Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Global Warming


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International Journal of Global Warming (119 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • A Preliminary Assessment of Observed and Projected trends in the Diurnal Temperature Ranges over South India under SRES A1B Scenario.   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhanya P, Ramachandran Andimuthu, Radhapriya P, Thirumurugan P 
    Abstract: In the present study, the PRECIS, a regional climate model, is employed to simulate the baseline (1970-2000) and future 2071-2100 (2080s) maximum, minimum and diurnal temperature range changes under SRES A1B scenario over the Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, South India. A comparison of the simulated baseline results with observation data acquired from IMD show that PRECIS can well simulate the local distribution characteristics of diurnal temperature range over the study area with a correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.948 with 1% significance level. Analyses of the simulated results in the 2080s under SRES A1B scenario relative to the baseline shows that there would be an overall increasing trend in the maximum and minimum temperatures over the study area and the warming amplitude in the north, west and interior parts are projected to be greater than in the east coastal areas. Sens slope estimator supported by the Man Kendal test shows that the diurnal temperature range in the 2080s under SRES A1B scenario relative to the baseline are projected to decrease annually by-0.015o C and a statistically significant decrease of -0.029o C during the southwest monsoon season in the overall study area.
    Keywords: PRECIS, Climate change; Diurnal Temperature Range; Regional climate model; Dynamical Downscaling; SRES A1B Scenario;Maximum and Minimum Temperatures.
  • Nexus between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Comparison of Non-Renewable Natural Resource Poor and Rich Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Bernur Acikgoz, Mine Yilmazer, Serkan Cinar 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of renewable and non- renewable energy resources on economic growth in non-renewable natural resource poor and rich countries. For this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas production function is used by adding the energy source as an element of production from 1990 to 2012. In the models, the cointegration between resources and economic growth is tested by a panel cointegration technique. For long-term coefficient estimation, the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) test that is based on Pesaran et al. (1999) is used. According to the results of the pooled mean group (PMG), long-term and short-term results are consistent. Renewable resources have a relatively higher positive effect on economic growth in non-renewable natural resource rich countries. Moreover, these positive effects are higher in lower and upper middle-income countries (LMIC and UMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Our findings suggest LMIC and UMIC countries -especially in the group of non-renewable natural resource rich countries- value and consider the use of renewable energy resources for energy production decisions in their economic growth policies.
    Keywords: Renewable energy, economic growth, non-renewable natural resource rich countries, non-renewable natural resource poor countries, panel cointegration, Panel ARDL.
  • Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and landslides in the Philippines: Community Perceptions on climate impacts and adaptation options   Order a copy of this article
    by Lilibeth A. Acosta, Elena A. Eugenio, Paula Beatrice M. Macandog, Damasa B. Magcale-Macandog, Elaine Kuan-Hui Lin, Edwin Rosell Abucay, Alfi Lorenz Cura, Mary Grace Primavera 
    Abstract: Loss and damage from floods and landslides are escalating in the Philippines due to increasing frequency and intensity of typhoons. This paper investigates the types and scale of loss and damage in two municipalities that were affected by typhoon-induced floods and landslides in 2004 and 2012. It assesses peoples preferences on adaptation measures and perceptions on human-nature links on occurrence of disasters. It reveals that human loss and property damage are causing psychological distress to affected people, undermining capacity to adapt to the next disasters. Many vulnerable people are not aware of the link between climate and land use change. Moreover, many depend on unsustainable land use for source of livelihoods particularly after disasters. The preference for measures to reduce landslide risks through reforestation and logging/mining prevention is thus low. Insurance is not a preferred mechanism for reducing risks because regular payment of premium is not affordable to vulnerable people.
    Keywords: adaptation, adaptive capacity, climate change, conjoint analysis, disasters, floods and landslides, Haiyan, loss and damage, mitigation, Philippines, risks, typhoons
  • Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) across Western Turkey according to the ENSEMBLES Project   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamza Altinsoy, Haci Ahmet Yildirim 
    Abstract: The direct effects of climate change on workers thermal comfort as well as its indirect effects on occupational health and safety are analyzed. The region of interest is western Turkey. The Regional Climate Model (RCM) results of daily maximum air temperature and relative humidity from the ENSEMBLES project are used to form past and future projections. There are various indices used to observe the thermal comfort conditions for workers. In this research, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is used for outdoor environments as outdoor workers make the prime target group. The seasonal spatial distribution of WBGT across the selected region during the reference period (1970-1999) in addition to alterations thereof for the three future periods (namely, 2010-2039, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099) is calculated. The emerging monthly time series for the annual WBGT is analyzed for the time period from 1970 to 2100. By the end of the 21th century, this reaches 24 ˚C in June and August, particularly across southern Turkey.
    Keywords: WBGT; Turkey; Thermal Comfort; ENSEMBLES Project; Climate Change; Regional Climate Model
  • Impacts of Human Farm Activities on Tropical Deforestation and Climate Change: Interactive Statistical Models   Order a copy of this article
    by R Krishna Prasad 
    Abstract: The tropical rainforests are essential for sustainable development of earths ecosystem. The rainforests are rich storehouse of biodiversity, natural pharmaceutical products, source of sustained water resources and manage microclimate of their region. The forest regimes in Amazonian, Congo basin and South East Asian forest regions are under constant threat of degradation. The carbon dioxide concentration in the earths atmosphere has reached the highest ever seen by the human beings to 400 ppm level and mean surface temperature of earth has increased by 1oC in last fifty years. This study explores statistical relations for rainforest remaining in the earth and carbon dioxide concentration in the earths atmosphere as function of widespread human farm activities such as soya bean, corn and palm oil production as factors. The response surface methodology is used to analyze data from year 2000 to 2013 which shows that rate of world tropical rainforest degradation and CO2 concentration in the earths atmosphere increases with increase in world soy, corn and palm production and mathematical models predicting these relations were developed.
    Keywords: Key words: Rainforest degradation, Response surface methodology, CO2 emissions, Climatic changes
  • Utilising key climate element variability for the prediction of future climate change using a support vector machine Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Adamu Abubakar, Haruna Chiroma, Akram Zeki, Mueen Uddin 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a Support Vector Machine (SVM) Model to advance the prediction accuracy of Global Land-Ocean Temperature (GLOT), which is globally significant for understanding the future pattern of climate change. The GLOT dataset was collected from NASAs GLOT Index (C) (Anomaly with Base: 1951-1980) for the period 1880 to 2013. We categorise the dataset by decades to describe the behaviour of the GLOT within those decades. The dataset was used to build an SVM Model to predict future values of the GLOT. The performance of the model was compared with a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) and validated statistically. The SVM was found to perform significantly better than the MLPNN in terms of Mean Square Error and Root Mean Square Error, although computational times for the two models are statistically equal. The SVM model was used to project the GLOT from the pre-existing NASAs GLOT Index (C) (Anomaly with Base: 1951-1980) for the next twenty years (2013 - 2033). The projection results of our study can be of value to policy makers, such as the intergovernmental organisations related to environmental studies, e.g., the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
    Keywords: Global land-ocean temperature; Climate change indicators; Support Vector Machine
  • Batch anaerobic digestion of simulated Bangladeshi food waste: Methane production at different inoculum-to-substrate ratios and kinetic analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Shishir Behera, Mohd. Zafar, Tanziha Tasnim, Hung-Suck Park 
    Abstract: This study aims at investigating the anaerobic biodegradation characteristics of a typical simulated Bangladeshi food waste. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests carried out in 500 mL batch digesters showed the methane yields of cooked meat, cooked fish, boiled rice, vegetable and mixed food waste (MFW) to be 541, 402, 319, 274 and 484 ml CH4/gVS, respectively. The biodegradability of 87%, 83%, 75%, 76% and 82% were obtained for cooked meat, cooked fish, boiled rice, vegetable and MFW, respectively. At mesophilic temperature (35
    Keywords: Food waste; ISR; Biodegradability; Methane yield; Kinetics
  • Spatial Correlations and Distributions of Climatic Normals for Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilhami Yildiz, Jin Yue, Tri Nguyen-Quang, Joshua Lowrey, Asena Yildiz 
    Abstract: Winter design dry-bulb temperatures at 99% and 97.5% frequency levels were developed and analyzed by multiple regression and spatial correlations developed using as regressors altitude, latitude and longitude. Winter design dry-bulb temperatures were negatively related to altitude and latitude. Latitude was the most influential regressor on the winter design dry-bulb temperature distributions. Summer design dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, and wet-bulb depressions at 1%, 2.5% and 5% frequency levels were also developed and analyzed by multiple regression and spatial correlations were developed using as regressors altitude, latitude and longitude. Altitude was the only statistically significant influential regressor on the summer design dry-bulb temperature distributions. Latitude was the most influential regressor on the summer design wet-bulb temperature distributions. Altitude was the only statistically significant influential regressor on the summer design wet-bulb depression distributions. Spatial correlations and distributions of prevailing wind speeds, mean daily ranges, and median of annual extreme temperatures were developed and mapped.
    Keywords: Spatial correlations, spatial distributions, engineering climatic data, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, HVAC, built environment, thermal comfort, Turkey
  • Nitrous oxide emission from nitrogen fertiliser application in oil palm plantation of different stages   Order a copy of this article
    by Faradiella Kusin, Nurul Izzati Mat Akhir, Ferdaus Mohamat-Yusuff 
    Abstract: The release of nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural activities contributes to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this study, the amount of nitrogen fertiliser used in an oil palm plantation of different stages (immature and mature) was estimated. Data of fertilising scheme at the oil palm plantation for oil palms varying in age (planted between 1986 and 2009) was used. Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions and the resulting CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions were calculated for each category of the oil palm. The amounts of N-fertiliser applied were between 102-137 kg N/ha. The resulting N2O emissions were between 19.07-22.10 kg N2O-N/ha, which corresponds to CO2-eq of between 2223.53-2700.42 kg CO2-eq/ha. It was also estimated that about 29.87-34.63 g CO2 were emitted per MJ crop. The N2O emission per ha oil palm was found to decrease from immature stage until maturely-developed stage spanning 20 years. The CO2-eq amount decreased only after 10 years of oil palm development. The results were also compared for synthetic nitrogen fertiliser-induced emissions within tropical regions.
    Keywords: Nitrous oxide emission; CO2-equivalent; N-fertiliser; greenhouse gases; global warming; oil palm plantation
  • Technical feasibility and application effect of coupled CO2 sequestration and EOR in tight sandstone oil reservoir   Order a copy of this article
    by Changlin Liao, Xinwei Liao, Wanglai Gao, Jing Chen, Huan Wang 
    Abstract: The increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China have become a problem demanding prompt solution, and the performance of water flooding for tight sandstone oil reservoirs is unsatisfied and the production of single-well is low both of which has strong impacts on the economical benefit of oilfields. Therefore, this paper focused on the technical researches on CO2 sequestration and enhancing oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flooding. Experiments and numerical reservoir simulation were conducted to study the technical feasibility and application effect of implementing CO2 sequestration and EOR in tight sandstone oil reservoirs. Several results were acquired as follows, small maximum pore throat radius, inefficient mercury withdrawal and large residual volume in pore together implied that the bad connectivity among pores would result in high percolating resistance in reservoir; when the saturation pressure met 21MPa, the viscosity dropped to 0.4264mPa.s a decrease of 49.53% over CO2 free situation; when the pressure was 13MPa, 15MPa and 17MPa the solubility of CO2 in formation water was 27.28 m3/ m3, 26.37 m3/ m3 and 27.28 m3/ m3, respectively; the displacement efficiency of miscible GCF in fractured cores was 49.1%, and it was 27.4% higher than water flooding; CO2 sequestration and EOR conducted through WAG-PMT turned out to have the highest NPV, and was followed by WAG. Several conclusions were obtained at last the low porosity, low permeability and defective connectivity among pores lead to the unsatisfied performance of water flooding; the physical properties of the oil are favorable for conducting CO2 sequestration and EOR; miscible flooding performs better than immiscible flooding; CO2 sequestration and EOR are easier to be implemented in the reservoirs with preferable homogeneity. A technology combining WAG with profile modification technology (WAG-PMT) was adopted to maximize the ability of CO2 injection and oil-producing for single well so that the economical benefit of CO2 sequestration and EOR can be improved more efficiently.
    Keywords: CO2 sequestration; Enhanced oil recovery; Tight sandstone; Net present value; Technology
  • Sustainable manufacturing and its application in machining processes: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by Amirmohammad Ghandehariun, Yousef Nazzal, Hossam Kishawy 
    Abstract: Consumption of natural resources and the pollution consequential to the life of technical products have caused major environmental concerns. Sustainable development in manufacturing industries offers a way for them to not only reduce the environmental impacts, but also improve the economic and social performance. A review of the literature on sustainability in manufacturing systems and processes is provided in this paper. This paper also presents a more detailed investigation of sustainability in machining. Environmental impacts of the machining system are evaluated and modern machining techniques for improving the sustainability performance of the process are presented. Finally, an analysis of the cutting process using thermodynamic concepts is provided. The ideas described in this paper facilitate achieving the objectives of sustainable development in manufacturing.
    Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; environmentally-benign manufacturing; sustainable machining; exergy analysis; exergy efficiency; metal cutting; optimization
  • Mineral Resources for In-Situ Carbonation of CO2 in the Arabian Shield   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Sahin 
    Abstract: Commonly adopted storage techniques to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere have significant limitations in terms of cost, monitoring, and safety. Thus, innovative techniques such as carbonation involving the reaction of CO2 with some silicate minerals have been proposed. The carbonation ensures permanent fixation rather than the temporary storage, and hence provides safe, low-cost, and sustainable method for storing CO2. Moreover, the resulting carbonate minerals are stable over geological time periods. Because of its favorable geological setting, Saudi Arabia has a considerable potential for carbonation minerals. Such minerals are associated with ultramafic and mafic igneous rocks within the Arabian Shield which covers extensive areas in the western part of the country. After describing the carbonation process and suitable minerals, their spatial distributions in various rock types are outlined. Finally, the in-situ carbonation of these minerals and the expected benefits are discussed.
    Keywords: In-situ Carbonation, Carbonation Minerals, Mineral Sequestration, CO2 Sequestration, Global Warming, Arabian Shield
  • The effects of livestock methane emission on the global warming: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Mourad Baghour, Kaoutar Ben Chekroun, Azizi Ghizlane, Abdelmajid Moumen 
    Abstract: The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. Methane is one of the most important GHGs and it has 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Ruminant livestock contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane. The CH4 produced by ruminants is not only related to environmental problems, but is also associated with energy losses. This article reviews various attempts to reduce methane emission, mainly through improved genetic selection, modification of dietary composition, or through rumen microbial manipulation. Vaccines against methanogenic bacteria or monensin as antimicrobial are widely used in ruminants to improve performance. Increases in the understanding of the environmental impacts of livestock farming and methods of mitigating them are likely to occur and more effective approaches to designing systems of mitigation will be developed.
    Keywords: Keywords: global warming; methane; ruminants; agricultural sources of methane; greenhouse gases; methanogenesis; plant extracts; defaunation; ionophore; dietary composition; animal selection; vaccine; bacteriocins; immunization; mitigation strategies.
  • A Framework for the Assessment of Reservoir Operation Adaptation to Climate Change in an Arid Region   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Ebrahim Banihabib, Khadijeh Hasani, Ali Reza Massah Bavani, Kamran Asgari 
    Abstract: It is essential to assess the adaptation of reservoir operation to climate change in arid regions. Main objective of this research is to propose a framework for assessment of Reservoir Rule-Curve (RRC) adaptation for climate change scenarios.The framework is applied to an arid zone in Iran and consists of the three models: downscaling, rainfall-runoff and reservoir optimization models. LARS-WG is tested in 99% confidence level before to using it as downscaling model.Seven Artificial Neural Network models are proposed, examined and compared with IHACRES to find proper rainfall-runoff model for arid zone. Current and adapted reservoir rule curves are derived by Dynamic Programming Optimization. The results demonstrate capability of proposed framework in assessment of adaptation and show that global warming negatively influences proposed index (water supply index) in normal and wet years, but has positive influence for dry years. It also improves reservoir reliability, but it cannot restore current reliability.
    Keywords: Artificial neural network; climate change; adaptation; downscaling; rule curve; reservoir operation.
  • Management of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Maritime Operations Challenges and Mitigation Opportunities   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Khondaker, Syed Rahman, Rouf Khan, Karim Malik, Musah Muhyedeen 
    Abstract: Maritime activities are one of the important sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. By 2050, the GHG emissions are expected to increase by at least 50% over the 2007 levels. The current mitigation measures include adoption of appropriate energy sources including conventional, renewable, and alternative energy sources or their blends; development and application of cleaner technological and operational mechanisms; adoption of intermodal shifting and demand management based approaches; and development of sustainable shipping governance system. Each mitigation measure is related to certain implementation challenges. This study investigated different estimations of greenhouse gas emissions, the relevant mitigation options, and associated challenges, and analyzed international mitigation governance system, and proposed approaches to overcome barriers of mitigation options. The pertinent global community should take intense initiatives to improve the understanding of respective merits of different mitigation options, establish reduction potential and effectiveness of each viable measure, and assess the potential impacts of mitigation measures with particular reference to the global trade and market distortions. The persuasive cooperation with strong commitment among decision makers and stakeholders will ensure development and implementation of sustainable mitigation measures.
    Keywords: Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Maritime Operations; Mitigation Measures; International Maritime Organization
  • Vulnerability and adaptation assessment a way forward for sustainable sectoral development in the purview of climate variability and change: Insights from the coast of Tamil Nadu, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramachandran Andimuthu, Dhanya Praveen, Radhapriya P, Divya S.K, Remya K, Palanivelu k 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to identify the most vulnerable coastal districts of Tamil Nadu with respect to climate variability. This research has taken three sectors namely Groundwater, Agriculture, and Fisheries sector for consideration. It reveals that individual sectors vulnerability levels vary widely across the districts due to the differences in its physical exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. In the groundwater sector Villupuram and Thanjavur districts showed very high vulnerability. Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi district exhibited highest vulnerability with respect to agricultural sector. In the fisheries sector Thoothukudi and Villupuram district demonstrated high levels of vulnerability. From the overall composite vulnerability assessment. Thoothukudi and Villupuram districts needs extra care and immediate attention as it falls under high to very high vulnerability category in all the three sectors among 13 coastal districts. It implies that need for strengthening the adaptive capacity to tackle the present situation of climate variability and change. Adaptation options have been identified and prioritized through interaction with the stakeholders using pair wise ranking of adaptation matrix. Public awareness on conservation of water resources, changes in the farming practices, improving water efficiency and diversification of market& products and diversified livihood portfolio got first priority in the adaptation. Therefore the result of this assessment recommends that adaptation policies have to be incorporated with sustainable development strategies take these sectors forward.
    Keywords: Climate variability, Vulnerability,Indicators, Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive capacity, Adaptation Matrix
  • Including an environmental quality index in a demographic model   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Sanz, Antonio Caselles, Joan Micó, David Soler 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new well-being index which allows environmental quality to be measured through CO2 emissions, renewable energies and nuclear power. Its formula derives from a geometric mean used to calculate which things in the human production system warm the planet and which do not. This index has been introduced into a gender-defined stochastic population dynamic mathematical model which measures well-being in a country. The main variables in this model are rates of death, birth, emigration and immigration, as well as three UN indices: Human Development Index, Gender Development Index and Gender Empowerment Index. This model has been extended with variables that allow an environmental quality evaluation, and it has been validated for Spain during the 2001-2010 period. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis has been carried on the simulated future trend (2011-2020) to see which environmental quality variables refer more to deaths, births or the Human Development Index.
    Keywords: Environmental quality; demographic model; well-being
    by Sedat Keles 
