International Journal of Global Warming (42 papers in press)
- A method for estimating the cost to sequester carbon dioxide by delivering iron to the ocean
by Daniel Harrison
Abstract: If society wishes to limit the contribution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide to global warming then the need to find economical methods of CO2 sequestration is now urgent. Ocean iron fertilisation has been suggested as a low cost mitigation option to capture and store carbon. However previous methods of estimating the cost fail to account for many of the losses and offsets occurring over the storage period. A method for calculating the net carbon stored from iron fertilisation of high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions is provided here. The method involves first calculating the direct cost to create phytoplankton biomass in the surface ocean. The net amount of carbon stored is then calculated by considering the fraction of this carbon exported as deep as the permanent thermocline and subtracting losses due to: ventilation, nutrient stealing, greenhouse gas production, and CO2 emitted by the sequestration operation for a given storage period.
Commonly available iron fertiliser delivered by ship to the Southern Ocean is considered as a case study using parameters derived from previous fertilisation experiments and modelling studies. On average, a single fertilisation is found to result in a net sequestration of 0.01 t C km-2 sequestered for 100 years or more at a cost of US$457 per tonne CO2. Iron fertilisation experiments show high variability in the amount of biomass created and the fraction exported to depth, the range of uncertainty provides a risk of more carbon released to the atmosphere than sequestered for 100 years, or alternatively, reduced cost if optimistic parameters are assumed.
Previous estimates of cost fail to recognise the economic challenge of distributing low concentrations of iron over large areas of the ocean surface and the subsequent loss processes that result in only a small net storage of carbon per km2 fertilised. The cost could be lowered by the use of more energy efficient means to distribute the small amounts of iron required over large regions of remote ocean surface, by improving the performance of the iron fertiliser, or potentially by conducting fertilisation activities only under ideal oceanographic conditions.
Keywords: Ocean Iron Fertilisation; Cost; Ship Delivery; Carbon Storage; Carbon Sequestration; Ocean Fertilisation; Nutrient Stealing; Nitrous Oxide Production; Biological Carbon Pump.
- Green Postal Service Framework to Reduce CO2 Emissions in Postal Service Industry
by Jamshed Memon, Mueen Uddin, Mohd Zaidi Abd Rozan
Abstract: Reducing the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change in an attempt to tackle global warming issues is a challenge many companies and businesses are trying to undertake. Businesses across the globe need to take a leadership role in reducing their carbon footprints. This paper is about online delivery of mails. Like Electronic mail, online postal service will deliver mails electronically which will later be printed by service provider and delivered to destination. The theme behind research was to reduce the cost, time and carbon emission caused by conventional postal delivery system. This paper proposes a green postal service framework for all postal service providers to develop a common application to exchange mails destined to the location in their domain. This way mails will be electronically exchanged between service providers, operating anywhere in the world which will later be printed and delivered like a first class mail. It increases the efficiency of postal services and reduces the emission of greenhouse gases hazardous for global warming. An algorithm is designed to help postal service provider to shift to a new paradigm of electronic postal services to improve the quality of service. Results clearly show that by implementing proposed framework there is an enormous amount of decrease in over all carbon footprints and cost of doing business.
Keywords: Electronic mail; Global Warming; Green Postal Framework; Postal Services; Greenhouse Gases.
- Desertification and climate change: Saudi Arabian case
by Zekai Şen
Abstract: This paper concentrates on the possible relationships between the climate change and desertification in arid regions. The Arabian Peninsula (AP) and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are the subjects of particular interest. It is stated that the global warming will cause vertical expansion of air volumes over the three free water surfaces (Red Sea, Arabian Sea and Arabian Gulf) around the AP causing to air movement enhancement towards inlands and hydrological cycle intensification. Finally, for comparison purposes the rainfall predictions up to 2100 on the basis of NCAR-A2 scenario is given as the product of Quadrangle Downscaling (QD) methodology and its software as developed at the Prince Sultan Research Center for Desert, Water and Environment (PSRCDWE). It is shown that climate change may accelerate desertification at coastal areas of the AP.
Keywords: Climate change, desertification, rainfall, scenario, Arabian Peninsula
- Investigation of environmental impact caused by aircraft engines
by Onder Altuntas, T. Hikmet Karakoc, Arif Hepbasli
Abstract: The environmental effects of exhaust gas emissions from different types of spark ignitions (SIs)naturally aspirated and aircooled from piston-prop aircraft enginesat the landing and take-off (LTO) phase of flight-based operations are investigated in this study. The minimum natural resources effect was determined to be 1.37 MJ surplus energy/LTO in 320 in3 cylinder displacement and carburetor engine at the takeoff (TO) phase (one of the LTO phases). Besides this, the minimum human health effect was obtained to be 3.49E-07 DALY/LTO, and the minimum ecosystem quality effect was calculated to be 0.00805 PDF*m2yr/LTO in 320 in3 cylinder displacement and injected fuel system at the TO phase.
Keywords: Environmental analysis; environmental impacts; human health; ecosystem quality; natural resources.
- TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION AND THE COOLING EFFECTS ON THREE URBAN PARKS IN ANKARA, TURKEY
by Bayram Cemil Bilgili, Şükran Şahin, Oğuz Yılmaz, Fikret Gürbüz, Yeliz Kaşko Arıcı
Abstract: In this study, the effects of urban parks on temperature were investigated in the case of three urban parks (Altınpark, Gen
Keywords: park, cooling effect, plant material, urban heat island
- PLANNING MANAGEMENT ADAPTED TO CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS IN TERRESTRIAL WETLANDS AND GRASSLANDS
by Ákos Malatinszky, Szilvia Ádám, Eszter Falusi, Dénes Saláta, Károly Penksza
Abstract: Wetlands and grasslands are already seriously affected by climate change and global warming, and a main challenge for agriculture and nature conservation is, in parallel with mitigation, adaptation planning. Stakeholders of these areas play crucial role in their maintenance; therefore, they should be involved in the process of adaptation to integrate their interests and needs into the management plans. We started planning the process of implementing adaptation, while raising awareness as well, both at private (land owner and manager) and at public authority levels. A stakeholder dialogue was launched, focusing on their intense involvement to develop adaptive management of vulnerable natural areas in the K
Keywords: climate change, global warming, wetland, grassland, management, adaptation, nature conservation, land use, impact, Hungary
- TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF BTX COMPOUNDS IN BURSA/TURKEY ATMOSPHERE
by Sema Yurdakul, Mihriban Civan, Öznur Kuntasal, Gürdal Tuncel
Abstract: Ambient concentrations of C2-C12 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at Bursa, which is the fourth largest city of Turkey. Two measurement campaigns were carried out between September 14- November 6, 2005 and March 17 - May 10, 2006. Fifty one VOCs were regularly determined in each chromatogram. However, only BTX compounds are discussed in this study.
Concentrations of BTX compounds showed well-defined diurnal cycles. Concentrations increased starting at 06:00 am in the morning, reaching to a maximum somewhere between 9:00-11:00 am. Then concentration decreased, until the evening rush hour, owing to increasing mixing height during day time. Then concentrations of BTX increased in the afternoon rush hour which extended to 08:00 pm. BTX concentrations remained low throughout the night. High binary correlations between BTX compounds suggest a common source, which are traffic emissions. However, other non-traffic sources were also found to be effective, for benzene in the November- March campaign.
Keywords: Temporal variation; VOC; volatile organic compounds; BTX; benzene toluene ethylbenzene xylene; GC-FID; diurnal pattern of VOCs
- Climate Change: Knowledge, Attitude And Practice among the residents of Ifo LGA, Ogun State, South West, Nigeria - Challenges and Prospects towards site-specific interventions
by Olufunke Ebuehi, Olusola Olusanya
Abstract: The mean global temperature has increased and the global sea level has risen. A discernible human influence on the global climate leading to untoward effects on lives and properties is evident. rnrnThe study determined the knowledge, attitude and practice towards climate change among the residents of rural Ifo LGA in Ogun state, South West, Nigeria.rnrnA descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 410 residents in Ifo L.G.A, using an interviewer - administered questionnaires. Data analysis was done using Epi-Info 2007 version and Win Pepi statistical soft wares. rnrnrnSlightly more than one third (36%) of the respondents correctly defined climate change. More than half of them correctly identified some of the listed activities contributing to carbon emissions. Approximately three quarters (74.9%) agreed that communities have a role to play in carbon emission reductions. Almost 6 out of ten (59.3%) respondents opined that a portion of the nations budget should be allocated to mitigate climate change effects. About half (51.6%) were willing to make either financial or non-financial contributions to promote community awareness on global climate change. About two-thirds of the respondents were willing to adopt life styles modifications to reduce global warming. About a quarter (24.2%) had made either financial or non-financial contributions towards mitigating climate change. rnAlmost six out of ten (57.6%) respondents had poor knowledge, 48% of the respondents had positive attitude while more than two thirds (69.8%) had poor practices concerning the mitigation of climate change. However, a positive disposition to contribute to carbon emission reductions was observed. rnrnRespondents recommendations towards mitigating climate change include: awareness creation, reforestation, use of energy saving appliances and material recycling.rnrnIt is recommended that educational campaigns together with approaches at fostering institution-community partnerships will translate into improved positive attitude and actions towards mitigating climate change impact. rn
Keywords: Climate, climate change, knowledge, attitude and practice
- Assessing the vulnerability of farmers, fishermen
and herdsmen to Climate Change: a case study from Nigeria
by M. Rafee Majid, Idris Nasiru Medugu, Walter Leal
Abstract: This paper describes a study on the vulnerability of farmers and fishermen to climate change and the conflict arises between farmers and herdsmen, in Nigeria. A random sampling survey was carried out in some selected rural communities where two hundred farmers and fishermen were interviewed and discussions with community focus groups to ascertain the level of their understanding of climate change issues. The study observed that the majority of the farmers had a good understanding of the changes in the climate through their personal observation, intervention of some research institutes and discussion in various cooperative society meetings. However, climate change has greatly impacted crop production with more than 50% reduction in produce, but not very much change has occurred to fish production. This study further noted that the respondents are faced with increased variations in rainfall and temperature patterns and are yet to have good adaptive measures to the current and expected changes. This paper has recommended the use of agroforestry programme, or tree cropping system, which is a potential strategy to help farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate-related hazards and sustainable fish farming to minimizing the vulnerability of fishermen to climate disasters.
Keywords: adaptation; agro forestry; climate change; farmers; fishermen; herdsmen; Nigeria; vulnerability.
- HISTORICAL EVIDENCE FOR CLIMATE DRIVEN MIGRATIONS IN PORTUGUESE FISHING COMMUNITY
by Lígia Amorim, Filipe Santos, Francisco Costa, Maria Roxo, Maria Valente, Luís Nunes, Álvaro Silva
Abstract: A multidisciplinary, multilevel methodology that cross-examines existing historical information from past climate (1st half of XXth century), with geographic information and other historical sources available about population movements (demographic census) is proposed, allowing to map climate variability in the same period and its relationship with migration in Portuguese territory. Results are presented regarding the case study of the Avieiros, a Portuguese fishing community, whose migration shows some correlation in time with the precipitation and temperature series. Developing and validating this approach, will allow for application to other cases in different countries, namely to the Portuguese Speaking Countries.
