Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Global Warming


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International Journal of Global Warming (112 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  •   Free full-text access Open AccessIslander Mobilities: Any change from climate change?  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by Ilan Kelman, Robert Stojanov, Shabana Khan, Oscar Alvarez Gila, Barbora Duží, Dmytro Vikhrov 
    Abstract: Climate change is stated as being likely to cause the forced movement of millions of people, especially from small island communities. Such statements are not always placed in wider and deeper understandings of mobility and non-mobility. Focusing on island communities, this paper assesses some of the implications inherent in mobility and non-mobility choices related to climate change in comparison to other factors and drivers. Culture and networks are examples of drivers demonstrating that it is not the norm for climate change to dominate mobility and non-mobility choices by islanders. Instead, choices often arise from social factors which, in turn, impact how climate change is and is not addressed. Without denying the major challenges which climate change has previously brought to some islanders and brings to many islanders today, climate change nonetheless brings little substantive change to discussions of islander mobilities.
    Keywords: climate change, culture, displacement, environmental change, islanders, islands, migration, mobility, networks, refugee
    by Sema Yurdakul, Aysel Atimtay 
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical treatment and heating rate on the emissions released from various waste wood samples including untreated pine and chemically treated MDF, plywood and particleboard after thermal treatment. Emission characteristics of the samples were determined in situ by using their FTIR spectra. Some toxic and carcinogenic gases such as formaldehyde, isocyanate, ammonia and phenyl group were detected in emissions from low temperature combustion of treated samples. For this reason, urea-formaldehyde or melamine formaldehyde treated waste wood samples should be oxidatively pyrolyzed at low heating rates and low temperatures to remove nitrogen-containing toxic compounds such as ammonia and isocyanate.
    Keywords: Biomass; Toxic Emissions; FTIR; Thermal oxidation; Chemical treatment;Formaldehyde
  • Toward utilising geothermal waters for cleaner and sustainable production: potential of Li recovery from geothermal brines in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ziya Cetiner, Özgür Dogan, Göksel Özdilek, Pembe Özer Erdoğan 
    Abstract: Geothermal fluids are potentially significant sources of technology critical minerals and metals. As water flows through different geological layers of the earths crust, it gets heated and dissolves minerals and metals from the rocks. These geothermal fluids can be processed to recover valuable metals such as gold, silver, zinc, and lithium. Freely discharged geothermal water can be source of pollution in the environment. However recovery of some elements, such as mercury, arsenic, lithium, etc., can be a part of environmental protection in such areas. Interest and demand in lithium (Li) sources have increased in recent years. This is, in part, due to the wide applications of Li and its compounds in high-energy storage Li batteries, and in other technological fields e.g., nuclear energy systems. Moreover, the costs associated with resource extraction from geothermal fluids are believed to be relatively low, and therefore many possible recovery techniques have been suggested. Lithium is one of the metals that dominate Na-Cl type of geothermal fluids in Turkey with its potential value. This article presents lithium concentrations of selected geothermal waters in Turkey and compares different methods that can be used to recover Li from them. Specifically, three methods will be discussed including direct precipitation as Li salts, separation by membrane filter and captured form through ion exchange resins.
    Keywords: lithium recovery, geothermal waters, sustainable metal production, Turkey
  • Impact of environmental education on mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions: a modeling study   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Misra, Maitri Verma 
    Abstract: Human activities have contributed significantly to the menace of global warming by enhancing the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Environmental education is an avenue to persuade people to reduce their CO2 emissions. Comprehension of the impact of environmental education on the reduction of CO2 emissions aids in devising effectual environmental education policies. In this view, we have formulated a nonlinear mathematical model to study the impact of educational programs on the abatement of CO2 emissions. It is considered that the educational programs are implemented at a rate proportional to the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO2 due to human activities. Model is analyzed by using stability theory of differential equations. Model analysis reveals that the educational programs are helpful in reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. But if reduction rate of carbon footprint by educated people is small, increase in execution rate of educational programs and/or dissemination rate of education among people cannot effectively curtail CO2 emissions. Moreover, for high values of reduction rate coefficient of carbon footprint, atmospheric concentration of CO2 may not get stabilized. Numerical simulation is carried out to illustrate the theoretical findings.
    Keywords: mathematical model, CO2 gas, environmental education, stability.
  • Modeling of stand volume and tree density using Spot-4 satellite data: a case study in Devrez planning unit   Order a copy of this article
    by Alkan GUNLU, İlker ERCANLI, Sedat KELEŞ, Cihat ANLAR 
    Abstract: Estimation of forest stand attributes such as stand volume, basal area, tree density, crown closure and aboveground biomass in a large area using remotely sensed data are important for sustainable management and use of natural resources. Modeling forest stand attributes and combined characteristics are necessary for forest planning and management. The aim of this research was to evaluate the possibility of using Spot-4 satellite image for estimating stand volume and tree density in Devrez planning unit, northwestern part of Turkey. Based on a single Spot-4 satellite data, reflectance values and eight vegetation indices (VIs) were connected to the stand volume and tree density using multiple regression analysis to develop the stand volume and tree density models. Our results showed that a linear combination of Band 1, Band 3, SR, DVI, SAVI, EVI and IPVI were better predictors of stand volume (adjusted R2=67 %; root mean square error (RMSE) =8.93 m3 ha-1). In addition, the regression model with Band 1, Band 3, SR, DVI, NLI and IPVI as independent variables was a better predictor of tree density (adjusted R2= 62 %; RMSE=6.03 n ha-1). In conclusion, forest stand attributes including the stand volume and tree density can be estimated and modelled using the reflectance values and VIs obtained from spot-4 satellite image. Keywords: Ground data, spot 4 satellite data, stand volume, tree density.
    Keywords: Ground data, spot 4 satellite data, stand volume, tree density
  • Analyzing the Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emissions in China Using Segmented Equations and Partial Least Squares   Order a copy of this article
    by Qian Gao, Ming Meng, Lei Wen, Dongxiao Niu 
    Abstract: This study investigates the dynamic relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in China from 1979 to 2010. We propose a segmented equation for the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The partial least squares method is used to estimate the equation parameters. The conclusions drawn are as follows. (1) Chinas CO2 emissions are still in the first stage of the EKC. A significant increase in income per capita is needed for Chinas CO2 emissions per capita to reach its peak point in the inverted U-shaped EKC. (2) The ideal equation used to simulate the relationship between Chinas income per capita and CO2 emissions per capita after 2010 is . This equation can help Chinas government set its ideal CO2 control target at a specific income per capita, at least until the income per capita reaches RMB 19137.2. (3) Chinas CO2 emissions per capita will peak some time between 2026 and 2027. After 2027, Chinas CO2 emissions per capita will decrease as income per capita increases.
    Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve; China; CO2 emissions; segmented equation; partial least squares
  • Fabrication, characterization and CO2/N2 gas permeance study of Novel blended membrane.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarah Farrukh, Fozia T. Minhas, Arshad Hussain, Muhammad Mujahid 
    Abstract: The CO2 gas is the primary green house gas, which is the main cause of global warming. To capture CO2 gas, it is important to study the permeance behavior of CO2 and N2 gases from different membranes. In this work, 5,11,17,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis-(2-piprazinoethyl)-26-dihydroxycalix[4]arene (CLP)was blended into Cellulose Acetate (CA) membrane to be used for gas permeation. Diffusion Induced Phase Separation (DIPS) method was applied to fabricate membranes. The CA/CLP membranes were fabricated by varying concentration of CLP with respect to CA at 10wt%, 20wt%, 30wt% and 40wt%.The prepared membranes were characterized via Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). CO2 and N2 gases were used for the gas permeation experiments. The increasing trend was observed in permeance of N2 gas as compared to CO2 gas for CA-CLP blended membranes.
    Keywords: : calix[4]ene; cellulose acetate; global warming; green house gas; permeance; DIPS; N2/CO2; piprazene; blended membranes, fabricated membranes; FTIR; SEM analysis of membranes;
  • Investigation of Alternative Blasting Process in Terms of Impact Behaviour of Blasting Materials for Green Shipyards   Order a copy of this article
    by Veysel Alankaya, Ugur Celebi 
    Abstract: Blasting process in shipyards could be marked as one of the most significant sources of waste; thus it is considered mandatory for the surface preparation before painting process in new shipbuilding or for the removal of the old paint from the surface of old vessels. The particulate emissions are contaminated by blasting abrasives and paint chips during surface preparation processes and might contain toxic metals concerning the production area, off-site and surrounding surface waters when blown off-site. Environmentally friendly shipyards have gained more importance due to global warming and its undeniable effects. Therefore, replacement of traditional production methods with less contaminating, more environmentally safe and alternative processes which do not affect human health as much is vital. In this study, abrasive-blasting materials for surface preparation are investigated by means of impact effectiveness of the material. The numerical results, derived from a commercial dynamic explicit finite element program, are presented denoting the blasting efficiency and damage behavior by material type, material geometry and particle velocity. A new point of view regarding choosing blasting material, decreasing amount of waste and pollution for a green world is tried to be presented.
    Keywords: pollution sources; shipbuilding and ship repair industry; blasting materials; waste minimization
  • Effect Of Nanoparticle Additives On Nox Emissions Of Diesel Fueled Compression Ignition Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Tayfun OZGUR, Gökhan TÜCCAR, Erinc ULUDAMAR, Ceyla GUNGOR, Mustafa OZCANLI, Hasan SERIN, Kadir AYDIN 
    Abstract: The amount of emitted harmful emission gases increases in parallel with increasing energy consumption. This increase has forced many countries to take various precautions and various restrictions on emitted emissions have been carried. In this study, effects of addition of oxygen containing nanoparticle additives to NOx emissions of diesel fuel were investigated. Nine different nanoparticle additives namely Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3), Magnesium Oxide (MgO), Titanium Oxide (TiO2), Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Silicon Oxide (SiO2), Iron Oxide Fe2O3, Nickel Oxide (NiO), Nickel Iron Oxide (NiFe2O4) and Nickel Zinc Iron Oxide Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were added to diesel fuel at the dosages of 25, 50 and 100 ppm. As a result, optimum additive and addition dosages were determined and NOx emissions were decreased with the addition of nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanoparticle, nitrogen oxide, emission, additive, diesel
  • Uncertainties, Risks and Challenges Relating to CO2 Emissions and Its Possible Impact on Climate Change in the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Hasan Arman 
    Abstract: CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by around 35% since the beginning of the industrial era. Both human-induced and natural factors trigger climate changes and associated risks. Since the discovery of oil in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) around 1960, the country has experienced high population growth and very rapid economic development with associated high demand on energy in various sectors. The response to this remarkable energy demand was the burning of fossil fuel. CO2 emissions in the UAE in last 51 years have averaged about 32.4 metric tons per capita (mtcp). During the last 16 years the highest annual mean temperature maximum was 28.9oC in 2010. The lowest annual mean temperature maximum was 27.2oC in 1997. During the same period the highest yearly rainfall was 21.5 mm in 1995, while the lowest was 1.0 mm in 2001. The main objective of this paper is to identify and discuss the potential risks and uncertainties that trigger global warming and climate change, including the expected challenges to come from these changes, and to analyze the likely impact of CO2 emissions on the UAEs climate change, respectively.
    Keywords: uncertainties; risks; challenges; CO2 emissions; climate change; global warming; U.A.E.
  • Climate Change, Seasonal Changes in Cassava Production and Konzo Epidemics   Order a copy of this article
    by Olusegun Steven Ayodele Oluwole 
    Abstract: Abstract: Seasonal konzo epidemics, which occur during droughts in Central, East, and Southern Africa, are attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. Severe droughts of global warming are predicted to increase cassava production. Trends and seasonal changes of temperature, precipitation, and cassava production were analyzed, and a model was proposed to explain the impact of climate change on cassava production and seasonal konzo epidemics. Spectral analyses of temperature, precipitation and cassava production data from 1961 to 2012 were done. Temperature increased by 1.1 ∘C in 52 years, while cassava production increased by 13 % during low precipitation. Correlation of seasonal changes of precipitation and cassava production was 1 at periods of 4 and 6 years. Severe droughts of environmental warming will increase seasonal cassava production, water shortage, and seasonal konzo epidemics in areas of subsistence farming. Food and water programmes are needed to control seasonal konzo epidemics. rn
    Keywords: keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, Cassava, Cyanide, Konzo, Epidemic, Seasonal
  • Potential of GHG Emission Reduction from Agriculture Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Indrayani Nimkar, Anju Singh, Seema Unnikrishnan, Neelima Naik 
    Abstract: Land use change activities, use of fertilizers, and open field burning of agricultural waste are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the agriculture sector. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of Kyoto protocol has proved useful in the mitigation of such GHGs. A total of 167 CDM projects of the agriculture sector are being studied across 19 countries. Out of these, Brazil has implemented a maximum of 46 CDM projects. Expected carbon emission reduction from the above 167 projects was about 10,083,912 metric ton of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e), out of which actual emission reduction achieved till October 2012 was 4,989,448 MtCO2e per annum. India has implemented 12 projects in the agriculture sector with estimated carbon emission of 620,457 metric ton CO2e, out of which actual emission reduction achieved was 265054 metric ton CO2e. Fifteen different methodologies were used worldwide in the above mentioned CDM projects, in which India has used 9 methodologies, followed by Chile with 7 methodologies. Methodology AMS-III.D Methane Recovery in Animal Manure Management Systems was used for 66 projects. Manure from livestock generates biogas, releasing methane directly into the atmosphere. Implementation of CDM methodology AMS-III.D pertains to the use of generated biogas for flaring or energy generation. Methodology AMS-I.D titled Grid Connected Renewable Electricity Generation was used in 49 projects. Application of the AMS-I.D methodology relates to the generation of renewable energy units that supply electricity to regional or national grid. CDM promotes projects that use renewable energy sources with clean technology leading to less dependency on conventional energy sources, ultimately reducing GHG emissions. It is, hence, valuable to have CDM projects in the agriculture sector as these provide various GHG mitigation options that reduce energy needs, recycle the generated waste and enable the use of alternate energy sources. This paper presents for the first time an overview of the contribution of CDM towards GHG mitigation in the agriculture sector.
    Keywords: Clean Development Mechanism, Green House Gases (GHGs), Agriculture
  • The Effectiveness of Climate Change Communication and Information Dissemination via the Internet: experiences from the On-Line Climate Conference Series   Order a copy of this article
    by Walter Leal Filho, Franziska Mannke, Evangelos Manolas 
    Abstract: Despite the importance of and the need for using internet-based approaches to promote information and raise awareness on climate change, there is a paucity of initiatives which may foster this cause on a long-term basis. This paper presents the concept, approaches, methods, experiences and results from an on-line climate change conference series led by the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg), which, since its inception in 2008, has engaged over one million participants in over 150 countries. Covering a wide range of topics including water use, disasters management, and technologies, the on-line climate change conferences provide useful insights on matters which may be considered, in ensuring climate change can be successfully communicated via on-line tools.
    Keywords: Communication; Climate change; Internet; Information; Dissemination
  • Hydrogen Production by Spirulina Maxima 2342 Under Different Light Intensities And Quantification Employing A Fuel Cell   Order a copy of this article
    by Pathiyamattom Joseph Sebastian, Alina Juantorena, Orlando Lastres, Geovanni Hernandez, Armando Bustos, Delfeena Eapen 
    Abstract: In this work the photosynthetic hydrogen production employing Spirulina maxima 2342 microorganisms was determined under different experimental conditions, for the same biomass property (concentration) and three different light intensities (150, 112 and 75 μE/m2.s). The hydrogen production was quantified employing a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) which produces electricity using the hydrogen produced in this experiment. The highest faradaic efficiency and hydrogen flow rate into the PEMFC (1,54 x10-8 kg/h) was obtained for a light intensity of 150 μE/m2. s.
    Keywords: Hydrogen, photosynthetic microorganisms, Spirulina maxima 2342, PEMFC.
    by Murat Özyavuz, Bayram Cemil Bilgili, Gülşah Elkıran 
    Abstract: The term heat island describes built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas. The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.85.4
    Keywords: Open and green space, temperature, geostatistics, landscape planning
  • Development of methodology for the assessment of changes in household electricity consumption and calculation of CO2 emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilze Laicane, Andra Blumberga, Marika Rosa, Dagnija Blumberga, Uldis Bariss 
    Abstract: This study outlines a methodology for assessing changes in household electricity consumption and CO2 emissions. The method is proposed to analyze large data sets of residential electricity consumption in the case study of the first smart metering pilot project in Latvia. The goal of the project is to achieve a reduction of electricity consumption in households by 10%. In order to do so project aims to increase household users awareness of smart technologies, as well as to promote households involvement in energy efficiency measures. The proposed methodology is based on several steps, including: 1) baseline situation analysis; 2) normalization of electricity consumption data; 3) identification of the factors affecting household electricity consumption; 4) an empirical analysis of households electricity consumption using regression analysis; 5) assessment of changes in electricity consumption at the end of evaluation period and 6) calculation of CO2 emissions. Finally, the first results of the smart metering pilot project in 9-month period has been presented. The recommendations for policy development on promoting smart metering has been raised at the end of this Paper
