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International Journal of Global Warming


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International Journal of Global Warming (77 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • The calculation of domestic flight-caused global warming potential from aircraft emissions in Turkish airports   Order a copy of this article
    by Onder Altuntas 
    Abstract: In this study, Global Warming Potential (GWP) is calculated for aircrafts used in Turkish airports. The basic idea of this study is to investigate both emissions and their GWP values. This study is conducted in three steps, namely (i) finding busiest airports in Turkey, (ii) specifying the most used aircraft types and its engines, and (iii) calculation of domestic flight-caused GWP value for both the total number of aircraft and per-passenger evaluation. In this regard, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 GWP 100a methodology is utilized along with the method of the life cycle assessment. While the total average GWP value is 1,629 kg Carbondioxide equivalent (CO2e) per landing and takeoff (LTO), the total domestic flight-caused GWP value was calculated as 257,305 tons of CO2e per year in 2002 and 998,118 tons of CO2e per year in 2012. While, the last two years have had an average value of 1213 kg CO2e per passenger for one airport, the GWP values per passenger have averaged 15.35 kg CO2e per passenger, per airport over these years.
    Keywords: Global warming potential, emission, aviation, Turkish airports, aircraft engines
  • The Jobs Impact of GHG Reduction Strategies in the USA   Order a copy of this article
    by Roger Bezdek 
    Abstract: To address climate change concerns, the USA will have to displace 1.2 billion tons of carbon emissions annually by 2030 using massive applications of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. The economic and jobs consequences of such a strategy are highly controversial and subject to intense debate. We assess the technologies that will have to be deployed, their costs, and the necessary time frames. We then estimate the job impacts of such a policy and find that it will generate more than 4.5 million net jobs. We disaggregate the jobs created by industry, occupation, skill, and salary, and discuss the policy implications of these findings.
    Keywords: Climate change mitigation; global warming jobs; GHG job impact; energy efficiency and renewable energy jobs
    by serdar AYDIN, Samir Bakhshaliyev, Dursun Zafer Şeker , Nüket Sivri 
    Abstract: This study is aimed to determine current water resources in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan Republic, usage possibilities of these sources and integrated water resource management. For this purpose, water shortage and rainfall amounts are calculated with data obtained from water observation station in districts, meteorology and agriculture-irrigation fields of the country. At the same time, the scope of water shortage is visualized by means of Geographical Information Systems based on numerical values obtained from the land use analysis. rnrnWater management plans currently used in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is not insufficient. Thus, there is a serious water shortage problem in the country. Due to this problem, either unsuitable surface resources or water which has lower quality are used. The results showed that water demand is generally met by surface water resources across the country. In addition to drought and water shortage are occasionally seen due to seasonal rainfalls and evaporation by years. Results also showed that the year of 2008 has higher level of droughness among the year of 2004 and 2009, which caused by decreasing rainfall.
    Keywords: landscape management, water shortage, rainfall, GIS, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
    by Marco Alemanno, Attilio Di Diodato, Luigi Lauria, Nicola Santobuono 
    Abstract: Continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements performed by Italian Air Force Mountain Centre (IAFMC) at Mt. Cimone Observatory in the period 1980-2009 were analyzed in order to select data representing background concentrations. A filtering technique using the fast Fourier transform and two low-pass filters was used to smooth background data and to separate the annual (or seasonal) cycle from the long-term increase. All these operations were intended to study CO2 data features at Mt. Cimone and their correlations with global-scale phenomena. The average growth rate of CO2 was found to be 1.708
    Keywords: Atmospheric CO2 concentrations; column ozone; UV indexes
    by Filiz Ugur Nigiz, Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu 
    Abstract: Pervaporation (PV) is an alternative membrane based process for removal of sulfuric components with low energy consumption. In PV, selective removal bases on the concentration difference between two sides of membrane. In sulfur removal process hydrophobic membranes are generally used due to the flexible chain structure. If the solution parameters and polarities of membranes are close to the sulfur components then hydrophilic membranes are preferred. In this study, pristine and wt. 3%, 5% and 10% of poly(oligosilsesquioxanes) (POSS) loading poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) membranes have been prepared for pervaporation experiment. Sorption and desorption experiments have been performed at room temperature to determine the swelling characters and sorption selectivity values of the membranes with respect to the sulfur concentration.
    Keywords: Pervaporation, sulfur removal, poly(dimethylsiloxane), poly(oligosilsesquioxanes)
    by Deniz D. Genc Tokgoz, Gurdal Tuncel 
    Abstract: In this study ionic compositions of 350 aerosol samples collected between April 2006 and May 2008 in a rural area at Northwestern Turkey (Black Sea coast of Turkey) were discussed. Ions accounted for approximately 30% of PM mass. Contributions of secondary aerosol species (NO3-, SO42- and NH4+) were higher than the ions with crustal origin. This indicated that sampling station was under the influence of long range transport because there were no industrial emissions around. Concentrations of ions demonstrated a large variation from day to day. Mann-Whitney W test was applied to compare the medians of summer and winter concentrations of ions. All ions, except for NH4+ and SO42-, showed statistically significant difference between seasons with 95% confidence level.
    Keywords: Air pollution; anion; cation; climate change; long-range transport; seasonal variation.
  • Performance and Emission characteristics of CI engine, fuelled with diesel and oxygenated fuel blends   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramabalan Sundaresan, Pushparaj T, Arul Mozhi Selvan V. 
    Abstract: Vegetable oils are a potential alternative towards partial or total substitution of diesel fuels. In this study, we used ethanol as the solvent, and a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive to explore the possible use of higher percentages of biodiesel in an unmodified diesel engine. Biodiesel was produced from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) by pyrolysis process. A mixture containing 80% (by volume) of Number 2 diesel fuel and 20% (by volume) of biodiesel is called here as B20. The effect of 10 % ethanol, blended with B20 (by volume) was studied in a single cylinder, four strokes direct injection diesel engine after adding a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive. The impact of test fuels on engine torque, power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature were investigated by the performance tests. The influence of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NO and smoke opacity were measured by emission tests. The experimental results showed that when a fuel mixture containing 10% ethanol, B20 and a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive was used, the exhaust emissions were fairly reduced; especially the NO is reduced remarkably by 30% when compared to using B20 alone. Smoke opacity was reduced by 20% when compared to using diesel alone.
    Keywords: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL); Emission; Ethanol; Pyrolysis; IC engine; Performance; Bio Fuel Enhancer (BFE).
  • Single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems in CO2 capture by absorption: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by Wojciech Budzianowski 
    Abstract: CO2 capture by absorption requires solvents which can meet performance criteria such as fast absorption rate, high CO2 loading capacity, low regeneration energy, low degradation rate, low corrosiveness, low environmental impact and low solvent cost. The development of a suitable solvent is central for design of decarbonised power plants with minimal energy penalty in a cost-effective and environmentally benign manner. Therefore, the current review characterises promising single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems, suitable for CO2 capture applications by solvent absorption. The focus is on comparison of solvents by means of carefully selected performance criteria. The review analyses the state of the art, major technological advantages, as well as R&D challenges of promising single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems in large-scale CO2 capture applications.
    Keywords: CO2 capture, solvent, absorption, power plant, performance criteria, evaluation
  • Computable General Equilibrium Analyses of Global Economic Impacts and Adaptation for Climate Change: The Case of Tropical Cyclones   Order a copy of this article
    by Koichi Yamaura, Toyoaki Washida, Shin Sakaue 
    Abstract: Computable general equilibrium models have been widely used for simulating global warming and evaluating economic damages caused by climate change. However, to date little research has focused on the economic consequences incurred across several industry sectors at a global level. This article uses the Evaluation Model for Environmental Damage and Adaptation (EMEDA) to simulate direct economic damages caused by tropical cyclones any losses that are offset through growth in other sectors to measure the global economic impacts arising from climate change. Simulated results by EMEDA indicate that: i) several regions experience economic growth, with four regions offsetting economic damages in the primary industry sector whilst the other regions increase their damages; ii) seven regions show economic growth whilst only North America neutralizes damage in their secondary sectors, with the other regions revealing more severe losses; iii) several regions are able to offset their tertiary sector losses yet the other regions show an increase in damages; and iv) the equivalent variation in all regions except East Asia decreases as temperature increases.
    Keywords: EMEDA; CGE models; global warming; climate change; tropical cyclones; equivalent variation
  • Cyclic CO2 capture performance of CaO based sorbents obtained from various precursors   Order a copy of this article
    by Dengfeng Zhang, Lili Gu, Yunhua Huang 
    Abstract: The effects of pore morphology and crystal structure of CaO based sorbents derived from various precursors were investigated to elucidate the property dependence of CaO based sorbent performance for cyclic CO2 capture. The results indicate that CO2 capture capacity of the first carbonate looping cycle is dependent on the specific surface area of CaO based sorbents. The carbonation conversions of the initial calcined sorbent are restricted from 29% to 83% due to the limitations in the small pores with diameter range from 20 to 70 nm. The initial calcination of CaO based sorbents obtained from the inorganic precursors leaves an imprint in the following carbonation/calcination cycles, which leads to greater decay rate of carbonate conversion than the organic precursors. Increase of carbonate conversion with cycle number is found for CaO based sorbent obtained from calcium L-lactate hydrate and this reactivation phenomenon is probably due to its special crystal structure.
    Keywords: precursors; CaO based sorbent; CO2 capture; pore morphology; crystal structure
    Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of pretreatment to the garden wastes under thermal and alkali conditions and to evaluate biochemical methane potential. In thermal pretreatment different temperatures and application times were examined and solubilisation improved by heating. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) concentration upgraded by increasing temperature with different time intervals. 90
    Keywords: thermal pretreatment; alkali pretreatment; solubilisation; biochemical methane potential; garden waste
  • Biohydrogen production from normal starch wastewater with heat-treated mixed microorganisms from a starch factory   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Budsakorn Kanchanakhan, Suchat Leungprasert 
    Abstract: Biohydrogen production was studied from normal starch factory wastewater of approximately 20,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l with heat-treated mixed microorganisms originating from the plant. Acclimated heat-treated microorganisms that produced H2 50% during the acclimation period were used as the parent culture. Experiments were performed in a batch and semi-continuous operation through dark fermentation. The results found that normal starch wastewater can be the sole carbon source for biohydrogen. For batch operation, the maximum hydrogen yield and specific hydrogen production rate of 250 ml at standard temperature and pressure (STP)/g COD degraded and 13.9 ml at STP/ g cells-hour were obtained when operating the system at initial wastewater pH 4. For semi-continuous operation, the maximum hydrogen yield of 100 ml at STP/g COD degraded was obtained when operating the system at an organic loading rate of 28.6 kg COD/m3-day or a hydraulic retention time of 18 hours. The fermentation medium pH should not be much higher than pH 5 during digestion.