Keywords: Climate variability, Migrations, Environmental history
- Efficiency of carbon sequestration by added reactive nitrogen in ocean fertilization
by Martin Lawrence
Abstract: Addition of limiting nutrients to the surface waters of the deep ocean will lead to increased photosynthesis and associated biological productivity. Some of carbon taken up by phytoplankton will sink to the deep ocean, providing sequestration of carbon in the deep ocean. This paper considers nitrogen as the added nutrient and determines the losses in this sequestration process, taking into account a number of mechanisms. Other factors that impact on carbon sequestration are also taken into account, such as production of other greenhouse gases, and manufacture and distribution of nutrient. The overall efficiency of the sequestration process is found to be approximately 75%, depending on the form of the nutrient. That is, up to 75% of the carbon processed by photosynthesis (on adding nitrogen) can be sequestered. This is well in excess of sequestration estimates using iron as the added nutrient.
Keywords: ocean fertilization; carbon sequestration; nitrogen; global warming.
- Novel Cogeneration Cost-sharing Mechanism for Energy Savings and Emission Reduction in China
by Yongxiu he
Abstract: Cogeneration can improve the efficiency of energy utilization, improve energy savings and reduce carbon emission. However, China currently suffers unreasonable cogeneration pricing and cost sharing, which has seriously hampered the development of cogeneration power plants. Based on the production process of cogeneration, this paper analyzes the principles of thermoelectric cogeneration and energy savings. We research a variety of cost-sharing methods including two attributed to power and another three focused on heat. We then propose a new cost-sharing method to take into account both heating and generation. A real thermal power plant of 600MW is selected as a case study. Our results show that the reduced condensation losses of heat extraction could have saved 87,088.43 tons of standard coal in 2010, which is equivalent to CO2 emission reductions of 226,430 tons, if the proposed cost-sharing method had been used. Finally, policy suggestions are made to ensure the sustainable development of cogeneration and promote energy savings and emission reduction in China.
Keywords: Cogeneration; pricing; cost sharing; China
- COMPARING FOREST SITES CLASSIFICATIONS USING TWO DIFFERENT SATELLITE IMAGES AND GROUND MEASUREMENTS IN EASTERN TURKEY
by Ali KADIOGULLARI, Alkan GUNLU, Emin BAŞKENT
Abstract: This study aims to determine forest sites using direct, indirect and remote sensing (RS) methods (Landsat 7 ETM+ and IKONOS images) for Ardahan-Yalnız
Keywords: forest site classification, geographical information systems, site index, direct method, Landsat 7 ETM+ - IKONOS satellite image.
- Evaluation of Environmental Impact and Gaseous Emissions of Biodiesel Fuels and Blends of Selected Feed-stocks
by A. Eloka-Eboka
Abstract: Thermal and gaseous emissions of selected biodiesel feed-stocks from Nigeria: Sandbox tree (Hura crepitans), Fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis), black date (Canarium schwentifurtii) and Wild melon (Cucumeropsis manii) whose potentials as biodiesel fuels have been established in the earlier works of Igbum, Eloka-Eboka, and Nwadinigwe (2012) were evaluated in order to ascertain and establish their environmental and emission impacts on the local and global environment. The effects of blending ratios on the thermal/gaseous emissions of the methyl esters (biodiesel fuels) of the seed oils were also investigated. The study involved the extraction of vegetable oils from the selected seeds using petroleum ether in a soxhlet apparatus, transesterification of the extracted oils with methanol at the ratio of 6:1 and Sodium hydroxide as a catalyst, reaction temperatures of 30oC and 55oC and at a reaction time of five minutes to produce the methyl esters. Thereafter, the methyl esters were blended with automotive gas oil (AGO) at different proportions and ratios to produce B5, B10, B15, B20 and B100 of each seed oil methyl ester and automotive gas oil (AGO). The blends samples were subjected to chemo-physical analysis and gaseous emission using different ASTM methods including atmospheric gas samplers and gas chromatographic Mass spectrophotometer for the trapping and subsequent analysis of the effluents. The results showed that all the blends samples of the methyl ester possess lower gaseous emissions than automotive gas oil (AGO) and are also within the ASTM standards. They are therefore more environmentally friendly than their fossil fuel counterpart. Their impact on the global and immediate environment are however friendly.
Keywords: Gaseous emissions, evaluation, biodiesel fuels, blends, environmental impact, feedstock, sandbox tree, fluted pumpkin, black-date, wild melon.
- Perceived Community-based Flood Adaptation Strategies under Climate Change
by Rohini Devkota
Abstract: Climate induced natural disasters and extreme events are escalating with the increased variability of climatic parameters due to climate change. The climatic extremes have aggravated droughts and flood events among others. Intense rainfall leading to devastating floods is likely to severely affect people practicing indigenous subsistence agriculture. In the Southern plain areas of Nepal floods are the most frequent and devastating natural disasters. The specific objective of this study is to assess the flood adaptation strategies that are applicable at the community level in two Terai districts of Nepal. The data were collected through focus group discussions and household surveys. A total number of 210 households were interviewed and the information were collected in a scale of 1-5 (least applicable -1 to most applicable - 5) based on their preferences. The study revealed that there were most applicable flood forecasting practices at community level such as monitoring the extent of rainfall in upper catchments and identifying the position of clouds. Community people used to gather before starting the monsoon season, and be prepared with pre flood adaptation strategies such as flood management plan, keep contact information, pre-estimate flood risk, produce human resources/train manpower against flood. Perfect communication; take care the affected people; and select the appropriate location to stay were most preferred strategies during the flood. Similarly, the community people had practised post flood adaptation strategies such as exchange helps with each other; prepare temporary settlement; co-ordinate with government and other agencies and equal distribution of available resources. Therefore, this paper argues that identification and assessment of flood adaptation strategies for vulnerable communities help to translate local adaptation practices. This would also help governments to choose adaptation strategies that are both effective and preferred by local people.