    Keywords: Smart metering, electricity consumption, household, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, data normalization, assessment of changes in household electricity consumption
  • Climate Variability and its Impacts on Water Resources in the Upper Indus Basin under IPCC Climate Change Scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Juergen Pilz, Firdos Khan, Muhamad Amjad, David Wiberg 
    Abstract: The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), having latitude 320 N to 370 N and longitude 72.40 E to 810 E is chosen for hydrological impact assessment. The output of a Regional Climate Model (RCM), Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies (PRECIS), is used as input data to the hydrological model to produce inflow projections at the Tarbela Reservoir on the Indus River. Maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation are investigated for possible climate change in the region. The above mentioned variables are changing over time and clearly indicating that climate change is happening. The Best Easy Systematic (BES) estimator and Mean Monthly Correction Factor (MMCF) techniques were used for statistical bias correction in temperature and precipitation, respectively. The hydrological model was calibrated for the 1995-2004 period and validated for the 1990-1994 period with almost 90 % efficiencies. The results show that the variables have a slightly increasing trend under the A2 scenario compared to the B2 scenario. The projections of inflow to the Tarbela Reservoir show that there is an overall increase of 59.42 % and 34.27 % to the Tarbela Reservoir during the period of 2040-2069 under the A2 and the B2 scenarios, respectively. It is important that there will be much more water available in the future, with the highest inflow and comparatively more water shortage noted in the 2020s under the A2 scenario. Finally, the impacts of changing climates on the operation of Tarbela Dam are investigated. It is noted that there is no chance of overtopping the dam during the 2020s and the 2050s under the A2 and the B2 scenarios.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Hydrological Model, Impacts assessment, Indus River, Inflow, Scenarios, Tarbela Reservoir, Reservoir management, Calibration, Bias correction.
  • Examining the potential impact of land use/cover changes on the NPP ecosystem services of Yanan region of China: A scenario-based analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Jing 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the potential impacts of the past and future land use/cover (LUC) changes on the ecosystem services of Yanan region of China, and discuss their implications for policy development and implementation. Remote sensing-derived LUC maps for 2009, a Geographic Information Systems-based LUC change model, and ecosystem service value of NPP were used to facilitate the analysis. The results forests have significantly higher NPP values than farmlands, whose NPP is approximately equal to that of brushlands. The scenario-based LUC change analysis revealed that if the urban LUC change pattern continues, the total ecosystem service value of NPP will also change, especially if the forest cover is not fully protected and conserved. Geospatial tools and techniques facilitate exploratory analysis critical to the understanding of the potential impacts of future LUC changes under different scenarios. Our results highlighted that under the great pressure of urbanization, there is a need to strengthen the proper implementation of policies in order to maintain and improve ecosystem services. Although there are limitations to the estimated ecosystem service value of NPP of yanan to be taken into account in future studies, the magnitude of the estimated changes in the LUC is substantial. Thus, it may still be possible to draw general inferences about the effect of the perceived LUC changes on the estimated ecosystem service value of NPP.
    Keywords: ecosystem service; NPP; land use patterns; Yan’an; scenario-based analysis
    by Ali Osman Pektas 
    Abstract: Appropriate prediction of sediment load concentration being carried by streams has a vital importance of water resources quantity and quality studies. In most studies some dimensionless parameters are derived by using observed variables of sediment system and then used as inputs of predictive models. In this study, instead of deriving new variables, widely used non-dimensional sediment model parameters have been compiled and examined. The main purpose of the study is to decide the essential parameters to establish effective models in predicting for both bed load and suspended sediment load. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis and sensitivity analysis in artificial neural networks are used to determine the most influential parameters. The results of all methods are evaluated together and the parameters that are found significant are detected as the most relevant parameters.
    Keywords: Bed load; Suspended Sediment Load; Cluster analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Multiple Linear Regressions; Neural networks.
  • Process Simulation of Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture and Regeneration in Packed Column   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Asif, Woo-Seung Kim 
    Abstract: Post-combustion CO2 capture using aqueous ammonia offers advantages over the conventional amines solvent, including a lack of corrosion, an enhanced CO2 loading capacity, a lower solvent degradation rate and a low energy input requirement for solvent regeneration. In this paper, an aqueous ammonia-based CO2 absorption-desorption process integrated with a washing column is modeled and simulated in Aspen Plus
    Keywords: aqueous ammonia, chemical absorption, CO2 capture, global warming, Post-combustion
  • Climate change awareness, coping mechanisms and adaptation in poor rural coastal communities, Ben Tre Province, Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Kim Anh T. Nguyen, Curtis M. Jolly, Trang T.H. Le, Chuong N.P.T. Bui 
    Abstract: Ben Tre Province in Vietnam is ranked among the most vulnerable places in Asia to climate change events. We conducted a study to evaluate community knowledge, awareness, perception severity, coping mechanism and adaptation to climate change in Ben Tre Province. Community members were aware of changing climatic conditions. About 90 percent of respondents suffered losses from salt water intrusion. Households adopted coping mechanisms to deal with these changes. Age, education and previous affliction with climate change events influence knowledge, awareness, perception of severity and preparedness to manage climate change events. Local governments proposed adaptation strategies such as building of dikes to prevent salt water intrusion and developing of irrigation systems. Of the two adaptation strategies evaluated to losses from climate change, the sea dike system protected more land but the irrigating system was more cost effective in mitigating losses from climate change
    Keywords: Vietnam; climate; change; community; awareness; adaptation; mitigation; strategies; cost-effectiveness.
  • A Preliminary Assessment of Observed and Projected trends in the Diurnal Temperature Ranges over South India under SRES A1B Scenario.   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhanya P, Ramachandran Andimuthu, Radhapriya P, Thirumurugan P 
    Abstract: In the present study, the PRECIS, a regional climate model, is employed to simulate the baseline (1970-2000) and future 2071-2100 (2080s) maximum, minimum and diurnal temperature range changes under SRES A1B scenario over the Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, South India. A comparison of the simulated baseline results with observation data acquired from IMD show that PRECIS can well simulate the local distribution characteristics of diurnal temperature range over the study area with a correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.948 with 1% significance level. Analyses of the simulated results in the 2080s under SRES A1B scenario relative to the baseline shows that there would be an overall increasing trend in the maximum and minimum temperatures over the study area and the warming amplitude in the north, west and interior parts are projected to be greater than in the east coastal areas. Sens slope estimator supported by the Man Kendal test shows that the diurnal temperature range in the 2080s under SRES A1B scenario relative to the baseline are projected to decrease annually by-0.015o C and a statistically significant decrease of -0.029o C during the southwest monsoon season in the overall study area.
    Keywords: PRECIS, Climate change; Diurnal Temperature Range; Regional climate model; Dynamical Downscaling; SRES A1B Scenario;Maximum and Minimum Temperatures.
    by Imoro Razak Jaha, Emmanuel Kodjo Ekumah 
    Abstract: Fish is Ghanas most important non-traditional export commodity and the fisheries sub-sector accounts for about five percent of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (Dontwi et al., 2002). In 2002, export earnings from fish and fishery products amounted to nearly 96 million US Dollars (Dontwi et al.2002). Fishing activities in Ghana include artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial operations. However, this important gain in GDP from the fishery subsector is highly threatened by climate change and its variability. Climate change is the gradual, long-term alteration of worldwide weather patterns, especially increases in temperature and storm activity, attributable to the increased accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Yaqub, 2010). Changes in climate directly affect the productivity of fish as well as the ability for fish catch depends also on the supply of an essential component of the fishing activities which is the premix fuel. The supply of premix fuel determines the availability of fish since fishermen heavily rely on this product for their fishing activities. The paper examines the nexus among the three variables of climate change, fish catch and supply of premix fuel for sustainable livelihoods of the coastal people of Ghana.
    Keywords: Key words: Climate Change, Fish catch, Premix fuel supply, Fishermen and sustainable livelihoods
  • Regional and Sectoral Impacts of Climate Change Under International Climate Agreements   Order a copy of this article
    by Shin Sakaue, Koichi Yamaura, Toyoaki Washida 
    Abstract: This article examines regional and sectoral impacts of climate change under international climate agreements for abating GHGs. Using the IAM with sub-global CO2 abatement games involving players from three regions (Japan, China and the U.S.), we obtain both non-cooperative and cooperative solutions. Simulated results indicate: 1) there is little discrepancy between future temperature solutions if each region responds selfishly when reducing CO2 emissions; 2) cooperation between all game participants sees an increase in GDP, whilst non-participant regions suffer greater damage; 3) all sectors in participant countries increase in value-added, with other regions experiencing higher damages for most sectors under cooperation than under the scenarios proposed by the international community.
    Keywords: EMEDA; integrated assessment model; IAMs; CGE models; global warming; climate change; non-cooperative game; bargaining game; Nash equilibrium; Nash bargaining solution.
  • Mainstreaming Ethnoclimatology for Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation in Mountain Ecosystems   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhaskar Padigala 
    Abstract: Native communities inhabiting the Himalayan environment are mostly susceptible to environmental and other drivers of transformations, but, these communities have been living in the highly variable climatic environment for centuries and thus, possess an vast amount of localised traditional knowledge that has helped these communities to survive and thrive in such extreme ecosystem. But, ongoing discourses on vulnerability and adaptation to climate change impacts these ethnic knowledge systems has not been given much of an importance. Hence, this study has tried to explore the different ethnoclimatological practices followed by local communities in Himachal Pradesh, India. Changing social and economic scenarios and inadequate governmental interventions are slowly leading to the disappearance of the traditional knowledge. However, local ethnoscientific knowledge has a tremendous potential to meet the challenges of climate change impacts. Hence, there is a need to integrate traditional knowledge with the scientific understandings to develop sustainable local or regional climate change assessment, mitigation and adaptation strategies that are best suited for the local ecosystem and involve local communities participation.
    Keywords: Ethnoclimatology, Traditional Knowledge, Local Communities, Climate Change, Adaptation
  • Combined Heat & Power System Optimisation under Carbon Pricing Policy: A Comparison of Five Carbon Markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Chanel Gibson, Mehdi Aghaei Meybodi, Masud Behnia 
    Abstract: The installation and optimisation of a gas turbine combined heat and power system was studied in an effort to reduce or eliminate financial liability under five different carbon pricing schemes around the world by becoming more energy efficient. The system was applied to a case study and configured to operate under carbon prices in Australia, the UK (EU ETS), New Zealand, California (USA), and British Columbia (Canada). As a policy designed to promote a reduction in emissions; the policy was successful in three of the five schemes namely Australia, the UK and British Columbia. These results were identified by systems that became unprofitable once financial liability was introduced for carbon emissions. The Australian carbon price was also examined in terms of effectiveness in light of its expected repeal. The Australian system ranked fourth of the five markets studied in terms of financial benefit both when financially liable and not liable for carbon pricing.
    Keywords: carbon prices; cogeneration; combined heat and power systems; emissions trading schemes; emissions reduction; gas turbines; partial load operation; thermo-economic optimization
  • Investigation of sea level rise effect on saltwater intrusion in an unconfined coastal aquifer using sharp-interface approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Freydoon Vafaie, Seyed Sadjad Mehdizadeh 
    Abstract: A numerical sharp-interface model is developed to predict saltwater intrusion (SWI) into an unconfined coastal aquifer due to sea level rise (SLR). The model is applied to a conceptual field-scale aquifer to explore the sensitivity of the intrusion mechanism to various involved parameters. In all of the simulations, appropriate SLR rate has been applied to the sharp-interface model. The 90 years unsteady results showed that change in hydraulic conductivity, rainfall recharge and freshwater inflow have significant effect on intrusion but the model is not very sensitive to different values of porous media porosity and specific yield. Afterward, the seaside saltwater head is raised and the toe of new time dependent salt wedge is determined. The results demonstrated that the SLR leads to more SWI. This excess intrusion is not very clear when SLR rate is low (e.g. 0.2 mm/year) but saltwater intrudes significantly further when the rate gets the higher values (e.g. 8 mm/year).
    Keywords: Saltwater intrusion, Unconfined aquifer, Sharp-interface approach, Sea level rise
  • Analysis of potential GHG emissions reductions from methane recovery in livestock farming   Order a copy of this article
    by Michela Gallo, Adriana Del Borghi, Carlo Strazza 
    Abstract: Livestock farming is a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) owing to the high amount of methane emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the potential emission reductions and their enhancement during manure management through the optimization of the main parameters involved, such as temperature, manure characteristics, type of management system. The investigation of a swine manure management system is performed with calculation of GHG emissions reduction due to a methane recovery system coupled with on-site power generator. The analysis conducted on the three parameters considered shows a variation of the methane emissions from 390 (drylot) to 31,000 tCO2e /year (anaerobic lagoon or liquid/slurry). The findings demonstrate that the substitution of anaerobic lagoon systems with a methane recovery system can be considered as a promising process in terms of GHG emissions reduction also in case of not highly favorable conditions of temperature and manure characteristics.
    Keywords: Biogas; Recovery; Manure; Anaerobic digestion; Global warming; Kyoto protocol; Greenhouse gases; GHG; Methane; Carbon dioxide; CO2 emissions; Livestock; Swine; Emission reduction; Energy generation.
  • Risk of impacts from extreme weather and climate in river-based Tilapia cage culture in northern Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Phimphakan Lebel, Niwooti Whangchai, Chanagun Chitmanat, Louis Lebel 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the direct impacts of extreme weather, high and low flow events, seasonality and other climate-related phenomena on river-based tilapia cage aquaculture in Northern Thailand. An interdisciplinary approach was taken, which included analysis of secondary water flow and meteorological data, quantitative and qualitative surveys of farmers experiences with extreme events, and direct observations during critical periods. Findings show that extreme high and low flows adversely impact a substantial fraction of farms, causing damage to cages, fish deaths, slow growth and disease problems. Economic losses are significant and result in financial debt. Compensation and assistance following floods is modest relative to losses, and coverage is incomplete. Probability of extreme flows and impacts vary among locations, are highly seasonal, and vary inter-annually. These findings are important to improving management of climate-related risks, under both current and future climatic conditions.
    Keywords: climate, floods, aquaculture, drought, adaptation, risk
    by Isabel Gallego-Alvarez, Liliane Segura 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact that variations in greenhouse gas emissions (20072008) had on corporate performance during three time periods2008, 2009, and 2010while taking two variables as a measure of firm performanceROE and ROAand considering a time period affected by a financial crisis, all under the perspective of the resource-based theory. The empirical analysis was performed in two stages: (i) analysis of the data obtained through content analysis and (ii) analysis of the factors that influence corporate performance using a dependency modela multiple linear regression. Several variables were introduced to represent emissions variations, the size of the companies, leverage, public pressure, capital intensity, and the firms growth rate. Also, dummy variables have been incorporated for the activity sector in which the company operates. The results show that variations in greenhouse gas emissions (CO2) do not affect either ROE or ROA; therefore, the hypotheses could not be confirmed. Nonetheless, other variables, such as capital intensity, size, firm growth rate, and activity sector, have a positive and statistically significant effect on ROE and ROA.The findings of this work can be considered of great interest on the international level because on the one hand they show a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by firms pertaining to strategic sectors in this sense, and on the other a dependence model is established to test how the variation in emissions affects firm performance under the resource-based view theory. Furthermore, certain control variables are considered, such as capital intensity, public pressure, and firm growth rate, which until now have seldom been analysed in this context.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 emissions variation, corporate performance, financial crisis, resource-based view theory, capital intensity, firm growth rate, public pressure
  • Potential Evaluation of CO2 Flooding for EOR and Sequestration in YL Oilfield of China   Order a copy of this article
    by Liping He, Pingping Shen, Xinwei Liao, Hao Chen, Fangfang Li 
    Abstract: Ordos Basin is the largest low permeability onshore petroliferous basin in China, with the total reserve amount of over 1 billion tons. CO2 EOR and sequestration in this region enjoy huge potential and broad prospect. In this paper, eighteen oilfields in YL city and its surrounding area within 300 kilometers was taken as the study object, potential of CO2 flooding for EOR and sequestration was researched and evaluated. Results show that 8 oilfields are suitable for CO2 miscible flooding and 10 oilfields are suitable for CO2 immiscible flooding. The predicted enhanced recovery efficiencies are about 12% and 6.5%, respectively. The expected cumulative oil production is 80 million tons with CO2 storage of over 130 million tons.
    Keywords: CO2 flooding, CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, Minimum miscible pressure