    Keywords: Anaerobic digestion;biogas;biohydrogen;global warming;mixed microorganisms;starch wastewater
  • Long Term Rainfall Trends of Indian Urban Station and its Variation in Different Phases and Seasons   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramachandran Andimuthu, Anushiya Jeganathan 
    Abstract: This work studies rainfall trends for 196 years (1813-2009) of Meenambakkam Station, an old observatory located in Chennai, which is the fourth largest Metropolis in India. Precipitation data have been studied on the basis of months, seasons and periods. Long-term trends in rainfall were determined by Man-Kendall rank statistics and linear regression. There is a significant increase of long term Annual and Monsoon rainfall and insignificant increase of Winter and Post monsoon rainfall. Post monsoon, the main rainy season of Chennai contributes 59.8% of the annual rainfall, while contribution decreases to 57.6 % in 1951-2009 and a further decrease to 54.7% in the last nine years. Summer rainfall shows decreasing trend. Further, this study tries to find for an explanation for precipitation trends by two global climate phenomena, IOD and PDO. Annual rainfall has significant positive correlation with PDO and insignificant negative correlation with IOD. Rainfall in Post monsoon season has significant positive correlation with PDO. The negative PDO (PDO-) phases show a decrease in rainfall and positive phases shows excess rainfall. Teleconnections with other global indices have to be studied further and deeper.
    Keywords: long term trend, seasonal variation, time periods, IOD, PDO
  • Removal of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere to Reduce Global Warming: A Modeling Study   Order a copy of this article
    by J.B. Shukla, M.S. Chauhan, Shyam Sundar, Ram Naresh 
    Abstract: In this paper, a nonlinear model is proposed to study the feasibility of removing from the atmosphere by introducing some external species such as liquid droplets and particulate matters in the atmosphere, which may react with this gas and get it removed by gravity. Further, this gas can also be removed by photosynthesis process by using plantation of leafy trees around the sources of emissions. The following two cases are thus considered, I. Removal of from the upper atmosphere by externally introduced species such as liquid droplets and particulate matters. II. Removal of by an externally introduced species in the near earth atmosphere and plantation of green belt around the sources of emission. In both the cases, the proposed non-linear model is analyzed by using the stability theory of differential equations and computer simulations. From the model analysis, the following conclusions are drawn, (i) In case I, it is shown that the concentration of global warming gas decreases as the rates of introduction of liquid droplets and particulate matters increase. It is noted that this gas can be removed almost completely from the atmosphere, if the rates of introduction of these external species are very large. (ii) In case II, it is shown that the concentration of decreases as the absorption of by green belt increases. It decreases further if the rate of introduction of external species in the atmosphere increases The numerical simulation of the model confirms these analytical results.
    Keywords: Global warming; liquid species; particulate matters; green belt; stability
  • Counting the non-CO2 diversion of biogenic carbon: An improvement suggested for the UNFCCC methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Ijaz Ahmad, Ghulam Rasul Athar 
    Abstract: UNFCCC has developed a software to support Non-Annex I parties for preparation of their national GHG inventories. This paper identifies a weakness in the software on double counting of some GHG emissions. Most of the biogenic activities, livestock, rice cultivation, use of biomass, etc. are carbon neutral. However, these activities emit CH4 and CO consuming atmospheric CO2. The UNFCCC software counts CH4 and CO emissions without adjusting the consumed CO2. GHG inventory of Pakistan was prepared for the year 2008 with the help of this software and guidelines of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The biogenic CH4 emissions, 34% of the 2008 GHG inventory, consumed 3.16 million tonnes of atmospheric carbon. The deduction of this carbon reduces the GHG inventory by 3.74%. This paper suggests improvements in the software to enhance the accuracy of GHG inventories.
    Keywords: Pakistan; UNFCCC software; climate change; double counting; GHG inventories; atmospheric carbon; livestock; rice; biomass; biogenic CH4
    by Abul Quasem Al-Amin 
    Abstract: Malaysia has been experiencing an unusual harsh mixture of droughts and extreme rainfall events at present. As consequence, significant fall in crop production will be caused in the coming years. Current agriculture adaptation strategies are not significantly enough to cope with this issue. Therefore, this study aims to capture the scenarios in the field of climate change adaptation. The main focus of this study is to chalk out the adaptation efforts that the government and local stakeholders should consider. This study identifies the challenges associated with the implementation of adaptation options for the agricultural sector in response to climate change. Furthermore, this study presents some insight on the possible future strategies for adaptation that legislators may consider in designing and formulating the policy which may ultimately help the agricultural sector of Malaysia to be effective. Such adaptation framework actions and measures are adjudicated to assure cohesive participation of all concerned development bodies including government and non-government organizations along with local communities towards achieving the appropriate climate change response.
    Keywords: Adaptation; Agriculture; Impacts; Climate Change; Malaysia
  • Assessment of a CHP system based on economical, fuel consumption and environmental considerations   Order a copy of this article
    by MOHAMMAD ABBASI, Mahdi Deymi-Dashtebayaz, Mahmoud Farzaneh-Gord, Sedigheh Abbasi 
    Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems which are able to produce heating and power simultaneously, are getting more attention since have many economical and environmental benefits. CHP systems for buildings are an important application of CHP various systems designs. In this study, we have investigated a CHP system applicable for the building of Azad university of Shahrood. The prime mover utilized here is an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) with Natural Gas fuel, and the CHP system is evaluated under different sizes of engine, between 200 kW to 1800 kW. Based on the cost analysis, fuel consumption and emission deducting, an evaluation factor indicator (EFI) is defined which can be applied to select an ideal engine for the proposed CHP system. The lower the EFI, the better option for the engine sizes can be achieved. The result shows that a gas engine with the size of 1200 kW has the lowest EFI factor. Regarding this size of engine, a CHP system is designed and it found that the CHP system is economically viable for the operation period, and the return on investment will be higher than the interest rate.
    Keywords: CHP System; Internal Combustion Engine (ICE); Fuel Consumption; Emissions Reduction; Economic Analysis; Selecting Engine Size.
  • Economic Implications of Climate Change: Evidence from Agricultural Productivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Inoussa Boubacar 
    Abstract: The increased frequency and severity of drought episodes have characterized the natural environment of the Sahel region in Africa during the past four decades. With little to no mitigation option available to them, countries of the Sahel will face a further deterioration of their economic environment, as an ill-agricultural sector will most likely drag down their whole economies. This paper uses a six-month standardized precipitation index and average temperature during the growing season days to quantify the adverse impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity. I first estimate a Malmquist productivity index and its efficiency and technical change components. I further assess the statistical significance of the indices by estimating confidence intervals around the point estimates using a bootstrap method. In the second stage of the analysis, I model the adverse effects of drought and temperature on agricultural productivity using a probit specification. The findings of this paper point to a dismal agricultural productivity. These findings also highlight the significant cumulative negative impacts of higher temperatures and recurrent droughts on agricultural-based economies.
    Keywords: Agriculture productivity; climate change; drought; international development; Sahel; Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Trends of Climate Change as Related To Elevation above sea level   Order a copy of this article
    by Nada Jallo 
    Abstract: The HadCRUT3 data are used to analyze the dependence of the linear correlation slope parameter between monthly temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The analysis demonstrated that the mean correlation coefficient at all elevation is always positive. This indicates an increase in the mean surface temperatures with increasing CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, it is shown that the positive values of the mean correlation coefficients are strongly related to the elevation above sea level. Most significantly is the decrease in this value at position located at 100-400 meter above sea level
    Keywords: Climate change, Global Warming, HadCRUT3
  • Security of Energy Supply in Japan: A Key Strategy and Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Omer Ozkan, Leman Erdal, Ali Osman Pektaş, Filiz Ozkan 
    Abstract: Energy plays an important role in determining the economic activities of the countries and is mainly used to produce goods and satisfy the required services. The economy of Japan is basically dependent on imported energy which is nearly 85 % of its total energy consumption per year, the highest percentage of any major industrialized nation. In this study four indices are constructed to measure Energy Supply Security (ESS): Dependency Index, Intensity Index, Local Production Index and Composite Index. The main determinants of energy supply security and with the availability of data, statistical models are formed out to investigate the significance and the sensitivities between the ESS indexes and the input parameters that are; petroleum prices (PP), Gross domestic products (GDP), total primary energy supply (TPES), energy consumption per capita (PCEC), share of renewable energy sources (REN), carbon dioxide emissions (CEM), population (P), total traffic volume (TV), human development index (HDI) and mean of democracy indexes of energy supplier countries of Japan (DI). A comprehensive methodology is used to research the interrelationships of correlated parameters. To this aim, five statistical procedures including simple correlation analysis, multiple linear regression models, stepwise multiple linear regression model, principal component analysis and cluster analysis are used. Empirical results indicate that PCEC, P and HDI have significant effect on energy supply security.
    Keywords: Japan, Energy supply security, Energy import, principal component and cluster analyses.
  • Adapting to climate variability: the views of peasant farmers in Nepal   Order a copy of this article
    by Sudarshan Chalise 
    Abstract: There are growing concerns, especially from farmers in rural mid-east Nepal, about main-streaming locally-led climate adaptation strategies. Using a bottom-up approach, we analysed the bio-physical and socio-economic impacts on Nepalese agriculture from three focus group discussions and a survey of 60 peasant farmers to identify the relevant climate change impacts which were used to investigate how farmers practices overcome any climate-based barriers. The results suggest that farmers are partially able to minimize the impacts of climate-based barriers whereas they have difficulty in coping with non-climatic barriers. The results emphasise the role of government and other stakeholders in locally-led adaptation (not only in mitigation) as an avenue to combat the negative impacts of climate-based variability.