    Abstract: This paper discusses different above-ground biomass estimation approaches in a forest ecosystem consisting of one tree species in Turkey. The first and second approaches are based on the use of growing stock volumes converted to above-ground biomass using forest type-level and species-specific biomass factors, respectively. The third and fourth approaches use different species-specific biomass regression equations. These equations used for estimating above-ground biomass are based on diameter at breast height in the first one, tree height as well as diameter at breast height in the second one. Results of above-ground biomass estimation approaches showed that more total above-ground biomass estimated in biomass expansion factors than that in biomass regression equations. It is concluded that species-specific biomass regression equations that are more practical, accurate and useful should be developed.
    Keywords: Forest ecosystem, Above-ground biomass, Regression model, Biomass factors, Climate change, Global warming, Carbon sequestration, Forest protection, Greenhouse gases
  • Effects of Regional Climate Variability on the Prevalence of Diseases and their Economic Impacts on Households in the Lake Victoria Basin of Western Kenya   Order a copy of this article
    by Gabriel O Dida 
    Abstract: Climate variability has a strong influence on disease prevalence and subsequently on the economic wellbeing of the affected households, especially in the low lying Lake Victoria basin of Kenya. This paper focuses on the prevalence of diseases and their economic impacts on households living in six climatically different regions within the Lake Victoria Basin of Western Kenya. The six study regions were clustered into three groups based on their climatic conditions as follows; areas prone to droughts namely Rarieda and Bondo; areas prone to floods namely Budalangi and Nyando; and areas with relatively good weather namely Bomet and Kisii central. A total of 480 adult respondents, aged between 18 and 80+ years were randomly selected to represent the households. Respondents were interviewed and the effects of prevailing climatic conditions on the prevalence of diseases within the previous 12 months and their direct and indirect economic implications on the households compared and statistically analyzed. Malaria, respiratory tract infection, typhoid, pneumonia and diarrhea were the major diseases among the Lake Victoria basin (LVB) inhabitants. The annual disease frequency per household was highest in Budalangi, a flood prone region; and lowest in Bomet, a region with relatively good weather. There was a significant difference in disease frequency in the three climatically different regions (flood prone, drought prone, and favorable weather) (p <0.001). High medical bills (72%), inability to work (24%), too much time spent on the sick (3%) and slowed economic development (1%), were cited as some of the impacts of diseases on the household by the respondents. High medical bills were cited by most respondents (over 90%) from Budalangi region, and 62% of respondents from Nyando (both of which are flood prone regions). The findings reveal the often unseen or ignored subtle effects of adverse climatic conditions on economically vulnerable communities in the Lake Victoria basin (LVB) and elsewhere, and recommends flood/drought prevention and mitigation strategies and awareness creation to better cope with the adverse climatic conditions.
    Keywords: Climate variability; disease prevalence; economic impact; Kenya; Lake Victoria basin
  • Forecasting CO2 emission of Turkey: swarm intelligence approaches   Order a copy of this article
    by Eren Ozceylan 
    Abstract: It is known that among the various greenhouse gases, CO2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming and climate change. Therefore, there is a need for developing efficient quantitative tools that allow forecasting CO2 emissions. This paper presents application of PSO (particle swarm optimization) and ABC (artificial bee colony) techniques to estimate CO2 emission in Turkey, based on socio-economic indicators. The models are developed in three forms which are linear, exponential and quadratic. PSOCO2 and ABCCO2 (PSO and ABC CO2 estimation models) are developed to estimate the future CO2 emission values based on energy consumption, population, gross domestic product (GDP), and number of motor vehicles data. Emitted CO2 emission in Turkey from 1980 to 2008 is considered as the case of this study. While first 25 years data of 29 years data is used for validation of four models, full data is used for future projections. SSE (sum square error) is used as a fitness function in proposed models. Finally, CO2 emission in Turkey is forecasted up to year 2030 under different scenarios.
    Keywords: artificial bee colony, CO2 emission, forecasting, particle swarm optimization, Turkey.
  • An Optimization Model for Electric-Environmental System Planning -a case study of Heilongjiang Province, China   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Yang, Li Wei, Huang Guohe, Fu Zhenghui 
    Abstract: In this study, an inexact optimization model is developed for regional power system management under uncertainty, where interval-parameter programming and two stage-stochastic programming were integrated in a framework for dealing with the long-term energy systems planning. The developed method can deal with multiple forms of uncertainties and dynamics related to capacity expansions within energy management systems. The proposed model was applied to a case study of power system management and air pollutants mitigation in Heilongjiang Province, China. Six scenarios are considered based on different emissions reduction and mode of power structure adjustments. The results show that in order to keep a sustainable development and safe power/energy supply, a diversified power structure (primarily on coal power generation, supplemented by renewable energy generation) would be established in the region. In addition, the pollutants-emission control is more effective than power structure adjustment for improving rationality of the electricity economic budget in Heilongjiang Province. The model is helpful for supporting adjustment of allocation patterns of regional energy resources, formulating energy structure and energy consumption of local policies.
    Keywords: energy model; two-stage stochastic programming; multi-scenario; emission reduction; energy structure adjustment.
  • Measuring the Evolution of Chinas Low Carbon Economy Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Chen, Xiang Liu, Desheng Wu 
    Abstract: In order to develop low carbon economy effectively and efficiently, it is equally important to pay attention to the outcome of developing low carbon economy and the process to reach this outcome. This paper takes carbon productivity (CP) and low carbon economy efficiency (LCEE) to respectively evaluate the outcome-oriented performance (the actual status) and process-oriented performance (the process to reach this status) of low carbon economy development in China. The results show that although the outcome-oriented performance of Chinas low carbon economy is improving, the process-oriented performance of it experiences a continuous decrease from 2000 to 2011, which signifies that GDP and carbon emissions are unevenly developed and the resources input are ineffectively and inefficiently used. Moreover, the determinants of CP and LCEE in different areas of China are analyzed by grey relational analysis. The results suggest that the amount of R&D funding and financial expenditure should be improved to enhance the efficient and effective utilization of inputs to reach balanced development between GDP and carbon abatement for all areas.
    Keywords: low carbon economy; outcome-oriented performance; process-oriented performance; efficiency; carbon productivety; determinants; undesirable ouput; DEA model; grey relational analysis; China
  • Intelligent Analysis of Global Warming Effects on Sea Surface Temperature in Hormuzgan Coast, Persian Gulf   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeed Samadianfard, Reza Delirhasannia, Masoud Torabi Azad, Sima Samadianfard, Mehrdad Jeihouni 
    Abstract: As scientific and economic interests in climate prediction and predictability have increased considerably in recent years, a need for global sea surface temperature (SST) prediction for use in global forecasts for climate variability studies have emerged. This paper examines the potential of gene expression programming (GEP) in estimation of sea surface temperature from global mean temperature (GMT) in comparison with linear regression (LR), polynomial regression (PR) and exponential regressions (ER). In the present study, global mean temperature and sea surface temperature data for the point with latitude of 26.5
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Persian Gulf; Sea surface temperature
  • Coal Gas Adsorption/Desorption Isotherms versus Diffusion Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Cristina Fernanda Rodrigues, Maria Alzira Pimenta Dinis, Manuel João Lemos de Sousa 
    Abstract: Gas diffusion coefficient is a fundamental parameter to define the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) injection and the CO2 transport in the coal pores/matrix, in the scope of geological storage/sequestration of CO2 in coal seams (unmineable deep seams or abandoned collieries). The rate of gas released is crucially important in CO2 geological storage/sequestration programmes injection. In the present work, the authors studied two meta-anthracite samples from Douro Coalfield (NW of Portugal) in which classical sorption isotherms were carried out, using CO2 only. Samples were submitted to different pressure steps during both adsorption and desorption processes. Diffusion coefficients were subsequently determined from sorption results, which permitted not only to study swelling/shrinking effects related to sorption processes, but also to demonstrate that whenever the CO2 is adsorbed in the coal pores/matrix it will be enduringly fixed up to, approximately, pressures of 32 bar in sample A and 34 bar in sample B. Since the gas release process it intensely related to diffusion coefficients, it is crucial to define their evolution on the two analyses reported in this paper. So, during adsorption, diffusion coefficients decrease in sample A from 4.66736E-08 to 1.23490E-09 cm2/sec (6.72 and 48.13 bar) and during desorption they increase from 7.61829E-09 to 1.09908E-08 cm2/sec (45.68 and 11.48 bar). In sample B, diffusion coefficients decrease from 2.47409E-08 to 2.11813E-09 cm2/sec (7.53 and 47.17 bar) in adsorption and increase in desorption from 1.48767E-09 to 2.83736E-08 cm2/sec (42.22 and 7.71 bar).
    Keywords: Gas diffusion coefficient; CO2 geological sequestration; isotherms; Sorption (Adsorption/Desorption.
  • Dynamics of Mangrove Diversity influenced by Climate Change and consequent accelerated Sea Level Rise at Indian Sundarbans   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhiroop Chowdhury, Pranabes Sanyal, Subodh Maiti 
    Abstract: Mangroves are salt stress resistant ecosystem dominating the coastal/estuaries of tropics and subtropics repeatedly exposed to impact of natural disasters namely cyclones/storm surges and the problems related to sea level raise due to climate change and global warming. The foremost effect of sea level raise and cyclonic regimes is the salt water intrusion/inundation into the estuaries. This temporal study on biodiversity and surface water salinity (both High and Low tide), over two main seasons (Pre and Post monsoon) has been conducted from 2008 to 2013, to shed light into the effect of a severe cyclone, AILA (2009) and fluctuations in surface water salinity due to sea level raise, on the community structure of mangroves in Indian Sundarbans. It is observed that raise in salinity level accentuates the abundance of salt tolerant species namely Avicennia marina, Suaeda maritima and decreased abundance of Rhizophora mucronata. But the exclusion of rare mangrove species (e.g. Aglaia cuculata, Brownlowia tersa, Heritiera fomes, Kandelia candel, Nypa fruticans) is also evident, facilitating the increased abundance of resistant and invasive flora, along with other associated flora (Clerodendron inerme, Derris trifoliata and Phoenix paludosa). Management solutions have also been suggested, keeping in mind, the current conservation policies, which could help the ecologists and conservationists to properly combat these problems and protect this sensitive ecosystem.
    Keywords: Sundarban, Delta, Mangrove, Biodiversity, Conservation, Climate change, Sea level raise, Cyclone, Phenology, Salinity, Management Solutions
  • Analysis of solutions alleviating CO2 emissions intensity of biogas technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Wojciech Budzianowski 
    Abstract: Biogas is a multi-purpose technology capable of harvesting renewable energy, converting organic wastes and supplying low-carbon biofuels for transport which all mitigate atmospheric carbon emissions. State-of-the-art biogas CHP technology is however characterised by relatively significant life cycle CO2 emissions intensity typically ranging from 200 to 450 gCO2eq/kWhe, depending on specific feedstocks and configurations. Due to high CO2 content in biogas, the direct biogenic CO2 emissions intensity of a biogas CHP plant is about 700 gCO2/kWhe, which is greater than the direct CO2 emissions intensity of natural gas combustion and it is comparable only with coal combustion. Therefore, in order to meet requirements of future low-carbon energy systems, solutions capable of cost-effectively mitigating various parasitic or even biogenic carbon emissions from biogas are needed. This study analyses the following categories of solutions alleviating CO2 emissions intensity of biogas technology: (i) anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic matter with increased CH4/CO2 selectivity, (ii) biological H2 generation from organic matter, (iii) AD with biogenic CO2 recycling, (iv) biogas utilisation with facilitated CO2 sequestration and (v) low-carbon biofuels from biogas. For each of these categories solutions aiming at alleviating CO2 emissions intensity are provided and analysed. Finally, optimal embedding in the economic environment is discussed.
    Keywords: biogas, solution, CO2 emissions intensity, low-carbon energy, anaerobic digestion
  • Long-Term Mean Monthly Temperature Trends of the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Umran Komuscu 
    Abstract: The Gulf region, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has been experiencing warming trends since late 1980s, an era of rapid economic development in the region. This study investigates non-stationary behaviour of the long-term mean monthly temperature series of the UAE by time series analysis. Surface temperature data at six coastal and internal stations, for the period 1983-2012, have been used in the study. The study indicates that the period after 1990s is distinctly characterized with definite rising trends in the temperatures in majority of the stations, with exception of the Al Ain station which indicated cooling temperature trends. Cumulative warming varied between 0.3 and 2.8
    Keywords: temperature trends; United Arab Emirates; autocorrelation; periodogram; spectral analysis
  • Green hydrogen energy system: A Policy on reducing petroleum based global unrest   Order a copy of this article
    by Adnan Midilli 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of green hydrogen energy system in reducing petroleum based global unrest. For this purpose, in terms of the policy parameters, the followings are discussed i) the main factors accelerating petroleum based global energy imbalance and the negative effects resulting from the petroleum based global unrest, ii) possible advantages of green hydrogen energy system, iii) the key driving forces and their roles for green hydrogen based global stability, iv) qualitative evaluation of the effects of petroleum and green hydrogen consumption on some global issues. Consequently, it can be said that green hydrogen energy system will be a key tool to minimize petroleum based global unrest and to improve the green hydrogen based global stability. Thus, it is suggested that green hydrogen energy system should be gradually encouraged by governmental bodies and other authorities for improving and ensuring the green hydrogen based global stability and sustainability.
    Keywords: Green hydrogen, hydrogen utilization, petroleum consumption, hydrogen energy system, global stability, global unrest, sustainability.
  • Sequestration of carbon dioxide by red mud through direct mineral carbonation at room temperature   Order a copy of this article
    by Rushendra Revathy T.D, Palanivelu K, Ramachandran A 
    Abstract: In the developing countries, power generation is likely to be primarily dependent on coal reserves in the coming years, thereby they face the scenario of upsurge in CO2 emissions. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered as a promising tool to mitigate CO2 emissions. In this work, direct mineral carbonation capacity of red mud (RM) has been studied which is one of the major solid waste produced from the non-ferrous industries in the country and that is largely land filled. Carbonation (dry and wet) studies were performed at low pressure (1 -10 bar) conditions and at room temperature using a simple methodology in a batch reactor with pure CO2 gas. The dry route resulted in a maximum sequestration capacity of 5.16 g of CO2/kg of RM (10 bar and 3 h), whereas wet phase aqueous carbonation route yielded 20.09 g of CO2/kg of RM (liquid to solid (L/S) ratio- 0.6, 6 bar and 1 h). The carbonated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis which evidenced the carbonation process. Thus it can be concluded that the solid waste that generated in ample quantities pose to be a promising option towards climate change mitigation.
    Keywords: Carbon capture and storage; carbon dioxide; mineral carbonation; gas-solid carbonation; aqueous carbonation; red mud.
  • Regional characteristics of CO2 emissions from Chinas power generation: Affinity Propagation and Refined Laspeyres Decomposition   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Sun, Yujun He, Hong Chang 
    Abstract: The Chinese power sector plays a vital role in national emissions reduction goal due to its large contribution to overall emissions. This paper explores the regional similarities and disparities of power generation emissions among 30 provinces. First, the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm is applied to find the similar characteristics in emissions among 30 provinces. The clustering results of CO2 emissions indicate that the 30 provinces are divided into five clusters in 1997 and seven clusters in 2012 based on four indicators (generation structure, energy intensity, GDP per capita and electricity intensity). Then, the regional differences in driving forces on CO2 emissions from power industry are examined using refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Results showed that there are significant contribution differences of five indicators (power generation emission coefficient, generation structure, electricity intensity, economy and population) on power generation emissions among different provinces. The provincial emissions reduction target and supporting policies for power industry should be customized and consistent with the actual situations considering the similarity and differences in emission characteristics.
    Keywords: Affinity propagation; refined Laspeyres decomposition; power generation; CO2 emissions
  • A review on improvement of coal-fired power plants and environmental benefits of ash utilization   Order a copy of this article
    by Selcuk Samanli, Haluk Celik, Ozcan Oney, Yasar Can 
    Abstract: Electricity generation in coal fired power plants produces large amount of residues. These materials are known as coal combustion products (CCPs) and can release pollutants to the environment. However, CCPs are environmentally and technically suitable for uses in many areas. The utilization of CCPs in these areas helps to reduce the overall harmful effects of coal combustion for electricity generation by stabilizing the environmentally toxic pollutants. This study focused on bottom ash (BA) and especially fly ash (FA). BA is used as a source of aggregate in concrete. FA is used as a pozzolanic additive to Portland cement concrete. The current paper reviews the general characteristic features of coal bottom ash and fly ash. It reveals the possible usage areas of improved ash and presents the general approaches have been developed to obtain improved fly ash. The recycling of coal combustion ash provides significant environmental benefits. Electrostatic separator with tribocharging technique has great potential for utilization of coal ash. It significantly contributes to reduce fly ash disposal problems. In recent years, triboelectrostatic separators have increased significantly for the feasibility and success of the implementation of the electrostatic separation. Studies carried out by various researchers on triboelectrostatic separation for utilization of fly ash were also compiled in this article.
    Keywords: Bottom ash; fly ash; improved fly ash; triboelectrostatic separator.
  • Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of aqueous basic dye solutions using waste foundry sand   Order a copy of this article
    by Semra Çoruh, Elif Hatice Gürkan 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solution using waste foundry sand Adsorption studies were carried out at different initial dye concentrations (12.5 - 400 mg l-1), contact time (5 - 240 min), pH (3.0 9.0), sorbent doses (0.125 - 2 g l-1) and adsorption temperature (20
    Keywords: Waste foundry sand, adsorption, basic dye, isotherm, kinetic, thermodynamic
  • Simulation of CO2 adsorption-separation from an N2/CO2 gas mixture in a Fixed MgMOF-74 Column   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed A. Habib, Rached Ben-Mansour, B. O. Eyitope, A. M. P. Peedikakkal 
    Abstract: A computational study of adsorption-separation of CO2 from an N2/CO2 gas mixture is presented in this paper. A detailed one-dimensional, transient mathematical model has been formulated to include the heat and mass transfer, the pressure drop and multi-component mass diffusion. The model has been implemented on a MATLAB program using second order discretization. Validation of the model was performed using a complete experimental data set for carbon dioxide separation using activated carbon. Simulation of the adsorption breakthrough experiment on fixed bed has been carried out to evaluate the capacity of Mg-MOF-74 for CO2 capture with varying feed gas temperature of 301K, 323K, 373K and 423K. The results show the superiority of MOF adsorbent in comparison to activated carbon. The simulated breakthrough time for CO2 on Mg-MOF-74 with feed temperature and pressure of 301K and 1.02bar respectively is about 500min as compared to 50min for Activated Carbon. The amount of CO2 adsorbed on Mg-MOF-74 under this condition is 6.43mole per kilogram of adsorbent. The maximum temperature exhibited in the system is at the bed exit with a value of about 356K after about 500min of simulation.
    Keywords: CO2 adsorption, carbon capture, carbon dioxide, CO2 separation, Mg-MOF-74
  • The evaluation of CO2 emissions mitigation scenarios for Turkish electricity sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Betül Özer, Selahattin İncecik, Erdem Görgün 
    Abstract: This study presents the results on the simulations of the scenarios based on the CO2 emission reduction of the electricity sector in Turkey, utilizing the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) model, and the mitigation costs of the scenarios. Three scenarios including Baseline Scenario, (Scenario 1) and the two mitigation scenarios (Scenario 2 and Scenario 3) are employed. The Scenario 1 is based on the continuation of the recent electricity generation composition. Scenario 2 is established for the evaluation of all the renewable energy potential, except solar, of Turkey while Scenario 3 included all the renewable and nuclear energy. The CO2 emission intensity decreased by 20.5% and 35.6% for the Scenarios 2 and 3 in 2030, respectively compared to the Baseline Scenario. The CO2 emission mitigation costs are found 17 $/ton CO2 and 40 $/ton CO2 for the Scenarios 2 and 3, respectively through 2010 to 2030.
    Keywords: electricity sector, CO2 emission mitigation scenarios and costs, LEAP model, renewable and nuclear energy, Turkey
  • Optimum insulation thickness for piping system using exergy and environmental methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Emin Açıkkalp, Gülcan Özel, Burak Görgün, Hasan Yamık, Necmettin Caner 
    Abstract: Optimum insulation thickness for a piping system is investigated using a novel method that combines exergy and environmental is analyzed. Analyses are conducted by using the rockwool and glasswool as insulation materials. Investigation is performed for the different nominal pipe sizes (NPS or Diameter Nominal: DN) of 50, 100 and 150. This study was carried out for Bilecik in Turkey. The environmental impacts of the various parameters are described. Results for the environmental impact of the system, the net environmental saving, exergetic heat loss, the net exergy saving, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions according to insulation thickness are presented. Results show that optimum points are calculated as 0.109 m, 0.126 m and 0.137 m for DN 50, 100, and 150, respectively for the glasswool. Optimum insulation thickness for the rockwool was determined as 0.064m, 0.073 m and 0.079for DN 50, 100, and 150, respectively.
    Keywords: Optimum insulation thickness, exergy analysis, environmental impact, life cycle assessment.
    by Zekiye Yenen, Cenk Hamamcıoğlu 
    Abstract: Abstract: Fundamental impacts of climate change due to global warming reveal undeniable consequences on planning for future. Taking the question have we cognized to incorporate the effects of climate change in planning yet? into account, this paper brings up the factors of human activities precipitating climate change and its probable impacts on the hierarchy of settlements to the agenda in order to stimulate planners, policy makers, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders to be ready for different possibilities with flexible approaches and efficient adaptation policies. In this context, two main projected scenarios stated by the UNFCCC (2001) and IPCC (2013)s reports are predicted and discussed on the future characteristics of settlement system to undergo a change in the case of G
    Keywords: Key Words: basin; river basin; basin-based approach; climate change; hierarchy of settlements; Göksu Basin; Mediterranean; Turkey.