  • Nexus between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Comparison of Non-Renewable Natural Resource Poor and Rich Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Bernur Acikgoz, Mine Yilmazer, Serkan Cinar 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of renewable and non- renewable energy resources on economic growth in non-renewable natural resource poor and rich countries. For this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas production function is used by adding the energy source as an element of production from 1990 to 2012. In the models, the cointegration between resources and economic growth is tested by a panel cointegration technique. For long-term coefficient estimation, the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) test that is based on Pesaran et al. (1999) is used. According to the results of the pooled mean group (PMG), long-term and short-term results are consistent. Renewable resources have a relatively higher positive effect on economic growth in non-renewable natural resource rich countries. Moreover, these positive effects are higher in lower and upper middle-income countries (LMIC and UMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Our findings suggest LMIC and UMIC countries -especially in the group of non-renewable natural resource rich countries- value and consider the use of renewable energy resources for energy production decisions in their economic growth policies.
    Keywords: Renewable energy, economic growth, non-renewable natural resource rich countries, non-renewable natural resource poor countries, panel cointegration, Panel ARDL.
  • Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and landslides in the Philippines: Community Perceptions on climate impacts and adaptation options   Order a copy of this article
    by Lilibeth A. Acosta, Elena A. Eugenio, Paula Beatrice M. Macandog, Damasa B. Magcale-Macandog, Elaine Kuan-Hui Lin, Edwin Rosell Abucay, Alfi Lorenz Cura, Mary Grace Primavera 
    Abstract: Loss and damage from floods and landslides are escalating in the Philippines due to increasing frequency and intensity of typhoons. This paper investigates the types and scale of loss and damage in two municipalities that were affected by typhoon-induced floods and landslides in 2004 and 2012. It assesses peoples preferences on adaptation measures and perceptions on human-nature links on occurrence of disasters. It reveals that human loss and property damage are causing psychological distress to affected people, undermining capacity to adapt to the next disasters. Many vulnerable people are not aware of the link between climate and land use change. Moreover, many depend on unsustainable land use for source of livelihoods particularly after disasters. The preference for measures to reduce landslide risks through reforestation and logging/mining prevention is thus low. Insurance is not a preferred mechanism for reducing risks because regular payment of premium is not affordable to vulnerable people.
    Keywords: adaptation, adaptive capacity, climate change, conjoint analysis, disasters, floods and landslides, Haiyan, loss and damage, mitigation, Philippines, risks, typhoons
  • Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) across Western Turkey according to the ENSEMBLES Project   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamza Altinsoy, Haci Ahmet Yildirim 
    Abstract: The direct effects of climate change on workers thermal comfort as well as its indirect effects on occupational health and safety are analyzed. The region of interest is western Turkey. The Regional Climate Model (RCM) results of daily maximum air temperature and relative humidity from the ENSEMBLES project are used to form past and future projections. There are various indices used to observe the thermal comfort conditions for workers. In this research, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is used for outdoor environments as outdoor workers make the prime target group. The seasonal spatial distribution of WBGT across the selected region during the reference period (1970-1999) in addition to alterations thereof for the three future periods (namely, 2010-2039, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099) is calculated. The emerging monthly time series for the annual WBGT is analyzed for the time period from 1970 to 2100. By the end of the 21th century, this reaches 24 ˚C in June and August, particularly across southern Turkey.
    Keywords: WBGT; Turkey; Thermal Comfort; ENSEMBLES Project; Climate Change; Regional Climate Model
  • Impacts of Human Farm Activities on Tropical Deforestation and Climate Change: Interactive Statistical Models   Order a copy of this article
    by R Krishna Prasad 
    Abstract: The tropical rainforests are essential for sustainable development of earths ecosystem. The rainforests are rich storehouse of biodiversity, natural pharmaceutical products, source of sustained water resources and manage microclimate of their region. The forest regimes in Amazonian, Congo basin and South East Asian forest regions are under constant threat of degradation. The carbon dioxide concentration in the earths atmosphere has reached the highest ever seen by the human beings to 400 ppm level and mean surface temperature of earth has increased by 1oC in last fifty years. This study explores statistical relations for rainforest remaining in the earth and carbon dioxide concentration in the earths atmosphere as function of widespread human farm activities such as soya bean, corn and palm oil production as factors. The response surface methodology is used to analyze data from year 2000 to 2013 which shows that rate of world tropical rainforest degradation and CO2 concentration in the earths atmosphere increases with increase in world soy, corn and palm production and mathematical models predicting these relations were developed.
    Keywords: Key words: Rainforest degradation, Response surface methodology, CO2 emissions, Climatic changes
  • Utilising key climate element variability for the prediction of future climate change using a support vector machine Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Adamu Abubakar, Haruna Chiroma, Akram Zeki, Mueen Uddin 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a Support Vector Machine (SVM) Model to advance the prediction accuracy of Global Land-Ocean Temperature (GLOT), which is globally significant for understanding the future pattern of climate change. The GLOT dataset was collected from NASAs GLOT Index (C) (Anomaly with Base: 1951-1980) for the period 1880 to 2013. We categorise the dataset by decades to describe the behaviour of the GLOT within those decades. The dataset was used to build an SVM Model to predict future values of the GLOT. The performance of the model was compared with a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) and validated statistically. The SVM was found to perform significantly better than the MLPNN in terms of Mean Square Error and Root Mean Square Error, although computational times for the two models are statistically equal. The SVM model was used to project the GLOT from the pre-existing NASAs GLOT Index (C) (Anomaly with Base: 1951-1980) for the next twenty years (2013 - 2033). The projection results of our study can be of value to policy makers, such as the intergovernmental organisations related to environmental studies, e.g., the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
    Keywords: Global land-ocean temperature; Climate change indicators; Support Vector Machine
  • Batch anaerobic digestion of simulated Bangladeshi food waste: Methane production at different inoculum-to-substrate ratios and kinetic analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Shishir Behera, Mohd. Zafar, Tanziha Tasnim, Hung-Suck Park 
    Abstract: This study aims at investigating the anaerobic biodegradation characteristics of a typical simulated Bangladeshi food waste. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests carried out in 500 mL batch digesters showed the methane yields of cooked meat, cooked fish, boiled rice, vegetable and mixed food waste (MFW) to be 541, 402, 319, 274 and 484 ml CH4/gVS, respectively. The biodegradability of 87%, 83%, 75%, 76% and 82% were obtained for cooked meat, cooked fish, boiled rice, vegetable and MFW, respectively. At mesophilic temperature (35
    Keywords: Food waste; ISR; Biodegradability; Methane yield; Kinetics
  • Spatial Correlations and Distributions of Climatic Normals for Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilhami Yildiz, Jin Yue, Tri Nguyen-Quang, Joshua Lowrey, Asena Yildiz 
    Abstract: Winter design dry-bulb temperatures at 99% and 97.5% frequency levels were developed and analyzed by multiple regression and spatial correlations developed using as regressors altitude, latitude and longitude. Winter design dry-bulb temperatures were negatively related to altitude and latitude. Latitude was the most influential regressor on the winter design dry-bulb temperature distributions. Summer design dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, and wet-bulb depressions at 1%, 2.5% and 5% frequency levels were also developed and analyzed by multiple regression and spatial correlations were developed using as regressors altitude, latitude and longitude. Altitude was the only statistically significant influential regressor on the summer design dry-bulb temperature distributions. Latitude was the most influential regressor on the summer design wet-bulb temperature distributions. Altitude was the only statistically significant influential regressor on the summer design wet-bulb depression distributions. Spatial correlations and distributions of prevailing wind speeds, mean daily ranges, and median of annual extreme temperatures were developed and mapped.
    Keywords: Spatial correlations, spatial distributions, engineering climatic data, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, HVAC, built environment, thermal comfort, Turkey
  • Nitrous oxide emission from nitrogen fertiliser application in oil palm plantation of different stages   Order a copy of this article
    by Faradiella Kusin, Nurul Izzati Mat Akhir, Ferdaus Mohamat-Yusuff 
    Abstract: The release of nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural activities contributes to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this study, the amount of nitrogen fertiliser used in an oil palm plantation of different stages (immature and mature) was estimated. Data of fertilising scheme at the oil palm plantation for oil palms varying in age (planted between 1986 and 2009) was used. Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions and the resulting CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions were calculated for each category of the oil palm. The amounts of N-fertiliser applied were between 102-137 kg N/ha. The resulting N2O emissions were between 19.07-22.10 kg N2O-N/ha, which corresponds to CO2-eq of between 2223.53-2700.42 kg CO2-eq/ha. It was also estimated that about 29.87-34.63 g CO2 were emitted per MJ crop. The N2O emission per ha oil palm was found to decrease from immature stage until maturely-developed stage spanning 20 years. The CO2-eq amount decreased only after 10 years of oil palm development. The results were also compared for synthetic nitrogen fertiliser-induced emissions within tropical regions.
    Keywords: Nitrous oxide emission; CO2-equivalent; N-fertiliser; greenhouse gases; global warming; oil palm plantation
  • Technical feasibility and application effect of coupled CO2 sequestration and EOR in tight sandstone oil reservoir   Order a copy of this article
    by Changlin Liao, Xinwei Liao, Wanglai Gao, Jing Chen, Huan Wang 
    Abstract: The increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China have become a problem demanding prompt solution, and the performance of water flooding for tight sandstone oil reservoirs is unsatisfied and the production of single-well is low both of which has strong impacts on the economical benefit of oilfields. Therefore, this paper focused on the technical researches on CO2 sequestration and enhancing oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flooding. Experiments and numerical reservoir simulation were conducted to study the technical feasibility and application effect of implementing CO2 sequestration and EOR in tight sandstone oil reservoirs. Several results were acquired as follows, small maximum pore throat radius, inefficient mercury withdrawal and large residual volume in pore together implied that the bad connectivity among pores would result in high percolating resistance in reservoir; when the saturation pressure met 21MPa, the viscosity dropped to 0.4264mPa.s a decrease of 49.53% over CO2 free situation; when the pressure was 13MPa, 15MPa and 17MPa the solubility of CO2 in formation water was 27.28 m3/ m3, 26.37 m3/ m3 and 27.28 m3/ m3, respectively; the displacement efficiency of miscible GCF in fractured cores was 49.1%, and it was 27.4% higher than water flooding; CO2 sequestration and EOR conducted through WAG-PMT turned out to have the highest NPV, and was followed by WAG. Several conclusions were obtained at last the low porosity, low permeability and defective connectivity among pores lead to the unsatisfied performance of water flooding; the physical properties of the oil are favorable for conducting CO2 sequestration and EOR; miscible flooding performs better than immiscible flooding; CO2 sequestration and EOR are easier to be implemented in the reservoirs with preferable homogeneity. A technology combining WAG with profile modification technology (WAG-PMT) was adopted to maximize the ability of CO2 injection and oil-producing for single well so that the economical benefit of CO2 sequestration and EOR can be improved more efficiently.
    Keywords: CO2 sequestration; Enhanced oil recovery; Tight sandstone; Net present value; Technology
  • Sustainable manufacturing and its application in machining processes: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by Amirmohammad Ghandehariun, Yousef Nazzal, Hossam Kishawy 
    Abstract: Consumption of natural resources and the pollution consequential to the life of technical products have caused major environmental concerns. Sustainable development in manufacturing industries offers a way for them to not only reduce the environmental impacts, but also improve the economic and social performance. A review of the literature on sustainability in manufacturing systems and processes is provided in this paper. This paper also presents a more detailed investigation of sustainability in machining. Environmental impacts of the machining system are evaluated and modern machining techniques for improving the sustainability performance of the process are presented. Finally, an analysis of the cutting process using thermodynamic concepts is provided. The ideas described in this paper facilitate achieving the objectives of sustainable development in manufacturing.
    Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; environmentally-benign manufacturing; sustainable machining; exergy analysis; exergy efficiency; metal cutting; optimization
  • Mineral Resources for In-Situ Carbonation of CO2 in the Arabian Shield   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Sahin 
    Abstract: Commonly adopted storage techniques to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere have significant limitations in terms of cost, monitoring, and safety. Thus, innovative techniques such as carbonation involving the reaction of CO2 with some silicate minerals have been proposed. The carbonation ensures permanent fixation rather than the temporary storage, and hence provides safe, low-cost, and sustainable method for storing CO2. Moreover, the resulting carbonate minerals are stable over geological time periods. Because of its favorable geological setting, Saudi Arabia has a considerable potential for carbonation minerals. Such minerals are associated with ultramafic and mafic igneous rocks within the Arabian Shield which covers extensive areas in the western part of the country. After describing the carbonation process and suitable minerals, their spatial distributions in various rock types are outlined. Finally, the in-situ carbonation of these minerals and the expected benefits are discussed.
    Keywords: In-situ Carbonation, Carbonation Minerals, Mineral Sequestration, CO2 Sequestration, Global Warming, Arabian Shield
  • The effects of livestock methane emission on the global warming: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Mourad Baghour, Kaoutar Ben Chekroun, Azizi Ghizlane, Abdelmajid Moumen 
    Abstract: The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. Methane is one of the most important GHGs and it has 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Ruminant livestock contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane. The CH4 produced by ruminants is not only related to environmental problems, but is also associated with energy losses. This article reviews various attempts to reduce methane emission, mainly through improved genetic selection, modification of dietary composition, or through rumen microbial manipulation. Vaccines against methanogenic bacteria or monensin as antimicrobial are widely used in ruminants to improve performance. Increases in the understanding of the environmental impacts of livestock farming and methods of mitigating them are likely to occur and more effective approaches to designing systems of mitigation will be developed.
    Keywords: Keywords: global warming; methane; ruminants; agricultural sources of methane; greenhouse gases; methanogenesis; plant extracts; defaunation; ionophore; dietary composition; animal selection; vaccine; bacteriocins; immunization; mitigation strategies.
  • A Framework for the Assessment of Reservoir Operation Adaptation to Climate Change in an Arid Region   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Ebrahim Banihabib, Khadijeh Hasani, Ali Reza Massah Bavani, Kamran Asgari 
    Abstract: It is essential to assess the adaptation of reservoir operation to climate change in arid regions. Main objective of this research is to propose a framework for assessment of Reservoir Rule-Curve (RRC) adaptation for climate change scenarios.The framework is applied to an arid zone in Iran and consists of the three models: downscaling, rainfall-runoff and reservoir optimization models. LARS-WG is tested in 99% confidence level before to using it as downscaling model.Seven Artificial Neural Network models are proposed, examined and compared with IHACRES to find proper rainfall-runoff model for arid zone. Current and adapted reservoir rule curves are derived by Dynamic Programming Optimization. The results demonstrate capability of proposed framework in assessment of adaptation and show that global warming negatively influences proposed index (water supply index) in normal and wet years, but has positive influence for dry years. It also improves reservoir reliability, but it cannot restore current reliability.
    Keywords: Artificial neural network; climate change; adaptation; downscaling; rule curve; reservoir operation.
  • Management of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Maritime Operations Challenges and Mitigation Opportunities   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Khondaker, Syed Rahman, Rouf Khan, Karim Malik, Musah Muhyedeen 
    Abstract: Maritime activities are one of the important sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. By 2050, the GHG emissions are expected to increase by at least 50% over the 2007 levels. The current mitigation measures include adoption of appropriate energy sources including conventional, renewable, and alternative energy sources or their blends; development and application of cleaner technological and operational mechanisms; adoption of intermodal shifting and demand management based approaches; and development of sustainable shipping governance system. Each mitigation measure is related to certain implementation challenges. This study investigated different estimations of greenhouse gas emissions, the relevant mitigation options, and associated challenges, and analyzed international mitigation governance system, and proposed approaches to overcome barriers of mitigation options. The pertinent global community should take intense initiatives to improve the understanding of respective merits of different mitigation options, establish reduction potential and effectiveness of each viable measure, and assess the potential impacts of mitigation measures with particular reference to the global trade and market distortions. The persuasive cooperation with strong commitment among decision makers and stakeholders will ensure development and implementation of sustainable mitigation measures.
    Keywords: Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Maritime Operations; Mitigation Measures; International Maritime Organization
  • Vulnerability and adaptation assessment a way forward for sustainable sectoral development in the purview of climate variability and change: Insights from the coast of Tamil Nadu, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramachandran Andimuthu, Dhanya Praveen, Radhapriya P, Divya S.K, Remya K, Palanivelu k 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to identify the most vulnerable coastal districts of Tamil Nadu with respect to climate variability. This research has taken three sectors namely Groundwater, Agriculture, and Fisheries sector for consideration. It reveals that individual sectors vulnerability levels vary widely across the districts due to the differences in its physical exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. In the groundwater sector Villupuram and Thanjavur districts showed very high vulnerability. Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi district exhibited highest vulnerability with respect to agricultural sector. In the fisheries sector Thoothukudi and Villupuram district demonstrated high levels of vulnerability. From the overall composite vulnerability assessment. Thoothukudi and Villupuram districts needs extra care and immediate attention as it falls under high to very high vulnerability category in all the three sectors among 13 coastal districts. It implies that need for strengthening the adaptive capacity to tackle the present situation of climate variability and change. Adaptation options have been identified and prioritized through interaction with the stakeholders using pair wise ranking of adaptation matrix. Public awareness on conservation of water resources, changes in the farming practices, improving water efficiency and diversification of market& products and diversified livihood portfolio got first priority in the adaptation. Therefore the result of this assessment recommends that adaptation policies have to be incorporated with sustainable development strategies take these sectors forward.