Keywords: Flood, adaptation strategies, community, peopleâ€™s perception
- The calculation of domestic flight-caused global warming potential from aircraft emissions in Turkish airports
by Onder Altuntas
Abstract: In this study, Global Warming Potential (GWP) is calculated for aircrafts used in Turkish airports. The basic idea of this study is to investigate both emissions and their GWP values. This study is conducted in three steps, namely (i) finding busiest airports in Turkey, (ii) specifying the most used aircraft types and its engines, and (iii) calculation of domestic flight-caused GWP value for both the total number of aircraft and per-passenger evaluation. In this regard, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 GWP 100a methodology is utilized along with the method of the life cycle assessment. While the total average GWP value is 1,629 kg Carbondioxide equivalent (CO2e) per landing and takeoff (LTO), the total domestic flight-caused GWP value was calculated as 257,305 tons of CO2e per year in 2002 and 998,118 tons of CO2e per year in 2012. While, the last two years have had an average value of 1213 kg CO2e per passenger for one airport, the GWP values per passenger have averaged 15.35 kg CO2e per passenger, per airport over these years.
Keywords: Global warming potential, emission, aviation, Turkish airports, aircraft engines
- The Jobs Impact of GHG Reduction Strategies in the USA
by Roger Bezdek
Abstract: To address climate change concerns, the USA will have to displace 1.2 billion tons of carbon emissions annually by 2030 using massive applications of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. The economic and jobs consequences of such a strategy are highly controversial and subject to intense debate. We assess the technologies that will have to be deployed, their costs, and the necessary time frames. We then estimate the job impacts of such a policy and find that it will generate more than 4.5 million net jobs. We disaggregate the jobs created by industry, occupation, skill, and salary, and discuss the policy implications of these findings.
Keywords: Climate change mitigation; global warming jobs; GHG job impact; energy efficiency and renewable energy jobs
- LANDSCAPE-BASED INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN NAKHCHIVAN AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC (NAR)
by serdar AYDIN, Samir Bakhshaliyev, Dursun Zafer Şeker , Nüket Sivri
Abstract: This study is aimed to determine current water resources in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan Republic, usage possibilities of these sources and integrated water resource management. For this purpose, water shortage and rainfall amounts are calculated with data obtained from water observation station in districts, meteorology and agriculture-irrigation fields of the country. At the same time, the scope of water shortage is visualized by means of Geographical Information Systems based on numerical values obtained from the land use analysis. rnrnWater management plans currently used in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is not insufficient. Thus, there is a serious water shortage problem in the country. Due to this problem, either unsuitable surface resources or water which has lower quality are used. The results showed that water demand is generally met by surface water resources across the country. In addition to drought and water shortage are occasionally seen due to seasonal rainfalls and evaporation by years. Results also showed that the year of 2008 has higher level of droughness among the year of 2004 and 2009, which caused by decreasing rainfall.
Keywords: landscape management, water shortage, rainfall, GIS, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
- ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AT MONTE CIMONE GAW STATION
by Marco Alemanno, Attilio Di Diodato, Luigi Lauria, Nicola Santobuono
Abstract: Continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements performed by Italian Air Force Mountain Centre (IAFMC) at Mt. Cimone Observatory in the period 1980-2009 were analyzed in order to select data representing background concentrations. A filtering technique using the fast Fourier transform and two low-pass filters was used to smooth background data and to separate the annual (or seasonal) cycle from the long-term increase. All these operations were intended to study CO2 data features at Mt. Cimone and their correlations with global-scale phenomena. The average growth rate of CO2 was found to be 1.708
Keywords: Atmospheric CO2 concentrations; column ozone; UV indexes
- NOVEL ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PROCESS FOR REDUCING THE SULFUR LEVEL IN FUEL: PERVAPORATION
by Filiz Ugur Nigiz, Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu
Abstract: Pervaporation (PV) is an alternative membrane based process for removal of sulfuric components with low energy consumption. In PV, selective removal bases on the concentration difference between two sides of membrane. In sulfur removal process hydrophobic membranes are generally used due to the flexible chain structure. If the solution parameters and polarities of membranes are close to the sulfur components then hydrophilic membranes are preferred. In this study, pristine and wt. 3%, 5% and 10% of poly(oligosilsesquioxanes) (POSS) loading poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) membranes have been prepared for pervaporation experiment. Sorption and desorption experiments have been performed at room temperature to determine the swelling characters and sorption selectivity values of the membranes with respect to the sulfur concentration.
Keywords: Pervaporation, sulfur removal, poly(dimethylsiloxane), poly(oligosilsesquioxanes)
- IONIC COMPOSITION OF AEROSOLS AT NORTHWESTERN TURKEY
by Deniz D. Genc Tokgoz, Gurdal Tuncel
Abstract: In this study ionic compositions of 350 aerosol samples collected between April 2006 and May 2008 in a rural area at Northwestern Turkey (Black Sea coast of Turkey) were discussed. Ions accounted for approximately 30% of PM mass. Contributions of secondary aerosol species (NO3-, SO42- and NH4+) were higher than the ions with crustal origin. This indicated that sampling station was under the influence of long range transport because there were no industrial emissions around. Concentrations of ions demonstrated a large variation from day to day. Mann-Whitney W test was applied to compare the medians of summer and winter concentrations of ions. All ions, except for NH4+ and SO42-, showed statistically significant difference between seasons with 95% confidence level.
Keywords: Air pollution; anion; cation; climate change; long-range transport; seasonal variation.