    Keywords: climate variability, farmer perception, locally-led adaptation
    by Mustafa ERTURK 
    Abstract: In this study, annual, monthly and hourly ambient temperature distributions are determined and analyzed for Karab
    Keywords: heating degree-hour, energy change according to indoor reference temperature, energy, emission, carbon-dioxide and sulphur-dioxide.
  • Assessment of Spatial Models for Interpolation of Elevation in Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ijaz Hussain 
    Abstract: Elevation has major impact on the climate change. Interpolation of elevation at any location in Pakistan may be useful for predicting environmental parameters such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and wind speed. Present study interpolates the amount of elevation at unobserved locations using: 1) model based ordinary kriging, 2) model based Bayesian kriging with constant trend, 3) model based Bayesian Kriging with varying trend,4) %spatial Gaussian process with andwithout trend and 5) spatial artificial neural network. Prediction maps of elevation for complete domain are estimated along with prediction standard deviation. The results of suggested methods are compared with means of leave one take others cross validation method. It is observed from cross validation method that model based Bayesian kriging with constant trend performs better than the other methods of predicting the amount of elevation in Pakistan.
    Keywords: Bayesian kriging; elevation; ordinary kriging ; spatial artificial neural network
    by Sema Yurdakul, Aysel Atimtay 
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical treatment and heating rate on the emissions released from various waste wood samples including untreated pine and chemically treated MDF, plywood and particleboard after thermal treatment. Emission characteristics of the samples were determined in situ by using their FTIR spectra. Some toxic and carcinogenic gases such as formaldehyde, isocyanate, ammonia and phenyl group were detected in emissions from low temperature combustion of treated samples. For this reason, urea-formaldehyde or melamine formaldehyde treated waste wood samples should be oxidatively pyrolyzed at low heating rates and low temperatures to remove nitrogen-containing toxic compounds such as ammonia and isocyanate.
    Keywords: Biomass; Toxic Emissions; FTIR; Thermal oxidation; Chemical treatment;Formaldehyde
  • Toward utilising geothermal waters for cleaner and sustainable production: potential of Li recovery from geothermal brines in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ziya Cetiner, Özgür Dogan, Göksel Özdilek, Pembe Özer Erdoğan 
    Abstract: Geothermal fluids are potentially significant sources of technology critical minerals and metals. As water flows through different geological layers of the earths crust, it gets heated and dissolves minerals and metals from the rocks. These geothermal fluids can be processed to recover valuable metals such as gold, silver, zinc, and lithium. Freely discharged geothermal water can be source of pollution in the environment. However recovery of some elements, such as mercury, arsenic, lithium, etc., can be a part of environmental protection in such areas. Interest and demand in lithium (Li) sources have increased in recent years. This is, in part, due to the wide applications of Li and its compounds in high-energy storage Li batteries, and in other technological fields e.g., nuclear energy systems. Moreover, the costs associated with resource extraction from geothermal fluids are believed to be relatively low, and therefore many possible recovery techniques have been suggested. Lithium is one of the metals that dominate Na-Cl type of geothermal fluids in Turkey with its potential value. This article presents lithium concentrations of selected geothermal waters in Turkey and compares different methods that can be used to recover Li from them. Specifically, three methods will be discussed including direct precipitation as Li salts, separation by membrane filter and captured form through ion exchange resins.
    Keywords: lithium recovery, geothermal waters, sustainable metal production, Turkey
  • Impact of environmental education on mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions: a modeling study   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Misra, Maitri Verma 
    Abstract: Human activities have contributed significantly to the menace of global warming by enhancing the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Environmental education is an avenue to persuade people to reduce their CO2 emissions. Comprehension of the impact of environmental education on the reduction of CO2 emissions aids in devising effectual environmental education policies. In this view, we have formulated a nonlinear mathematical model to study the impact of educational programs on the abatement of CO2 emissions. It is considered that the educational programs are implemented at a rate proportional to the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO2 due to human activities. Model is analyzed by using stability theory of differential equations. Model analysis reveals that the educational programs are helpful in reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. But if reduction rate of carbon footprint by educated people is small, increase in execution rate of educational programs and/or dissemination rate of education among people cannot effectively curtail CO2 emissions. Moreover, for high values of reduction rate coefficient of carbon footprint, atmospheric concentration of CO2 may not get stabilized. Numerical simulation is carried out to illustrate the theoretical findings.
    Keywords: mathematical model, CO2 gas, environmental education, stability.
  • Modeling of stand volume and tree density using Spot-4 satellite data: a case study in Devrez planning unit   Order a copy of this article
    by Alkan GUNLU, İlker ERCANLI, Sedat KELEŞ, Cihat ANLAR 
    Abstract: Estimation of forest stand attributes such as stand volume, basal area, tree density, crown closure and aboveground biomass in a large area using remotely sensed data are important for sustainable management and use of natural resources. Modeling forest stand attributes and combined characteristics are necessary for forest planning and management. The aim of this research was to evaluate the possibility of using Spot-4 satellite image for estimating stand volume and tree density in Devrez planning unit, northwestern part of Turkey. Based on a single Spot-4 satellite data, reflectance values and eight vegetation indices (VIs) were connected to the stand volume and tree density using multiple regression analysis to develop the stand volume and tree density models. Our results showed that a linear combination of Band 1, Band 3, SR, DVI, SAVI, EVI and IPVI were better predictors of stand volume (adjusted R2=67 %; root mean square error (RMSE) =8.93 m3 ha-1). In addition, the regression model with Band 1, Band 3, SR, DVI, NLI and IPVI as independent variables was a better predictor of tree density (adjusted R2= 62 %; RMSE=6.03 n ha-1). In conclusion, forest stand attributes including the stand volume and tree density can be estimated and modelled using the reflectance values and VIs obtained from spot-4 satellite image. Keywords: Ground data, spot 4 satellite data, stand volume, tree density.
    Keywords: Ground data, spot 4 satellite data, stand volume, tree density
  • Analyzing the Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emissions in China Using Segmented Equations and Partial Least Squares   Order a copy of this article
    by Qian Gao, Ming Meng, Lei Wen, Dongxiao Niu 
    Abstract: This study investigates the dynamic relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in China from 1979 to 2010. We propose a segmented equation for the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The partial least squares method is used to estimate the equation parameters. The conclusions drawn are as follows. (1) Chinas CO2 emissions are still in the first stage of the EKC. A significant increase in income per capita is needed for Chinas CO2 emissions per capita to reach its peak point in the inverted U-shaped EKC. (2) The ideal equation used to simulate the relationship between Chinas income per capita and CO2 emissions per capita after 2010 is . This equation can help Chinas government set its ideal CO2 control target at a specific income per capita, at least until the income per capita reaches RMB 19137.2. (3) Chinas CO2 emissions per capita will peak some time between 2026 and 2027. After 2027, Chinas CO2 emissions per capita will decrease as income per capita increases.
    Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve; China; CO2 emissions; segmented equation; partial least squares
  • Fabrication, characterization and CO2/N2 gas permeance study of Novel blended membrane.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarah Farrukh, Fozia T. Minhas, Arshad Hussain, Muhammad Mujahid 
    Abstract: The CO2 gas is the primary green house gas, which is the main cause of global warming. To capture CO2 gas, it is important to study the permeance behavior of CO2 and N2 gases from different membranes. In this work, 5,11,17,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis-(2-piprazinoethyl)-26-dihydroxycalix[4]arene (CLP)was blended into Cellulose Acetate (CA) membrane to be used for gas permeation. Diffusion Induced Phase Separation (DIPS) method was applied to fabricate membranes. The CA/CLP membranes were fabricated by varying concentration of CLP with respect to CA at 10wt%, 20wt%, 30wt% and 40wt%.The prepared membranes were characterized via Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). CO2 and N2 gases were used for the gas permeation experiments. The increasing trend was observed in permeance of N2 gas as compared to CO2 gas for CA-CLP blended membranes.
    Keywords: : calix[4]ene; cellulose acetate; global warming; green house gas; permeance; DIPS; N2/CO2; piprazene; blended membranes, fabricated membranes; FTIR; SEM analysis of membranes;
  • Investigation of Alternative Blasting Process in Terms of Impact Behaviour of Blasting Materials for Green Shipyards   Order a copy of this article
    by Veysel Alankaya, Ugur Celebi 
    Abstract: Blasting process in shipyards could be marked as one of the most significant sources of waste; thus it is considered mandatory for the surface preparation before painting process in new shipbuilding or for the removal of the old paint from the surface of old vessels. The particulate emissions are contaminated by blasting abrasives and paint chips during surface preparation processes and might contain toxic metals concerning the production area, off-site and surrounding surface waters when blown off-site. Environmentally friendly shipyards have gained more importance due to global warming and its undeniable effects. Therefore, replacement of traditional production methods with less contaminating, more environmentally safe and alternative processes which do not affect human health as much is vital. In this study, abrasive-blasting materials for surface preparation are investigated by means of impact effectiveness of the material. The numerical results, derived from a commercial dynamic explicit finite element program, are presented denoting the blasting efficiency and damage behavior by material type, material geometry and particle velocity. A new point of view regarding choosing blasting material, decreasing amount of waste and pollution for a green world is tried to be presented.
    Keywords: pollution sources; shipbuilding and ship repair industry; blasting materials; waste minimization
  • Effect Of Nanoparticle Additives On Nox Emissions Of Diesel Fueled Compression Ignition Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Tayfun OZGUR, Gökhan TÜCCAR, Erinc ULUDAMAR, Ceyla GUNGOR, Mustafa OZCANLI, Hasan SERIN, Kadir AYDIN 
    Abstract: The amount of emitted harmful emission gases increases in parallel with increasing energy consumption. This increase has forced many countries to take various precautions and various restrictions on emitted emissions have been carried. In this study, effects of addition of oxygen containing nanoparticle additives to NOx emissions of diesel fuel were investigated. Nine different nanoparticle additives namely Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3), Magnesium Oxide (MgO), Titanium Oxide (TiO2), Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Silicon Oxide (SiO2), Iron Oxide Fe2O3, Nickel Oxide (NiO), Nickel Iron Oxide (NiFe2O4) and Nickel Zinc Iron Oxide Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were added to diesel fuel at the dosages of 25, 50 and 100 ppm. As a result, optimum additive and addition dosages were determined and NOx emissions were decreased with the addition of nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanoparticle, nitrogen oxide, emission, additive, diesel
  • Uncertainties, Risks and Challenges Relating to CO2 Emissions and Its Possible Impact on Climate Change in the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Hasan Arman 
    Abstract: CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by around 35% since the beginning of the industrial era. Both human-induced and natural factors trigger climate changes and associated risks. Since the discovery of oil in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) around 1960, the country has experienced high population growth and very rapid economic development with associated high demand on energy in various sectors. The response to this remarkable energy demand was the burning of fossil fuel. CO2 emissions in the UAE in last 51 years have averaged about 32.4 metric tons per capita (mtcp). During the last 16 years the highest annual mean temperature maximum was 28.9oC in 2010. The lowest annual mean temperature maximum was 27.2oC in 1997. During the same period the highest yearly rainfall was 21.5 mm in 1995, while the lowest was 1.0 mm in 2001. The main objective of this paper is to identify and discuss the potential risks and uncertainties that trigger global warming and climate change, including the expected challenges to come from these changes, and to analyze the likely impact of CO2 emissions on the UAEs climate change, respectively.