  • A Methodology and Assessment for the Viability of Trigeneration Systems to Reduce Emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Aghaei Meybodi, Chanel Gibson, Masud Behnia 
    Abstract: Trigeneration systems allow for an efficient way of consuming fossil fuels and therefore utilisation of such systems is amongst the adopted measures to address environmental issues. Carbon pricing was introduced in Australia in July 2012 and subsequently repealed by the newly elected government due to its questionable effectiveness. In this paper, a thermo-economic methodology was developed to attempt to provide an insight into the optimisation and economics of small and medium scale turbine-based trigeneration systems under three environmental policies through the application of two case studies. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results indicate that carbon pricing is a sound policy to make the installation of small scale trigeneration systems economically favourable. All medium scale trigeneration systems in the study were uneconomical, although the system was marginally (1%) more profitable under the new policy than under carbon pricing. It was also observed policy concerning feed-in tariffs should be revised.
    Keywords: carbon pricing; combined cooling heating and power systems; emissions trading schemes; emissions reduction; gas turbine; global warming impacts; microturbine; partial load operation; turbine-based trigeneration systems; thermo-economic analysis
  • The governance of adaptation financing: pursuing legitimacy at multiple levels   Order a copy of this article
    by Louis Lebel, Albert Salamanca, Chalisa Kallayanamitra 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess how climate change adaptation funds have been legitimized; that is, how they have been justified and made acceptable to different actors. To this end, it analyses the way various actors have sought to promote and challenge the legitimacy of ten multi-lateral international and national climate change adaptation funds in the Asia-Pacific region. The study shows that adaptation funds draw on multiple sources of legitimacy, including: ethical or justice arguments; participation and deliberation; transparency; accountability; coherence; and effectiveness. Efforts to strengthen one source of legitimacy can have an impact on other sources, with evidence of both synergies and trade-offs. International and national adaptation funds are primarily legitimized to state actors, even though funds and projects are justified in terms of assisting vulnerable groups and communities. International financing has helped legitimize adaptation as an important development and policy objective. An adaptation financing architecture that is more multi-level, if not yet polycentric, has emerged alongside new legitimacy challenges; but at the same time, providing opportunities for improving outcomes on the ground if greater attention is given to access by vulnerable groups and communities.
    Keywords: climate; adaptation; financing; funds; legitimacy; accountability; governance
  • A Modelling Study for Predicting Temperature and Precipitation Variations   Order a copy of this article
    by Azadeh Navazi, Abdolreza Karbassi, Shapour Mohammadi, Seyed Masoud Monavari, Saeed Motesaddi Zarandi 
    Abstract: Under the current extreme conditions, the trend of climate change and consequently global warming have put pressure on the urban environment and have led to serious environmental damages. The main objective of this study is to make a 10-year prediction of climatic parameters in Tehran metropolis in order to identify the impacts of climate change on urban environments and provide adaptation strategies to be used in future studies. For this purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms were employed. A long-term study of the mean daily temperature and precipitation in Tehran (1982-2011) indicates an increasing trend, with 0.03
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Prediction; Urban environment; Climatic parameters; Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
  • Chinas Low Carbon Competitiveness: An Assessment Based on International Comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Chaoqing Yuan 
    Abstract: Today, national competitiveness has evolved into the low-carbon competitiveness. This paper attempts to assess Chinas low carbon competitiveness, measure the overall level of Chinas low-carbon competitiveness based on international comparisons, and then offer some recommendations to improve China's low carbon competitiveness. Specially, it includes: 1) the concept of national low carbon competitiveness is defined. 2) A new national low carbon competitiveness index is designed, which is made up of two comprehensive indexes, national low carbon development ability and national low carbon constraints. 3) The corresponding evaluation system and calculation method are built. National low carbon development ability mainly includes the ability of national economic growth, the ability of national low-carbon technology development and the ability of governmental low carbon management. And national low carbon constraints include saturating force of energy consumption and carbon emission, national environmental carrying capacity and national expansion capability of consumption. 4) 19 countries with relatively strong global competitiveness and international influence are selected for low-carbon competitiveness assessment. The results show that China's low-carbon competitiveness ranks 18 in the 19 countries. 5) Several suggestions to enhance Chinas low carbon competitiveness are proposed.
    Keywords: Low carbon competitiveness; Global warming; Economic Development; Carbon emission; Energy consumption
    by Syed Muhammad Hassan Ali, Murat Fahrioglu, Muhammad Jibran Shahzad Zuberi, Fassahat Ullah Qureshi 
    Abstract: The electricity demand and supply gap in Pakistan has reached 6000MW, for which the Government of Pakistan has planned some power generating projects. Environmental feasibility analysis is done for one of these projects. The Government of Pakistan has planned to build a coal based mega power plant project of 6600MW capacity at Gaddani, Karachi. Coal for this project will be imported from South Africa, Indonesia and Australia, even though Pakistan also has huge reserves of coal at Thar, Sindh. CO2 of 208.92 804.02 tons/GWh and SO2 emissions of 3.73 14.55 tons/GWh are estimated from this project using stoichiometric calculations. Renewable energy potential of Pakistan is presented in order to discourage the Government of Pakistan on these environmental unfriendly projects. Solar, wind, biomass and hydro electric energy options are encouraged to invest in as they are sustainable and environment friendly.
    Keywords: Coal, Carbon Emissions; Sulfur Emissions; Renewable Energy; Pakistan; Gaddani Power Project; Environmental feasibility
  • Experimental Investigation on Reduction of NOx Emission of Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Bio-Diesel and Di-ethyl Ether (DEE)   Order a copy of this article
    by Paresh Patel, Sajan Chourasia, Niraj Shah, Absar Lakdawala, Rajesh Patel 
    Abstract: The present work emphasis on reduction of diesel engine emission using jatropha based bio-diesel and Di-ethyl ether (DEE). The experiments show that with 20% (B20) addition of bio-diesel, the BSFC and BSEC increase by 7 and 10 % while eciency and emissions 􀀀 CO, CO2, NOx, and HC 􀀀 decreases by 1, 64, 5,18 and 48% respectively. However, it also shows that, even optimized blend (B20) is not able to meet stringent emission norms particularly for NOx - set by EURO IV. For the further reduction of the NOx, DEE is added from 0 % to 5 % in B20. The results show that addition of 4 % DEE, does not signicantly inuenced the engine performance, however reduction in NOx found to be 40 % compared with diesel fuel. A hypothesis is proposed that, The reduction in engine emission is due to improvement in combustion in presence of DEE. The hypothesis is validated through combustion analysis showing increase in peak pressure (Pmax) by 7 % and reduction in delay period by 1.5 degree with addition of 4 % DEE in B20.
    Keywords: Bio-diesel, Di-ethyl ether, Diesel engine, NOx emission, Combustion characteristic.
  • Optimization of Physical Activation Process for Activated Carbon Production from Tire Wastes   Order a copy of this article
    by Zakaria Loloei, Mansooreh Soleimani, Mehrdad Mozaffarian 
    Abstract: The reuse of waste tires is of great importance due to problems and damages that they pose to the environment. This paper presents the work conducted in order to study the conversion of waste tires to activated carbon. Activated carbon was prepared by two step process: 1-pyrolysis under nitrogen and activation with carbon dioxide. Experiments have been conducted based on Taguchi experimental design method with orthogonal arrays (L16). Pyrolysis temperature, pyrolysis holding time, activation temperature, activation holding time, process heating rate and activating CO2 gas flow rate were optimized as operating parameters. The Effect of these operating parameters on the yield and iodine number as two main results of this process has been investigated. Experimental results and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that activation temperature and activation holding time are the most effective variables, respectively. Optimum conditions for both yield and iodine number have been found which provided33.22% for yield and 439.86 (mg I2/gr of activated carbon) for iodine number.
    Keywords: waste tire; activated carbon; physical activation; optimization; Taguchi
  • Climate-Related Economic Losses in Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ling-Ling Chen, Chao-Heng Tseng, Yi-Hsuan Shih 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to quantify the relationship between CO2 emissions and economic losses under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2, A1B and B1. Previous trend is used to formulate predictions with regard to future climate-related hazards and quantify the expected economic consequences for Taiwan. We establish an equation with which to forecast economic losses related to agricultural damage, death toll, and medical expenditures. The results are as follows: (1) According to SRES A2, A1B and B1 projections, cumulative total economic losses of unit CO2 emission between 2013 and 2100 are US$75- 261/tCO2, US$76-215/tCO2, and US$75-169/tCO2, respectively; (2) Total economic losses related to natural disaster exhibits a strong correlation with GDP between 1991 and 2012, compares to the period from 1971 to 1990 (this is not including the medical expenditure losses in the total economic losses); (3) According to SRESs A1B scenario, predicted total economic losses related to natural disasters are expected to be strongly correlated with GDP between 2013 and 2100.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Climate-Related Loss; SRES Scenario; Natural Disaster; Total Economic Loss (TEL); Agricultural Economic Loss (AEL); Life Expectancy Value Loss (LEVL); Medical Expenditure Loss (MEL); Cumulative Loss; Normalized Damage; Relative Loss Ratio (RLR); IPCC; Taiwan; GDP; Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon dioxide capture by facilitated transport membranes: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by A. uma maheswari, K. palanivelu 
    Abstract: In recent years, the increase in industrial carbon dioxide emissions has put forward serious threats in atmospheric conditions. In order to address this problem various conventional techniques are available, but they have several limitations in terms of cost and energy. Carbon dioxide capture in a post combustion scenario needs cost effective and energy efficient alternatives to the conventional technologies. In this sense, membranes attract a great deal of attention for the bulk removal of CO2 as they offer a viable option to the established conventional techniques. In this review, the effective separation of CO2 by facilitated transport membranes (FTMs) and their recent developments in concurrence with past research findings have been reviewed and discussed. The FTMs are grouped into different categories based on the type of the carrier. Also, the various methods of improving stability, permeability, and selectivity of FTMs are discussed scrupulously. A special emphasis is put on reviewing the process challenges and the viability of the techniques in capturing industrial CO2 emissions. Current drawbacks in the existing research and future direction for performance development are also discussed broadly.
    Keywords: Keywords: carbon dioxide capture; facilitated transport membranes; mobile carrier; fixed site carrier; polymeric blend; cross linking agent
  • Spatially Explicit Estimates and Temporal Changes of Forest Tree Biomass in a Typical Department of Forest Management, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Sedat KELEŞ, İdris Durusoy 
    Abstract: This study presents temporal changes in forest timber biomass of a department of forest management consisting of four forest management units in Turkey. Changes in forest tree biomass are linked to forest cover change during 1986-2011 period based on forest inventory data. We also produced forest biomass density maps using Geographical Information Systems. The results showed a net increase of 1755 ha in forested areas of the Department of G
    Keywords: Forest timber biomass, Biomass expansion factor, Climate change, Forest management plan, Geographical information systems
  • Analysis of the Air Temperature records of Djelfa   Order a copy of this article
    by Boubakeur Guesmi, Mohamed Sahnoune, Chakali Gahdab 
    Abstract: The delay of defoliation, the advance of blooming, in January, of some recently planted palm trees, the appearance of the housefly in winter, and the disappearance of the featuring cold and frost of Djelfa both prompted the need of a scientific explanation, based on The analyses of mean, minimum and maximum air temperatures records for a period of forty years by the methods (coefficient of variation (CV), trend test, correlation and homogeneity test),which have shown that, although, the fluctuations of the mean temperature, especially in winter (CV=27%), a global warming of 1
    Keywords: Semi Arid, Djelfa , Global warming, climate change, Air temperature, Mann Kendall test, Algeria, steppe , frost, cold, homogeneity test, correlation, coefficient of variation
  • Bin weather data for different climates of Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Saban Pusat, İsmail Ekmekçi 
    Abstract: In this study, bin weather data and bin method for Turkey which is a well-known and simple method to estimate heating and cooling loads were investigated. The bin weather data for dry-bulb temperature from -50
    Keywords: Bin data; Typical meteorological year; Energy analysis; Heating load; Cooling load; Turkey; Climate
  • An Estimation of Offset Supply for the Korean Emissions Trading Scheme Using the Bass Diffusion Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Intaek Yoon, Sohyun Kate Yoon 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the possible carbon offset supply in the Korean Emissions Trading Scheme using the Bass Diffusion Model. To estimate the quantity of the likely offset supply, both a bottom-up and top-down approach were used. The forecasted supply of offsets from 2015 to 2020, for non-covered companies in the industrial sectors, is approximately 12.60 million tCO2e. For a realistic estimation, scenario based analysis on the marginal abatement costs for each project type and sector has been conducted. Five offset project scenarios (6,000; 12,000; 20,000; 33.000; and 100,000 Korean Won/tCO2e) have been selected. It is estimated that there will be 2.44~3.43 million tCO2e of offsets available until 2020. This analysis forecasts a significant shortage of domestic offsets in ETS periods if no additional offset programs or methodologies are allowed.
    Keywords: Carbon Offset, Korean Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), Bass Diffusion Model, Marginal Abatement Cost, Offset supply
  • ANFIS Based Comparative Exhaust Gases Emissions Prediction Model of a Military Aircraft Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Isil Yazar, Yasin Şöhret, T. Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: In this paper, comparison of estimation methods for exhaust gaseous emissions developed for a military aircraft engine via adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) structure is introduced. For system identification process, combustion efficiency, engine work load and air-fuel ratio are preferred to be system inputs to obtain emission indexes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbon as system outputs. While comparing the estimation methodologies, two clustering methods in adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system structure, grid partitioning and subtractive clustering, are benefited to define membership functions. Hybrid optimization is preferred in training parts. As a conclusion remark of the present study, estimation error values of both clustering methods are found for different number of membership functions with the common training method. Nonetheless, training time saving is the advantage of subtractive clustering method in our study.
    Keywords: Aircraft emission, ANFIS, military aircraft, modelling, neuro-fuzzy, prediction, turboprop.
  • Assessing spatio-temporal dynamics of growing stock and increment: a case study in Andrn and Trabzon forest district enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatih Sivrikaya, Veysel Yıldırımer 
    Abstract: Monitoring and assessing spatio-temporal changes in forest ecosystem are quite important for sustainable management of natural resources. In order to assess these changes, total growing stock and annual increment of a forest must be known. For this purpose, we identified the spatio-temporal changes in the growing stock and increment, and explained the factors driving these changes using Geographical Information System (GIS) within forest management plans of Andırın and Trabzon Forest District Enterprise (FDE) in Turkey. To determine the spatio-temporal variability of growing stock and increment, the stand type maps related to case study areas were digitized and analyzed in GIS. The results indicated that there wasnt any significant increase in the forests area, whereas the total amount of growing stock increased by 39.0 % and 39.2 % in Andırın and Trabzon FDE, respectively. The main factors affecting growing stock changes were growing stock differences in same stand types in different periods, increase in productive forest area, increase in forest area and conversion of coppice forests to high forests in Andırın FDE. As a result, the stand types should be determined correctly in order to see whether there is a true increase in growing stock and increment and differences in site index should be take into account for determining stand type. It is suggested that the permanent sample plots should be used for preparing forest management plan instead of temporary sample plots as much as possible.
    Keywords: Coppice forests; Forest management plan; GIS; Growing stock, Increment
  • Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Natural Gas Substitutions in Vehicles, Furnaces, and Power Plants   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Cohan, Shayak Sengupta 
    Abstract: We compare the net greenhouse gas emissions impact of substituting natural gas for other fossil fuels for five purposes: light-duty vehicles, transit buses, residential heating, electricity generation, and export for electricity generation overseas. Emissions are evaluated on a fuel cycle basis, from production and transport of each fuel through end use combustion, based on recent conditions in the United States. To compare across sectors, the emissions difference between natural gas and its alternative is normalized by natural gas consumption to compute the net reduction in CO2e per MJ of natural gas used. Greatest emission reductions can be achieved by replacing existing coal-fired power plants (78 g CO2-e/MJ natural gas) or fuel oil furnaces (66 gCO2e/MJNG). Compressed natural gas in vehicles yields no significant reductions. Uncertainties arising from upstream emission rates for natural gas and the global warming potential of methane are quantified. The study demonstrates the critical role of deployment choice on the net climate impact of natural gas.
    Keywords: Fuel cycle analysis; natural gas deployment; greenhouse gas emissions; methane; carbon dioxide; attributional life cycle analysis; upstream emissions; break-even leak rate
  • Extreme Precipitation Climate Change Scenario Evaluation over Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmet Öztopal 
    Abstract: Extreme precipitation events are the most important quantities for flood occurrences in any area and especially for groundwater recharge in arid and semi-arid regions. Their future predictions help to provide a scientific basis for evaluation and management of water resources potential. Among the future impacts on water resources are the climate change effects, which must be properly modeled and predicted for each region and country. In general regional climate models (RCM) are frequently used all over the world for such purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to expose the extreme precipitation occurrence estimations based on the A1B scenario for Turkey by using a RCM. In this paper, 8 different precipitation parameterizations are applied by use of the RegCM climate model on the basis of A1B climate scenario data. After extensive runs of the model 98-2 parameterization is selected as the best one according to root mean square error (RMSE) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis. Additionally, bias correction values are calculated for the same climate output from RegCM model and bias correction is performed. Finally, the extreme precipitation amounts are defined and calculated at 0.95 confidence level of the probability density function (PDF) over Turkey for different reference periods of past (1960-2000), near future (2021-2060) and far future (2061-2100). In the mean-time, the numbers of daily extreme precipitation occurrences are identified. Although the winter season results indicate significant increase in the extreme precipitation amount around the Northern Aegean and Eastern Black Sea regions for near future and around Southern Aegean and Western Black Sea regions for far future periods, significantly decreasing trend appear in the Northern Iraq, Syria, Mediterranean coasts and Southeastern Anatolia for both future periods. Another important result is that increase in the precipitation is expected in of the northern Iraq, Syria and Southeastern Anatolia for both future periods in autumn season. In winter, an increase in the number of daily extreme precipitation is obvious in the Black Sea Region for far future period and only in of the Northern Iraq there is high number of daily extreme precipitation for both future periods, however, for spring and summer seasons reductions are expected in general.
    Keywords: Climate change, downscaling, extreme precipitation, regional model, Turkey, water.
  • The influence of motorization on the climate warming   Order a copy of this article
    by Mariusz Holtzer, Marcin Górny, Angelika Kmita 
    Abstract: The automotive industry is under continual pressure because of the harmful effects of cars on the environment. Highly Developed Countries must implement programs related to the efficient use of fuel. One way to do this is to reduce vehicles weight, where an important role is played by the foundry industry, searching for new construction materials, with a lower specific gravity and suitable mechanical properties. The paper discusses the materials for the automotive industry: spheroidal graphite cast iron (SGI), compacted graphite cast iron (CGI), grey cast iron (FGI), aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys, comparing their functional properties, important from the point of view of their use as automotive castings. An assessment was performed of the impact of the aforementioned casting materials on the environment based on life-cycle analysis of the product.
    Keywords: warming; climate warming; motorization; greenhouse gases; castings.
  • Variability in stream flows of the Xiang River in a changing climate   Order a copy of this article
    by Guoqing Wang, Cuishan Liu 
    Abstract: Stream flow plays a crucial role in the environment, society and the economy. Variability and trends of recorded discharges of the Xiang River and the responses to climate changes were investigated. Results indicate rising trends in the annual and four seasonal temperatures over the Xiang River catchment and sub-catchments for 1960-2010, as well as variations in precipitation. Spring and autumn precipitation showed a slight decreasing trend, while annual precipitation presented increasing trend mainly due to greater increases in summer and winter precipitation. As a result of changes in climate, annual discharges recorded at three hydrometric stations Laobutou on the Xiangs upper reaches, Hengshan on its mid-section, and Xiangtan on its lower part, exhibit insignificant increasing trends for 1960-2010, with linear upward rates of 7.0, 45.7, and 47.5m3s-1/10a respectively. Variations of annual discharge series for 1960-2010 exist in three different phases from wet to dry to wet with a time span of approximately 16 years (i.e. 1960-1975, 1976-1992, and 1993-2010). During the dry phase (1976-1992), mean discharges at the three hydrometric stations were -5.52% (Laobutou), -6.73% (Hengshan), and -5.65% (Xiangtan) less than multiple-year average for 1960-2010. Variation trends of the seasonal discharges are generally in accordance with that of seasonal precipitation, with the exception of autumn discharges at the Xiangtan and Hengshan stations due to the influences of antecedent precipitation. Annual and seasonal discharges are highly correlated to catchment precipitation and weakly correlated to temperature. Changes in precipitation highly influence variability of stream flows of the Xiang River. A 1% change in precipitation will roughly lead to 2.08-2.27%, 2.02-3.37% and 1.9-2.05% changes in discharges at the Laobutou, Hengshan, and Xiangtan stations respectively. It is essential to consider potential impacts of climate change in future water resources management.
    Keywords: variation; climate change; stream flow; Xiang River