- Performance and Emission characteristics of CI engine, fuelled with diesel and oxygenated fuel blends
by Ramabalan Sundaresan, Pushparaj T, Arul Mozhi Selvan V.
Abstract: Vegetable oils are a potential alternative towards partial or total substitution of diesel fuels. In this study, we used ethanol as the solvent, and a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive to explore the possible use of higher percentages of biodiesel in an unmodified diesel engine. Biodiesel was produced from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) by pyrolysis process. A mixture containing 80% (by volume) of Number 2 diesel fuel and 20% (by volume) of biodiesel is called here as B20. The effect of 10 % ethanol, blended with B20 (by volume) was studied in a single cylinder, four strokes direct injection diesel engine after adding a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive. The impact of test fuels on engine torque, power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature were investigated by the performance tests. The influence of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NO and smoke opacity were measured by emission tests. The experimental results showed that when a fuel mixture containing 10% ethanol, B20 and a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive was used, the exhaust emissions were fairly reduced; especially the NO is reduced remarkably by 30% when compared to using B20 alone. Smoke opacity was reduced by 20% when compared to using diesel alone.
Keywords: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL); Emission; Ethanol; Pyrolysis; IC engine; Performance; Bio Fuel Enhancer (BFE).
- Single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems in CO2 capture by absorption: A review
by Wojciech Budzianowski
Abstract: CO2 capture by absorption requires solvents which can meet performance criteria such as fast absorption rate, high CO2 loading capacity, low regeneration energy, low degradation rate, low corrosiveness, low environmental impact and low solvent cost. The development of a suitable solvent is central for design of decarbonised power plants with minimal energy penalty in a cost-effective and environmentally benign manner. Therefore, the current review characterises promising single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems, suitable for CO2 capture applications by solvent absorption. The focus is on comparison of solvents by means of carefully selected performance criteria. The review analyses the state of the art, major technological advantages, as well as R&D challenges of promising single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems in large-scale CO2 capture applications.
Keywords: CO2 capture, solvent, absorption, power plant, performance criteria, evaluation
- Computable General Equilibrium Analyses of Global Economic Impacts and Adaptation for Climate Change: The Case of Tropical Cyclones
by Koichi Yamaura, Toyoaki Washida, Shin Sakaue
Abstract: Computable general equilibrium models have been widely used for simulating global warming and evaluating economic damages caused by climate change. However, to date little research has focused on the economic consequences incurred across several industry sectors at a global level. This article uses the Evaluation Model for Environmental Damage and Adaptation (EMEDA) to simulate direct economic damages caused by tropical cyclones any losses that are offset through growth in other sectors to measure the global economic impacts arising from climate change. Simulated results by EMEDA indicate that: i) several regions experience economic growth, with four regions offsetting economic damages in the primary industry sector whilst the other regions increase their damages; ii) seven regions show economic growth whilst only North America neutralizes damage in their secondary sectors, with the other regions revealing more severe losses; iii) several regions are able to offset their tertiary sector losses yet the other regions show an increase in damages; and iv) the equivalent variation in all regions except East Asia decreases as temperature increases.
Keywords: EMEDA; CGE models; global warming; climate change; tropical cyclones; equivalent variation
Special Issue on: "R&R 2012 Global Warming Solutions throughRecycling and Reuse"
- Use of Asphalt Plant Residue in Hot Mix Asphalt
by Murat Karacasu, Fatih Hattatoğlu, Sinan Hınıslıoğlu, Yetis Sazi Murat
Abstract: Environmental solid wastes increase more and more as a result of the industrial waste production day by day. Management of the solid wastes is the thrust area for researchers. In this study, the effects of Asphalt Plant Residue (APR) on the properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)s are investigated. APR was added into asphalt concrete in 25, 50 and 100 percent by weight of filler. In order to determine optimum bitumen content, Marshall Design procedure was applied. Optimum bitumen content (OBC) values were obtained less than Control Specimen (CS). APR specimens have showed little increase in Marshall Stability and little decrease in flow except for APR-50 in comparison to the CS. All APR specimens have higher MQ than that of the control mixture. Although there are no meaningful differences between CS and APR specimens, APR can be used as filler aggregate in asphalt mixtures. Use of APR will enable recycling of an environmental waste as well as providing some benefits in asphalt concrete performance. Thus, resources will be used more effectively all over the world as part of sustainability.
Keywords: Asphalt, environment, plant, residue, sustainability
- Characterization of waste fluorescent lamps to investigate their potential recovery in Turkey
by Sezen Coskun, Gokhan Civelekoglu
Abstract: The investigations in this study were performed on two types of waste linear (tubular) T8 and T12 lamps, which are mostly spent in Turkey. Total average value of the mercury mass for the T8 and T12 lamps were calculated to be about 6 mg and 12 mg per lamp, respectively. SEM-EDX elemental analysis showed that approximately 52% percent of phosphor powders of waste T8 and T12 lamps was measured as calcium (Ca) by weight. ICP-OES analysis showed that some rare earth elements were determined in the T8 and T12 phosphor powders. These waste lamps could be considered as an ore of secondary raw materials. The use of recycled metals in lamp production instead of virgin metals may have positive environmental impacts through reduced energy use and reduced pollution related to the mining of the virgin source in Turkey.