    Keywords: uncertainties; risks; challenges; CO2 emissions; climate change; global warming; U.A.E.
  • Climate Change, Seasonal Changes in Cassava Production and Konzo Epidemics   Order a copy of this article
    by Olusegun Steven Ayodele Oluwole 
    Abstract: Abstract: Seasonal konzo epidemics, which occur during droughts in Central, East, and Southern Africa, are attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. Severe droughts of global warming are predicted to increase cassava production. Trends and seasonal changes of temperature, precipitation, and cassava production were analyzed, and a model was proposed to explain the impact of climate change on cassava production and seasonal konzo epidemics. Spectral analyses of temperature, precipitation and cassava production data from 1961 to 2012 were done. Temperature increased by 1.1 ∘C in 52 years, while cassava production increased by 13 % during low precipitation. Correlation of seasonal changes of precipitation and cassava production was 1 at periods of 4 and 6 years. Severe droughts of environmental warming will increase seasonal cassava production, water shortage, and seasonal konzo epidemics in areas of subsistence farming. Food and water programmes are needed to control seasonal konzo epidemics. rn
    Keywords: keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, Cassava, Cyanide, Konzo, Epidemic, Seasonal
  • Potential of GHG Emission Reduction from Agriculture Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Indrayani Nimkar, Anju Singh, Seema Unnikrishnan, Neelima Naik 
    Abstract: Land use change activities, use of fertilizers, and open field burning of agricultural waste are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the agriculture sector. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of Kyoto protocol has proved useful in the mitigation of such GHGs. A total of 167 CDM projects of the agriculture sector are being studied across 19 countries. Out of these, Brazil has implemented a maximum of 46 CDM projects. Expected carbon emission reduction from the above 167 projects was about 10,083,912 metric ton of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e), out of which actual emission reduction achieved till October 2012 was 4,989,448 MtCO2e per annum. India has implemented 12 projects in the agriculture sector with estimated carbon emission of 620,457 metric ton CO2e, out of which actual emission reduction achieved was 265054 metric ton CO2e. Fifteen different methodologies were used worldwide in the above mentioned CDM projects, in which India has used 9 methodologies, followed by Chile with 7 methodologies. Methodology AMS-III.D Methane Recovery in Animal Manure Management Systems was used for 66 projects. Manure from livestock generates biogas, releasing methane directly into the atmosphere. Implementation of CDM methodology AMS-III.D pertains to the use of generated biogas for flaring or energy generation. Methodology AMS-I.D titled Grid Connected Renewable Electricity Generation was used in 49 projects. Application of the AMS-I.D methodology relates to the generation of renewable energy units that supply electricity to regional or national grid. CDM promotes projects that use renewable energy sources with clean technology leading to less dependency on conventional energy sources, ultimately reducing GHG emissions. It is, hence, valuable to have CDM projects in the agriculture sector as these provide various GHG mitigation options that reduce energy needs, recycle the generated waste and enable the use of alternate energy sources. This paper presents for the first time an overview of the contribution of CDM towards GHG mitigation in the agriculture sector.
    Keywords: Clean Development Mechanism, Green House Gases (GHGs), Agriculture
  • The Effectiveness of Climate Change Communication and Information Dissemination via the Internet: experiences from the On-Line Climate Conference Series   Order a copy of this article
    by Walter Leal Filho, Franziska Mannke, Evangelos Manolas 
    Abstract: Despite the importance of and the need for using internet-based approaches to promote information and raise awareness on climate change, there is a paucity of initiatives which may foster this cause on a long-term basis. This paper presents the concept, approaches, methods, experiences and results from an on-line climate change conference series led by the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg), which, since its inception in 2008, has engaged over one million participants in over 150 countries. Covering a wide range of topics including water use, disasters management, and technologies, the on-line climate change conferences provide useful insights on matters which may be considered, in ensuring climate change can be successfully communicated via on-line tools.
    Keywords: Communication; Climate change; Internet; Information; Dissemination
  • Hydrogen Production by Spirulina Maxima 2342 Under Different Light Intensities And Quantification Employing A Fuel Cell   Order a copy of this article
    by Pathiyamattom Joseph Sebastian, Alina Juantorena, Orlando Lastres, Geovanni Hernandez, Armando Bustos, Delfeena Eapen 
    Abstract: In this work the photosynthetic hydrogen production employing Spirulina maxima 2342 microorganisms was determined under different experimental conditions, for the same biomass property (concentration) and three different light intensities (150, 112 and 75 μE/m2.s). The hydrogen production was quantified employing a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) which produces electricity using the hydrogen produced in this experiment. The highest faradaic efficiency and hydrogen flow rate into the PEMFC (1,54 x10-8 kg/h) was obtained for a light intensity of 150 μE/m2. s.
    Keywords: Hydrogen, photosynthetic microorganisms, Spirulina maxima 2342, PEMFC.
    by Murat Özyavuz, Bayram Cemil Bilgili, Gülşah Elkıran 
    Abstract: The term heat island describes built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas. The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.85.4
    Keywords: Open and green space, temperature, geostatistics, landscape planning
  • Development of methodology for the assessment of changes in household electricity consumption and calculation of CO2 emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilze Laicane, Andra Blumberga, Marika Rosa, Dagnija Blumberga, Uldis Bariss 
    Abstract: This study outlines a methodology for assessing changes in household electricity consumption and CO2 emissions. The method is proposed to analyze large data sets of residential electricity consumption in the case study of the first smart metering pilot project in Latvia. The goal of the project is to achieve a reduction of electricity consumption in households by 10%. In order to do so project aims to increase household users awareness of smart technologies, as well as to promote households involvement in energy efficiency measures. The proposed methodology is based on several steps, including: 1) baseline situation analysis; 2) normalization of electricity consumption data; 3) identification of the factors affecting household electricity consumption; 4) an empirical analysis of households electricity consumption using regression analysis; 5) assessment of changes in electricity consumption at the end of evaluation period and 6) calculation of CO2 emissions. Finally, the first results of the smart metering pilot project in 9-month period has been presented. The recommendations for policy development on promoting smart metering has been raised at the end of this Paper
    Keywords: Smart metering, electricity consumption, household, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, data normalization, assessment of changes in household electricity consumption
  • Climate Variability and its Impacts on Water Resources in the Upper Indus Basin under IPCC Climate Change Scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Juergen Pilz, Firdos Khan, Muhamad Amjad, David Wiberg 
    Abstract: The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), having latitude 320 N to 370 N and longitude 72.40 E to 810 E is chosen for hydrological impact assessment. The output of a Regional Climate Model (RCM), Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies (PRECIS), is used as input data to the hydrological model to produce inflow projections at the Tarbela Reservoir on the Indus River. Maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation are investigated for possible climate change in the region. The above mentioned variables are changing over time and clearly indicating that climate change is happening. The Best Easy Systematic (BES) estimator and Mean Monthly Correction Factor (MMCF) techniques were used for statistical bias correction in temperature and precipitation, respectively. The hydrological model was calibrated for the 1995-2004 period and validated for the 1990-1994 period with almost 90 % efficiencies. The results show that the variables have a slightly increasing trend under the A2 scenario compared to the B2 scenario. The projections of inflow to the Tarbela Reservoir show that there is an overall increase of 59.42 % and 34.27 % to the Tarbela Reservoir during the period of 2040-2069 under the A2 and the B2 scenarios, respectively. It is important that there will be much more water available in the future, with the highest inflow and comparatively more water shortage noted in the 2020s under the A2 scenario. Finally, the impacts of changing climates on the operation of Tarbela Dam are investigated. It is noted that there is no chance of overtopping the dam during the 2020s and the 2050s under the A2 and the B2 scenarios.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Hydrological Model, Impacts assessment, Indus River, Inflow, Scenarios, Tarbela Reservoir, Reservoir management, Calibration, Bias correction.
  • Examining the potential impact of land use/cover changes on the NPP ecosystem services of Yanan region of China: A scenario-based analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Jing 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the potential impacts of the past and future land use/cover (LUC) changes on the ecosystem services of Yanan region of China, and discuss their implications for policy development and implementation. Remote sensing-derived LUC maps for 2009, a Geographic Information Systems-based LUC change model, and ecosystem service value of NPP were used to facilitate the analysis. The results forests have significantly higher NPP values than farmlands, whose NPP is approximately equal to that of brushlands. The scenario-based LUC change analysis revealed that if the urban LUC change pattern continues, the total ecosystem service value of NPP will also change, especially if the forest cover is not fully protected and conserved. Geospatial tools and techniques facilitate exploratory analysis critical to the understanding of the potential impacts of future LUC changes under different scenarios. Our results highlighted that under the great pressure of urbanization, there is a need to strengthen the proper implementation of policies in order to maintain and improve ecosystem services. Although there are limitations to the estimated ecosystem service value of NPP of yanan to be taken into account in future studies, the magnitude of the estimated changes in the LUC is substantial. Thus, it may still be possible to draw general inferences about the effect of the perceived LUC changes on the estimated ecosystem service value of NPP.