    Keywords: Climate variability, Vulnerability,Indicators, Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive capacity, Adaptation Matrix
  • Including an environmental quality index in a demographic model   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Sanz, Antonio Caselles, Joan Micó, David Soler 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new well-being index which allows environmental quality to be measured through CO2 emissions, renewable energies and nuclear power. Its formula derives from a geometric mean used to calculate which things in the human production system warm the planet and which do not. This index has been introduced into a gender-defined stochastic population dynamic mathematical model which measures well-being in a country. The main variables in this model are rates of death, birth, emigration and immigration, as well as three UN indices: Human Development Index, Gender Development Index and Gender Empowerment Index. This model has been extended with variables that allow an environmental quality evaluation, and it has been validated for Spain during the 2001-2010 period. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis has been carried on the simulated future trend (2011-2020) to see which environmental quality variables refer more to deaths, births or the Human Development Index.
    Keywords: Environmental quality; demographic model; well-being
    by Sedat Keles 
    Abstract: This paper discusses different above-ground biomass estimation approaches in a forest ecosystem consisting of one tree species in Turkey. The first and second approaches are based on the use of growing stock volumes converted to above-ground biomass using forest type-level and species-specific biomass factors, respectively. The third and fourth approaches use different species-specific biomass regression equations. These equations used for estimating above-ground biomass are based on diameter at breast height in the first one, tree height as well as diameter at breast height in the second one. Results of above-ground biomass estimation approaches showed that more total above-ground biomass estimated in biomass expansion factors than that in biomass regression equations. It is concluded that species-specific biomass regression equations that are more practical, accurate and useful should be developed.
    Keywords: Forest ecosystem, Above-ground biomass, Regression model, Biomass factors, Climate change, Global warming, Carbon sequestration, Forest protection, Greenhouse gases
  • Effects of Regional Climate Variability on the Prevalence of Diseases and their Economic Impacts on Households in the Lake Victoria Basin of Western Kenya   Order a copy of this article
    by Gabriel O Dida 
    Abstract: Climate variability has a strong influence on disease prevalence and subsequently on the economic wellbeing of the affected households, especially in the low lying Lake Victoria basin of Kenya. This paper focuses on the prevalence of diseases and their economic impacts on households living in six climatically different regions within the Lake Victoria Basin of Western Kenya. The six study regions were clustered into three groups based on their climatic conditions as follows; areas prone to droughts namely Rarieda and Bondo; areas prone to floods namely Budalangi and Nyando; and areas with relatively good weather namely Bomet and Kisii central. A total of 480 adult respondents, aged between 18 and 80+ years were randomly selected to represent the households. Respondents were interviewed and the effects of prevailing climatic conditions on the prevalence of diseases within the previous 12 months and their direct and indirect economic implications on the households compared and statistically analyzed. Malaria, respiratory tract infection, typhoid, pneumonia and diarrhea were the major diseases among the Lake Victoria basin (LVB) inhabitants. The annual disease frequency per household was highest in Budalangi, a flood prone region; and lowest in Bomet, a region with relatively good weather. There was a significant difference in disease frequency in the three climatically different regions (flood prone, drought prone, and favorable weather) (p <0.001). High medical bills (72%), inability to work (24%), too much time spent on the sick (3%) and slowed economic development (1%), were cited as some of the impacts of diseases on the household by the respondents. High medical bills were cited by most respondents (over 90%) from Budalangi region, and 62% of respondents from Nyando (both of which are flood prone regions). The findings reveal the often unseen or ignored subtle effects of adverse climatic conditions on economically vulnerable communities in the Lake Victoria basin (LVB) and elsewhere, and recommends flood/drought prevention and mitigation strategies and awareness creation to better cope with the adverse climatic conditions.
    Keywords: Climate variability; disease prevalence; economic impact; Kenya; Lake Victoria basin
  • Forecasting CO2 emission of Turkey: swarm intelligence approaches   Order a copy of this article
    by Eren Ozceylan 
    Abstract: It is known that among the various greenhouse gases, CO2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming and climate change. Therefore, there is a need for developing efficient quantitative tools that allow forecasting CO2 emissions. This paper presents application of PSO (particle swarm optimization) and ABC (artificial bee colony) techniques to estimate CO2 emission in Turkey, based on socio-economic indicators. The models are developed in three forms which are linear, exponential and quadratic. PSOCO2 and ABCCO2 (PSO and ABC CO2 estimation models) are developed to estimate the future CO2 emission values based on energy consumption, population, gross domestic product (GDP), and number of motor vehicles data. Emitted CO2 emission in Turkey from 1980 to 2008 is considered as the case of this study. While first 25 years data of 29 years data is used for validation of four models, full data is used for future projections. SSE (sum square error) is used as a fitness function in proposed models. Finally, CO2 emission in Turkey is forecasted up to year 2030 under different scenarios.
    Keywords: artificial bee colony, CO2 emission, forecasting, particle swarm optimization, Turkey.
  • An Optimization Model for Electric-Environmental System Planning -a case study of Heilongjiang Province, China   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Yang, Li Wei, Huang Guohe, Fu Zhenghui 
    Abstract: In this study, an inexact optimization model is developed for regional power system management under uncertainty, where interval-parameter programming and two stage-stochastic programming were integrated in a framework for dealing with the long-term energy systems planning. The developed method can deal with multiple forms of uncertainties and dynamics related to capacity expansions within energy management systems. The proposed model was applied to a case study of power system management and air pollutants mitigation in Heilongjiang Province, China. Six scenarios are considered based on different emissions reduction and mode of power structure adjustments. The results show that in order to keep a sustainable development and safe power/energy supply, a diversified power structure (primarily on coal power generation, supplemented by renewable energy generation) would be established in the region. In addition, the pollutants-emission control is more effective than power structure adjustment for improving rationality of the electricity economic budget in Heilongjiang Province. The model is helpful for supporting adjustment of allocation patterns of regional energy resources, formulating energy structure and energy consumption of local policies.
    Keywords: energy model; two-stage stochastic programming; multi-scenario; emission reduction; energy structure adjustment.
  • Measuring the Evolution of Chinas Low Carbon Economy Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Chen, Xiang Liu, Desheng Wu 
    Abstract: In order to develop low carbon economy effectively and efficiently, it is equally important to pay attention to the outcome of developing low carbon economy and the process to reach this outcome. This paper takes carbon productivity (CP) and low carbon economy efficiency (LCEE) to respectively evaluate the outcome-oriented performance (the actual status) and process-oriented performance (the process to reach this status) of low carbon economy development in China. The results show that although the outcome-oriented performance of Chinas low carbon economy is improving, the process-oriented performance of it experiences a continuous decrease from 2000 to 2011, which signifies that GDP and carbon emissions are unevenly developed and the resources input are ineffectively and inefficiently used. Moreover, the determinants of CP and LCEE in different areas of China are analyzed by grey relational analysis. The results suggest that the amount of R&D funding and financial expenditure should be improved to enhance the efficient and effective utilization of inputs to reach balanced development between GDP and carbon abatement for all areas.
    Keywords: low carbon economy; outcome-oriented performance; process-oriented performance; efficiency; carbon productivety; determinants; undesirable ouput; DEA model; grey relational analysis; China
  • Intelligent Analysis of Global Warming Effects on Sea Surface Temperature in Hormuzgan Coast, Persian Gulf   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeed Samadianfard, Reza Delirhasannia, Masoud Torabi Azad, Sima Samadianfard, Mehrdad Jeihouni 
    Abstract: As scientific and economic interests in climate prediction and predictability have increased considerably in recent years, a need for global sea surface temperature (SST) prediction for use in global forecasts for climate variability studies have emerged. This paper examines the potential of gene expression programming (GEP) in estimation of sea surface temperature from global mean temperature (GMT) in comparison with linear regression (LR), polynomial regression (PR) and exponential regressions (ER). In the present study, global mean temperature and sea surface temperature data for the point with latitude of 26.5
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Persian Gulf; Sea surface temperature
  • Coal Gas Adsorption/Desorption Isotherms versus Diffusion Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Cristina Fernanda Rodrigues, Maria Alzira Pimenta Dinis, Manuel João Lemos de Sousa 
    Abstract: Gas diffusion coefficient is a fundamental parameter to define the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) injection and the CO2 transport in the coal pores/matrix, in the scope of geological storage/sequestration of CO2 in coal seams (unmineable deep seams or abandoned collieries). The rate of gas released is crucially important in CO2 geological storage/sequestration programmes injection. In the present work, the authors studied two meta-anthracite samples from Douro Coalfield (NW of Portugal) in which classical sorption isotherms were carried out, using CO2 only. Samples were submitted to different pressure steps during both adsorption and desorption processes. Diffusion coefficients were subsequently determined from sorption results, which permitted not only to study swelling/shrinking effects related to sorption processes, but also to demonstrate that whenever the CO2 is adsorbed in the coal pores/matrix it will be enduringly fixed up to, approximately, pressures of 32 bar in sample A and 34 bar in sample B. Since the gas release process it intensely related to diffusion coefficients, it is crucial to define their evolution on the two analyses reported in this paper. So, during adsorption, diffusion coefficients decrease in sample A from 4.66736E-08 to 1.23490E-09 cm2/sec (6.72 and 48.13 bar) and during desorption they increase from 7.61829E-09 to 1.09908E-08 cm2/sec (45.68 and 11.48 bar). In sample B, diffusion coefficients decrease from 2.47409E-08 to 2.11813E-09 cm2/sec (7.53 and 47.17 bar) in adsorption and increase in desorption from 1.48767E-09 to 2.83736E-08 cm2/sec (42.22 and 7.71 bar).
    Keywords: Gas diffusion coefficient; CO2 geological sequestration; isotherms; Sorption (Adsorption/Desorption.
  • Dynamics of Mangrove Diversity influenced by Climate Change and consequent accelerated Sea Level Rise at Indian Sundarbans   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhiroop Chowdhury, Pranabes Sanyal, Subodh Maiti 
    Abstract: Mangroves are salt stress resistant ecosystem dominating the coastal/estuaries of tropics and subtropics repeatedly exposed to impact of natural disasters namely cyclones/storm surges and the problems related to sea level raise due to climate change and global warming. The foremost effect of sea level raise and cyclonic regimes is the salt water intrusion/inundation into the estuaries. This temporal study on biodiversity and surface water salinity (both High and Low tide), over two main seasons (Pre and Post monsoon) has been conducted from 2008 to 2013, to shed light into the effect of a severe cyclone, AILA (2009) and fluctuations in surface water salinity due to sea level raise, on the community structure of mangroves in Indian Sundarbans. It is observed that raise in salinity level accentuates the abundance of salt tolerant species namely Avicennia marina, Suaeda maritima and decreased abundance of Rhizophora mucronata. But the exclusion of rare mangrove species (e.g. Aglaia cuculata, Brownlowia tersa, Heritiera fomes, Kandelia candel, Nypa fruticans) is also evident, facilitating the increased abundance of resistant and invasive flora, along with other associated flora (Clerodendron inerme, Derris trifoliata and Phoenix paludosa). Management solutions have also been suggested, keeping in mind, the current conservation policies, which could help the ecologists and conservationists to properly combat these problems and protect this sensitive ecosystem.
    Keywords: Sundarban, Delta, Mangrove, Biodiversity, Conservation, Climate change, Sea level raise, Cyclone, Phenology, Salinity, Management Solutions
  • Analysis of solutions alleviating CO2 emissions intensity of biogas technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Wojciech Budzianowski 
    Abstract: Biogas is a multi-purpose technology capable of harvesting renewable energy, converting organic wastes and supplying low-carbon biofuels for transport which all mitigate atmospheric carbon emissions. State-of-the-art biogas CHP technology is however characterised by relatively significant life cycle CO2 emissions intensity typically ranging from 200 to 450 gCO2eq/kWhe, depending on specific feedstocks and configurations. Due to high CO2 content in biogas, the direct biogenic CO2 emissions intensity of a biogas CHP plant is about 700 gCO2/kWhe, which is greater than the direct CO2 emissions intensity of natural gas combustion and it is comparable only with coal combustion. Therefore, in order to meet requirements of future low-carbon energy systems, solutions capable of cost-effectively mitigating various parasitic or even biogenic carbon emissions from biogas are needed. This study analyses the following categories of solutions alleviating CO2 emissions intensity of biogas technology: (i) anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic matter with increased CH4/CO2 selectivity, (ii) biological H2 generation from organic matter, (iii) AD with biogenic CO2 recycling, (iv) biogas utilisation with facilitated CO2 sequestration and (v) low-carbon biofuels from biogas. For each of these categories solutions aiming at alleviating CO2 emissions intensity are provided and analysed. Finally, optimal embedding in the economic environment is discussed.
    Keywords: biogas, solution, CO2 emissions intensity, low-carbon energy, anaerobic digestion
  • Long-Term Mean Monthly Temperature Trends of the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Umran Komuscu 
    Abstract: The Gulf region, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has been experiencing warming trends since late 1980s, an era of rapid economic development in the region. This study investigates non-stationary behaviour of the long-term mean monthly temperature series of the UAE by time series analysis. Surface temperature data at six coastal and internal stations, for the period 1983-2012, have been used in the study. The study indicates that the period after 1990s is distinctly characterized with definite rising trends in the temperatures in majority of the stations, with exception of the Al Ain station which indicated cooling temperature trends. Cumulative warming varied between 0.3 and 2.8
    Keywords: temperature trends; United Arab Emirates; autocorrelation; periodogram; spectral analysis
  • Green hydrogen energy system: A Policy on reducing petroleum based global unrest   Order a copy of this article
    by Adnan Midilli 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of green hydrogen energy system in reducing petroleum based global unrest. For this purpose, in terms of the policy parameters, the followings are discussed i) the main factors accelerating petroleum based global energy imbalance and the negative effects resulting from the petroleum based global unrest, ii) possible advantages of green hydrogen energy system, iii) the key driving forces and their roles for green hydrogen based global stability, iv) qualitative evaluation of the effects of petroleum and green hydrogen consumption on some global issues. Consequently, it can be said that green hydrogen energy system will be a key tool to minimize petroleum based global unrest and to improve the green hydrogen based global stability. Thus, it is suggested that green hydrogen energy system should be gradually encouraged by governmental bodies and other authorities for improving and ensuring the green hydrogen based global stability and sustainability.
    Keywords: Green hydrogen, hydrogen utilization, petroleum consumption, hydrogen energy system, global stability, global unrest, sustainability.
  • Sequestration of carbon dioxide by red mud through direct mineral carbonation at room temperature   Order a copy of this article
    by Rushendra Revathy T.D, Palanivelu K, Ramachandran A 
    Abstract: In the developing countries, power generation is likely to be primarily dependent on coal reserves in the coming years, thereby they face the scenario of upsurge in CO2 emissions. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered as a promising tool to mitigate CO2 emissions. In this work, direct mineral carbonation capacity of red mud (RM) has been studied which is one of the major solid waste produced from the non-ferrous industries in the country and that is largely land filled. Carbonation (dry and wet) studies were performed at low pressure (1 -10 bar) conditions and at room temperature using a simple methodology in a batch reactor with pure CO2 gas. The dry route resulted in a maximum sequestration capacity of 5.16 g of CO2/kg of RM (10 bar and 3 h), whereas wet phase aqueous carbonation route yielded 20.09 g of CO2/kg of RM (liquid to solid (L/S) ratio- 0.6, 6 bar and 1 h). The carbonated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis which evidenced the carbonation process. Thus it can be concluded that the solid waste that generated in ample quantities pose to be a promising option towards climate change mitigation.
    Keywords: Carbon capture and storage; carbon dioxide; mineral carbonation; gas-solid carbonation; aqueous carbonation; red mud.
  • Regional characteristics of CO2 emissions from Chinas power generation: Affinity Propagation and Refined Laspeyres Decomposition   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Sun, Yujun He, Hong Chang 
    Abstract: The Chinese power sector plays a vital role in national emissions reduction goal due to its large contribution to overall emissions. This paper explores the regional similarities and disparities of power generation emissions among 30 provinces. First, the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm is applied to find the similar characteristics in emissions among 30 provinces. The clustering results of CO2 emissions indicate that the 30 provinces are divided into five clusters in 1997 and seven clusters in 2012 based on four indicators (generation structure, energy intensity, GDP per capita and electricity intensity). Then, the regional differences in driving forces on CO2 emissions from power industry are examined using refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Results showed that there are significant contribution differences of five indicators (power generation emission coefficient, generation structure, electricity intensity, economy and population) on power generation emissions among different provinces. The provincial emissions reduction target and supporting policies for power industry should be customized and consistent with the actual situations considering the similarity and differences in emission characteristics.