Keywords: Fluorescent lamps; mercury; metal recovery; rare earths, waste characterization
- Thermal Treatment of Fleshing Residue for Producing Syngas
by Atakan Ongen, Semiha Arayici
Abstract: In this paper, characteristics of syngas from the pyrolysis and gasification of tannery industry fleshing residues has been investigated. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior were evaluated in terms of syngas composition and total energy production. Dried air and pure oxygen (99%) were used as gasification agents. Experiments were also performed in oxygen-free media. H2, CO and CH4 levels in producer gas were analysed and calorific values were calculated. Besides, weight and volume reductions during each experiment were reported. Dried air flow varied between 0,05 and 0,5 l/min during experiments. Syngas composition with higher calorific value was achieved between 0,1-0,2 l/min. It was determined that calorific values decreased related to the decrease in volume percentages of H2, CO and CH4 over 0,2 l/min gas flow. According to the statistical analysis, gasification agent had an important role in gasification performance. Average calorific value, achieved by pure oxygen, was higher than the value achieved by dried air. The lowest efficiency was achieved in oxygen-free media.
Keywords: fleshing residue; gasification; thermochemical treatment; syngas.
- Monitoring and Examination of Adaptation Period of Microorganisms in MBR System Treating Fruit Juice Industry Wastewaters
by Güler Türkoğlu Demirkol, Sevgi Guneş Durak, Suleyman OVEZ, Nese Tufekci
Abstract: In this study, fruit juice industry wastewaters by using MBR process have been monitored and examined considering effective microorganisms and changes in biodiversity during the treatment period. Microbiological examinations have been carried out using conventional microbiological methods and microscopic observations. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms and also floc structure of the activated sludge were identified and characterized. On the other hand, environmental parameters effective on microbial diversity of MBR process treating fruit juice wastewaters have been identified and discussed. Fruit juice wastewaters supported almost all kinds of microorganisms, primarily filamentous fungi Aspergillus spp., and ciliated protozoa Coccidia spp. and eliminated Nematodes from the MBR system.
Keywords: Aspergillus spp., Coccidia spp., Nematodes, Filamentous microorganisms, Fruit Juice Wastewater, MBR, Microbiological Monitoring.
- Time series analysis for the sulfur dioxide and particulate matter concentrations in the Aegean Region of Turkey
by Sibel Cukurluoglu, Ulker Guner Bacanli
Abstract: Air pollution shows temporal and spatial variability. Time series analysis is widely used to describe movement history of a particular variable in time. The SO2 and PM10 concentrations in the cities of the Aegean Region for the period of 19902009 were modeled by using autoregressive and autoregressive moving average models for yearly, monthly, and winter season pattern. The AR(2) model was generally observed for the yearly SO2 data in the Aegean Region according to the all investigated and AR(p) models. This model can provide reliable, satisfactory predictions for the yearly SO2 pollution data. The most suitable model of the monthly SO2 and PM10 data was predominantly determined as ARMA(1,2) model according to the all investigated models, while the best fitted model of monthly SO2 and PM10 data was mainly determined as AR(1) model according to the AR(p) models.
Keywords: Keywords: air pollution; autoregressive model; autoregressive moving average model; time series analysis
- Effect of Ferric Chloride Coagulation, Lime Precipitation, Electrocoagulation and the Fentons Reagent on the Particle Size Distribution of Olive Mill Wastewater
by B. Hande Gursoy-Haksevenler, Serdar Dogruel, Idil Arslan Alaton
Abstract: Size fractionation of olive mill wastewater (COD:155000 mg/L; TOC:40000 mg/L; BOD5:37700 mg/L; total phenols:4100 mg/L; colour as absorbance at 395 nm:145 cm-1) before and after chemical treatment by FeCl3 coagulation, Ca(OH)2 precipitation, electrocoagulation and the Fentons reagent employing different molecular weight cut-off membranes was investigated to examine the fate of organic matter of different molecular sizes. The size distribution analysis of the wastewater revealed that particulate organic compounds were the major components of COD (54%), TOC (43%), BOD5 (43%), colour (57%) and acute toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri, followed by an appreciable soluble size fraction. For the total phenols parameter, a dominant fraction (54%) appeared in the colloidal (5-8 nm) size range besides significant particulate (22%) and soluble (24%) size fractions. FeCl3 coagulation and Ca(OH)2 precipitation appeared to be most successful in the removal of organic matter (COD and TOC), whereas the electrocoagulation process was superior in the removal of the phenolic compounds (27%). No shift in the size distribution pattern was observed after chemical treatment as for the fact that phase-transfer was the dominant removal mechanism of the selected processes. For both raw and chemically treated OMW, the highest inhibiton of photobacteria was observed in particulate size range and decreased in the solube size ranges by elimination of phenolic content.
Keywords: Keywords: Acute toxicity, coagulation, electrocoagulation, Fentonâ€™s reagent, lime precipitation, olive mill wastewater, particle size distribution analysis, removal mechanism.
- Microwave and MicrowaveAlkali Effecton Barley Straw for Total Sugar Yield
by Hatice INAN, Ozge TURKAY, Can AKKIRIS
Abstract: Lignocellulose is the most remarkable plant material resource for obtaining energy; however, its utility is restrained by its recalcitrant structure. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a convenient pretreatment method to increase the sugar yield. Microwave pretreatment method assists to break down hard lignin structure for improve degradation of cellulose and release sugar. The objectives of this study are to investigate microwave and microwave-alkali pretreatment efficiency of barley straw before enzymatic hydrolysis. In both pretreatment methods, remarkable findings were obtained as sugar concentration. The maximum reducing total sugar concentration of 354.1 mg/L was achieved after 10 minutes of pretreatment time in 30 mL of 3 % NaOH solution (w/v) at microwave power of 200 W. The evaluations of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were carried out within pretreatment of barley straw, as well. The results suggest that microwave and microwave-alkali pretreatment can increase total sugar concentration.