    Keywords: ecosystem service; NPP; land use patterns; Yan’an; scenario-based analysis
    by Ali Osman Pektas 
    Abstract: Appropriate prediction of sediment load concentration being carried by streams has a vital importance of water resources quantity and quality studies. In most studies some dimensionless parameters are derived by using observed variables of sediment system and then used as inputs of predictive models. In this study, instead of deriving new variables, widely used non-dimensional sediment model parameters have been compiled and examined. The main purpose of the study is to decide the essential parameters to establish effective models in predicting for both bed load and suspended sediment load. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis and sensitivity analysis in artificial neural networks are used to determine the most influential parameters. The results of all methods are evaluated together and the parameters that are found significant are detected as the most relevant parameters.
    Keywords: Bed load; Suspended Sediment Load; Cluster analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Multiple Linear Regressions; Neural networks.
  • Process Simulation of Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture and Regeneration in Packed Column   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Asif, Woo-Seung Kim 
    Abstract: Post-combustion CO2 capture using aqueous ammonia offers advantages over the conventional amines solvent, including a lack of corrosion, an enhanced CO2 loading capacity, a lower solvent degradation rate and a low energy input requirement for solvent regeneration. In this paper, an aqueous ammonia-based CO2 absorption-desorption process integrated with a washing column is modeled and simulated in Aspen Plus
    Keywords: aqueous ammonia, chemical absorption, CO2 capture, global warming, Post-combustion
  • Climate change awareness, coping mechanisms and adaptation in poor rural coastal communities, Ben Tre Province, Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Kim Anh T. Nguyen, Curtis M. Jolly, Trang T.H. Le, Chuong N.P.T. Bui 
    Abstract: Ben Tre Province in Vietnam is ranked among the most vulnerable places in Asia to climate change events. We conducted a study to evaluate community knowledge, awareness, perception severity, coping mechanism and adaptation to climate change in Ben Tre Province. Community members were aware of changing climatic conditions. About 90 percent of respondents suffered losses from salt water intrusion. Households adopted coping mechanisms to deal with these changes. Age, education and previous affliction with climate change events influence knowledge, awareness, perception of severity and preparedness to manage climate change events. Local governments proposed adaptation strategies such as building of dikes to prevent salt water intrusion and developing of irrigation systems. Of the two adaptation strategies evaluated to losses from climate change, the sea dike system protected more land but the irrigating system was more cost effective in mitigating losses from climate change
    Keywords: Vietnam; climate; change; community; awareness; adaptation; mitigation; strategies; cost-effectiveness.
  • A Preliminary Assessment of Observed and Projected trends in the Diurnal Temperature Ranges over South India under SRES A1B Scenario.   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhanya P, Ramachandran Andimuthu, Radhapriya P, Thirumurugan P 
    Abstract: In the present study, the PRECIS, a regional climate model, is employed to simulate the baseline (1970-2000) and future 2071-2100 (2080s) maximum, minimum and diurnal temperature range changes under SRES A1B scenario over the Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, South India. A comparison of the simulated baseline results with observation data acquired from IMD show that PRECIS can well simulate the local distribution characteristics of diurnal temperature range over the study area with a correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.948 with 1% significance level. Analyses of the simulated results in the 2080s under SRES A1B scenario relative to the baseline shows that there would be an overall increasing trend in the maximum and minimum temperatures over the study area and the warming amplitude in the north, west and interior parts are projected to be greater than in the east coastal areas. Sens slope estimator supported by the Man Kendal test shows that the diurnal temperature range in the 2080s under SRES A1B scenario relative to the baseline are projected to decrease annually by-0.015o C and a statistically significant decrease of -0.029o C during the southwest monsoon season in the overall study area.
    Keywords: PRECIS, Climate change; Diurnal Temperature Range; Regional climate model; Dynamical Downscaling; SRES A1B Scenario;Maximum and Minimum Temperatures.
    by Imoro Razak Jaha, Emmanuel Kodjo Ekumah 
    Abstract: Fish is Ghanas most important non-traditional export commodity and the fisheries sub-sector accounts for about five percent of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (Dontwi et al., 2002). In 2002, export earnings from fish and fishery products amounted to nearly 96 million US Dollars (Dontwi et al.2002). Fishing activities in Ghana include artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial operations. However, this important gain in GDP from the fishery subsector is highly threatened by climate change and its variability. Climate change is the gradual, long-term alteration of worldwide weather patterns, especially increases in temperature and storm activity, attributable to the increased accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Yaqub, 2010). Changes in climate directly affect the productivity of fish as well as the ability for fish catch depends also on the supply of an essential component of the fishing activities which is the premix fuel. The supply of premix fuel determines the availability of fish since fishermen heavily rely on this product for their fishing activities. The paper examines the nexus among the three variables of climate change, fish catch and supply of premix fuel for sustainable livelihoods of the coastal people of Ghana.
    Keywords: Key words: Climate Change, Fish catch, Premix fuel supply, Fishermen and sustainable livelihoods
  • Regional and Sectoral Impacts of Climate Change Under International Climate Agreements   Order a copy of this article
    by Shin Sakaue, Koichi Yamaura, Toyoaki Washida 
    Abstract: This article examines regional and sectoral impacts of climate change under international climate agreements for abating GHGs. Using the IAM with sub-global CO2 abatement games involving players from three regions (Japan, China and the U.S.), we obtain both non-cooperative and cooperative solutions. Simulated results indicate: 1) there is little discrepancy between future temperature solutions if each region responds selfishly when reducing CO2 emissions; 2) cooperation between all game participants sees an increase in GDP, whilst non-participant regions suffer greater damage; 3) all sectors in participant countries increase in value-added, with other regions experiencing higher damages for most sectors under cooperation than under the scenarios proposed by the international community.
    Keywords: EMEDA; integrated assessment model; IAMs; CGE models; global warming; climate change; non-cooperative game; bargaining game; Nash equilibrium; Nash bargaining solution.
  • Mainstreaming Ethnoclimatology for Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation in Mountain Ecosystems   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhaskar Padigala 
    Abstract: Native communities inhabiting the Himalayan environment are mostly susceptible to environmental and other drivers of transformations, but, these communities have been living in the highly variable climatic environment for centuries and thus, possess an vast amount of localised traditional knowledge that has helped these communities to survive and thrive in such extreme ecosystem. But, ongoing discourses on vulnerability and adaptation to climate change impacts these ethnic knowledge systems has not been given much of an importance. Hence, this study has tried to explore the different ethnoclimatological practices followed by local communities in Himachal Pradesh, India. Changing social and economic scenarios and inadequate governmental interventions are slowly leading to the disappearance of the traditional knowledge. However, local ethnoscientific knowledge has a tremendous potential to meet the challenges of climate change impacts. Hence, there is a need to integrate traditional knowledge with the scientific understandings to develop sustainable local or regional climate change assessment, mitigation and adaptation strategies that are best suited for the local ecosystem and involve local communities participation.
    Keywords: Ethnoclimatology, Traditional Knowledge, Local Communities, Climate Change, Adaptation
  • Combined Heat & Power System Optimisation under Carbon Pricing Policy: A Comparison of Five Carbon Markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Chanel Gibson, Mehdi Aghaei Meybodi, Masud Behnia 
    Abstract: The installation and optimisation of a gas turbine combined heat and power system was studied in an effort to reduce or eliminate financial liability under five different carbon pricing schemes around the world by becoming more energy efficient. The system was applied to a case study and configured to operate under carbon prices in Australia, the UK (EU ETS), New Zealand, California (USA), and British Columbia (Canada). As a policy designed to promote a reduction in emissions; the policy was successful in three of the five schemes namely Australia, the UK and British Columbia. These results were identified by systems that became unprofitable once financial liability was introduced for carbon emissions. The Australian carbon price was also examined in terms of effectiveness in light of its expected repeal. The Australian system ranked fourth of the five markets studied in terms of financial benefit both when financially liable and not liable for carbon pricing.
    Keywords: carbon prices; cogeneration; combined heat and power systems; emissions trading schemes; emissions reduction; gas turbines; partial load operation; thermo-economic optimization
  • Investigation of sea level rise effect on saltwater intrusion in an unconfined coastal aquifer using sharp-interface approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Freydoon Vafaie, Seyed Sadjad Mehdizadeh 
    Abstract: A numerical sharp-interface model is developed to predict saltwater intrusion (SWI) into an unconfined coastal aquifer due to sea level rise (SLR). The model is applied to a conceptual field-scale aquifer to explore the sensitivity of the intrusion mechanism to various involved parameters. In all of the simulations, appropriate SLR rate has been applied to the sharp-interface model. The 90 years unsteady results showed that change in hydraulic conductivity, rainfall recharge and freshwater inflow have significant effect on intrusion but the model is not very sensitive to different values of porous media porosity and specific yield. Afterward, the seaside saltwater head is raised and the toe of new time dependent salt wedge is determined. The results demonstrated that the SLR leads to more SWI. This excess intrusion is not very clear when SLR rate is low (e.g. 0.2 mm/year) but saltwater intrudes significantly further when the rate gets the higher values (e.g. 8 mm/year).
    Keywords: Saltwater intrusion, Unconfined aquifer, Sharp-interface approach, Sea level rise
  • Analysis of potential GHG emissions reductions from methane recovery in livestock farming   Order a copy of this article
    by Michela Gallo, Adriana Del Borghi, Carlo Strazza 
    Abstract: Livestock farming is a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) owing to the high amount of methane emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the potential emission reductions and their enhancement during manure management through the optimization of the main parameters involved, such as temperature, manure characteristics, type of management system. The investigation of a swine manure management system is performed with calculation of GHG emissions reduction due to a methane recovery system coupled with on-site power generator. The analysis conducted on the three parameters considered shows a variation of the methane emissions from 390 (drylot) to 31,000 tCO2e /year (anaerobic lagoon or liquid/slurry). The findings demonstrate that the substitution of anaerobic lagoon systems with a methane recovery system can be considered as a promising process in terms of GHG emissions reduction also in case of not highly favorable conditions of temperature and manure characteristics.
    Keywords: Biogas; Recovery; Manure; Anaerobic digestion; Global warming; Kyoto protocol; Greenhouse gases; GHG; Methane; Carbon dioxide; CO2 emissions; Livestock; Swine; Emission reduction; Energy generation.