    Keywords: Affinity propagation; refined Laspeyres decomposition; power generation; CO2 emissions
  • A review on improvement of coal-fired power plants and environmental benefits of ash utilization   Order a copy of this article
    by Selcuk Samanli, Haluk Celik, Ozcan Oney, Yasar Can 
    Abstract: Electricity generation in coal fired power plants produces large amount of residues. These materials are known as coal combustion products (CCPs) and can release pollutants to the environment. However, CCPs are environmentally and technically suitable for uses in many areas. The utilization of CCPs in these areas helps to reduce the overall harmful effects of coal combustion for electricity generation by stabilizing the environmentally toxic pollutants. This study focused on bottom ash (BA) and especially fly ash (FA). BA is used as a source of aggregate in concrete. FA is used as a pozzolanic additive to Portland cement concrete. The current paper reviews the general characteristic features of coal bottom ash and fly ash. It reveals the possible usage areas of improved ash and presents the general approaches have been developed to obtain improved fly ash. The recycling of coal combustion ash provides significant environmental benefits. Electrostatic separator with tribocharging technique has great potential for utilization of coal ash. It significantly contributes to reduce fly ash disposal problems. In recent years, triboelectrostatic separators have increased significantly for the feasibility and success of the implementation of the electrostatic separation. Studies carried out by various researchers on triboelectrostatic separation for utilization of fly ash were also compiled in this article.
    Keywords: Bottom ash; fly ash; improved fly ash; triboelectrostatic separator.
  • Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of aqueous basic dye solutions using waste foundry sand   Order a copy of this article
    by Semra Çoruh, Elif Hatice Gürkan 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solution using waste foundry sand Adsorption studies were carried out at different initial dye concentrations (12.5 - 400 mg l-1), contact time (5 - 240 min), pH (3.0 9.0), sorbent doses (0.125 - 2 g l-1) and adsorption temperature (20
    Keywords: Waste foundry sand, adsorption, basic dye, isotherm, kinetic, thermodynamic
  • Simulation of CO2 adsorption-separation from an N2/CO2 gas mixture in a Fixed MgMOF-74 Column   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed A. Habib, Rached Ben-Mansour, B. O. Eyitope, A. M. P. Peedikakkal 
    Abstract: A computational study of adsorption-separation of CO2 from an N2/CO2 gas mixture is presented in this paper. A detailed one-dimensional, transient mathematical model has been formulated to include the heat and mass transfer, the pressure drop and multi-component mass diffusion. The model has been implemented on a MATLAB program using second order discretization. Validation of the model was performed using a complete experimental data set for carbon dioxide separation using activated carbon. Simulation of the adsorption breakthrough experiment on fixed bed has been carried out to evaluate the capacity of Mg-MOF-74 for CO2 capture with varying feed gas temperature of 301K, 323K, 373K and 423K. The results show the superiority of MOF adsorbent in comparison to activated carbon. The simulated breakthrough time for CO2 on Mg-MOF-74 with feed temperature and pressure of 301K and 1.02bar respectively is about 500min as compared to 50min for Activated Carbon. The amount of CO2 adsorbed on Mg-MOF-74 under this condition is 6.43mole per kilogram of adsorbent. The maximum temperature exhibited in the system is at the bed exit with a value of about 356K after about 500min of simulation.
    Keywords: CO2 adsorption, carbon capture, carbon dioxide, CO2 separation, Mg-MOF-74
  • The evaluation of CO2 emissions mitigation scenarios for Turkish electricity sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Betül Özer, Selahattin İncecik, Erdem Görgün 
    Abstract: This study presents the results on the simulations of the scenarios based on the CO2 emission reduction of the electricity sector in Turkey, utilizing the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) model, and the mitigation costs of the scenarios. Three scenarios including Baseline Scenario, (Scenario 1) and the two mitigation scenarios (Scenario 2 and Scenario 3) are employed. The Scenario 1 is based on the continuation of the recent electricity generation composition. Scenario 2 is established for the evaluation of all the renewable energy potential, except solar, of Turkey while Scenario 3 included all the renewable and nuclear energy. The CO2 emission intensity decreased by 20.5% and 35.6% for the Scenarios 2 and 3 in 2030, respectively compared to the Baseline Scenario. The CO2 emission mitigation costs are found 17 $/ton CO2 and 40 $/ton CO2 for the Scenarios 2 and 3, respectively through 2010 to 2030.
    Keywords: electricity sector, CO2 emission mitigation scenarios and costs, LEAP model, renewable and nuclear energy, Turkey
  • Optimum insulation thickness for piping system using exergy and environmental methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Emin Açıkkalp, Gülcan Özel, Burak Görgün, Hasan Yamık, Necmettin Caner 
    Abstract: Optimum insulation thickness for a piping system is investigated using a novel method that combines exergy and environmental is analyzed. Analyses are conducted by using the rockwool and glasswool as insulation materials. Investigation is performed for the different nominal pipe sizes (NPS or Diameter Nominal: DN) of 50, 100 and 150. This study was carried out for Bilecik in Turkey. The environmental impacts of the various parameters are described. Results for the environmental impact of the system, the net environmental saving, exergetic heat loss, the net exergy saving, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions according to insulation thickness are presented. Results show that optimum points are calculated as 0.109 m, 0.126 m and 0.137 m for DN 50, 100, and 150, respectively for the glasswool. Optimum insulation thickness for the rockwool was determined as 0.064m, 0.073 m and 0.079for DN 50, 100, and 150, respectively.
    Keywords: Optimum insulation thickness, exergy analysis, environmental impact, life cycle assessment.
    by Zekiye Yenen, Cenk Hamamcıoğlu 
    Abstract: Abstract: Fundamental impacts of climate change due to global warming reveal undeniable consequences on planning for future. Taking the question have we cognized to incorporate the effects of climate change in planning yet? into account, this paper brings up the factors of human activities precipitating climate change and its probable impacts on the hierarchy of settlements to the agenda in order to stimulate planners, policy makers, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders to be ready for different possibilities with flexible approaches and efficient adaptation policies. In this context, two main projected scenarios stated by the UNFCCC (2001) and IPCC (2013)s reports are predicted and discussed on the future characteristics of settlement system to undergo a change in the case of G
    Keywords: Key Words: basin; river basin; basin-based approach; climate change; hierarchy of settlements; Göksu Basin; Mediterranean; Turkey.
  • A Methodology and Assessment for the Viability of Trigeneration Systems to Reduce Emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Aghaei Meybodi, Chanel Gibson, Masud Behnia 
    Abstract: Trigeneration systems allow for an efficient way of consuming fossil fuels and therefore utilisation of such systems is amongst the adopted measures to address environmental issues. Carbon pricing was introduced in Australia in July 2012 and subsequently repealed by the newly elected government due to its questionable effectiveness. In this paper, a thermo-economic methodology was developed to attempt to provide an insight into the optimisation and economics of small and medium scale turbine-based trigeneration systems under three environmental policies through the application of two case studies. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results indicate that carbon pricing is a sound policy to make the installation of small scale trigeneration systems economically favourable. All medium scale trigeneration systems in the study were uneconomical, although the system was marginally (1%) more profitable under the new policy than under carbon pricing. It was also observed policy concerning feed-in tariffs should be revised.
    Keywords: carbon pricing; combined cooling heating and power systems; emissions trading schemes; emissions reduction; gas turbine; global warming impacts; microturbine; partial load operation; turbine-based trigeneration systems; thermo-economic analysis
  • The governance of adaptation financing: pursuing legitimacy at multiple levels   Order a copy of this article
    by Louis Lebel, Albert Salamanca, Chalisa Kallayanamitra 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess how climate change adaptation funds have been legitimized; that is, how they have been justified and made acceptable to different actors. To this end, it analyses the way various actors have sought to promote and challenge the legitimacy of ten multi-lateral international and national climate change adaptation funds in the Asia-Pacific region. The study shows that adaptation funds draw on multiple sources of legitimacy, including: ethical or justice arguments; participation and deliberation; transparency; accountability; coherence; and effectiveness. Efforts to strengthen one source of legitimacy can have an impact on other sources, with evidence of both synergies and trade-offs. International and national adaptation funds are primarily legitimized to state actors, even though funds and projects are justified in terms of assisting vulnerable groups and communities. International financing has helped legitimize adaptation as an important development and policy objective. An adaptation financing architecture that is more multi-level, if not yet polycentric, has emerged alongside new legitimacy challenges; but at the same time, providing opportunities for improving outcomes on the ground if greater attention is given to access by vulnerable groups and communities.
    Keywords: climate; adaptation; financing; funds; legitimacy; accountability; governance
  • A Modelling Study for Predicting Temperature and Precipitation Variations   Order a copy of this article
    by Azadeh Navazi, Abdolreza Karbassi, Shapour Mohammadi, Seyed Masoud Monavari, Saeed Motesaddi Zarandi 
    Abstract: Under the current extreme conditions, the trend of climate change and consequently global warming have put pressure on the urban environment and have led to serious environmental damages. The main objective of this study is to make a 10-year prediction of climatic parameters in Tehran metropolis in order to identify the impacts of climate change on urban environments and provide adaptation strategies to be used in future studies. For this purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms were employed. A long-term study of the mean daily temperature and precipitation in Tehran (1982-2011) indicates an increasing trend, with 0.03
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Prediction; Urban environment; Climatic parameters; Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
  • Chinas Low Carbon Competitiveness: An Assessment Based on International Comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Chaoqing Yuan 
    Abstract: Today, national competitiveness has evolved into the low-carbon competitiveness. This paper attempts to assess Chinas low carbon competitiveness, measure the overall level of Chinas low-carbon competitiveness based on international comparisons, and then offer some recommendations to improve China's low carbon competitiveness. Specially, it includes: 1) the concept of national low carbon competitiveness is defined. 2) A new national low carbon competitiveness index is designed, which is made up of two comprehensive indexes, national low carbon development ability and national low carbon constraints. 3) The corresponding evaluation system and calculation method are built. National low carbon development ability mainly includes the ability of national economic growth, the ability of national low-carbon technology development and the ability of governmental low carbon management. And national low carbon constraints include saturating force of energy consumption and carbon emission, national environmental carrying capacity and national expansion capability of consumption. 4) 19 countries with relatively strong global competitiveness and international influence are selected for low-carbon competitiveness assessment. The results show that China's low-carbon competitiveness ranks 18 in the 19 countries. 5) Several suggestions to enhance Chinas low carbon competitiveness are proposed.
    Keywords: Low carbon competitiveness; Global warming; Economic Development; Carbon emission; Energy consumption
    by Syed Muhammad Hassan Ali, Murat Fahrioglu, Muhammad Jibran Shahzad Zuberi, Fassahat Ullah Qureshi 
    Abstract: The electricity demand and supply gap in Pakistan has reached 6000MW, for which the Government of Pakistan has planned some power generating projects. Environmental feasibility analysis is done for one of these projects. The Government of Pakistan has planned to build a coal based mega power plant project of 6600MW capacity at Gaddani, Karachi. Coal for this project will be imported from South Africa, Indonesia and Australia, even though Pakistan also has huge reserves of coal at Thar, Sindh. CO2 of 208.92 804.02 tons/GWh and SO2 emissions of 3.73 14.55 tons/GWh are estimated from this project using stoichiometric calculations. Renewable energy potential of Pakistan is presented in order to discourage the Government of Pakistan on these environmental unfriendly projects. Solar, wind, biomass and hydro electric energy options are encouraged to invest in as they are sustainable and environment friendly.
    Keywords: Coal, Carbon Emissions; Sulfur Emissions; Renewable Energy; Pakistan; Gaddani Power Project; Environmental feasibility
  • Experimental Investigation on Reduction of NOx Emission of Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Bio-Diesel and Di-ethyl Ether (DEE)   Order a copy of this article
    by Paresh Patel, Sajan Chourasia, Niraj Shah, Absar Lakdawala, Rajesh Patel 
    Abstract: The present work emphasis on reduction of diesel engine emission using jatropha based bio-diesel and Di-ethyl ether (DEE). The experiments show that with 20% (B20) addition of bio-diesel, the BSFC and BSEC increase by 7 and 10 % while eciency and emissions 􀀀 CO, CO2, NOx, and HC 􀀀 decreases by 1, 64, 5,18 and 48% respectively. However, it also shows that, even optimized blend (B20) is not able to meet stringent emission norms particularly for NOx - set by EURO IV. For the further reduction of the NOx, DEE is added from 0 % to 5 % in B20. The results show that addition of 4 % DEE, does not signicantly inuenced the engine performance, however reduction in NOx found to be 40 % compared with diesel fuel. A hypothesis is proposed that, The reduction in engine emission is due to improvement in combustion in presence of DEE. The hypothesis is validated through combustion analysis showing increase in peak pressure (Pmax) by 7 % and reduction in delay period by 1.5 degree with addition of 4 % DEE in B20.
    Keywords: Bio-diesel, Di-ethyl ether, Diesel engine, NOx emission, Combustion characteristic.
  • Optimization of Physical Activation Process for Activated Carbon Production from Tire Wastes   Order a copy of this article
    by Zakaria Loloei, Mansooreh Soleimani, Mehrdad Mozaffarian 
    Abstract: The reuse of waste tires is of great importance due to problems and damages that they pose to the environment. This paper presents the work conducted in order to study the conversion of waste tires to activated carbon. Activated carbon was prepared by two step process: 1-pyrolysis under nitrogen and activation with carbon dioxide. Experiments have been conducted based on Taguchi experimental design method with orthogonal arrays (L16). Pyrolysis temperature, pyrolysis holding time, activation temperature, activation holding time, process heating rate and activating CO2 gas flow rate were optimized as operating parameters. The Effect of these operating parameters on the yield and iodine number as two main results of this process has been investigated. Experimental results and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that activation temperature and activation holding time are the most effective variables, respectively. Optimum conditions for both yield and iodine number have been found which provided33.22% for yield and 439.86 (mg I2/gr of activated carbon) for iodine number.
    Keywords: waste tire; activated carbon; physical activation; optimization; Taguchi
  • Climate-Related Economic Losses in Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ling-Ling Chen, Chao-Heng Tseng, Yi-Hsuan Shih 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to quantify the relationship between CO2 emissions and economic losses under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2, A1B and B1. Previous trend is used to formulate predictions with regard to future climate-related hazards and quantify the expected economic consequences for Taiwan. We establish an equation with which to forecast economic losses related to agricultural damage, death toll, and medical expenditures. The results are as follows: (1) According to SRES A2, A1B and B1 projections, cumulative total economic losses of unit CO2 emission between 2013 and 2100 are US$75- 261/tCO2, US$76-215/tCO2, and US$75-169/tCO2, respectively; (2) Total economic losses related to natural disaster exhibits a strong correlation with GDP between 1991 and 2012, compares to the period from 1971 to 1990 (this is not including the medical expenditure losses in the total economic losses); (3) According to SRESs A1B scenario, predicted total economic losses related to natural disasters are expected to be strongly correlated with GDP between 2013 and 2100.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Climate-Related Loss; SRES Scenario; Natural Disaster; Total Economic Loss (TEL); Agricultural Economic Loss (AEL); Life Expectancy Value Loss (LEVL); Medical Expenditure Loss (MEL); Cumulative Loss; Normalized Damage; Relative Loss Ratio (RLR); IPCC; Taiwan; GDP; Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon dioxide capture by facilitated transport membranes: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by A. uma maheswari, K. palanivelu 
    Abstract: In recent years, the increase in industrial carbon dioxide emissions has put forward serious threats in atmospheric conditions. In order to address this problem various conventional techniques are available, but they have several limitations in terms of cost and energy. Carbon dioxide capture in a post combustion scenario needs cost effective and energy efficient alternatives to the conventional technologies. In this sense, membranes attract a great deal of attention for the bulk removal of CO2 as they offer a viable option to the established conventional techniques. In this review, the effective separation of CO2 by facilitated transport membranes (FTMs) and their recent developments in concurrence with past research findings have been reviewed and discussed. The FTMs are grouped into different categories based on the type of the carrier. Also, the various methods of improving stability, permeability, and selectivity of FTMs are discussed scrupulously. A special emphasis is put on reviewing the process challenges and the viability of the techniques in capturing industrial CO2 emissions. Current drawbacks in the existing research and future direction for performance development are also discussed broadly.
    Keywords: Keywords: carbon dioxide capture; facilitated transport membranes; mobile carrier; fixed site carrier; polymeric blend; cross linking agent
  • Spatially Explicit Estimates and Temporal Changes of Forest Tree Biomass in a Typical Department of Forest Management, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Sedat KELEŞ, İdris Durusoy 
    Abstract: This study presents temporal changes in forest timber biomass of a department of forest management consisting of four forest management units in Turkey. Changes in forest tree biomass are linked to forest cover change during 1986-2011 period based on forest inventory data. We also produced forest biomass density maps using Geographical Information Systems. The results showed a net increase of 1755 ha in forested areas of the Department of G
    Keywords: Forest timber biomass, Biomass expansion factor, Climate change, Forest management plan, Geographical information systems
  • Analysis of the Air Temperature records of Djelfa   Order a copy of this article
    by Boubakeur Guesmi, Mohamed Sahnoune, Chakali Gahdab 
    Abstract: The delay of defoliation, the advance of blooming, in January, of some recently planted palm trees, the appearance of the housefly in winter, and the disappearance of the featuring cold and frost of Djelfa both prompted the need of a scientific explanation, based on The analyses of mean, minimum and maximum air temperatures records for a period of forty years by the methods (coefficient of variation (CV), trend test, correlation and homogeneity test),which have shown that, although, the fluctuations of the mean temperature, especially in winter (CV=27%), a global warming of 1
    Keywords: Semi Arid, Djelfa , Global warming, climate change, Air temperature, Mann Kendall test, Algeria, steppe , frost, cold, homogeneity test, correlation, coefficient of variation

