-the-spot feedback tools to out-of-the-spot tools. The analysis results of the qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys can facilitate and guide the development and selection of appropriate feedback tools. Finally, some feedback tools are proposed based on the happiness indices of customers and the study results.
Keywords: Happiness Index; qualitative research; grounded theory; quantitative research; Happiness Index Parameters; Feedback Tools; United Arab Emirates; Customer Satisfaction; Smart Cities.
Emotional Self- Efficacy and Positive Values
by Nihan Arslan
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between emotional self- efficacy and positive values with a structural equation model. The research was conducted on 301 secondary school students. Emotional self- efficacy scale and Positive Values scale were used in the study. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was found that there was a positive correlation between emotional self- efficacy and positive values. Findings obtained from the structural equation model; positive values were positively predicted by emotional self- efficacy. The fit index obtained from the structural equation model show that the model fits well. Findings are discussed depending on the literature
Keywords: Emotional Self- Efficacy; Positive Values; Structural Equation Modeling.
Anger Rumination and Subjective Happiness: Forgiveness and Vengeance as Mediators
by Aman Sado Elemo, Seydi Ahmet Satici, Mehmet Saricali
Abstract: The present study was aimed to investigate the mediating role of forgiveness and vengeance, and its relationship with anger rumination and subjective happiness. Anger Rumination, Subjective Happiness, Trait Forgiveness, and Vengeance Scales were administrated to 367 university students. Structural equation modelling revealed that forgiveness and vengeance fully mediated the relations between anger rumination and subjective happiness. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated significant indirect impact of anger rumination on subjective happiness due to the mediating effect of forgiveness and vengeance. This finding demonstrates that forgiveness and vengeance serve to clarify the relationship between anger rumination and subjective happiness.
Keywords: Subjective happiness; anger rumination; forgiveness; vengeance; positive psychology.
Respect toward Partner Mediates the Relationship between Authenticity and Subjective Happiness
by EROL UĞUR
Abstract: The present study investigates the extent to which respect toward partner play as a mediator role on the relationship between authenticity and subjective happiness. Participants were 211 teachers who completed a questionnaire package that included the Respect toward Partner Scale, the Authenticity Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Findings demonstrated that subjective happiness is predicted positively by authenticity and respect toward partner. Respect toward partner is predicted positively by authenticity. Also the relationship between authenticity and subjective happiness is partially mediated by respect toward partner. The results are discussed in the light of the related literature and dependent recommendations to the area were given.
Keywords: Authenticity; respect toward partner; subjective happiness; mediator.
The effects of urbanization level and mobility on happiness in OECD countries
by Donghwan Kim
Abstract: This article examines the effects of urbanization level and mobility on happiness in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries using data provided by World Bank and OECD statistics. Although the focus on the relationship between urbanization and happiness has been growing, the researchers have not been able adequately to define an urban or rural class due to the complex characteristics of a cross-national analysis. The link between mobility and happiness has not been studied extensively, and the relationship between mobility and happiness has not been proven consistently. The data in this study were calculated and compiled with relatively homogeneous and consistent criteria. This article concluded that the urbanization level and mobility have a negative relationship with happiness. In addition, it identified different geographical patterns of happiness. Eastern Asian countries are characterized by high levels of urbanization compared to other countries. Northern and Western European countries were happier compared to other countries with similar levels of economic developments. Eastern and Southern European countries were unhappier, even though their urbanization levels are like those in Northern and Western European countries. The results obtained in this paper could help create public policies to enhance happiness.
Keywords: urbanization; happiness; subjective well-being; OECD; mobility.
LIFE SATISFACTION IS MORE A MATTER OF FEELING WELL THAN HAVING WHAT YOU WANT. Tests of Veenhoven's Theory
by Sakari Kainulainen
Abstract: When assessing how satisfied we are with our life as a whole, we draw on two sources of information: a) how well we feel most of the time and b) to what extent life has brought us what we want from it. The sub-appraisals are referred to as components of happiness. Although it is generally agreed that both affective and cognitive appraisals are involved, there is difference in opinion as to their relative weight in our overall evaluation of life. This difference is related to the debate on the nature of happiness; need-theory predicts a greater weight for affective experience, while comparison theory predicts greater weight for perceived success in meeting wants. This issue was investigated in two studies among the working age population in Finland in 2012 and 2016. The following research questions were addressed: 1) Do people recognize this difference between how well they feel affectively and to what extent they get what they want from life? 2) Do these two components together predict overall happiness better than each does separately? 3) Is the affective component more closely related to overall happiness than the cognitive component? 4) Is the effect direct, rather than indirect through contentment? 5) Do the two components draw on different determinants? All these questions were answered affirmatively, which fits the theory that judgments of life-satisfaction draw first on affective experience.
Keywords: happiness; life satisfaction; contentment; affect level; life evaluation.
Health-Related Quality of Life in Consequences from Frequency-Quantity Measures of Alcohol Consumption Patterns
by Chong-Hwan Son
Abstract: This study examines the effect of frequency and quantity measures of alcohol consumption patterns on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL). The data, a cross-sectional state-level survey, is obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 2004 to 2014. The cross-sectional time series multiple regression analyses are conducted for the analyses. The empirical results indicate respondents who are current drinkers regardless of their alcohol consumption patterns are less likely to have physically unhealthy days than respondents who are nondrinkers. The results also suggest HFLQ drinkers are the biggest beneficiary from their alcohol use for physical health. Contrarily, this study observes that alcohol consumption has a negative association with mental health outcomes except LFLQ drinkers. Low-quantity alcohol drinkers have no significant differences in mentally unhealthy days from nondrinkers regardless of alcohol consumption frequency.
Keywords: Health-Related Quality of Life; Physical Health; Mental Health; BRFSS; Alcohol Consumption Patterns.
What Makes Lahoris Happy? Economic or Non-Economic Factors or Both?
by Zartaj Khawaja, Bilal Mehmood
Abstract: Happiness is not something ready-made; it is something to strive for. For that reason, this paper intend to scrutinize the impact of both economic (i.e. income, employment status, inflation and economic policy) and non-economic (i.e. health, education, terrorism and friends, family & relationships) variables on happiness. The analysis relies on the data collected through the questionnaire, using convenience sampling method, representing a sample for the city of Lahore (N = 390), during February to April 2015. Results of descriptive statistics and Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) revealed that both economic and non-economic variables are responsible for the happiness of individuals. This study offers substantial theoretical contributions regarding the factors individuals should value in their pursuit of happiness.
Keywords: Happiness; Income; economic policy; health; Structural equations modeling.
The coffee shop experience and its associations with social capital and quality of life.
by Rohit Menon, Pat Crawford, Eunsil Lee, Zeenat Kotval
Abstract: A "first place" is the home, while a "second place" is the work setting. A "third place" refers to places where people choose to linger. All three key to building social capital and improving quality of life. This study explored coffee shops in Greater Lansing, Michigan as a third place and its associations with social capital and quality of life. Survey participants (n=196) rated factors that defined their social capital, their quality of life, and the importance of different elements within the coffee shop. Dimension reduction and multiple linear regression were used to find significant relationships among the coffee shops to quality of life and to social capital. The quality of the intangible coffee shop characteristics significantly correlate with higher levels of quality of life and social capital. It is vital for business owners to celebrate the spirit of the place to improve the patrons' happiness in the third place.
Keywords: Quality of life; social capital; third place; coffee shops; the experience economy.