    by Z. Sen 
    Abstract: As for the trend identification, the literature is full of quantitative studies, but with respect to two-probability distribution function (PDF) description remains at qualitative level. The main purpose of this paper is to convert the two-PDF description into quantitative form for objective and quantitative assessments. Such a goal is achieved on the basis of innovative trend templates, which indicate the arithmetic averages and the standard deviations of the two equal length halves of the given temperature record. Two-PDF explanations are represented by three combinations as changes in the arithmetic averages, standard deviations and in both parameters through their logical connections with the innovative template description. The application of the methodology is given for four mean annual temperature records from Istanbul City, Turkey. Global warming variations are described quantitatively as increases or decreases in the statistical parameters. The proposed methodology can be applied for any temperature record in the world.
    Keywords: Global warming, trend, probability, innovative, template, quantification, climate change
  • Aerosol direct shortwave radiative forcing effect based on SBDART model in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong (China)   Order a copy of this article
    by Lili Li, Yunpeng Wang 
    Abstract: Aerosols play an important role in the energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. In this paper, we studied aerosol shortwave direct radiative forcing (DRF) effects in Pearl River Delta based on SBDART and a two-layer-single-wavelength model. Simulation results indicated that the underlying surface type and solar zenith angle have significant impacts on aerosol radiative forcing. The comparison between aerosol radiative forcing effects on urban asphalt surface and vegetation shows cooling and warming effects of aerosol shortwave radiative forcing on urban asphalt are much more apparent than that on vegetation, implying aerosols over asphalt-predominated cities will impact the local climate. Then we estimated variations of average DRF and net radiation flux with solar zenith angle in the Pearl River Delta. DRF indicates warming at solar zenith angles of 0
    Keywords: Aerosols; Shortwave direct radiative forcing; SBDART; Net flux; Underlying surface; Solar zenith angle;
  • Integrating Metaheuristics and ANFIS for Daily Mean Temperature Forecasting   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Gocken, Asli Boru 
    Abstract: Weather forecasting is considered as a key to successful planning for various applications such as agricultural industries. Having accurate weather forecasting allows people to make better decision on managing day to day activities. Also, it has to be underlined that forecasting is important to cope with impacts of extreme events and to adapt to climatic changes. To improve weather forecasting, we used hybrid Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), which consist in exploiting capabilities of Harmony Search (HS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA), for selecting the most relevant weather variables and simultaneously searching the most appropriate structure of ANFIS. Proposed methods are applied for six different cities of Turkey which are determined according to Aydenizs Climate Classification. The results of the study showed that GA-ANFIS and HS-ANFIS yield remarkable results in daily mean temperature forecasting due to the ability of capturing the advantages of both types of methods simultaneously.
    Keywords: ANFIS; genetic algorithm; harmony search; daily mean temperature forecasting.
  • Changes in precipitation from 1958 to 2012 in arid and semiarid regions of northern China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinchang Li, Yanfang Zhao, Xiaohui Fan 
    Abstract: We used a precipitation dataset from 1958 to 2012, collected at 58 meteorological stations across arid and semiarid regions of northern China, to look for monotonic trends and steps (abrupt changes) in the trends for annual and seasonal precipitation. We found that annual precipitation during the study period had decreased by 40.8 mm in semiarid regions, mainly caused by decreasing precipitation during the rainy season, versus increases of 34.4 mm in eastern arid regions and 36.4 mm in western arid regions, mainly caused by increasing precipitation in the pre-rainy season and winter. In arid regions, the magnitude of the precipitation increase increased moving from east to west, and the lower the annual precipitation, the larger the percentage increase. If the precipitation trends during the study period continue into the future, the west to east gradient in dryness may decrease in the study regions. An abrupt increase in the pre-rainy season precipitation occurred in the semiarid, eastern arid, and western arid regions in the early to mid-1980s, which was consistent with the period when rehabilitation of aeolian desertified land began in these regions. Therefore, although human activities undoubtedly had some impacts on aeolian desertification in arid and semiarid regions of northern China, the change in pre-rainy season precipitation may have been the key factor responsible for changes in aeolian desertification in the region through its effects on soil moisture, vegetation cover, and wind erosion of the soil.
    Keywords: precipitation; trend analysis; climate change; aeolian desertification; arid and semiarid regions.
  • Impact of climate change scenarios on hydrologic response of Upper Wardha catchment, Central India   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajashree Bothale 
    Abstract: Aim of present study is to investigate the impact of climate change scenarios on response of hydrologic unit based on global climate model. Impact of climate change is studied in Upper Wardha catchment, India by using Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM) and the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3) Global Circulation Model (GCM) A2 and B2 scenario data. Changes in extreme climate which affects the society and the environment is studied by 7 indices which show statistically significant increase in frequency of warm days, warm nights and hot days and decrease in cold days and cold nights. Continuous dry days and simple precipitation intensity index show negligible change in the future scenarios. Future scenarios (2011-2099) developed for downscaled meteorological variables, viz., minimum temperature (TMIN), maximum (TMAX) temperature and precipitation (PPT) show an increasing trend for TMIN, TMAX and summer season precipitation after calibration (1969-1985) and validation(1986-2001). An average rise of 2.430C and 1.880C in TMAX and 1.980C and 1.450C in TMIN is observed by 2080s under A2 and B2 scenario. Present scenario of the study lies between A2 and B2 scenario with trend from observed past data being observed as 0.70C. With general warming over the area, potential evapo-transpiration showed increase in loss by 5.9% and 6.24% in 2080s under A2 and B2 scenarios. The overall precipitation shows a decrease with respect to base but 54% and 46% rise in summer rain in A2 and B2 scenario by 2080s. The downscaled variables were used in Hydrologic Engineering Centers Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS). After calibrating (1988-2005) the model for daily flows (R2=0.72) and monthly flows (R2=0.81) and validating (2006-2012) for daily flows (R2=0.82) and monthly flows (R2=0.96), future flow scenarios were generated. The average annual streamflow showed a decrease of -7.6%, -6.7%, -9.29% respectively in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under A2 scenario and an increase of 8.06%, 10.34% and 7.81% respectively in the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under B2 scenario.
    Keywords: Climate change; Statistical downscaling; Extreme indices; SDSM; HEC-HMS; Central India; Upper Wardha
  • CFD analysis of CO2 adsorption in different adsorbents including activated carbon, zeolite and Mg-MOF-74   Order a copy of this article
    by Medhat Nemitallah 
    Abstract: The present study focuses on modelling of an adsorption system for CO2 in different adsorbents including activated carbon, zeolite and metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as one of the most promising methods for post-combustion carbon capture. The adsorption model is based on a modified Dubinin-Astakov (D-A) adsorption equation. The D-A adsorption equation parameters like enthalpic factor, entropic factor, limiting pressure, limiting adsorption are found by regression analysis using CO2 adsorption isotherm for different adsorbents. Simulations are performed using Fluent CFD commercial software. At tank entrance, mass flux profile of CO2 is established using UDF written in visual C++. Heat and mass transfer features of the numerical model are validated by the experimental data of hydrogen adsorption on activated carbon. The adsorption characteristics of CO2 in activated carbon are studied in details under fixed pressure of 2 bar. This is followed by comparisons between different adsorbents including activated carbon, zeolite and MOFs. The effects of storage pressure on adsorption are studied for different adsorbents for a range of pressure from 20 kPa to 100 kPa. For all adsorbents, the results showed high adsorption at the entrance and near wall regions. However, low adsorption and high temperature are obtained at the central region of the storage bed. The adsorption capacity of all adsorbents has been increased by increasing the storage pressure. Under the same pressure, Mg-MOF-74 adsorption material is found to have the highest adsorption capacity as compared to zeolite and activated carbon.
    Keywords: Post-combustion carbon capture; CO2 Adsorption; Activated carbon; Zeolite; Metal organic frameworks (MOFs).
  • Determination of Efficient Execution of Dry-Ice Blasting for Shipyard Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Veysel Alankaya 
    Abstract: Blasting process in shipyards can be marked as one of the most significant source of waste. Blasting is mandatory for the surface preparation before painting process in new shipbuilding or the removal of the old paint from the surface of used vessels. In this study, dry-ice blasting for surface preparation is investigated by means of impact effectiveness of the abrasive material replacing the traditional methods with less contaminating, environmental safe and less human health effecting alternative process. An experiment is performed to observe the efficiency and commercial usage of dry-ice blasting method. Additionally, numerical analyses which are derived by a commercial dynamic explicit finite element program, are presented denoting the blasting efficiency and damage behavior by particle velocity according to paint thickness. A new point of view on choosing dry-ice blasting velocity, decreasing amount of waste, time and the pollution for a green world is investigated. The effective use of dry-ice pallets which are the most environmentally friendly blasting material, is investigated to perform a commercially suitable method. A chart is presented for dry-ice blasting, performing the effective velocity through paint thickness and cleaning area.
    Keywords: Blasting process, dry-ice blasting, waste materials, paint removal, impact damage.
  • Modeling of lead removal from battery industrial wastewater treatment sludge leachate on cement kiln dust by using Elmans RNN   Order a copy of this article
    by Semra Coruh 
    Abstract: In this study, an Elman type recurrent neural network (RNN) was employed to develop a prediction model for lead removal from industrial sludge leachate using cement kiln dust. The leaching characteristics of industrial sludge were observed through the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Dosage, contact time, and temperature were considered as independent experimental factors. A comparison between the model results and experimental data showed that Elmans RNN model is able to predict lead removal from industrial sludge leachate. The outcomes of suggested Elmans RNN modeling were then compared to batch experimental studies. The results show that industrial sludge leachate using cement kiln dust is an efficient sorbent, and Elmans RNN is dynamic in nature and is able to model the batch experimental system.
    Keywords: Lead, cement kiln dust, leaching, adsorption, Elman’s RNN
  • Understanding Climate Change Risk Perception in the United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Himanshu Grover, Samuel Brody, Arnold Vedlitz 
    Abstract: Public perception of risk from climate change is an important determinant of willingness and cooperation of the citizens in supporting climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Although there is a growing body of research focusing on a variety of individual, cultural, and organizational factors that affect an individuals perception of risk, only a few studies have adopted an interdisciplinary analytical approach to understand public perception of climate change risks. This study extends earlier interdisciplinary research initiatives and proposes an integrated model for understanding climate change risk perception. Using measures of objective risk, individual climate stress, and individual capacity, we explain the public perception of climate change risks based on a national representative survey of American citizens. Geographic Information Systems and spatial analytical techniques are used to supplement the survey data with measures of objective risk associated with the location of each respondent. Analysis of the data using multivariate regression suggests that increased objective risk and individual capacity result in significantly higher perception of risk from climate change, whereas higher individual climate stress results in lower risk perceptions.
    Keywords: climate change, risk perception, objective risk, individual climate stress, individual capacity
  • A comparison of thermal decomposition of vineyard pruning waste in the flow of air and nitrogen   Order a copy of this article
    by Peter Rantuch, Juraj Ondruska, Igor Wachter 
    Abstract: The article deals with a thermal decomposition of vineyard pruning waste. The samples were tested by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry in the flow of air and nitrogen. Thermal gravimetric analyses were performed up to a temperature of 650
    Keywords: thermal oxidation, pyrolysis, thermogravimetry, activation energy, vineyard waste
  • Analysis of time series variations of temperature and its forecast in the northeastern Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Hasan Nury, Khairul Hasan, Jahir Bin Alam, Mahedi Hasan 
    Abstract: Variation of temperature due to climate change has an intense effect of meteorological and other environmental areas. Therefore, time series analysis of temperature data can be a valuable tool to investigate variability pattern as well as to predict short and long-term changes in the temperature time series. Summing up this entire problem, here in this study linear trend analysis has been conducted to sort out the basic idea of the pattern of temperature variation and SARIMA (Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) model has been employed to make a forecast of the upcoming five years on a monthly basis. The linear trend showed a rise in the maximum (2.97℃ and 0.59℃ per hundred years) & minimum temperature (2.17℃ and 2.73℃ per hundred years) at Sylhet and Sreemanal station respectively. Anomaly of these regions also showed increasing temperature. SARIMA model was fitted for temperature time series with its traditional three steps, identification, diagnosis and forecasting respectively. For monthly maximum and minimum temperature at Sylhet and Sreemangal stations, respective models were (3, 1, 3) (1, 1, 1)12, (2, 1, 3) (0, 1, 1)12, (3, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)12 and (2, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)12. This will help the policy makers to understand the nature and scale of possible temperature changes in Northeastern Bangladesh.
    Keywords: SARIMA; linear trend; anomaly; temperature; time series; maximum temperature; minimum temperature; variability pattern; predict short and long-term change
  • Combustion performance and emissions of diesel/biodiesel blended fuels in a residential reverse flame boiler   Order a copy of this article
    by Bilal Sungur, Bahattin Topaloglu, Lutfu Namli, Hakan Ozcan, Mustafa Ozbey 
    Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the performance of diesel and biodiesel blended fuels in a water-cooled flame tube boiler. The combustion performance and gas emissions of B10, B20 and B30 were studied and these were compared with the diesel fuel. To investigate the combustion characteristics of biodiesel blends, including pure diesel, the temperature distributions in the combustion chamber and smoke tube, exhaust temperature, and exhaust gas emissions were determined. The results showed that the size of the peak temperature zones in the combustion chamber decreased gradually from B0 to B30. As a consequence of reduced temperatures in combustion chamber, NOx emissions decreased from 53 to 47 ppm and CO emissions increased slightly from 9.6 to 12.8 ppm. Also, CO2 emissions decreased from 13.2 to 12.8 with increasing biodiesel ratio in the diesel fuel. Results also showed that the thermal efficiencies of diesel/biodiesel blended fuels remained almost the same.
    Keywords: biodiesel blends; boiler; emissions; temperature distribution in combustion chamber; renewable fuels
  • Analysis of efficiency of zero-emission oxy-type ultra-supercritical power unit based on high-temperature membranes   Order a copy of this article
    by Adrian Balicki, Janusz Kotowicz 
    Abstract: Oxy-combustion technology by eliminating, in the stage of preparation of oxidant, atmospheric nitrogen from combustion process is characterized by a high concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas, and thus, facilitates its sequestration. Power unit that operates in classic (air) combustion technology with a gross power output similar to the power of the investigated model is characterized by a CO2 emission of 860 kg/MWh. The use of oxy-combustion allows to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions by more than 90%, so it is worth to present both thermodynamic and economic consequences of the introduction of this technology. Thermodynamic analysis of the model assumed investigation of the impact of changes in the oxygen recovery rate on the basic characteristics of the power unit. In the next stage of calculations the estimated capital expenditures and a break-even price of electricity under the assumption that NPV is equal to zero were determined.
    Keywords: oxy-combustion; zero-emission power unit; thermodynamic analysis; economic analysis; high-temperature membranes; carbon dioxide; clean coal; carbon capture; CFB boiler; efficiency enhancing; NPV analysis
  • The active-layer ice temperature (ALIT) increases more obvious on a cold glacier than a temperate glacier during the past 30 years   Order a copy of this article
    by Wang Shijin, Ding Baohong 
    Abstract: On the basis of the historical documents and measured active-layer ice temperatures (ALIT) on Baishui Glacier No. 1 (BG1), Yulong Snow Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau and Urumqi Glacier No. 1 (UG1), the eastern Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, this paper revealed and compared their inter-decadal response of the ALIT in the past 30 years. The results showed that the daily mean ALIT increased by 0.24
    Keywords: the active-layer ice temperature; inter-decadal variation; comparative study
  • Climate Variability, the Proliferation and Expansion of Major Livestock Diseases in East Gojjam, Northwestern Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Desalegn Y Ayal, Muluneh Woldetsadikb Abshare, Tesfu Kassa, Getachew Tilahun, Nigatu Kebede , Walter Leal Filho 
    Abstract: The livestock sector in developing countries is subject to climate and non-climate stressors. Previous studies did not address the effect of climate variability and extremes on the livestock diseases and livestock system in the highlands of Ethiopia. This study explores the link between climate variability and its effect on livestock production and system. Mixed research method was used to explore and explain the problem. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The results of the study show that farmers have perceived an increase in temperature and the erratic behavior of rainfall in its onset, cessation and intensity over time. The study also reveals that tick and tick borne diseases, trypanosomiasis and epidemics of infectious diseases such as anthrax and black leg occurred frequently. Farmers in the area practiced mixed rainfed livestock farming system. Deterioration of pasture, diseases and shortage of water and land are among the major constraints for livestock development. Livestock are kept for drafting, manure, milk, meat, packing, means of income and transportation. Oxen, calves, small ruminants and donkeys are kept in the same house with the farmers. Multifunctionality of the sector is complemented with other livelihoods and used to diversify their economic interest and open access to informal loan. Thus, the sector acts as insurance against shocks.
    Keywords: climate variability, disease, awareness, livelihood, livestock
    by Stella Bezergianni, Athanasios Dimitriadis, Loukia Chrysikou 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and environmental benefits from integrating waste cooking oil (WCO) in a refinery, towards producing a new hybrid diesel. This new hybrid diesel, partially of fossil- and partially of bio-based origin, was evaluated as an alternative to market diesel according EN 590 specifications, showing comparable if not superior quality in the case of the former. Another scope was to compare the environmental impacts of the new hybrid diesel and the market diesel, in order to identify the most environmentally friendly fuel with the higher sustainability potential. The comparison was based on a Well-To-Tank analysis (WTT) including only the production processes of both fuels considered. Based on this study, the new hybrid diesel produced via co-hydroprocessing petroleum fractions with WCO presented the lower carbon foot-print, validating its sustainability superiority. It is evident that integrating residual biomass in a refinery is the most sustainable approach for incorporating biomass in the transportation sector.
    Keywords: co-hydroprocessing; hybrid diesel; biofuel; LCA; HVO; WCO
  • Coupled Geomechanical and Reactive Geochemical Model for Fluid, Heat Flow and Convective Mixing: Application for CO2 Geological Sequestration into Saline Aquifer with Heterogeneity   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronglei Zhang 
    Abstract: The significance of thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) interactions is well recognized in the operation of CO2 geo-sequestration. Geo-mechanical and geochemical effects may significantly affect aqueous phase composition, porosity and permeability of the formation, which in turn influence flow and transport. The TOUGHREACT simulator has the capability to quantitatively simulate fluid flow, solute transport and geochemical reaction in CO2 geo-sequestration using sequential coupling. Using a mean stress formulation, geomechanical effects such as stresses, displacements, and rock deformation in CO2 sequestration have been simulated by the recently developed TOUGH2_CSM . Based on these simulators, in this paper a novel mathematical model of the THMC processes is developed. A sequentially coupled computational framework is proposed and used to simulate reactive transport of water, CO2 gas and species in subsurface formation with geomechanics. The novel frameworks are designed to keep a generalized computational structure for different THMC processes. A set of partial differential equations is presented to model the THMC processes of the fluid and heat flow, solute transport in aqueous and gaseous phase, mean stress, and geochemical reactions under both equilibrium and kinetic conditions. The coupled THMC simulator is able to simulate: fluid and heat flow, solute transport within a three-phase mixture; convective mixing due to density different between gas and aqueous phases; stresses and displacements related to the mean stress; non-isothermal effects on fluid properties and reaction processes; the equilibrium and kinetics of fluid-rock and gas-rock chemical interactions. Practical reactive transport examples with complex chemical compositions are presented to analyze the THMC processes quantitatively on the coupled effects of geochemical reaction and geomechanics during CO2 geo-sequestration process. The model is able to analyze the long term fate of CO2 and the efficacy of different trapping mechanism (structural, residual, solubility and mineral trapping) with respect to key minerals. Heat transfer affects mean stress and geochemical reactions; mean stress impacts the solute transport and successive chemical reactions; and geochemical reactions are shown to have significant impact on the mean stress, pressure or temperature.
    Keywords: THMC Processes; Convective Mixing; CO2 Geo-sequestration;Chemical Reaction; reactive Transport
  • Decreasing energy consumption and carbon footprint in a school building: A comparative study on energy audits
    by Mustafa Zeki Yilmazoglu 
    Abstract: Energy audit of a school building was carried out to evaluate the effects of the building retrofitting on energy efficiency and carbon footprint. Lighting intensities of the selected areas in the building were measured and thermal images of the building envelope were compared before and after retrofitting. Combustion performance of the boilers was measured and the effects of the insulation on the natural gas consumption were investigated. According to the results, the lighting system renovation decreased the share of lighting in total electricity consumption of the buildings by 53.2% for the recommended lighting intensities in the selected zones. As a result of the lighting system renovation, carbon footprint of the campus decreased 308715 kgCO2 per year. Natural gas consumption decreased by 25.3% after building envelope insulation which equals to 137078 kgCO2 per year.
    Keywords: energy audit; carbon footprint; energy efficiency; lighting; thermal image; building retrofitting; greenhouse gases