  • Risk of impacts from extreme weather and climate in river-based Tilapia cage culture in northern Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Phimphakan Lebel, Niwooti Whangchai, Chanagun Chitmanat, Louis Lebel 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the direct impacts of extreme weather, high and low flow events, seasonality and other climate-related phenomena on river-based tilapia cage aquaculture in Northern Thailand. An interdisciplinary approach was taken, which included analysis of secondary water flow and meteorological data, quantitative and qualitative surveys of farmers experiences with extreme events, and direct observations during critical periods. Findings show that extreme high and low flows adversely impact a substantial fraction of farms, causing damage to cages, fish deaths, slow growth and disease problems. Economic losses are significant and result in financial debt. Compensation and assistance following floods is modest relative to losses, and coverage is incomplete. Probability of extreme flows and impacts vary among locations, are highly seasonal, and vary inter-annually. These findings are important to improving management of climate-related risks, under both current and future climatic conditions.
    Keywords: climate, floods, aquaculture, drought, adaptation, risk
    by Isabel Gallego-Alvarez, Liliane Segura 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact that variations in greenhouse gas emissions (20072008) had on corporate performance during three time periods2008, 2009, and 2010while taking two variables as a measure of firm performanceROE and ROAand considering a time period affected by a financial crisis, all under the perspective of the resource-based theory. The empirical analysis was performed in two stages: (i) analysis of the data obtained through content analysis and (ii) analysis of the factors that influence corporate performance using a dependency modela multiple linear regression. Several variables were introduced to represent emissions variations, the size of the companies, leverage, public pressure, capital intensity, and the firms growth rate. Also, dummy variables have been incorporated for the activity sector in which the company operates. The results show that variations in greenhouse gas emissions (CO2) do not affect either ROE or ROA; therefore, the hypotheses could not be confirmed. Nonetheless, other variables, such as capital intensity, size, firm growth rate, and activity sector, have a positive and statistically significant effect on ROE and ROA.The findings of this work can be considered of great interest on the international level because on the one hand they show a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by firms pertaining to strategic sectors in this sense, and on the other a dependence model is established to test how the variation in emissions affects firm performance under the resource-based view theory. Furthermore, certain control variables are considered, such as capital intensity, public pressure, and firm growth rate, which until now have seldom been analysed in this context.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 emissions variation, corporate performance, financial crisis, resource-based view theory, capital intensity, firm growth rate, public pressure
  • Islander Mobilities: Any change from climate change?   Free full-text access Free full-text access
    by Ilan Kelman, Robert Stojanov, Shabana Khan, Oscar Alvarez Gila, Barbora Duží, Dmytro Vikhrov 
    Abstract: Climate change is stated as being likely to cause the forced movement of millions of people, especially from small island communities. Such statements are not always placed in wider and deeper understandings of mobility and non-mobility. Focusing on island communities, this paper assesses some of the implications inherent in mobility and non-mobility choices related to climate change in comparison to other factors and drivers. Culture and networks are examples of drivers demonstrating that it is not the norm for climate change to dominate mobility and non-mobility choices by islanders. Instead, choices often arise from social factors which, in turn, impact how climate change is and is not addressed. Without denying the major challenges which climate change has previously brought to some islanders and brings to many islanders today, climate change nonetheless brings little substantive change to discussions of islander mobilities.
    Keywords: climate change, culture, displacement, environmental change, islanders, islands, migration, mobility, networks, refugee
  • Potential Evaluation of CO2 Flooding for EOR and Sequestration in YL Oilfield of China   Order a copy of this article
    by Liping He, Pingping Shen, Xinwei Liao, Hao Chen, Fangfang Li 
    Abstract: Ordos Basin is the largest low permeability onshore petroliferous basin in China, with the total reserve amount of over 1 billion tons. CO2 EOR and sequestration in this region enjoy huge potential and broad prospect. In this paper, eighteen oilfields in YL city and its surrounding area within 300 kilometers was taken as the study object, potential of CO2 flooding for EOR and sequestration was researched and evaluated. Results show that 8 oilfields are suitable for CO2 miscible flooding and 10 oilfields are suitable for CO2 immiscible flooding. The predicted enhanced recovery efficiencies are about 12% and 6.5%, respectively. The expected cumulative oil production is 80 million tons with CO2 storage of over 130 million tons.
    Keywords: CO2 flooding, CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, Minimum miscible pressure
  • Nexus between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Comparison of Non-Renewable Natural Resource Poor and Rich Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Bernur Acikgoz, Mine Yilmazer, Serkan Cinar 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of renewable and non- renewable energy resources on economic growth in non-renewable natural resource poor and rich countries. For this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas production function is used by adding the energy source as an element of production from 1990 to 2012. In the models, the cointegration between resources and economic growth is tested by a panel cointegration technique. For long-term coefficient estimation, the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) test that is based on Pesaran et al. (1999) is used. According to the results of the pooled mean group (PMG), long-term and short-term results are consistent. Renewable resources have a relatively higher positive effect on economic growth in non-renewable natural resource rich countries. Moreover, these positive effects are higher in lower and upper middle-income countries (LMIC and UMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Our findings suggest LMIC and UMIC countries -especially in the group of non-renewable natural resource rich countries- value and consider the use of renewable energy resources for energy production decisions in their economic growth policies.
    Keywords: Renewable energy, economic growth, non-renewable natural resource rich countries, non-renewable natural resource poor countries, panel cointegration, Panel ARDL.
  • Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and landslides in the Philippines: Community Perceptions on climate impacts and adaptation options   Order a copy of this article
    by Lilibeth A. Acosta, Elena A. Eugenio, Paula Beatrice M. Macandog, Damasa B. Magcale-Macandog, Elaine Kuan-Hui Lin, Edwin Rosell Abucay, Alfi Lorenz Cura, Mary Grace Primavera 
    Abstract: Loss and damage from floods and landslides are escalating in the Philippines due to increasing frequency and intensity of typhoons. This paper investigates the types and scale of loss and damage in two municipalities that were affected by typhoon-induced floods and landslides in 2004 and 2012. It assesses peoples preferences on adaptation measures and perceptions on human-nature links on occurrence of disasters. It reveals that human loss and property damage are causing psychological distress to affected people, undermining capacity to adapt to the next disasters. Many vulnerable people are not aware of the link between climate and land use change. Moreover, many depend on unsustainable land use for source of livelihoods particularly after disasters. The preference for measures to reduce landslide risks through reforestation and logging/mining prevention is thus low. Insurance is not a preferred mechanism for reducing risks because regular payment of premium is not affordable to vulnerable people.
    Keywords: adaptation, adaptive capacity, climate change, conjoint analysis, disasters, floods and landslides, Haiyan, loss and damage, mitigation, Philippines, risks, typhoons
  • Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) across Western Turkey according to the ENSEMBLES Project   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamza Altinsoy, Haci Ahmet Yildirim 
    Abstract: The direct effects of climate change on workers thermal comfort as well as its indirect effects on occupational health and safety are analyzed. The region of interest is western Turkey. The Regional Climate Model (RCM) results of daily maximum air temperature and relative humidity from the ENSEMBLES project are used to form past and future projections. There are various indices used to observe the thermal comfort conditions for workers. In this research, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is used for outdoor environments as outdoor workers make the prime target group. The seasonal spatial distribution of WBGT across the selected region during the reference period (1970-1999) in addition to alterations thereof for the three future periods (namely, 2010-2039, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099) is calculated. The emerging monthly time series for the annual WBGT is analyzed for the time period from 1970 to 2100. By the end of the 21th century, this reaches 24 ˚C in June and August, particularly across southern Turkey.
    Keywords: WBGT; Turkey; Thermal Comfort; ENSEMBLES Project; Climate Change; Regional Climate Model
  • Impacts of Human Farm Activities on Tropical Deforestation and Climate Change: Interactive Statistical Models   Order a copy of this article
    by R Krishna Prasad 
    Abstract: The tropical rainforests are essential for sustainable development of earths ecosystem. The rainforests are rich storehouse of biodiversity, natural pharmaceutical products, source of sustained water resources and manage microclimate of their region. The forest regimes in Amazonian, Congo basin and South East Asian forest regions are under constant threat of degradation. The carbon dioxide concentration in the earths atmosphere has reached the highest ever seen by the human beings to 400 ppm level and mean surface temperature of earth has increased by 1oC in last fifty years. This study explores statistical relations for rainforest remaining in the earth and carbon dioxide concentration in the earths atmosphere as function of widespread human farm activities such as soya bean, corn and palm oil production as factors. The response surface methodology is used to analyze data from year 2000 to 2013 which shows that rate of world tropical rainforest degradation and CO2 concentration in the earths atmosphere increases with increase in world soy, corn and palm production and mathematical models predicting these relations were developed.
    Keywords: Key words: Rainforest degradation, Response surface methodology, CO2 emissions, Climatic changes
  • Utilising key climate element variability for the prediction of future climate change using a support vector machine Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Adamu Abubakar, Haruna Chiroma, Akram Zeki, Mueen Uddin 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a Support Vector Machine (SVM) Model to advance the prediction accuracy of Global Land-Ocean Temperature (GLOT), which is globally significant for understanding the future pattern of climate change. The GLOT dataset was collected from NASAs GLOT Index (C) (Anomaly with Base: 1951-1980) for the period 1880 to 2013. We categorise the dataset by decades to describe the behaviour of the GLOT within those decades. The dataset was used to build an SVM Model to predict future values of the GLOT. The performance of the model was compared with a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) and validated statistically. The SVM was found to perform significantly better than the MLPNN in terms of Mean Square Error and Root Mean Square Error, although computational times for the two models are statistically equal. The SVM model was used to project the GLOT from the pre-existing NASAs GLOT Index (C) (Anomaly with Base: 1951-1980) for the next twenty years (2013 - 2033). The projection results of our study can be of value to policy makers, such as the intergovernmental organisations related to environmental studies, e.g., the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
    Keywords: Global land-ocean temperature; Climate change indicators; Support Vector Machine
  • Batch anaerobic digestion of simulated Bangladeshi food waste: Methane production at different inoculum-to-substrate ratios and kinetic analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Shishir Behera, Mohd. Zafar, Tanziha Tasnim, Hung-Suck Park 
    Abstract: This study aims at investigating the anaerobic biodegradation characteristics of a typical simulated Bangladeshi food waste. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests carried out in 500 mL batch digesters showed the methane yields of cooked meat, cooked fish, boiled rice, vegetable and mixed food waste (MFW) to be 541, 402, 319, 274 and 484 ml CH4/gVS, respectively. The biodegradability of 87%, 83%, 75%, 76% and 82% were obtained for cooked meat, cooked fish, boiled rice, vegetable and MFW, respectively. At mesophilic temperature (35
    Keywords: Food waste; ISR; Biodegradability; Methane yield; Kinetics
  • Spatial Correlations and Distributions of Climatic Normals for Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilhami Yildiz, Jin Yue, Tri Nguyen-Quang, Joshua Lowrey, Asena Yildiz 
    Abstract: Winter design dry-bulb temperatures at 99% and 97.5% frequency levels were developed and analyzed by multiple regression and spatial correlations developed using as regressors altitude, latitude and longitude. Winter design dry-bulb temperatures were negatively related to altitude and latitude. Latitude was the most influential regressor on the winter design dry-bulb temperature distributions. Summer design dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, and wet-bulb depressions at 1%, 2.5% and 5% frequency levels were also developed and analyzed by multiple regression and spatial correlations were developed using as regressors altitude, latitude and longitude. Altitude was the only statistically significant influential regressor on the summer design dry-bulb temperature distributions. Latitude was the most influential regressor on the summer design wet-bulb temperature distributions. Altitude was the only statistically significant influential regressor on the summer design wet-bulb depression distributions. Spatial correlations and distributions of prevailing wind speeds, mean daily ranges, and median of annual extreme temperatures were developed and mapped.