Special Issue on: "Emerging Perspectives on Loss and Damage"

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessClimate Change Impacts and the Value of Adaptation-Can Crop Adjustments Help Farmers in Pakistan?  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by Mirza Nomman Ahmed, Peter Michael Schmitz 
    Abstract: According to the climate vulnerability index Pakistan is ranked 12th globally and economic losses of approximately 4.5 billion dollars for the entire economy are anticipated. However, all these future estimates of losses for Pakistan do not consider past adaptations by the farmers in their calculations and thus tend to overestimate climate change induced losses. This paper contributes to the literature by studying the effectiveness of households adaptation and coping measures regarding the prevention of loss and damage using choice-modelling. In order to assess, whether loss and damage is likely to occur in future and to determine, whether crop-cultivating farmers have well adapted, simulations are run. Farmers are found to adjust their crop choices considering climate and expected income. If farmers adapt, benefits exceeding 300 million dollars are possible for the crop sector. In the business as usual scenario, losses between 4 and 12 million dollars (2030/2090) are found. The findings hint towards well-directed adaptations of farmers in Pakistan, preventing loss and damage.
    Keywords: Developing Countries; Environmental Impact; Hedonic; Global Warming; net revenue and adaptations; agriculture; Pakistan; Structural Ricardian Model; Crop Switching
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessObservations on the role of the private sector in the UNFCCCs loss and damage of climate change work programme  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by Swenja Surminski, Jillian Eldridge 
    Abstract: Private sector engagement, particularly in relation to public policy based action and strategy, has become a buzz word in most policy areas, but this is often accompanied by a lack of clarity on roles and responsibilities between public and private sector. We investigate this for the new United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) work stream on addressing loss and damage (L&D) from climate change. This paper presents evidence gathered from official submissions by Parties and other bodies to the UNFCCC, the small but growing L&D literature, and experience from the related fields of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). The results from the study show: a degree of vagueness in outlining the role the private sector, but expectation that they will support the emerging L&D framework through knowledge, skills and resource. Private sector engagement is mainly seen in the context of utilizing private sector expertise based in developed countries, rather than assessing current and future impacts on the growing private sector in developing countries. Unclear conceptual boundaries of L&D, DRR and CCA are posing a challenge for stakeholders. While evidence of existing engagement in the L&D debate is noticeable for the insurance industry, there remains only a limited understanding on how to actually measure the effectiveness of such private sector engagement. Creating greater clarity on expectations of and the ability to deliver by the private sector would be important tasks for the UNFCCC to focus on.
    Keywords: Loss and Damage; private sector; stakeholder engagement; climate change; insurance; UNFCCC
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessProblematising Loss and Damage  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by David Wrathall, Anthony Oliver-Smith, Alexander Fekete, Ebru Gencer, Patrick Sakdapolrak, Marqueza Lepana 
    Abstract: In the space of a few short years, the UNFCCC process has given birth to a new policy regime, the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage, to prepare for the adverse consequences of climate change to vulnerable societies. The justification for this policy is that a residual domain exists wherein climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and public/private risk transfer mechanisms are insufficient for peoples and places overwhelmed by climate impacts. We link this domain conceptually to scientific research on climate change impacts, and specifically to research on limits to adaptation. The normative position of this academic debate is generally oriented toward the need for transformative adaptation. This paper aims to anticipate the challenges that the Warsaw Mechanism will encounter achieving transformation in practice. Both policy design (as it is taking shape) and implementation face a set of interrelated conceptual and operational problems that challenge whether resources can and will address adverse consequences among the most vulnerable. In the end, loss and damage policy may suffer from the same limitations as adaptation policy: it is concerned with the reconstitution of vulnerable states of being, rather than their transformation into something more fundamentally conducive of wellbeing and development.
    Keywords: Climate change; vulnerability; adaptation; compensation; loss and damage
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessAssessing the risk of loss and damage: exposure, vulnerability and risk to climate-related hazards for different country classifications  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by Torsten Welle, Joern Birkmann 
    Abstract: Preventing and reducing loss and damage due to extreme events is an important topic for the international community especially in the context of climate change negotiations and disaster risk reduction. The paper outlines the latest state-of-the-art approaches to assess loss and damage and the risk of loss and damage. Against this background, a more in-depth analysis is provided on how to assess the risk of loss and damage in different country groups (i.e., World Bank income groups) focusing on selected slow- and sudden-onset climate-related hazards using the concept of the WorldRiskIndex. The results underscore that the risk of loss and damage for low- and high-income countries are significantly different, but also that global risk patterns differ significantly regarding sudden-onset versus slow-onset hazards. In the first step of analysis, the results show that not only does exposure to extreme events influence the risk of loss and damage, but equally important are the vulnerability and adaptive capacities of societies. The second step of analysis shows that target-oriented adaptive strategies to the various impacts of climate-related hazards are crucial in reducing the respective risk of loss and damage.
    Keywords: loss and damage, assessment of risk of loss and damage, mapping, slow- and sudden-onset climate-related hazards
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessComing Full Circle: The History of Loss and Damage under the UNFCCC  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by Erin Roberts, Saleemul Huq 
    Abstract: This paper will chronicle the history of rise of loss and damage in negotiations under the United Nations Framework on Climate Change and the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in bringing about this paradigm shift. Over the past two decades the global climate change regime has shifted from a focus primarily on mitigation, to both mitigation and adaptation and finally to the current era in which loss and damage has emerged as a key fixture on the agenda with the establishment of the Warsaw international mechanism on loss and damage at the 19th Conference of the Parties in November 2013. This shift can attributed to the realisation that there will be some unavoided impacts of climate change that will need to be addressed by the global climate regime.
    Keywords: UNFCCC; loss and damage; climate change; negotiations; mitigation; adaptation; global climate regime; IPCC
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessThe Rising Tide: Migration as a Response to Loss and Damage from Sea Level Rise in Vulnerable Communities  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by Erin Roberts, Stephanie Andrei 
    Abstract: As climate change impacts worsen, losses and damages incurred in both developing and developed countries will continue to increase. While enhancing mitigation and adaptation efforts will influence the level of loss and damage avoided in the future, historical emissions have locked in a certain level of climate change, making some residual losses and damages inevitable. Loss and damage from slow onset processes like sea level rise will ultimately require some individuals to migrate and entire countries, to relocate. Through examples from Kiribati and Alaska this paper will highlight the complexity involved in migrating and relocating and recommend interventions for easing the resettlement process.
    Keywords: loss and damage; slow onset processes; sea level rise; climate change; migration; relocation; adaptation; Alaska; Small Island Developing States; Kiribati; non-economic losses; culture
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessThe Suitability of Disaster Loss Databases to Measure Loss and Damage from Climate Change  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by Melanie Gall 
    Abstract: This paper explores the suitability of disaster loss databases for documenting impacts of climate change particularly those related to extreme weather and slow onset events. The goal is to clarify the utility, quality, and relevance of disaster loss metrics in the context of climate-sensitive hazards such as floods, tropical cyclones, droughts, and so forth. Although, disaster loss databases hold great potential for assessing some of the impacts from climate change, several modifications are required to enhance the utility of existing disaster loss databases, primarily in regard to data availability and quality. In order to effectively utilize disaster loss databases, loss metrics and hazard classifications should be broadened, time horizons for loss estimation expanded as well as loss estimation techniques improved along with a coordinated development and implementation of data and database standards.
    Keywords: extreme events, climate change impacts, natural hazards, loss and damage, measuring losses, disaster loss database
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessEstablishing institutional arrangements on loss and damage under the UNFCCC: the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage  ( Free Full-Text Access )
    by Doreen Stabinsky, Juan Hoffmaister 
    Abstract: Both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and non-governmental organizations have begun to point out that there are significant and serious limits to adaptive capacity and possible adaptation to climate change, particularly to slow-onset impacts such as sea level rise, glacial retreat, desertification, and ocean acidification. The legal obligation to act established under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and this growing recognition of adaptation limits has elevated the issue of loss and damage in ongoing negotiations. In this paper, we review the evolution, foundations, and rationale for the establishment of the Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage (WIM) under the Convention, in particular, the role of the Convention in systematically addressing loss and damage in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. We also contribute some forward thinking on how to address needs of developing countries in the context of the operationalization of the mechanism.
    Keywords: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); loss and damage; adaptation; state responsibility; slow onset; institutional arrangements; international mechanism; climate change.