Special Issue on: "R&R2014 "Application of Sustainable Technologies for Water and Waste Recycling and Reuse,"

  • Composition and Energy Potential of Industrial Sludge Derived Synthetic Gas   Order a copy of this article
    by Atakan Ongen, Serdar Aydin, Semiha Arayici 
    Abstract: The study focused on the synthetic gas formation and gasification efficiency of an industrial sludge. Optimum conditions for gasification were determined and content of synthetic gas was investigated. Gasification process was carried out at over 700 oC in a lab-scale fixed bed steel reactor. The gasification is a chemical process in which organic matter, high pressure and high temperature steam and oxygen are reacted to form a synthetic gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons which can be used as a gaseous fuel, or can be further refined to produce hydrogen gas. The solid fuel gas mixture is typically carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. This process requires more steps than the conventional combustion. The results showed that synthetic production increased in parallel with the reactor temperature. It is reported that during the gasification process, all of the useful molecules which produce energy when burned are separated from the unwanted parts of the organic matter such as soot, tar, and ash. Therefore, this process is much cleaner than combustion process. Gasification studies over 700 oC produced a synthetic gas that involved 20-30% CO, 30-40% H2 and 5-15% CH4 by volume. Calorific values of 2000 kcal/m3 in average and maximum 3000 kcal/m3 were achieved by gasification both with dried air and pure oxygen as gasification agents.
    Keywords: Energy recovery, synthetic gas, sludge, gasification
  • The Relationship between Income Level and CFP Level of the Provinces in Turkey: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Emine Elmaslar Ozbas, Nuket Sivri, Batuhan Sarıturk, Atakan Ongen, H. Kurtuluş Ozcan, Dursun Zafer Seker 
    Abstract: This study determines the distribution of carbon footprint values (CFP) in Turkey by income levels, gender, age group, provinces where people live and the geographical regions of these provinces. In addition, % distribution of human activities which lead to CFP (food, travel, home, stuff) has been analyzed. The carbon emission values assessed in this study have been compared with annual carbon emission distributions of various countries. In comparison by income levels, it was observed that mainly consumption-based usages (48%) take part in spending of people in the lowest income section while travel costs (42%) of people having high income have a significant contribution to CFP values. In assessment by age groups, it was observed that the highest CFP value is obtained by those aged 40 or older (in average; 17.1 tons CO2 per capita). In assessment of CFP values on the basis of geographical region and province, it was seen that high CFP values which result from the fuel type used for heating in eastern regions of Turkey replace CFP values related to transportation in western parts. In Turkey, annual carbon emission value is 15.1 tons CO2 per capita in average. This value is similar to annual carbon emission per capita of European countries such as Spain, France.
    Keywords: Carbon footprint (CFP); Turkey; annual CO2 emission; income level
  • Treatment of waste activated sludge by means of alkaline hydrolysis under mild conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Cristina Collivignarelli, Marco Sordi, Alessandro Abbà, Federico Castagnola, Giorgio Bertanza 
    Abstract: Proper strategies for reducing the sludge production are a key factor for a correct wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) management. This paper describes an experimental study on sludge thermal alkaline hydrolysis under mild conditions (temperatures from 40 to 70
    Keywords: Alkaline hydrolysis; thermal treatment; sludge minimization; COD solubilization; dewaterability
  • Optimization of Nutrients and Metals Release from Municipal Sewage Sludge by Chemical Extraction using Box-Behnken Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayla Uysal, Dilara Tuncer 
    Abstract: Chemical extraction is a promising method for separating elements from sewage sludge by using chemicals. In this study, sulfuric acid (inorganic acid) and citric acid (organic acid) using Box-Behnken design were utilized in order to release the nutrients and metals fixed in the anaerobic digested sludge and dewatered sludge. For the dewatered sludge, release of 16.27 mg/L P and 120.74 mg/L NH4+ were obtained at optimized conditions with citric acid 0.3 M, sulfuric acid 6% and reaction time 105 min, respectively. For the digested sludge, release of 764.1 mg/L P and 388.3 mg/L NH4+ were achieved at optimized conditions with citric acid 0.1 M, sulfuric acid 6% and reaction time 180 min, respectively. Extraction from digested sludge would give a higher release of nutrients than extraction from dewatered sludge. The results indicate a high release of P and NH4+ from digested sludge with only use of inorganic and organic acids, without heat or pressure. In all experimental conditions, Fe and Zn were released together with nutrients. But, Al and Cu were extremely low release from the sludges. For digested sludge, a minimum Fe and Zn release amount of 154.6 mg/L and 58.1 mg/L was achieved at optimized conditions with citric acid 0.5 M, sulfuric acid 2% and reaction time 105 min, respectively. Thus, this test conditions are thought to be more appropriate for the phosphorus and ammonium recovery from digested sludge due to a low release of metals.
    Keywords: Box-Behnken design, dewatered sludge, digested sludge, extraction, metals release, nutrients release, optimization.
  • A Study on Biodiesel Production from the Compounds of Brewed Tea Waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Duygu Celebcioglu Yavuz, Hayriye Olcer 
    Abstract: Biomass takes an important place in renewable energy sources and pyrolysismethod, one of the thermal processes, has been widely used in the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel and chemical substances. The main aim in pyrolysis is to obtain synthetic, liquid and gas fuels from biomass. In this study pyrolysis of tea waste and the products yielded at the end of the pyrolysis, which is one of biomass sources which has an important place in the renewable energy sources, have been researched. By thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of brewed tea waste, thermal decomposition phases were viewed in the nitrogen atmosphere from room temperature to 1000 oC. And then FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry) analyses were carried out to make qualitative descriptions of the liquid acquired in the wake of pyrolysis analysis. According to the experiment results, it has been found out that the products can be used as liquid fuel. According to the results of the experiments solid product yielding dropped from 90,85 % to 2,95 % in line with temperature rise. Moreover, FTIR and GC/MS analyses have proved that the products acquired not only consist of acetone, hydrocarbons, phenol-its derivatives and caffeine but they could be used as liquid fuel as well.
    Keywords: biomass; pyrolysis; brewed tea waste; bio fuel; recycling of tea waste
  • Brass Pickling Bath Waste Waters: Nitric Acid, Cu++, Zn++ and Pb++ Separation and Recycling by an Hybrid Process Diffusion Dialysis Cementation - Precipitation   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamel-Eddine Bouhidel, Afaf Lalmi, Chahrazad Amrane 
    Abstract: research work applies a clean technology to treat the concentrated waste waters of a used HNO3 brass pickling bath issued from a large industrial plant. The literature review shows the originality of this topic which has been rarely studied. An hybrid process is applied to separate the mixture nitric acid - dissolved metals (Cu++, Zn++ and Pb++) through the following steps:rn Diffusion dialysis to separate, purify and recycle the HNO3 excess;rn Selective precipitation of Pb++ as Pb3( PO4 )2 at a low pH;rn Cementation of Cu by Zn from the mixture Cu++ / Zn++;rn Crystallization or precipitationof the pure Zn(NO3)2 remaining solution.rnExcellent laboratory scale results have bee obtained. They constitute a feasible alternative to the actual destructive process based on HNO3 neutralization and metallic hydroxides precipitation with serious drawbacks: Loss of an expensive acid, pollution by nitrates, consumption of alcali and an expensive difficult sludge management ( filtration , storage , fate ).rn
    Keywords: brass pickling bath, nitric acid, diffusion dialysis, metals recovery, cementation, plating industry