Keywords: Barley Straw, Microwave Irradiation, Alkaline Pretreatment, Sugar concentration
- THE CHANGE OF SURFACE AND STRUCTURE PROPERTIES OF CATION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE IN A MICROBIAL FUEL CELL
by Bestamin Ozkaya, Cenk Denktaş, Mehmet Çakmakcı, Doğan Karadağ, Erkan Şahinkaya, Afsin Y. Cetinkaya
Abstract: In this study, the two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) was continuously long-term operated with young landfill leachate in order to evaluate the impact of CEM fouling on MFC performance. During the operation, the voltage output decreased sharply to almost zero and the voltage output was recovered completely after replacement of CEM, which implied that the voltage decrease was totally due to fouling of the CEM with the observations of Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and long-term operation. The fouled membrane was washed with H2SO4 in order to recover the CEM via removing salts on membrane surface and the replacement of cations on the negatively charged sufonate groups with the H+. After acid treatment, the current and power recoveries were only around 38% and 15%, respectively. The membrane was completely fouled again after one week of operation. Moreover, an alkali treatment with NaOH was applied in order to recover the CEM by removing organics on membrane surface. However, the alkali treatment had almost no effect on the fouled membrane depending on current output.
Keywords: cation exchange membrane, FTIR, membrane fouling, SEM
- Sewage Sludge Minimization by means of Wet Oxidation: Process Performance and Economic Sustainability
by Giorgio Bertanza, Sabrina Zanaboni, Matteo Canato, Giuseppe Laera, Raniero Galessi
Abstract: Today, several technologies and management strategies are proposed and applied in WWTPs to minimize sludge production and contamination and their techno-economic feasibility has to be carefully evaluated. In this work (which is being conducted within the European Union project ROUTES), based on bench results, a mass balance was drawn for a WWTP (500 000 PE), where it was supposed to install a wet oxidation (W.O.) stage for sludge minimization. The design of treatment units and the estimation of capital and operation costs were then performed. Subsequently, a procedure for technical-economic assessment was developed. Basically, this procedure consists in the definition and ranking of several technical (e.g. reliability of the technology, complexity and integration with the existing facilities, amount of residues to be disposed of or recovered etc.) and economic aspects. Preliminary results have shown W.O. to be a suitable solution for sludge minimization.
Keywords: costs; mass balance; ROUTES; techno-economic assessment; wet oxidation
- Boron Removal from Waste Water Originating in the Open Pit Mines of Bigadi
by Mehmet Volkan Duman
Abstract: In this study, the base water originating in Simav Open Pit Mine containing the most important reserves of colemanite and ulexite boron minerals, has a boron concentration of 150
Keywords: Boron Removal; Reverse Osmosis; Economical Analysis; High pH Operation
- Removal Performance of Lignin Compound from Simulated Pulping Wastewater Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process
by Ooi Zing Yi, Norasikin Othman, Mardhiah Mohamad, Roslina Rashid
Abstract: Removal of lignin from pulping wastewater is considerable interest due to high market value in conversion to external biofuel and specialty chemicals. Thus, it is important to remove lignin for increasing revenue while reducing environmental problems. Removal of lignin from simulated pulping wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was proposed in this study. Thereby, optimum removal performance of the ELM was achieved by identifying the best set of liquid membrane formulation and affect parameter conditions. Selection of liquid membrane component was made on the basis of conventional liquidliquid extraction studies to accomplish the extraction study in ELM process. The liquid membrane was formulated by dissolving the carrier Trioctylamine (TOA) in kerosene as the diluent, sodium chloride (NaCl) as receiving phase and Span 80 as surfactant. The results showed that the optimum condition can be achieved at feed phase pH of 3, 3% (w/v) of surfactant concentration, 5 minutes of extraction time, 250 rpm of agitation speed, 0.1 M TOA, 1:10 of treat ratio and 1.5M of NaCl. At these conditions, a stable emulsion was performed and 94% of lignin was extracted.
Keywords: emulsion liquid membrane, lignin, removal, pulping wastewater.
- WATER DEPTH EFFECTS ON INITIAL DILUTION OF HORIZONTALLY DISCHARGED COLD WATER FROM AN ELEVATED OUTFALL
by Semih Nemlioglu, Naim Sezgin
Abstract: In this study, the effect of bottom depth interaction on initial dilution differences of cold water discharge was experimentally investigated. 5
Keywords: Cold Water Discharge, Dense Jet, Initial Dilution, Marine Outfall, Multi-port Diffuser, Thermal Discharge.
- Evaluation of Chitosan Flakes as Adsorbent for Palladium and Platinum Recovery from Binary Dilute Solutions
by mansooreh soleimani, Hakimeh Sharififard, Farzin Zokaee Ashtiani
Abstract: In the recent years, special attention has been paid to the competitive recovery or separation of metals from industrial wastewaters or solid wastes that contain more than one chemical component. Platinum group metals (PGMs), particularly palladium and platinum, are used together in many fields such as industrial catalyst production. The recovery of these metals from industrial waste streams has required development of present processes and new technologies. In this work, the potential of chitosan for palladium and platinum recovery from aqueous solutions was investigated. The observed results showed that the optimum operating conditions for palladium and platinum recovery by chitosan were initial pH = 2, particle size of adsorbent =0.21 mm and adsorbent dose = 10 g/L. Experimental results indicated that Freundlich isotherm and Langmiur models best fitted with the equilibrium data of platinum and palladium adsorption on chitosan in single solutions, respectively. In binary solutions, the competitive adsorption of palladium and platinum were successfully described by the Langmuir Competitive Model (LCM). As it was expected, experimental results indicated that, equilibrium capacity for each metal decreased in presence of another ion due to competition of palladium and platinum anions for active sites on the chitosan surface.
Keywords: Competitive biosorption; chitosan; Palladium; Platinum.