Special Issue on: "ICCE-2014 "Clean Energy to Combat Global Warming,"

  • A Review on Structural Issues in Energy Policy for a Sustainable Energy Future   Order a copy of this article
    by Golnar Hejazi, Christian Wimmler 
    Abstract: Around the phenomena of global warming and climate change aspects related to sustainable development have received substantially growing attention over the past two decades. Various national and international obligations to steadily augment the share of renewable energy technologies as well as to implement energy efficiency and management measures have been established. At the same time, energy policies and related issues are more widely discussed in society nowadays. Project failures or an adversity of targets ought to be the results of indistinctly defined targets or a lack of effective policies. Hence, on the quest for sustainable development proper and precise policy tools and mechanisms are vital. While the variety of existing and new tools and mechanisms shall help achieving long-term targets, it is also that variety that causes structural issues in energy policy. This paper intends to reflect upon different perspectives that should be considered before making decisions about energy policies.
    Keywords: Energy policy, structural issues, sustainability, sustainable development, free rider, autonomous efficiency, spill-over effect

Special Issue on: "R&R2014 "Application of Sustainable Technologies for Water and Waste Recycling and Reuse,"

  • Composition and Energy Potential of Industrial Sludge Derived Synthetic Gas   Order a copy of this article
    by Atakan Ongen, Serdar Aydin, Semiha Arayici 
    Abstract: The study focused on the synthetic gas formation and gasification efficiency of an industrial sludge. Optimum conditions for gasification were determined and content of synthetic gas was investigated. Gasification process was carried out at over 700 oC in a lab-scale fixed bed steel reactor. The gasification is a chemical process in which organic matter, high pressure and high temperature steam and oxygen are reacted to form a synthetic gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons which can be used as a gaseous fuel, or can be further refined to produce hydrogen gas. The solid fuel gas mixture is typically carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. This process requires more steps than the conventional combustion. The results showed that synthetic production increased in parallel with the reactor temperature. It is reported that during the gasification process, all of the useful molecules which produce energy when burned are separated from the unwanted parts of the organic matter such as soot, tar, and ash. Therefore, this process is much cleaner than combustion process. Gasification studies over 700 oC produced a synthetic gas that involved 20-30% CO, 30-40% H2 and 5-15% CH4 by volume. Calorific values of 2000 kcal/m3 in average and maximum 3000 kcal/m3 were achieved by gasification both with dried air and pure oxygen as gasification agents.
    Keywords: Energy recovery, synthetic gas, sludge, gasification

Special Issue on: "GCGW-14 "Global Warming and its Energy Solutions,"

  • Causes of Global Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Cuixiang Zhong 
    Abstract: The authors recent research on the origin and evolution of Earth shows that with the growth of Earths mass, Earth can absorb more and more gas molecules from the cosmic space, including water vapor and carbon dioxide produced by the combustion of the Sun, and the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases have caused global warming. Additionally, the author has also discovered that volcanism can obviously alter the orbit of the Earth and therefore is another key factor for climate change. The latter research mainly includes the derivation of a formula on volcanic eruption changing the earths revolution speed and another formula on the earths revolution speed variation causing the Earths orbital variation. According to these formulas, through computers high precision computation, the author found that volcanic eruptions at a certain scale can indeed cause the Earths orbital variation, thus causing global warming or cooling, even making the Earth enter an interglacial period or a glacial period.
    Keywords: global climate change; glacial period; interglacial period; volcanism; orbital variation
  • The Impacts of Vehicle Development on Beijings Climate Change and Relevant Countermeasures   Order a copy of this article
    by Guanhua Yue, Yinghan Yu, Haiyao Miao 
    Abstract: The sharp increase of motor vehicle uses greatly increases traffic pressure, and vehicle emissions are one of the main sources leading to haze weather and other climate change problems. An investigation has been undertaken to review Beijings vehicle development and pollutant emissions trends in recent years. Our data showed that the number of Beijings automobile ownership has been ranked top in China in recent years, nitrogen oxides emissions are higher than that in other fields, and CO2 emissions is about 10% of the total. Furthermore, the PM2.5 concentration in some major traffic areas of Beijing are monitored, the results showed that there is a PM2.5 pollutant peak at the height of 30m-40m and a lowest PM2.5 concentration at 12:00am-16:00pm on a working day. Finally, by comparing the differences in the vehicles number and management policy among major cities in the word, the author put forward some countermeasures for vehicle administration in Beijing.
    Keywords: Beijing; vehicle development; urban traffic; pollutant emissions; PM2.5; haze weather; climate change; policy; differences; countermeasures.

Special Issue on: "GCGW-14 Global Warming and its Energy Solutions,"

    by Tahir Abdul Hussain Ratlamwala 
    Abstract: The present study focuses on a comparative exergo-environmental analysis of two solar based integrated systems for hydrogen production. Two integrated systems namely (a) solar heliostat field system integrated with Cu-Cl cycle and Kalina cycle (as system 1) and (b) solar heliostat field system integrated with Cu-Cl cycle, Kalina cycle and photocatalytic reactor (as system 2) are considered. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of varying the operating parameters such as solar light intensity and ambient air temperature on the exergo-environmental performance of these integrated systems. The results show that the environmental impact factors of systems 1 and 2 vary from 0.54 to 0.52 and 0.45 to 0.44, respectively with increase in solar light intensity. The environmental impact index of systems 1 and 2 are noticed to be varying from 1.2 to 1.1 and 0.8 to 0.78, respectively with rise in ambient temperature. The results obtained show that system 2 performs better than system 1 from exergo-environmental perspective due to better utilization of solar light intensity.
    Keywords: Exergo-environment; heliostat field system; Cu-Cl cycle; photocatalytic; hydrogen
  • A power generation system based on ferriferous oxide magnetic fluid   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Mingjun, Luo Feng, Xu Shuangyan, Zhang Huan 
    Abstract: Global warming refers to the climate system warming by the Greenhouse effect, and the new energy will create positive change by using less coal and oil. In this paper, a new micro-distributed energy supply system which is redesigned based on the published designs. It presents experimental findings using this device and theoretical analysis for its performance. The paper discusses the relationships between the electromagnetic force, velocity and temperature. The measured data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The experiments show that a higher electric output can be achieved by increasing the flow velocity and magnetic strength.
    Keywords: power generation system, ferriferous oxide magnetic fluid, MHD set-up, electromotive force
  • A Numerical Investigation on How to Efficiently Utilize Carbon Dioxide in Convection-based Energy Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuhui Cao, Xin-Rong Zhang 
    Abstract: Owing to the environmentally benign nature and the special property variation at supercritical pressure, greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is regarded as the best retrofit to meet the future demand on long-term environmental-friendly working fluids. However, how to efficiently utilize carbon dioxide to reduce energy consumption and mitigate global warming is still an unsolved problem. In this paper, the natural convection heat transfer of carbon dioxide under supercritical pressure condition in a small cavity is studied for the first time. The potential of carbon dioxide as working fluid is quantitatively estimated in terms of enhancing heat transfer and reducing the cost of heat exchangers. It is found that the operating conditions including the temperature, temperature difference and pressure all have significant effects on heat transfer rate due to the special property variations of the CO2 fluid. Furthermore, a heat transfer correlation is proposed for the first time to quantitatively describe the natural convection heat transfer of CO2 at supercritical pressure in a small cavity.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide; natural convection; heat transfer
  • Methane production from napier grass by two-stage anaerobic digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Yuwadee Sangsil, Suchat Leungprasert, Suriya Sawanon 
    Abstract: Digestion of napier grass was investigated in two-stage anaerobic reactors. The reactor volume was 4 and 5 litres for the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors, respectively. The acidogenic reactors were fed once daily at 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 ml/day with a slurry of napier grass. The organic loading rates (OLRs) were 0.60, 0.90, 1.20, 1.50 and 1.80 kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)/ Mixed ruminal microorganisms from cows were used as the inoculum. The pH was adjusted to 7.5 for all methanogenic reactors at the start-up period. The reactors were operated at 30
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion;bioenergy;biogas;global warming;methane;napier grass
  • Assessing the potential impact of future precipitation trends on urban drainage systems under multiple climate change scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Hua Bai, Xin Dong, Siyu Zeng, Jining Chen 
    Abstract: Investigations of climate change impacts on urban drainage system have been discerned worldwide in the past decades and will attract more attention in the coming future. This paper presents an approach to assessing the possibility of extreme rainfall events under variation greenhouse gas emission scenarios as well as a case study in Hefei city, China. Future precipitation projections were downscaled in a spatiotemporal way firstly, and summarized into Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The changes of the IDF were then compared subsequently between the present condition and the future scenarios. The results indicate that, the local rainfall regime will generally stay the same or slightly increase for the drizzles, but the extreme events will become more intensive and frequent. Although uncertainty has been found among the different emission scenarios and the various future periods, it is still notable to take climate change into consideration to deal urban drainage system issues.
    Keywords: Climate change; urban drainage systems; statistical precipitation downscaling; multiple scenarios
    by Yacine Moussaoui, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Brahim Youcef Meklati 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT Airborne particulates were collected daily during three year seasons by using medium-volume aspirating systems equipped with PM10 inertial impactors. The organic fraction was solvent extracted with soxhlet, fractioned and cleaned-up through column chromatography, then processed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors. Chemical analyses allowed to characterize a set of groups of compounds, namely n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and highly-polar chemicals. Besides that, the potential sources of pollution were investigated by analyzing the n-alkane carbon preference index and selected diagnostic ratios among PAH and NPAH concentrations. Total concentrations of n-alkanes varied widely over the study period (from 48 to 170 ng m-3); PAHs behaved similarly (2
    Keywords: particulate organic matter, n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Nitrated PAHs (NPAHs), molecular markers, atmospheric pollution

Special Issue on: "ICCE-2014 Clean Energy to Combat Global Warming,"