Special Issue on: "GCGW-14 "Global Warming and its Energy Solutions,"

  • Causes of Global Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Cuixiang Zhong 
    Abstract: The authors recent research on the origin and evolution of Earth shows that with the growth of Earths mass, Earth can absorb more and more gas molecules from the cosmic space, including water vapor and carbon dioxide produced by the combustion of the Sun, and the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases have caused global warming. Additionally, the author has also discovered that volcanism can obviously alter the orbit of the Earth and therefore is another key factor for climate change. The latter research mainly includes the derivation of a formula on volcanic eruption changing the earths revolution speed and another formula on the earths revolution speed variation causing the Earths orbital variation. According to these formulas, through computers high precision computation, the author found that volcanic eruptions at a certain scale can indeed cause the Earths orbital variation, thus causing global warming or cooling, even making the Earth enter an interglacial period or a glacial period.
    Keywords: global climate change; glacial period; interglacial period; volcanism; orbital variation
  • The Impacts of Vehicle Development on Beijings Climate Change and Relevant Countermeasures   Order a copy of this article
    by Guanhua Yue, Yinghan Yu, Haiyao Miao 
    Abstract: The sharp increase of motor vehicle uses greatly increases traffic pressure, and vehicle emissions are one of the main sources leading to haze weather and other climate change problems. An investigation has been undertaken to review Beijings vehicle development and pollutant emissions trends in recent years. Our data showed that the number of Beijings automobile ownership has been ranked top in China in recent years, nitrogen oxides emissions are higher than that in other fields, and CO2 emissions is about 10% of the total. Furthermore, the PM2.5 concentration in some major traffic areas of Beijing are monitored, the results showed that there is a PM2.5 pollutant peak at the height of 30m-40m and a lowest PM2.5 concentration at 12:00am-16:00pm on a working day. Finally, by comparing the differences in the vehicles number and management policy among major cities in the word, the author put forward some countermeasures for vehicle administration in Beijing.
    Keywords: Beijing; vehicle development; urban traffic; pollutant emissions; PM2.5; haze weather; climate change; policy; differences; countermeasures.
  • Impact of Global Warming on Thermal Performance of Domestic Buildings using Probabilistic Climate Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Tian, Pieter de Wilde 
    Abstract: The uncertainty in climate change predictions is an important factor in research into the impact of global warming on the thermal environment of buildings. This paper explores the impact of climate change on a domestic building in the UK, and assesses the measures that can be taken for better adaptation to such changes. Probabilistic climate change projections (UKCP09) are used to explore the uncertainties in predictions of annual heating energy, carbon emissions, and overheating risk due to climate change for a representative case study house. Global sensitivity analysis methods are implemented to identify key variables affecting these three performance indicators. Simulations indicate that the uncertainties in overheating risk will become significantly larger over time than uncertainties in heating energy and carbon emissions. For this case study building, the room heating set-point temperature has more influence on heating energy use compared to continuous/intermittent heating mode. The energy use of appliances is the most influential source for carbon emissions in this house.
    Keywords: climate change; residential buildings; ground source heat pump; uncertainty analysis; sensitivity analysis

Special Issue on: "Developments in Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage,"

  • Supercritical drying: A promising technique on synthesis of sorbent for CO2 capture   Order a copy of this article
    by Yong Kong, Xiaodong Shen, Sheng Cui, Maohong Fan 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present a new technique, supercritical drying (SCD), for CO2 capture, utilization and storage (CCUS). To investigate the effect of drying methods on the structure and CO2 capture performance of an aerogel sorbent, amine hybrid silica aerogel (AHSA) was prepared by SCD and ambient pressure drying (APD). The characterization results of N2 adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the pore structure and surface amine content of the sorbent are significantly improved because of the use of SCD. The CO2 adsorption capacities of AHSA dried by SCD are much higher than that of AHSA dried by APD. The CO2 adsorption kinetics of the adsorbent under different conditions was also investigated. The results reveal that the sorbent preparation method is inspiring and its resulting sorbent is dynamic in low-concentration CO2 capture.
    Keywords: CO2 capture; supercritical drying; aerogel; sorbent; adsorption
  • Analysis of the Impact of CO2 Content on the Physical Properties of the Liquid Phase Mixtures in Oil Production Wells   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiaming Zhang, Xiaodong Wu, Zhangxin Chen, Jingyao Wang, Zongxiao Ren 
    Abstract: CO2 injection not only enhances oil recovery dramatically, but also it has a potential to reduce the greenhouse effect. During the process of CO2 displacement, when CO2 breaks through in oil production wells, CO2 content will impact the phase state and physical properties of the liquid phase mixture in wellbore. As a result, it will affect the calculation of temperature and pressure in oil production wells. Therefore, it is unacceptable to use the conventional black-oil model for calculating the phase state of miscible fluids. For dealing with this problem, we use a gas-liquid flash theory and a compositional model to develop a new model. The Jilin oilfield is used as a case study; the phase state (gas, liquid or gas-liquid) and physical properties of the liquid phase mixture (including CO2 and hydrocarbons) under initial conditions are calculated by this new model. The results indicate that the molar content of CO2 has a great impact on the physical properties of the liquid phase mixture in oil production wells under certain temperature and pressure. A scientific guide for the calculation of temperature and pressure in oil production wells can be provided with the developed model.
    Keywords: CO2 displacement; gas-liquid equilibrium; constituent; flash
  • Improving Water-Alternating-CO2 Flooding of Heterogeneous, Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs Using Ensemble Optimization Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Changlin Liao, Xinwei Liao, Longxin Mu, Xianghong Wu, Jing Chen, Hongna Ding, Feng Xu 
    Abstract: Injecting CO2 into reservoir has been proven to be not only a feasible method for improving ultimate oil recovery, but also reducing CO2 emissions and greenhouse effects. In this paper, the advantages of optimization algorithm and numerical simulation are combined to establish mathematics model of production optimization of Water-Alternate-Gas (WAG) flooding. Augmented Lagrange function (ALF) and logarithm transformation (LT) are applied to convert constrained problems into unconstrained ones. The ensemble optimization algorithm (EOA) is used to solve the latter. Then, the optimization technology of reservoir production is formed. The optimization technology is applied in a low permeability oil reservoir to test its feasibility of improving oil production. The results indicate that the CO2 swept efficiency, miscible region and recovery, can be effectively improved by the optimization technology which increases the economic benefit of the reservoir.
    Keywords: CO2 Injection; CO2 storage; Ensemble optimization algorithm; WAG; Oil reservoir
  • Implementing carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) in the circular economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Wojciech Budzianowski 
    Abstract: The circular economy relies on closing materials loops and using renewable energy sources (RES). It benefits from turning wastes into resources thus reduces pollution and improves local resource base. It is therefore a useful strategy for the valorisation of CO2, which is today mostly released into the atmosphere. The current conceptual study shows that in order to stabilise atmospheric CO2 concentration below 500 ppm CO2 by 2100, the future global circular economy will require high penetration of RES and energy efficiency together with the implementation of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS). CCUS needs to be configured to close carbon loops and fit into the future rich matrix of technologies. Preferable CCUS technological options need to meet the requirements of cost-effectiveness and fitting local conditions. This study focuses on analysing (i) symbioses between CCUS and other co-existing technologies, (ii) economic instruments suitable for implementing CCUS in the circular economy, (iii) techno-economic performance of CCUS and (iv) impacts of CCUS implemented in the circular economy on economic development. Thus CCUS is put in a perspective that will allow for optimal CCUS configuration based on informed decisions. The results emphasise that in the short term (a few decades), CCUS will need to combine the utilisation and storage of CO2, focusing on the deep reduction of CO2 emissions. In the long term (beyond 2050-2100), the CO2 storage option might be no longer required while the CO2 utilisation coupled to RES will still provide carbon resources for the circular economy. Choices regarding CCUS are highly complex and interdisciplinary conceptual studies are needed to guide future low-carbon transformations.
    Keywords: circular economy; CCUS configuration; symbiosis; economic instrument; business line; economic development
  • The influence of Carbon Capture and Compression Unit on the Characteristics of Ultramodern Combined Cycle Power Plant   Order a copy of this article
    by Janusz Kotowicz, Mateusz Brzęczek, Marcin Job 
    Abstract: In this paper the influence of carbon capture and compression unit on the characteristics of ultramodern combined cycle power plant is presented. The chemical absorption of the CO2 from the flue gases using MEA in the carbon capture unit was used. The effective use of heat recovered from the turbine blade cooling air in order to increase the efficiency of combined cycle power plant with the carbon capture and compression unit is proposed. The power plant is analyzed in a wide range of compression ratios and temperatures in the gas turbine. Thermodynamic and ecological characteristics of this combined cycle unit as a function of the basic operating parameters are made. The equation connecting the efficiency of combined cycle power plant with and without the carbon capture and compression unit is proposed. The calculations indicate that the reduction of energy consumption of the absorbent by 1 MJ/kgCO2 causes an increase in net electric efficiency of the unit by 1.25 percentage points. The analyzed combined cycle power plants are characterized by the highest electricity generation efficiency achievable for large energy units and exceptionally low CO2 emissions, lower than 41 kg/MWh throughout the analyzed range of compression ratio.
    Keywords: carbon capture, compression unit, post-combustion, combined cycle, gas turbine, chemical absorption, thermodynamic analysis, ecological analysis, CO2 emissions,
  • Upgrading the integration of supercritical coal-fired power plant with post-combustion CO2 capture process through process simulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Chen, Xiaoyan Liu 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to alleviate the negative effect of post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) process on the generating efficiency of a 600 MWe supercritical coal-fired power plant (CFPP) through modelling and simulation. Steady state models for a 600 MWe supercritical CFPP and a MEA-based PCC plant with corresponding compression unit were developed and integrated in Aspen Plus. In the two basic cases with steam extracted from different locations, efficiency penalty of 14.48% points and 11.89% points were caused, respectively. Subsequently, four steps were taken to improve the overall performance of the integrated process, which involves: (1) waste heat recovery, (2) throttling loss reduction, (3) capture flowsheet modification, and (4) temperature difference narrowing. From the final simulation results, the efficiency penalty is reduced to 8.07% points. This study indicates that appropriate flowsheet modifications for the integrated process can significantly improve the overall energy efficiency.
    Keywords: process simulation; flowsheet modification; supercritical coal-fired power plant; post-combustion CO2 capture; efficiency penalty.
  • Process Simulation and Energy consumption for CO2 Capture with different flowsheets   Order a copy of this article
    by Boyang Xue, Yanmei Yu, Jian Chen 
    Abstract: In this work, a systematic simulation study of post-combustion CO2 capture process is presented. Including six individual process modifications and six combinations of process modifications, thirteen different process configurations are simulated using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) solutions. Process modifications presented a good performance with respect to the reduction of energy consumption. It is carried out with 3.45% to 13.45% of reduction for MEA and 2.36% to 14.10% for DEA. Furthermore, a detailed analysis is presented to study the effect of three significant parameters in capture process, i.e., CO2 loading of lean amine solvent, pinch of heat exchanger and stripper pressure. This work presents the influence of the combination of solvent and process, as well as the combination of different processes on energy consumption, which are essential in post-combustion process design to make optimization strategy.
    Keywords: CO2 capture, absorption, process simulation, flowsheets, energy consumption