- Oily Wastewater Treatment Using Membrane Bioreactor
by Mahdieh Safa, Iran Alemzadeh, Manouchehr Vossoughi
Abstract: A novel implementation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been studied in this paper. It is utilized as combination of rotating biological contractor (RBC) and an external membrane for oily wastewater treatment.
Wastewater biodegradability has been evaluated by two factors: chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). They are both compared together for different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and petroleum pollution concentrations in RBC and MBR. The ratio of TPH to COD of Molasses has been varied between 0.2 to 0.8 at two HRTs of 18 and 24 hours while the temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were kept in the range of 20-25
Keywords: Biofilm; Biological treatment; Chemical oxygen demand; Membrane bioreactor; Membrane fouling; Oily wastewater; Rotating biological contractor; Total petroleum hydrocarbon
- Basic Principles of CO2 Emission Calculations at Airport: A Case Study from Turkey
by Gulsan Ozdemir, Ayse Filibeli
Abstract: Carbon footprint of airports is managed by Airport Council International (ACI) with the Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) program. It is a European carbon standard for airports. The program assesses and recognizes the efforts of airports to manage and reduce their carbon emissions with four levels of certification: 'Mapping', 'Reduction', 'Optimization' & 'Neutrality'. rnAirports must have carbon footprints independently verified in accordance with ISO14064 (Greenhouse Gas Accounting). Evidence of this must be provided to the administrator together with all claims regarding carbon management processes which must also be independently verified. The definitions of emissions footprints used by Airport Carbon Accreditation follow the principles of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI) Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. rnThe carbon footprint calculations are made by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) worksheets. GHG Protocol defines emissions as direct and indirect. Direct emissions come from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity. Indirect emissions are a consequence of the activities of the reporting entity, but occur at sources owned or controlled by another entity.In this study, the basic principles of the carbon footprint calculation for an airport are summarized and an example is given from an airport in Turkey.
Keywords: carbon footprint;airport;climate change
- Application of Nanofiltration for Reuse of Wastewater
by NALAN KABAY, Samuel BUNANI, Eren Yörükoğlu, Ümran Yüksel, Mithat YÜKSEL, Gökhan SERT, Taylan Özgür PEK
Abstract: The present research is a part of efforts to reuse wastewater by applying nanofiltration (NF) method for the secondary treatment of bio-treated industrial wastewater and to check the quality of product water as irrigation water by using various analytical methods. For this, the performances of three different NF membranes (CK, GE-Osmonics; NF-270 and NF-90, Dow-FilmTech) were investigated using a cross-flow flat-sheet membrane test unit (SEPA CF-II, GE). The bio-treated wastewater obtained from ITOB Wastewater Treatment Plant where Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology is employed as a treatment process has a high salinity and a high conductivity which make the treated water unsuitable for irrigation purposes. After applying NF separation for the three membranes at 10 bar as operating pressure, it was concluded that NF-90 gave the best quality of product water for almost all analyzed parameters such as salinity calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, phosphate-phosphorous, nitrate-nitrogen, and conductivity.
Keywords: Bio-treated wastewater; membrane; membrane bio reactor (MBR); nanofiltration; water reuse
Special Issue on: "Risk and Global Warming"
- Virtualized Load Management Algorithm to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Data Center Industry
by Mueen Uddin, Jamshed Memon, Mohd Zaidi Abdul Rozan, Raed Alsaqour
Abstract: The environmental footprint of ICT continues to increase. Data centers are key contributors of greenhouse gas emissions that pollute the environment and cause global warming. All of the data centers are overwhelmed with numerous servers as the major components of processing. These servers and other equipment consume high amounts of power, thereby emitting CO2. In an average server environment, 30% of the servers are dead and only consume energy, but such servers are not properly utilized, in which their utilization ratios range from 5% to 10%. This paper proposes a new algorithm to manage and categorize the workload of different underutilized volume servers properly to increase their utilization capacity. The proposed algorithm helps apply server consolidation methodology and increases the utilization ratio of underutilized servers by up to 50%, thereby saving high amounts of power and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by up to 88%.
Keywords: Server Virtualization; Greenhouse Gases, Server Consolidation; Workload Management; Energy Efficient Data Center; Global Warming.
- Modelling extreme temperatures in Ireland under global warming using a hybrid peak-over-threshold & generalised Pareto distribution approach
by Yassin Osman, Rowan Fealy, John Sweeney
Abstract: In the present paper modelling extreme temperature (i.e. maximum and minimum temperatures), for possible use as a tool for assessing risk and impacts of global warming in Ireland is addressed. The approach used is a combination of Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD) in which the scale parameter of the distribution is allowed to vary with a dominant feature of climate pattern at the location. The dominant climatic pattern at a selected location is approximated by climatic variables derived from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data, employed for building the models. Having calibrated the models, the observed large scale variables were then replaced with a corresponding suite of variables, derived from the Hadley Centre Global Climate Model (HadCM3) for the A2 emissions scenario, in order to generate projections of future changes in extreme values. Data from six synoptic stations were employed in the study to develop seasonal models for winter, spring, summer and autumn, for each of the selected station. The software extRemes was used to develop the models as it allows parameters of the fitted distribution to vary as functions of covariate (s). The covariates for each seasonal model are selected from the large-scale atmospheric variables via stepwise regression. The developed models were tested for goodness-of-fit, and model fitting was found to improve when the scale parameter is assumed to vary with the selected covariates. Return level return period relations were developed for each station based on the derived models and four periods were simulated to investigate the effects of climate change on temperature events (Tmax and Tmin). Results indicate that significant changes in extreme temperature events are projected to occur in Ireland over the course of the present century. These include hotter summers and relatively mild winters, which could possibly increase risk of heat-related diseases.
Keywords: extreme temperature, generalised Pareto distribution, climate change, Peaks-over-threshold.