    Keywords: Spatial correlations, spatial distributions, engineering climatic data, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, HVAC, built environment, thermal comfort, Turkey
  • Nitrous oxide emission from nitrogen fertiliser application in oil palm plantation of different stages   Order a copy of this article
    by Faradiella Kusin, Nurul Izzati Mat Akhir, Ferdaus Mohamat-Yusuff 
    Abstract: The release of nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural activities contributes to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this study, the amount of nitrogen fertiliser used in an oil palm plantation of different stages (immature and mature) was estimated. Data of fertilising scheme at the oil palm plantation for oil palms varying in age (planted between 1986 and 2009) was used. Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions and the resulting CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions were calculated for each category of the oil palm. The amounts of N-fertiliser applied were between 102-137 kg N/ha. The resulting N2O emissions were between 19.07-22.10 kg N2O-N/ha, which corresponds to CO2-eq of between 2223.53-2700.42 kg CO2-eq/ha. It was also estimated that about 29.87-34.63 g CO2 were emitted per MJ crop. The N2O emission per ha oil palm was found to decrease from immature stage until maturely-developed stage spanning 20 years. The CO2-eq amount decreased only after 10 years of oil palm development. The results were also compared for synthetic nitrogen fertiliser-induced emissions within tropical regions.
    Keywords: Nitrous oxide emission; CO2-equivalent; N-fertiliser; greenhouse gases; global warming; oil palm plantation
  • Technical feasibility and application effect of coupled CO2 sequestration and EOR in tight sandstone oil reservoir   Order a copy of this article
    by Changlin Liao, Xinwei Liao, Wanglai Gao, Jing Chen, Huan Wang 
    Abstract: The increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China have become a problem demanding prompt solution, and the performance of water flooding for tight sandstone oil reservoirs is unsatisfied and the production of single-well is low both of which has strong impacts on the economical benefit of oilfields. Therefore, this paper focused on the technical researches on CO2 sequestration and enhancing oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flooding. Experiments and numerical reservoir simulation were conducted to study the technical feasibility and application effect of implementing CO2 sequestration and EOR in tight sandstone oil reservoirs. Several results were acquired as follows, small maximum pore throat radius, inefficient mercury withdrawal and large residual volume in pore together implied that the bad connectivity among pores would result in high percolating resistance in reservoir; when the saturation pressure met 21MPa, the viscosity dropped to 0.4264mPa.s a decrease of 49.53% over CO2 free situation; when the pressure was 13MPa, 15MPa and 17MPa the solubility of CO2 in formation water was 27.28 m3/ m3, 26.37 m3/ m3 and 27.28 m3/ m3, respectively; the displacement efficiency of miscible GCF in fractured cores was 49.1%, and it was 27.4% higher than water flooding; CO2 sequestration and EOR conducted through WAG-PMT turned out to have the highest NPV, and was followed by WAG. Several conclusions were obtained at last the low porosity, low permeability and defective connectivity among pores lead to the unsatisfied performance of water flooding; the physical properties of the oil are favorable for conducting CO2 sequestration and EOR; miscible flooding performs better than immiscible flooding; CO2 sequestration and EOR are easier to be implemented in the reservoirs with preferable homogeneity. A technology combining WAG with profile modification technology (WAG-PMT) was adopted to maximize the ability of CO2 injection and oil-producing for single well so that the economical benefit of CO2 sequestration and EOR can be improved more efficiently.
    Keywords: CO2 sequestration; Enhanced oil recovery; Tight sandstone; Net present value; Technology

Special Issue on: "Loss and Damage from Climate Change,"

  • Assessing the risk of loss and damage: exposure, vulnerability and risk to climate-related hazards for different country classifications   Order a copy of this article
    by Torsten Welle, Joern Birkmann 
    Abstract: Preventing and reducing loss and damage due to extreme events is an important topic for the international community especially in the context of climate change negotiations and disaster risk reduction. The paper outlines the latest state-of-the-art approaches to assess loss and damage and the risk of loss and damage. Against this background, a more in-depth analysis is provided on how to assess the risk of loss and damage in different country groups (i.e., World Bank income groups) focusing on selected slow- and sudden-onset climate-related hazards using the concept of the WorldRiskIndex. The results underscore that the risk of loss and damage for low- and high-income countries are significantly different, but also that global risk patterns differ significantly regarding sudden-onset versus slow-onset hazards. In the first step of analysis, the results show that not only does exposure to extreme events influence the risk of loss and damage, but equally important are the vulnerability and adaptive capacities of societies. The second step of analysis shows that target-oriented adaptive strategies to the various impacts of climate-related hazards are crucial in reducing the respective risk of loss and damage.
    Keywords: loss and damage, assessment of risk of loss and damage, mapping, slow- and sudden-onset climate-related hazards
  • Coming Full Circle: The History of Loss and Damage under the UNFCCC   Order a copy of this article
    by Erin Roberts, Saleemul Huq 
    Abstract: This paper will chronicle the history of rise of loss and damage in negotiations under the United Nations Framework on Climate Change and the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in bringing about this paradigm shift. Over the past two decades the global climate change regime has shifted from a focus primarily on mitigation, to both mitigation and adaptation and finally to the current era in which loss and damage has emerged as a key fixture on the agenda with the establishment of the Warsaw international mechanism on loss and damage at the 19th Conference of the Parties in November 2013. This shift can attributed to the realisation that there will be some unavoided impacts of climate change that will need to be addressed by the global climate regime.
    Keywords: UNFCCC; loss and damage; climate change; negotiations; mitigation; adaptation; global climate regime; IPCC
  • The Suitability of Disaster Loss Databases to Measure Loss and Damage from Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Melanie Gall 
    Abstract: This paper explores the suitability of disaster loss databases for documenting impacts of climate change particularly those related to extreme weather and slow onset events. The goal is to clarify the utility, quality, and relevance of disaster loss metrics in the context of climate-sensitive hazards such as floods, tropical cyclones, droughts, and so forth. Although, disaster loss databases hold great potential for assessing some of the impacts from climate change, several modifications are required to enhance the utility of existing disaster loss databases, primarily in regard to data availability and quality. In order to effectively utilize disaster loss databases, loss metrics and hazard classifications should be broadened, time horizons for loss estimation expanded as well as loss estimation techniques improved along with a coordinated development and implementation of data and database standards.
    Keywords: extreme events, climate change impacts, natural hazards, loss and damage, measuring losses, disaster loss database
  • Problematising Loss and Damage   Order a copy of this article
    by David Wrathall, Anthony Oliver-Smith, Alexander Fekete, Ebru Gencer, Patrick Sakdapolrak, Marqueza Lepana 
    Abstract: In the space of a few short years, the UNFCCC process has given birth to a new policy regime, the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage, to prepare for the adverse consequences of climate change to vulnerable societies. The justification for this policy is that a residual domain exists wherein climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and public/private risk transfer mechanisms are insufficient for peoples and places overwhelmed by climate impacts. We link this domain conceptually to scientific research on climate change impacts, and specifically to research on limits to adaptation. The normative position of this academic debate is generally oriented toward the need for transformative adaptation. This paper aims to anticipate the challenges that the Warsaw Mechanism will encounter achieving transformation in practice. Both policy design (as it is taking shape) and implementation face a set of interrelated conceptual and operational problems that challenge whether resources can and will address adverse consequences among the most vulnerable. In the end, loss and damage policy may suffer from the same limitations as adaptation policy: it is concerned with the reconstitution of vulnerable states of being, rather than their transformation into something more fundamentally conducive of wellbeing and development.
    Keywords: Climate change; vulnerability; adaptation; compensation; loss and damage
  • The Rising Tide: Migration as a Response to Loss and Damage from Sea Level Rise in Vulnerable Communities   Order a copy of this article
    by Erin Roberts, Stephanie Andrei 
    Abstract: As climate change impacts worsen, losses and damages incurred in both developing and developed countries will continue to increase. While enhancing mitigation and adaptation efforts will influence the level of loss and damage avoided in the future, historical emissions have locked in a certain level of climate change, making some residual losses and damages inevitable. Loss and damage from slow onset processes like sea level rise will ultimately require some individuals to migrate and entire countries, to relocate. Through examples from Kiribati and Alaska this paper will highlight the complexity involved in migrating and relocating and recommend interventions for easing the resettlement process.