Special Issue on: "IJGW "Climate Literacy and Innovations in Climate Change Education,"

  • Moving beyond scientific knowledge: Leveraging participation, relevance, and interconnectedness for climate education   Order a copy of this article
    by Lauren B. Allen, Kevin Crowley 
    Abstract: Climate change requires a massive global response: individuals, communities, regions, and nations all need to make substantial change to current habits and behaviours. Education is an important part of changing habit and behaviour, yet most contemporary climate change education focuses primarily on individuals knowledge about climate science, which research suggests has limited utility in supporting collective response to climate change. This article proposes a new focus on educational intervention that is sensitive to the shared need for rapid, collective impact. Drawing on socio-cultural learning theory and a review of research on climate change learning, we argue that interventions based on three core principlesparticipation, relevance, interconnectednessare more likely to result in people taking steps to respond to climate change than interventions based on knowledge acquisition alone.
    Keywords: Climate education, climate change learning, limitations of climate knowledge acquisition, informal learning, participation for climate education, relevance for climate education, interconnectedness, collective efficacy, collective impact, socio-cultural learning, collective response to climate change
  • Categorizing Students Evaluations of Evidence and Explanations About Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Doug Lombardi, Elliot Bickel, Carol Brandt, Colin Burg 
    Abstract: Just as scientists evaluate explanations of climate change, students should also engage in critically evaluative practices when studying global warming. The purpose of the present study was to investigate middle school students evaluations when they examined different explanations for the causes of climate change. We observed four distinct categories of evaluation in student explanations about how evidence texts related to climate change models: (a) erroneous evaluation, (b) descriptive evaluation, (c) relational evaluation, and (d) critical evaluation. These findings allow us to better understand and recognize types of student thinking, so that we may be able to better implement instruction that promotes critical evaluation about climate change and other complex scientific topics, as is called for by recent science education reform efforts.
    Keywords: climate change, science education, evaluation skills, critical thinking

Special Issue on: "Climate Literacy and Innovations in Climate Change Education,"

  • Lived experience of climate change a digital storytelling approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Otto 
    Abstract: While the term climate change is firmly anchored in the global discourse, its visibility is often vague and subliminal. Education
    Keywords: digital storytelling; climate change; lived experience; higher education; interdisciplinary; e-learning; blended-learning; sustainable development; virtual learning; constructivism
  • Climate Change Education and Literacy at the Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences of the University of Chile   Order a copy of this article
    by Maisa Rojas, Claudia Mac-Lean, Juan Morales, Andres Monares 
    Abstract: Considering the role that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) play in terms of catalysing change within societies, over the past years, sustainability initiatives within HEIs have flourished worldwide. Likewise, the scientific evidence of anthropogenic climate change has been on the political and academic agenda for decades, thus the importance of ameliorating climate change education and literacy both at the society and university training levels. Accordingly, certain questions arise: What are the most effective current climate change educational methodologies? Which road map would be the most appropriate to be suggested to HEIs to promote climate change literacy for future professionals? In order to begin addressing these questions, the Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences of the University of Chile (FCFM) approach to climate change teaching and literacy is here described. The later contemplates the history of the institutionalisation of sustainability at the FCFM, collection of courses and Minors for students which incorporate climate change related-topics, as well as climate change related research centres.
    Keywords: climate change, global warming, education, literacy, sustainability, engineering, sciences.
  • Making climate change public? A dramaturgically inspired case-study of learning through transition management   Order a copy of this article
    by Katrien Van Poeck, Joke Vandenabeele, Gert Goeminne 
    Abstract: This article reports on an in-depth case study aimed at understanding the process of public-formation around contested sustainability issues such as climate change. We analyse a so-called transition arena established by an urban government in order to realise a climate neutral city through a transition management process. Scrutinising this case, we are particularly interested in the interrelatedness of educational and political processes in such a non-formal learning setting. That is, we build on this empirical analysis so as to further conceptualise educations role in tackling societal challenges. Therefore, we combine a conceptual framework drawing on Noortje Marres distinction between privatisating and public-ising forms of issue formation with a dramaturgical analytical framework that puts the setting in which public participation takes place centre stage. This performative perspective allows us to grasp the co-production of public and issue, that is to say the concrete ways in which the design of a setting shapes and transforms not only the issue at stake but also the public involved in it. Connecting our findings to recent theory development in (environmental and sustainability) education research allows us to conceptualise climate literacy and teaching and learning about global climate change as a political-educational process. The development of a climate literate public, we argue, cannot be limited to learning predefined answers but should rather enable people to think critically in relation to taken-for-granted norms by opening-up democratic spaces where people can discuss and discover options through the exploration, evaluation, and critique of emerging ideas and the creative contribution to their development.
    Keywords: education; climate change; global warming; transition management; controversy; environmental literacy; case study; public pedagogy; dramaturgical analysis; climate change education; environmental education

Special Issue on: "GCGW-14 Global Warming and its Energy Solutions,"

    by Tahir Abdul Hussain Ratlamwala 
    Abstract: The present study focuses on a comparative exergo-environmental analysis of two solar based integrated systems for hydrogen production. Two integrated systems namely (a) solar heliostat field system integrated with Cu-Cl cycle and Kalina cycle (as system 1) and (b) solar heliostat field system integrated with Cu-Cl cycle, Kalina cycle and photocatalytic reactor (as system 2) are considered. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of varying the operating parameters such as solar light intensity and ambient air temperature on the exergo-environmental performance of these integrated systems. The results show that the environmental impact factors of systems 1 and 2 vary from 0.54 to 0.52 and 0.45 to 0.44, respectively with increase in solar light intensity. The environmental impact index of systems 1 and 2 are noticed to be varying from 1.2 to 1.1 and 0.8 to 0.78, respectively with rise in ambient temperature. The results obtained show that system 2 performs better than system 1 from exergo-environmental perspective due to better utilization of solar light intensity.
    Keywords: Exergo-environment; heliostat field system; Cu-Cl cycle; photocatalytic; hydrogen
  • A power generation system based on ferriferous oxide magnetic fluid   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Mingjun, Luo Feng, Xu Shuangyan, Zhang Huan 
    Abstract: Global warming refers to the climate system warming by the Greenhouse effect, and the new energy will create positive change by using less coal and oil. In this paper, a new micro-distributed energy supply system which is redesigned based on the published designs. It presents experimental findings using this device and theoretical analysis for its performance. The paper discusses the relationships between the electromagnetic force, velocity and temperature. The measured data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The experiments show that a higher electric output can be achieved by increasing the flow velocity and magnetic strength.
    Keywords: power generation system, ferriferous oxide magnetic fluid, MHD set-up, electromotive force
  • A Numerical Investigation on How to Efficiently Utilize Carbon Dioxide in Convection-based Energy Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuhui Cao, Xin-Rong Zhang 
    Abstract: Owing to the environmentally benign nature and the special property variation at supercritical pressure, greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is regarded as the best retrofit to meet the future demand on long-term environmental-friendly working fluids. However, how to efficiently utilize carbon dioxide to reduce energy consumption and mitigate global warming is still an unsolved problem. In this paper, the natural convection heat transfer of carbon dioxide under supercritical pressure condition in a small cavity is studied for the first time. The potential of carbon dioxide as working fluid is quantitatively estimated in terms of enhancing heat transfer and reducing the cost of heat exchangers. It is found that the operating conditions including the temperature, temperature difference and pressure all have significant effects on heat transfer rate due to the special property variations of the CO2 fluid. Furthermore, a heat transfer correlation is proposed for the first time to quantitatively describe the natural convection heat transfer of CO2 at supercritical pressure in a small cavity.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide; natural convection; heat transfer
  • Methane production from napier grass by two-stage anaerobic digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Yuwadee Sangsil, Suchat Leungprasert, Suriya Sawanon 
    Abstract: Digestion of napier grass was investigated in two-stage anaerobic reactors. The reactor volume was 4 and 5 litres for the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors, respectively. The acidogenic reactors were fed once daily at 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 ml/day with a slurry of napier grass. The organic loading rates (OLRs) were 0.60, 0.90, 1.20, 1.50 and 1.80 kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)/ Mixed ruminal microorganisms from cows were used as the inoculum. The pH was adjusted to 7.5 for all methanogenic reactors at the start-up period. The reactors were operated at 30
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion;bioenergy;biogas;global warming;methane;napier grass
  • Assessing the potential impact of future precipitation trends on urban drainage systems under multiple climate change scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Hua Bai, Xin Dong, Siyu Zeng, Jining Chen 
    Abstract: Investigations of climate change impacts on urban drainage system have been discerned worldwide in the past decades and will attract more attention in the coming future. This paper presents an approach to assessing the possibility of extreme rainfall events under variation greenhouse gas emission scenarios as well as a case study in Hefei city, China. Future precipitation projections were downscaled in a spatiotemporal way firstly, and summarized into Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The changes of the IDF were then compared subsequently between the present condition and the future scenarios. The results indicate that, the local rainfall regime will generally stay the same or slightly increase for the drizzles, but the extreme events will become more intensive and frequent. Although uncertainty has been found among the different emission scenarios and the various future periods, it is still notable to take climate change into consideration to deal urban drainage system issues.
    Keywords: Climate change; urban drainage systems; statistical precipitation downscaling; multiple scenarios
    by Yacine Moussaoui, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Brahim Youcef Meklati 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT Airborne particulates were collected daily during three year seasons by using medium-volume aspirating systems equipped with PM10 inertial impactors. The organic fraction was solvent extracted with soxhlet, fractioned and cleaned-up through column chromatography, then processed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors. Chemical analyses allowed to characterize a set of groups of compounds, namely n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and highly-polar chemicals. Besides that, the potential sources of pollution were investigated by analyzing the n-alkane carbon preference index and selected diagnostic ratios among PAH and NPAH concentrations. Total concentrations of n-alkanes varied widely over the study period (from 48 to 170 ng m-3); PAHs behaved similarly (2
    Keywords: particulate organic matter, n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Nitrated PAHs (NPAHs), molecular markers, atmospheric pollution

Special Issue on: "ICCE-2014 Clean Energy to Combat Global Warming,"

  • Using Emission Index To Determine Energy Efficiency And Environmental Parameters Of A Turbofan Engine At Various Flight Phases   Order a copy of this article
    by Yasin Sohret, T. Hikmet Karakoc, Onder Turan 
    Abstract: In this study, an unordinary methodology for energy efficiency calculation of a turbofan engine is introduced. Emission indexes of the engine are used to find out energy efficiency and novel parameters for environmental impact assessment. Energy efficiency are proven at take-off, climb-out and approach phases of the flight for the turbofan engine. Additionally, power and energy emission index variations of the turbofan engine for carbon monoxide and unburned hydro carbon constituents of the exhaust are presented in the paper. As a result of the study, energy efficiency of the turbofan engine is determined 35.68%, 41.12% and 36.05 at take-off, climb-out and approach flight phases respectively.
    Keywords: Turbofan, emission, aircraft, energy, environmental impact
  • Numerical modelling of effects of hydrogen supply on combustion behaviours of low calorific value coal gases   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa İLBAŞ, Serhat KARYEYEN 
    Abstract: In this study, the effect of the hydrogen supply on combustion performances and emission levels of low calorific value coal gases has been numerically investigated in a model combustor. The numerical modelling of turbulent diffusion flames has been performed by using a CFD Code. k-Ɛ model of turbulent flow, the PDF/Mixture Fraction model of diffusion flame and P-1 radiation model were used in the present study. The flames of coal gases for pure and hydrogen supply cases were modelled to predict its combustion behaviours. There are five cases of testing, i.e. pure generator gas or pure blast-furnace gas and fuels supplied 4%, 5%, 10% and 15% hydrogen by mass. According to the predictions, the combustion performances of generator and blast-furnace gases were improved by supplying hydrogen progressively. Similarly, NOX formations of generator and blast-furnace gases were increased due to increment of its flame temperatures depending on hydrogen amounts.
    Keywords: Coal Gases, Hydrogen Supply, Combustion and Emissions
  • A review on socio-economic aspects of sustainable biofuels   Order a copy of this article
    by A. K. Azad, M. G. Rasul, M. M. K. Khan, Subhash C. Sharma 
    Abstract: Biofuels are renewable eco-fuel, produced from biological resources. They are classified into 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations based on their feedstocks. The 1st generation biofuels are produced from edible oil sources which have been the main source of biofuel production. However, the biofuel production is progressively moving towards the 2nd generation biofuels which are produced mainly from the non-edible vegetable oils and animal fats. They are also called advanced biofuel since the 1st generation biofuels are unlikely to be sustainable due to facing social, economic and environmental challenges resulting from increased food price and pressure on land uses. Consequently, technologies are starting to develop for alternative feedstocks in an attempt to overcome major shortcomings of 1st generation biodiesels. The 2nd generation biofuel can be a sustainable alternative of 1st generation biofuel. However, the 2nd generation biofuels are not being produced commercially yet because they require more sophisticated processing equipment, more investment per unit fuel production and large scale facilities than the 1st generation biofuel. The study reviewed and discussed about socio-economic aspects of the sustainable biofuel in Australia because economy is seen to be a key driver for use of biofuels. Recent researches focused on sustainable biofuel production, their commercialization worldwide. The world biofuel scenario is presented in this study. Total biofuel production and consumption as well as present production facilities available in Australia are also outlined. The study briefly discussed about Australian energy economy such as energy export, import and trades etc. The study concluded that the 2nd generation biofuel can be considered as sustainable alternatives to petroleum fuel in transport sector providing great economic and environmental benefits to Australia.
    Keywords: Sustainable biofuel; Socio-economic aspects; Second generation biofuel; Energy consumption; Biofuel trades; Energy challenges
  • Implementation of a sustainable energy action plan for municipality of Ptolemaida   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikolaos Margaritis, Petros Dallas, Panagiotis Grammelis 
    Abstract: The first step in the implementation of a SEAP is the collaboration of a BEI, as it will provide knowledge of the nature of the entities emitting CO2 on the municipalitys territory, and will thus help select the appropriate actions. In this paper the basic methodology is presented, step by step, in order to develop a BEI for the municipality of Ptolemaida in Western Macedonia Region, Greece. According to the results, the final energy consumption of Ptolemaida city amounts to 407.994,00 MWh. Through the use of appropriate selected emission factors the carbon footprint of Ptolemaida was deducted. According to the BEI of Ptolemaida during the year 2010 were emitted 172.518 tn CO2 or 5, 37 tn CO2/capita.
    Keywords: covenant of Mayors;sustainable energy action plan;baseline emission inventory; CO2 emission factors; electric energy consumption; thermal energy consumption; public and residential building sector; tertiary and agricultural sector
    by Mehmet Ziya Sogut, Murat Paşa Uysal, Yavuz Gazibey, Arif Hepbasli 
    Abstract: One of the important reasons for global warming and climate change is regarded as the improper management of fossil energy consumption. There may be various models or approaches to energy management (EM). However, strategic EM and its applications are still away from achieving their goals. In this regard, the main objectives of the present study are to design, develop and propose a knowledge framework primarily based on an EM concept map for a holistic EM. Aligned with the research purposes, a qualitative four-phase study was conducted, and the research question was formulated as: What would be the components and concepts required for the holistic EM? The study also integrated systematic literature review (SLR) and focus group discussion (FGD) techniques. Initially, a list of the key EM concepts was formed and a preliminary concept map was constructed. Then, the final version of the concept map was achieved through several iterative revisions and FGDs. This concept map may be seen as a complementary and contributory tool for strategy development and decision-making processes in the EM knowledge domain. It is hoped that the study may extend the previous knowledge both by the tools it has utilized and approaches it has adopted for the holistic EM
    Keywords: Energy management, sustainability, concept maps, strategy, energy policy
  • Arsenic pollution of soils and morbidity prevalence in Racha-Lower Svaneti district of Georgia   Order a copy of this article
    by Vakhtang Gvakharia, Archil Chirakadze, Zakaria Buachidze, Irine Khomeriki, Maiko Chokheli, WIlliam A. Toscano, Leila Gverdtsiteli, Maia Stamateli 
    Abstract: Approximately 120 thousand tons of various molecular forms of highly toxic arsenic waste are located in mountainous areas of Georgia as an inheritance after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The heavy contamination of soil around crumbling storage areas results in pollution and high exposure of local communities, livestock, poultry and wildlife to arsenic.Relative risks for13 diseases in adults: skin diseases, pigmentation maculae, cancer; epigenetic, mental and behavioural, endocrine, urogenital disorders; respiratory, neural, gastrointestinal diseases; tumours, allergy, injury and intoxications are reported. Future work involving transdisciplinary research of epigenetic abnormalities and mental disorders in adults and children including methods of psychological testing are discussed.
    Keywords: arsenic, waste, disposal, contamination, soil, morbidity, health-risk, Georgia
  • Gaseous fuel for lower emissions during the cold start and warming up of spark ignition engines   Order a copy of this article
    by Essam Abo-Serie 
    Abstract: Gasoline engines during cold starting (cranking) and warming-up duration, particularly, at low environmental temperatures have negative impact on air pollutions, especially for sub-zero degrees. Having to inject more fuel to achieve stable engine operation resulting in higher fuel consumptions and more engine-out emissions particularly hydrocarbons. In this study, fuel consumption, emissions and engine-start conditions have been examined using different gaseous fuels during the period from the ignition time until the catalyst reaching its lighting off temperature at no load conditions. The results showed that gaseous fuels reduces fuel consumption and emissions due to achieving substantial reduction in the number of engine cranking in addition to the inherent low emission characteristics of gaseous fuel. Hydrogen, in particular, showed superior performance in comparison to other examined gaseous fuels. The significant number of engine-start using 200 g of gaseous fuel particularly hydrogen makes the gaseous fuel viable to be used together with conventional liquid gasoline fuel.
    Keywords: gaseous fuel, gasoline engine, cold start; hydrogen fuel; engine cranking; cold start emissions; low temperature SIE emissions; engine warming up emissions; cranking time
  • Potential for efficiency improvement of 4-stroke marine diesel gensets by utilization of exhaust gas energy   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitrios Hountalas, Georgios Mavropoulos, Christos Katsanos, Stavros Daniolos, Iosif Dolaptzis, Nikolaos Mastorakis 
    Abstract: In the present paper it is examined the potential application of a Rankine Cycle exhaust gas heat recovery system which recovers and utilizes energy from the exhaust gas of 4-stroke marine diesel auxiliary unit before it is released to the atmosphere, increasing thus its total efficiency. For this purpose a thermodynamic simulation model of the Rankine Bottoming Cycle is used. Heat utilization is initially considered only from the main exhaust gas stream after the T/C turbine. As reference for the investigation are used the values from the official shop tests at various loads ranging from 25% up to 100%. From these using the Rankine cycle simulation model it is investigated the potential for increase of generated cycle power output and optimization of its efficiency. In addition it is examined the effect of working media by considering steam and an organic. The results derived reveal that there exists a significant potential for fuel saving by utilization of exhaust gas energy of auxiliary engines installed on commercial vessels.
    Keywords: Rankine Cycle; 4-Stroke Diesel Engine; Heat Recovery; Exhaust Gas
    by M. Ebrahim Poulad 
    Abstract: A technique is proposed and developed to predict the household hourly electricity demand. The developed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model of residential hourly demand is employed to estimate the potential impacts of Load Curtailment Activation (LCA) on electricity demand on the activation days. Results are separately discussed in two seasons: summer and winter. LCA occurs once per day for no more than four consecutive hours. Electricity demand increases dramatically after peaksaver/LCA is completed on July 6 and August 30 of 2010. Both days show saving if the data are not normalized. Unnormalized load reductions for individual event hours ranged between 0.35 and 0.64 kWh/h or 14% and 24%, respectively
    Keywords: Demand management; artificial neural network; greenhouse gas emmision; peaksaving; load curtailment activation
  • Sulphur Removal from Artvin-Yusufeli Lignite with Acidic Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Menderes Levent, Ömer Kaya, M.Muhtar Kocakerim, Özkan Küçük 
    Abstract: Abstract : In this study, the optimization of sulphure removal by H2O2 / H2SO4 solutions, and a limited kinetic measurements by H2O2/HCl solutions have been carried over Artvin/Yusufeli lignite with higher content of sulphure. In kinetic measurements which have beeen carried out so far, only the effect of temperature on removal of sulphure has been investigated. By keeping all other parameters constant, with increments in temperature at different times, it has been seen that removal of sulphure is increased in obtained data. A statistical experimental arrangement which has six parameters and for each parameter there is twenty five experiments with five levels. In generally, at the end of experiments pyritic sulphure, total sulphure, organic sulphure and ash removal rates have been determined. According to statistical experimental arrangement, optimum sulphure removal and ash removal ratios are determined. The obtained yields in removal of pyritic sulphure is 97.85 %, in removal of total sulphure is 56.54 %, in removal of organic sulphure is 21.33 % and in removal of ash is 61.52 %. According to carried out variance analysis, in removal of pyritic and total sulphure, all parameters are effective, but, in removal of organic sulphure, acid concentration and particle size are not effective, and in removal of ash, only, acid concentration is not effective, however, it has been seen that all other parameters are effective.
    Keywords: Keywords: desulphurisation, pyritic sulphur, total sulphur, organic sulphur, lignite, hydrogen peroxide
  • Clean Development Mechanism in Iran: Does It Need A Revival?   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Alizadeh, Mehdi Majidpour, Reza Maknoon, Saeed Shafiei Kaleibari 
    Abstract: This paper aimed to study Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Iran. Greenhouse Gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. CDM projects are useful tools to reduce these costs. Kyoto Protocol includes three mechanisms, namely: emission trading, joint implementation and CDM. CDM is the only mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in which developing countries can participate. Comprehensive interviews with experts from Iranian oil and energy ministries and Department of Environment (DOE) resulted in detecting the missed opportunities for CDM in Iran. Lack of long term planning for the Kyoto Protocol, limitation of technology and finance, lack of regulation and functionality of a financial system, and international sanctions are the most significant obstacles for implementation of CDM projects in Iran. At the end, a comprehensive analysis for utilizing CDM to Greenhouse Gas reduction and climate change mitigation is presented.
    Keywords: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Kyoto Protocol
  • Application of life cycle assessment to the case studies new nitrogen fertiliser production   Order a copy of this article
    by Tayeb Serradj, Ali Makhlouf, Monia Serradj Ali Ahmed 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to perform well-to-pump LCA to investigate the energy balance and environmental impact of nitrogen fertiliser production using natural gas as feedstock. The energy requirements and GHG emissions were compared with the values which one finds in the BAT to explore the environmental performance of the fertiliser integrated plant located in developing country as Algeria. The goal of the study is to establish the environmental profile of the fertiliser. Five impact categories were selected for the study. The system boundaries were defined for a 'cradle to gate' approach, including extraction of natural resources, intermediate products, and production. The Sulfazot system, as new nitrogen fertiliser, comprises the stages of extraction, processing and pipeline transport of natural gas, ammonia synthesis, production of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate and Sulfazot manufacture. The results showed that the production of a tonne of sulfazot requires 142 M3 of water and 95 MJ of natural gas. The natural gas combustion contributes with climate warming by formation of greenhouse gases, which is about 12.29 T CO2 equivalent/FU, with the production of Tropospheric Ozone which is 25.94x10-3 T TOPP equivalent/FU. The acidification potential is of 32.53x10-3 T SO2 equivalent/FU and the cumulated energy requirement is 178.4 GJ/T of Sulfazot.
    Keywords: LCA; nitrogen fertiliser; environmental impact; energy requirements; greenhouse gas; developing country.
  • Modeling of ammonia combustion characteristics at preheating combustion: NO formation analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jun Li, Hongyu Huang, Haoran Yuan, Tao Zeng, Masayoshi Yagami, Noriyuki Kobayashi 
    Abstract: In order to improve the combustion characteristics and flame stability of NH3-air flame, preheating the reactants at different temperature was proposed in this study. We focused on the formation of NO at NH3 preheated combustion because NH3 is a typical fuel-nitrogen. The NO formation characteristics of premixed NH3air mixtures at various preheating temperatures of the reactants were numerically analyzed. The Miller and Bowman mechanism was applied in the numerically calculation of all species. The results show that the formation reaction rates of thermal NO from N + O2 → NO + O, and N +OH →NO + H increase with the increase of preheating temperatures of the reactants at fuel lean condition. Higher decomposition reaction rate of N + NO → N2 +O at stoichiometric condition finally results in a lower formation of NO comparing to that at fuel lean condition. At fuel rich condition, the reactions of NH2 + NO → N2 +H2O, NH + NO → NNH + OH have grate effect on the decomposition of NO at all preheating temperatures of the reactants, which results in an extremely low formation of NO, showing a potential for reducing NO formation in NH3 combustion.
    Keywords: ammonia; preheating combustion; NO formation; NO formation pathway
    by Zakaria Buachidze, Archil Chirakadze, Akaki Gigineishvili, Vakhtang Gvakharia, Teimuraz Chichua, Lali Gurchumelia, Irine Khomeriki, Tamar Berberashvili, William Toscano, Giorgi Oniashvili, Garegin Zakharov, Mike Wireman 
    Abstract: Georgia could serve as a unique natural testing ground for the development of green industry using advanced technologies for industrial processing of hazardous waste.The goal of the reported work was to improve on the current methods of reprocessing waste by using a combination of a microwave enhanced method of processing used tires and plastic residues with the microwave enhanced processing of manganese bearing waste and low-grade ores into manganese oxide concentrate. The manganese concentrate could be processed into high-grade manganese alloys (metallic manganese, low-carbon ferromanganese, and composite manganese alloys). Microwave heating required lower energy and resulted in a two-fold increase in yield.
    Keywords: hazardous waste, used tires, discarded plastic polymers, low-carbon manganese alloys, fuel, manganese oxide, “green industry”, microwave heating, manganese containing feed additives, composite alloys
    by Nazenin Gure, Mustafa Yilmaz 
    Abstract: Aimed Contribution: Reducing the fuel consumption via car window film implementation will also reduce vehicle-sourced emissions, help to combat global warming; thus, contribute to the economy eventually. Focused Problem: During summer, solar radiation exposure heats up the car and mobile air conditioning (MAC) usage turns into a must. As a result of MAC usage, fuel consumption and vehicle emissions increase. Each of these factors has global economic and health impacts due to imported energy sources and formed Green House Gases (GHGs) effects. Proposed Solution: By car window film implementation, blocked radiation into car cabin will reduce peak cabin temperature of the parked car. Hence, MAC will then consume less energy. This energy saving for diesel, gasoline and hybrid cars -valid for electric cars- also has economic contribution even after the filming cost is subtracted. Research Perspective: Three different types of filming implemented separately on tinted and clear rear and side windows with clear and 20% shaded windshield of the parked passenger cars for Geographic Europe (GE) and only European Union (EU) are analysed. Results: Regarding GE, 50 countries, and EU, 28 member countries, the best possibility has potential to decrease the sum of diesel and gasoline fuel consumption by 3.6 and 2.8 billion litres, reduce the passenger car sourced total GHG emissions by 34 and 27 billion kg and contribute to the economy by 5-year net savings of 270 and 226 billion $, respectively.
    Keywords: alternative solution via car window filming implementation; combat global warming; car window filming resulted benefits; car window filming around geographic Europe and the European Union; EU); vehicle emission reduction; global warming, car window filming; tinted car windows; visible light transmission laws; shaded windshield; parked car soak temperature; MAC; mobile air conditioning; global warming; GHGs; greenhouse gases; vehicle sourced air pollution; emission reduction; emission economy; air pollution economy; MAC fuel consumption; MAC energy saving; Europe; EU; European Union.
    by Archil Chirakadze, William Toscano, Vakhtang Gvakharia, Mike Wireman, Giorgi Kervalishvili, Lali Gurchumelia 
    Abstract: Experimental research was carried out using representative samples of copper processing waste and the manganese processing waste disposed in Georgia to achieve secondary recovery of valuable metals form the waste. Joint autoclave oxygen leaching of different compositions of low-grade ores and waste using microwave treated samples was studied to assess recovery of metals from waste and low-grade ores. The data showed that complex utilization of manganese and pyrite bearing waste can form the basis for a low-cost and environmentally-friendly industrial production of manganese oxide concentrates and low-carbon alloys, sulphur and copper compounds, and concentrates for gold and silver extraction.
    Keywords: manganese, copper, gold, waste, ore, autoclaving, environment

Special Issue on: "R&R2014 Application of Sustainable Technologies for Water and Waste Recycling and Reuse,"

  • Recycling of waste glass in concrete plant as aggregate and pozzolan replacement   Order a copy of this article
    by Cem Kılıcoğlu, Semra Çoruh 
    Abstract: Due to the environmental and the economic reasons, there has currently been a growing trend for the use of the industrial waste by-products as supplementary materials or as an admixture in the production of composite cement and concrete. Waste glasses cannot in general be recyled as a whole. In this study, waste glasses that are not possible to be recyled were used in concretes as a pozzolan and coarse aggregate, and thus those are provided to be used as if those were recyled. In the first group (I); waste glass (WGA) is considered as a fine aggregate in a concrete. The used WGA was reduced to 5-12 mm in size corresponding the proportions of 0-50% in the production of CEM I type cement and used goals 25 MPA and C35 MPa compressive strength. The other group (II); waste glass powder (WGP) were ground and incorporated into concrete with the levels of 5%, 15% and 30% by the weight of binder.Furthermore, two different W/C ratios 0.5 and 0.7 were used in this group repectively. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate these replacements. These tests were performed to investigate the workability, unit weight, compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete. The experimental results indicate for the group I; using WGA as aggregate did not have marked effect on the workability of concrete. For group II; the experimental results indicate that the mixtures which were ground with 5% waste glass as a pozzolan and 10% waste glass as fine aggregate gave compressive strength performance similar to the reference mixture. Higher percentage of waste glass (15%) replacement yielded lower strength values. This study shows that the use of waste glass materials in concretes reduces the costs of the concretes and also provides a partial solution for removing the waste glasses from the environment.
    Keywords: Waste Management, waste glass powder, concrete, strength
  • Solid Waste Collection Route Optimisation by Geographical Information System (GIS) in Fatih-Istanbul, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Goksel Demir, H. Kurtulus Ozcan, Perihan Kurt Karakus, Yener Bakis 
    Abstract: Uncontrolled urban population growth in metropolitan areas of developing countries in recent years has made solid waste management an important issue. Generally, collection and hauling efforts cover a substantial amount of total expenditures on the solid waste management by city authorities. Success of an integrated solid waste management system is directly proportional to the success of solid waste collection and transport systems since all depends on an even and a timely manner collection process. The more populated cities bring increasing difficulties on the reach and utilize services. In order to reduce cost and time on these services, it is very crucial for authorities to search for optimization possibilities. In this manner, for local authorities, one of the most important issues on solid waste management practices is an optimized solid waste collection function. An optimized collection function has become more important in metropolitan areas having improved and sophisticated road systems. In this study, in order to minimize the route and collection cost by employing GIS and using numerical road data, a solid waste collection route optimization study was carried in Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; collection; route optimisation; Geographical Information System (GIS); Fatih district; Istanbul
  • Oxidation prevention of silicon carbide powders   Order a copy of this article
    by Yilmaz Firat Birtane, Azade Yelten, Eray Erzi, Mustafa Merih Arikan, Suat Yilmaz 
    Abstract: Oxidation creates an important problem with the increasing temperature and additionally if one of the components contains an amount of carbon, then there will be a COx emission risk which has a detrimental effect for the atmosphere. One of the methods to prevent the oxidation of silicon carbide (SiC) is to coat it with Al2O3 which has high thermal stability. In this study, the properties of Al2O3 coated SiC composite powders were examined to prevent the oxidation of SiC particles by developing a thermal barrier coating and it is aimed to contribute for reducing the gases which make a greenhouse effect and cause global warming. Firstly, boehmite sol was prepared via the sol-gel route and then 5wt% beta-SiC (<100nm) nanosized particles were added to the boehmite sol and gelation was completed. Alumina coated SiC powders were heat treated at 100, 550, 1000, 1300 and 1600 C under dry air and argon atmospheres. Characterization analyses showed that alumina coated SiC particles underwent to slightly internal oxidation with the partial oxidation depending on the oxygen ion mobility during the transformation from boehmite to alumina in the interior atmosphere while alumina coated SiC particles gained oxidation resistance against the outer atmosphere.
    Keywords: oxidation behavior; sol-gel method; alumina/SiC composites