    Keywords: loss and damage; slow onset processes; sea level rise; climate change; migration; relocation; adaptation; Alaska; Small Island Developing States; Kiribati; non-economic losses; culture

Special Issue on: "Loss and Damage from Climate Change"

  • Climate Change Impacts and the Value of Adaptation-Can Crop Adjustments Help Farmers in Pakistan?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirza Nomman Ahmed, Peter Michael Schmitz 
    Abstract: According to the climate vulnerability index Pakistan is ranked 12th globally and economic losses of approximately 4.5 billion dollars for the entire economy are anticipated. However, all these future estimates of losses for Pakistan do not consider past adaptations by the farmers in their calculations and thus tend to overestimate climate change induced losses. This paper contributes to the literature by studying the effectiveness of households adaptation and coping measures regarding the prevention of loss and damage using choice-modelling. In order to assess, whether loss and damage is likely to occur in future and to determine, whether crop-cultivating farmers have well adapted, simulations are run. Farmers are found to adjust their crop choices considering climate and expected income. If farmers adapt, benefits exceeding 300 million dollars are possible for the crop sector. In the business as usual scenario, losses between 4 and 12 million dollars (2030/2090) are found. The findings hint towards well-directed adaptations of farmers in Pakistan, preventing loss and damage.
    Keywords: Developing Countries; Environmental Impact; Hedonic; Global Warming; net revenue and adaptations; agriculture; Pakistan; Structural Ricardian Model; Crop Switching
  • Observations on the role of the private sector in the UNFCCCs loss and damage of climate change work programme   Order a copy of this article
    by Swenja Surminski, Jillian Eldridge 
    Abstract: Private sector engagement, particularly in relation to public policy based action and strategy, has become a buzz word in most policy areas, but this is often accompanied by a lack of clarity on roles and responsibilities between public and private sector. We investigate this for the new United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) work stream on addressing loss and damage (L&D) from climate change. This paper presents evidence gathered from official submissions by Parties and other bodies to the UNFCCC, the small but growing L&D literature, and experience from the related fields of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). The results from the study show: a degree of vagueness in outlining the role the private sector, but expectation that they will support the emerging L&D framework through knowledge, skills and resource. Private sector engagement is mainly seen in the context of utilizing private sector expertise based in developed countries, rather than assessing current and future impacts on the growing private sector in developing countries. Unclear conceptual boundaries of L&D, DRR and CCA are posing a challenge for stakeholders. While evidence of existing engagement in the L&D debate is noticeable for the insurance industry, there remains only a limited understanding on how to actually measure the effectiveness of such private sector engagement. Creating greater clarity on expectations of and the ability to deliver by the private sector would be important tasks for the UNFCCC to focus on.
    Keywords: Loss and Damage; private sector; stakeholder engagement; climate change; insurance; UNFCCC

Special Issue on: "Risk and Global Warming"

  • Virtualized Load Management Algorithm to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Data Center Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Mueen Uddin, Jamshed Memon, Mohd Zaidi Abdul Rozan, Raed Alsaqour 
    Abstract: The environmental footprint of ICT continues to increase. Data centers are key contributors of greenhouse gas emissions that pollute the environment and cause global warming. All of the data centers are overwhelmed with numerous servers as the major components of processing. These servers and other equipment consume high amounts of power, thereby emitting CO2. In an average server environment, 30% of the servers are dead and only consume energy, but such servers are not properly utilized, in which their utilization ratios range from 5% to 10%. This paper proposes a new algorithm to manage and categorize the workload of different underutilized volume servers properly to increase their utilization capacity. The proposed algorithm helps apply server consolidation methodology and increases the utilization ratio of underutilized servers by up to 50%, thereby saving high amounts of power and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by up to 88%.
    Keywords: Server Virtualization; Greenhouse Gases, Server Consolidation; Workload Management; Energy Efficient Data Center; Global Warming.
  • Modelling extreme temperatures in Ireland under global warming using a hybrid peak-over-threshold & generalised Pareto distribution approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassin Osman, Rowan Fealy, John Sweeney 
    Abstract: In the present paper modelling extreme temperature (i.e. maximum and minimum temperatures), for possible use as a tool for assessing risk and impacts of global warming in Ireland is addressed. The approach used is a combination of Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD) in which the scale parameter of the distribution is allowed to vary with a dominant feature of climate pattern at the location. The dominant climatic pattern at a selected location is approximated by climatic variables derived from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data, employed for building the models. Having calibrated the models, the observed large scale variables were then replaced with a corresponding suite of variables, derived from the Hadley Centre Global Climate Model (HadCM3) for the A2 emissions scenario, in order to generate projections of future changes in extreme values. Data from six synoptic stations were employed in the study to develop seasonal models for winter, spring, summer and autumn, for each of the selected station. The software extRemes was used to develop the models as it allows parameters of the fitted distribution to vary as functions of covariate (s). The covariates for each seasonal model are selected from the large-scale atmospheric variables via stepwise regression. The developed models were tested for goodness-of-fit, and model fitting was found to improve when the scale parameter is assumed to vary with the selected covariates. Return level return period relations were developed for each station based on the derived models and four periods were simulated to investigate the effects of climate change on temperature events (Tmax and Tmin). Results indicate that significant changes in extreme temperature events are projected to occur in Ireland over the course of the present century. These include hotter summers and relatively mild winters, which could possibly increase risk of heat-related diseases.
    Keywords: extreme temperature, generalised Pareto distribution, climate change, Peaks-over-threshold.
    by Ayad Aboderheeba, Fatma Alfarjani, Abdul Olabi 
    Abstract: Anaerobic Digestion AD is one of the most biomass conversion technologies. AD can be further divided into four stages: pre-treatment, digestion, gas upgrading and digestate. The main goal of pre-treatment is to improve degradability of the material; this will enhance gas production and anaerobic digester performance. Beating treatment as new mechanical treatment has been applied in this work. Laboratory scale mesophilc AD was operated to determine the methane yield from fresh grass and the potential efficiency increasing in methane production. Fresh grass as main substrate has been treated in three deferent levels of beating treatment (0 mints treatment [without treatment], 15 mints treatment, and 40 mints treatment). Many experiments have been carried out according to the levels of treatment and the amount of biogas was measured for each experiment. The average amount of biogas produced before and after beating treatment was compared. Composition analyses of different chemical compounds in biogas have been measured. Improvements in the degradability during the AD and in the biogas production were successfully achieved for the pretreated fresh grass.
    Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Beating Treatment, Hydrolysis, Biogas, Digestibility.
  • Nitrous Oxide Emission from Agricultural Soils   Order a copy of this article
    by Junliang Liu, Kamal Tawfiq, Gang Chen 
    Abstract: Anthropogenic nitrogen loading, particularly fertilizer usage in agricultural soils is thought to be a potentially important source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, which can be controlled by properly managed fertilizer usage. In this research, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to evaluate N2O production and emission from agricultural soils under variable oxygen availability conditions. N2O was observed to be released from the reactors in the absence of oxygen as well as at low concentrations of oxygen. With the increase of oxygen concentration, N2O production decreased. In addition, N2O emission was found to coincide with corresponding nitrate (NO3-) depletion, indicating that denitrification was the dominating process that was responsible for N2O production. The depletion of NO3- was described by the sum of two exponential functions, i.e., NO3- reduction for N2O and NO3- reduction for N2. The simulation of the experimental results using above model demonstrated that N2 production dominated over N2O production in the absence of oxygen. Both N2O production rate and N2 production rate decreased with the increase of oxygen concentration. However, the decrease of N2 production rate was more pronounced than that of N2O production rate.
    Keywords: Nitrous Oxide, Agricultural Soil, Fertilizer, Oxygen Availability, and Denitrification.
  • Driving force factor analysis of global carbon intensity changes   Order a copy of this article
    by Ming Meng, Dongxiao Niu, Jinpeng Liu, Xiaomin Xu 
    Abstract: This paper presents the first attempt to analyze the driving force factors of global carbon intensity changes. The said changes from 1998 to 2009 are decomposed into a summation of the quantitative effects of three dimensions: (1) time; (2) emitter (195 countries and regions); and (3) influence factor (technological innovation and economic structural adjustment). The decomposition results revealed several important conclusions. First, although both countries are super emitters, the United States and China greatly differ in decreasing global intensity, with the former being the most important contributor and the latter being the most important deterrent. Second, the rate of change in an emitters carbon intensity is considered an indicator of progress speed in realizing sustainable development. This change is not related to the emitters level of economic development. Emitters with similar rates of change tend to cluster together according to their geographic locations. Finally, the annual change in global carbon intensity that is influenced by technological innovation is irregular, whereas those caused by economic structural adjustment present a linear increasing trend, which imposes increasing pressure on the need to decrease global carbon intensity.
    Keywords: driving force factor; carbon intensity; decomposition analysis; technological innovation; economic structural adjustment
  • An Approach to Assess Risks of Carbon Geological Storage Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Maísa Paraguassú, José Célio Andrade, Paulo Rocha, George Câmara 
    Abstract: Carbon Geological Storage (CGS) projects are designed to securely store carbon dioxide (CO2) for thousands of years. Because of this, there are several studies to evaluate the potential risks of long-term storage of CO2 in geological formations. This paper presents a new method for the qualitative risk assessment of CGS: the RA-CO2 (Risk Assessment of Stored CO2) Method. It consists of the systematic and structured identification of CO2 release risk scenarios arising from: seal, well, and fault and fracture zones. The uncertainties associated to each mapped risk scenario and the risks are qualitatively evaluated using the RA-CO2 Method. The characteristics of the RA-CO2 Method enable a comprehensive understanding of the underground evolution and future behaviour of the CO2 in various time scales and their influence on safety. For future studies, the validation of the proposed RA-CO2 method using a real case study is recommended.
    Keywords: RA-CO2 Method; Qualitative risk assessment; CO2 Leakage; CO2 geological storage; CGS.
  • Risks in the Development of Chinese Photovoltaic Industry: A Perspective from Low-carbon Incentive Policies   Order a copy of this article
    by kefan Xie, Tongtong Zheng 
    Abstract: Photovoltaic industry based on the utilization of solar power has an abundant and renewable energy resource and advantage in environmental protection. This paper seeks to elaborate on the status quo of Chinese PV industry and, including the trait of low carbon, the development in China and the risks existed in Chinese PV industry. Then, a simulation of risks in the development of Chinese PV industry is done by employing Evolutionary Game and System Dynamics. Finally, several resolutions are put forward to tackle these risks: (1) merging and re-organization; (2) optimizing incentive policies; (3) strategic alliance; (4) shifting market focus from Europe to Asian-Pacific region and domestic market; (5) adjusting industrial structure.
    Keywords: Photovoltaic industry;low carbon;incentive policies;risk analysis