  • Using Emission Index To Determine Energy Efficiency And Environmental Parameters Of A Turbofan Engine At Various Flight Phases   Order a copy of this article
    by Yasin Sohret, T. Hikmet Karakoc, Onder Turan 
    Abstract: In this study, an unordinary methodology for energy efficiency calculation of a turbofan engine is introduced. Emission indexes of the engine are used to find out energy efficiency and novel parameters for environmental impact assessment. Energy efficiency are proven at take-off, climb-out and approach phases of the flight for the turbofan engine. Additionally, power and energy emission index variations of the turbofan engine for carbon monoxide and unburned hydro carbon constituents of the exhaust are presented in the paper. As a result of the study, energy efficiency of the turbofan engine is determined 35.68%, 41.12% and 36.05 at take-off, climb-out and approach flight phases respectively.
    Keywords: Turbofan, emission, aircraft, energy, environmental impact
  • Numerical modelling of effects of hydrogen supply on combustion behaviours of low calorific value coal gases   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa İLBAŞ, Serhat KARYEYEN 
    Abstract: In this study, the effect of the hydrogen supply on combustion performances and emission levels of low calorific value coal gases has been numerically investigated in a model combustor. The numerical modelling of turbulent diffusion flames has been performed by using a CFD Code. k-Ɛ model of turbulent flow, the PDF/Mixture Fraction model of diffusion flame and P-1 radiation model were used in the present study. The flames of coal gases for pure and hydrogen supply cases were modelled to predict its combustion behaviours. There are five cases of testing, i.e. pure generator gas or pure blast-furnace gas and fuels supplied 4%, 5%, 10% and 15% hydrogen by mass. According to the predictions, the combustion performances of generator and blast-furnace gases were improved by supplying hydrogen progressively. Similarly, NOX formations of generator and blast-furnace gases were increased due to increment of its flame temperatures depending on hydrogen amounts.
    Keywords: Coal Gases, Hydrogen Supply, Combustion and Emissions
  • A review on socio-economic aspects of sustainable biofuels   Order a copy of this article
    by A. K. Azad, M. G. Rasul, M. M. K. Khan, Subhash C. Sharma 
    Abstract: Biofuels are renewable eco-fuel, produced from biological resources. They are classified into 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations based on their feedstocks. The 1st generation biofuels are produced from edible oil sources which have been the main source of biofuel production. However, the biofuel production is progressively moving towards the 2nd generation biofuels which are produced mainly from the non-edible vegetable oils and animal fats. They are also called advanced biofuel since the 1st generation biofuels are unlikely to be sustainable due to facing social, economic and environmental challenges resulting from increased food price and pressure on land uses. Consequently, technologies are starting to develop for alternative feedstocks in an attempt to overcome major shortcomings of 1st generation biodiesels. The 2nd generation biofuel can be a sustainable alternative of 1st generation biofuel. However, the 2nd generation biofuels are not being produced commercially yet because they require more sophisticated processing equipment, more investment per unit fuel production and large scale facilities than the 1st generation biofuel. The study reviewed and discussed about socio-economic aspects of the sustainable biofuel in Australia because economy is seen to be a key driver for use of biofuels. Recent researches focused on sustainable biofuel production, their commercialization worldwide. The world biofuel scenario is presented in this study. Total biofuel production and consumption as well as present production facilities available in Australia are also outlined. The study briefly discussed about Australian energy economy such as energy export, import and trades etc. The study concluded that the 2nd generation biofuel can be considered as sustainable alternatives to petroleum fuel in transport sector providing great economic and environmental benefits to Australia.
    Keywords: Sustainable biofuel; Socio-economic aspects; Second generation biofuel; Energy consumption; Biofuel trades; Energy challenges
  • Implementation of a sustainable energy action plan for municipality of Ptolemaida   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikolaos Margaritis, Petros Dallas, Panagiotis Grammelis 
    Abstract: The first step in the implementation of a SEAP is the collaboration of a BEI, as it will provide knowledge of the nature of the entities emitting CO2 on the municipalitys territory, and will thus help select the appropriate actions. In this paper the basic methodology is presented, step by step, in order to develop a BEI for the municipality of Ptolemaida in Western Macedonia Region, Greece. According to the results, the final energy consumption of Ptolemaida city amounts to 407.994,00 MWh. Through the use of appropriate selected emission factors the carbon footprint of Ptolemaida was deducted. According to the BEI of Ptolemaida during the year 2010 were emitted 172.518 tn CO2 or 5, 37 tn CO2/capita.
    Keywords: covenant of Mayors;sustainable energy action plan;baseline emission inventory; CO2 emission factors; electric energy consumption; thermal energy consumption; public and residential building sector; tertiary and agricultural sector
    by Mehmet Ziya Sogut, Murat Paşa Uysal, Yavuz Gazibey, Arif Hepbasli 
    Abstract: One of the important reasons for global warming and climate change is regarded as the improper management of fossil energy consumption. There may be various models or approaches to energy management (EM). However, strategic EM and its applications are still away from achieving their goals. In this regard, the main objectives of the present study are to design, develop and propose a knowledge framework primarily based on an EM concept map for a holistic EM. Aligned with the research purposes, a qualitative four-phase study was conducted, and the research question was formulated as: What would be the components and concepts required for the holistic EM? The study also integrated systematic literature review (SLR) and focus group discussion (FGD) techniques. Initially, a list of the key EM concepts was formed and a preliminary concept map was constructed. Then, the final version of the concept map was achieved through several iterative revisions and FGDs. This concept map may be seen as a complementary and contributory tool for strategy development and decision-making processes in the EM knowledge domain. It is hoped that the study may extend the previous knowledge both by the tools it has utilized and approaches it has adopted for the holistic EM
    Keywords: Energy management, sustainability, concept maps, strategy, energy policy
  • Arsenic pollution of soils and morbidity prevalence in Racha-Lower Svaneti district of Georgia   Order a copy of this article
    by Vakhtang Gvakharia, Archil Chirakadze, Zakaria Buachidze, Irine Khomeriki, Maiko Chokheli, WIlliam A. Toscano, Leila Gverdtsiteli, Maia Stamateli 
    Abstract: Approximately 120 thousand tons of various molecular forms of highly toxic arsenic waste are located in mountainous areas of Georgia as an inheritance after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The heavy contamination of soil around crumbling storage areas results in pollution and high exposure of local communities, livestock, poultry and wildlife to arsenic.Relative risks for13 diseases in adults: skin diseases, pigmentation maculae, cancer; epigenetic, mental and behavioural, endocrine, urogenital disorders; respiratory, neural, gastrointestinal diseases; tumours, allergy, injury and intoxications are reported. Future work involving transdisciplinary research of epigenetic abnormalities and mental disorders in adults and children including methods of psychological testing are discussed.
    Keywords: arsenic, waste, disposal, contamination, soil, morbidity, health-risk, Georgia
  • Gaseous fuel for lower emissions during the cold start and warming up of spark ignition engines   Order a copy of this article
    by Essam Abo-Serie 
    Abstract: Gasoline engines during cold starting (cranking) and warming-up duration, particularly, at low environmental temperatures have negative impact on air pollutions, especially for sub-zero degrees. Having to inject more fuel to achieve stable engine operation resulting in higher fuel consumptions and more engine-out emissions particularly hydrocarbons. In this study, fuel consumption, emissions and engine-start conditions have been examined using different gaseous fuels during the period from the ignition time until the catalyst reaching its lighting off temperature at no load conditions. The results showed that gaseous fuels reduces fuel consumption and emissions due to achieving substantial reduction in the number of engine cranking in addition to the inherent low emission characteristics of gaseous fuel. Hydrogen, in particular, showed superior performance in comparison to other examined gaseous fuels. The significant number of engine-start using 200 g of gaseous fuel particularly hydrogen makes the gaseous fuel viable to be used together with conventional liquid gasoline fuel.
    Keywords: gaseous fuel, gasoline engine, cold start; hydrogen fuel; engine cranking; cold start emissions; low temperature SIE emissions; engine warming up emissions; cranking time
  • Potential for efficiency improvement of 4-stroke marine diesel gensets by utilization of exhaust gas energy   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitrios Hountalas, Georgios Mavropoulos, Christos Katsanos, Stavros Daniolos, Iosif Dolaptzis, Nikolaos Mastorakis 
    Abstract: In the present paper it is examined the potential application of a Rankine Cycle exhaust gas heat recovery system which recovers and utilizes energy from the exhaust gas of 4-stroke marine diesel auxiliary unit before it is released to the atmosphere, increasing thus its total efficiency. For this purpose a thermodynamic simulation model of the Rankine Bottoming Cycle is used. Heat utilization is initially considered only from the main exhaust gas stream after the T/C turbine. As reference for the investigation are used the values from the official shop tests at various loads ranging from 25% up to 100%. From these using the Rankine cycle simulation model it is investigated the potential for increase of generated cycle power output and optimization of its efficiency. In addition it is examined the effect of working media by considering steam and an organic. The results derived reveal that there exists a significant potential for fuel saving by utilization of exhaust gas energy of auxiliary engines installed on commercial vessels.
    Keywords: Rankine Cycle; 4-Stroke Diesel Engine; Heat Recovery; Exhaust Gas
    by M. Ebrahim Poulad 
    Abstract: A technique is proposed and developed to predict the household hourly electricity demand. The developed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model of residential hourly demand is employed to estimate the potential impacts of Load Curtailment Activation (LCA) on electricity demand on the activation days. Results are separately discussed in two seasons: summer and winter. LCA occurs once per day for no more than four consecutive hours. Electricity demand increases dramatically after peaksaver/LCA is completed on July 6 and August 30 of 2010. Both days show saving if the data are not normalized. Unnormalized load reductions for individual event hours ranged between 0.35 and 0.64 kWh/h or 14% and 24%, respectively
    Keywords: Demand management; artificial neural network; greenhouse gas emmision; peaksaving; load curtailment activation
  • Sulphur Removal from Artvin-Yusufeli Lignite with Acidic Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Menderes Levent, Ömer Kaya, M.Muhtar Kocakerim, Özkan Küçük 
    Abstract: Abstract : In this study, the optimization of sulphure removal by H2O2 / H2SO4 solutions, and a limited kinetic measurements by H2O2/HCl solutions have been carried over Artvin/Yusufeli lignite with higher content of sulphure. In kinetic measurements which have beeen carried out so far, only the effect of temperature on removal of sulphure has been investigated. By keeping all other parameters constant, with increments in temperature at different times, it has been seen that removal of sulphure is increased in obtained data. A statistical experimental arrangement which has six parameters and for each parameter there is twenty five experiments with five levels. In generally, at the end of experiments pyritic sulphure, total sulphure, organic sulphure and ash removal rates have been determined. According to statistical experimental arrangement, optimum sulphure removal and ash removal ratios are determined. The obtained yields in removal of pyritic sulphure is 97.85 %, in removal of total sulphure is 56.54 %, in removal of organic sulphure is 21.33 % and in removal of ash is 61.52 %. According to carried out variance analysis, in removal of pyritic and total sulphure, all parameters are effective, but, in removal of organic sulphure, acid concentration and particle size are not effective, and in removal of ash, only, acid concentration is not effective, however, it has been seen that all other parameters are effective.
    Keywords: Keywords: desulphurisation, pyritic sulphur, total sulphur, organic sulphur, lignite, hydrogen peroxide
  • Clean Development Mechanism in Iran: Does It Need A Revival?   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Alizadeh, Mehdi Majidpour, Reza Maknoon, Saeed Shafiei Kaleibari 
    Abstract: This paper aimed to study Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Iran. Greenhouse Gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. CDM projects are useful tools to reduce these costs. Kyoto Protocol includes three mechanisms, namely: emission trading, joint implementation and CDM. CDM is the only mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in which developing countries can participate. Comprehensive interviews with experts from Iranian oil and energy ministries and Department of Environment (DOE) resulted in detecting the missed opportunities for CDM in Iran. Lack of long term planning for the Kyoto Protocol, limitation of technology and finance, lack of regulation and functionality of a financial system, and international sanctions are the most significant obstacles for implementation of CDM projects in Iran. At the end, a comprehensive analysis for utilizing CDM to Greenhouse Gas reduction and climate change mitigation is presented.
    Keywords: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Kyoto Protocol
  • Application of life cycle assessment to the case studies new nitrogen fertiliser production   Order a copy of this article
    by Tayeb Serradj, Ali Makhlouf, Monia Serradj Ali Ahmed 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to perform well-to-pump LCA to investigate the energy balance and environmental impact of nitrogen fertiliser production using natural gas as feedstock. The energy requirements and GHG emissions were compared with the values which one finds in the BAT to explore the environmental performance of the fertiliser integrated plant located in developing country as Algeria. The goal of the study is to establish the environmental profile of the fertiliser. Five impact categories were selected for the study. The system boundaries were defined for a 'cradle to gate' approach, including extraction of natural resources, intermediate products, and production. The Sulfazot system, as new nitrogen fertiliser, comprises the stages of extraction, processing and pipeline transport of natural gas, ammonia synthesis, production of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate and Sulfazot manufacture. The results showed that the production of a tonne of sulfazot requires 142 M3 of water and 95 MJ of natural gas. The natural gas combustion contributes with climate warming by formation of greenhouse gases, which is about 12.29 T CO2 equivalent/FU, with the production of Tropospheric Ozone which is 25.94x10-3 T TOPP equivalent/FU. The acidification potential is of 32.53x10-3 T SO2 equivalent/FU and the cumulated energy requirement is 178.4 GJ/T of Sulfazot.
    Keywords: LCA; nitrogen fertiliser; environmental impact; energy requirements; greenhouse gas; developing country.
  • Modeling of ammonia combustion characteristics at preheating combustion: NO formation analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jun Li, Hongyu Huang, Haoran Yuan, Tao Zeng, Masayoshi Yagami, Noriyuki Kobayashi 
    Abstract: In order to improve the combustion characteristics and flame stability of NH3-air flame, preheating the reactants at different temperature was proposed in this study. We focused on the formation of NO at NH3 preheated combustion because NH3 is a typical fuel-nitrogen. The NO formation characteristics of premixed NH3air mixtures at various preheating temperatures of the reactants were numerically analyzed. The Miller and Bowman mechanism was applied in the numerically calculation of all species. The results show that the formation reaction rates of thermal NO from N + O2 → NO + O, and N +OH →NO + H increase with the increase of preheating temperatures of the reactants at fuel lean condition. Higher decomposition reaction rate of N + NO → N2 +O at stoichiometric condition finally results in a lower formation of NO comparing to that at fuel lean condition. At fuel rich condition, the reactions of NH2 + NO → N2 +H2O, NH + NO → NNH + OH have grate effect on the decomposition of NO at all preheating temperatures of the reactants, which results in an extremely low formation of NO, showing a potential for reducing NO formation in NH3 combustion.
    Keywords: ammonia; preheating combustion; NO formation; NO formation pathway

Special Issue on: "R&R2014 Application of Sustainable Technologies for Water and Waste Recycling and Reuse,"

  • Recycling of waste glass in concrete plant as aggregate and pozzolan replacement   Order a copy of this article
    by Semra Çoruh 
    Abstract: Due to the environmental and the economic reasons, there has currently been a growing trend for the use of the industrial waste by-products as supplementary materials or as an admixture in the production of composite cement and concrete. Waste glasses cannot in general be recyled as a whole. In this study, waste glasses that are not possible to be recyled were used in concretes as a pozzolan and coarse aggregate, and thus those are provided to be used as if those were recyled. In the first group (I); waste glass (WGA) is considered as a fine aggregate in a concrete. The used WGA was reduced to 5-12 mm in size corresponding the proportions of 0-50% in the production of CEM I type cement and used goals 25 MPA and C35 MPa compressive strength. The other group (II); waste glass powder (WGP) were ground and incorporated into concrete with the levels of 5%, 15% and 30% by the weight of binder.Furthermore, two different W/C ratios 0.5 and 0.7 were used in this group repectively. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate these replacements. These tests were performed to investigate the workability, unit weight, compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete. The experimental results indicate for the group I; using WGA as aggregate did not have marked effect on the workability of concrete. For group II; the experimental results indicate that the mixtures which were ground with 5% waste glass as a pozzolan and 10% waste glass as fine aggregate gave compressive strength performance similar to the reference mixture. Higher percentage of waste glass (15%) replacement yielded lower strength values. This study shows that the use of waste glass materials in concretes reduces the costs of the concretes and also provides a partial solution for removing the waste glasses from the environment.
    Keywords: Waste Management, waste glass powder, concrete, strength
  • Solid Waste Collection Route Optimisation by Geographical Information System (GIS) in Fatih-Istanbul, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Goksel Demir, H. Kurtulus Ozcan, Perihan Kurt Karakus, Yener Bakis 
    Abstract: Uncontrolled urban population growth in metropolitan areas of developing countries in recent years has made solid waste management an important issue. Generally, collection and hauling efforts cover a substantial amount of total expenditures on the solid waste management by city authorities. Success of an integrated solid waste management system is directly proportional to the success of solid waste collection and transport systems since all depends on an even and a timely manner collection process. The more populated cities bring increasing difficulties on the reach and utilize services. In order to reduce cost and time on these services, it is very crucial for authorities to search for optimization possibilities. In this manner, for local authorities, one of the most important issues on solid waste management practices is an optimized solid waste collection function. An optimized collection function has become more important in metropolitan areas having improved and sophisticated road systems. In this study, in order to minimize the route and collection cost by employing GIS and using numerical road data, a solid waste collection route optimization study was carried in Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; collection; route optimisation; Geographical Information System (GIS); Fatih district; Istanbul
  • Oxidation prevention of silicon carbide powders   Order a copy of this article
    by Yilmaz Firat Birtane, Azade Yelten, Eray Erzi, Mustafa Merih Arikan, Suat Yilmaz 
    Abstract: Oxidation creates an important problem with the increasing temperature and additionally if one of the components contains an amount of carbon, then there will be a COx emission risk which has a detrimental effect for the atmosphere. One of the methods to prevent the oxidation of silicon carbide (SiC) is to coat it with Al2O3 which has high thermal stability. In this study, the properties of Al2O3 coated SiC composite powders were examined to prevent the oxidation of SiC particles by developing a thermal barrier coating and it is aimed to contribute for reducing the gases which make a greenhouse effect and cause global warming. Firstly, boehmite sol was prepared via the sol-gel route and then 5wt% beta-SiC (<100nm) nanosized particles were added to the boehmite sol and gelation was completed. Alumina coated SiC powders were heat treated at 100, 550, 1000, 1300 and 1600 C under dry air and argon atmospheres. Characterization analyses showed that alumina coated SiC particles underwent to slightly internal oxidation with the partial oxidation depending on the oxygen ion mobility during the transformation from boehmite to alumina in the interior atmosphere while alumina coated SiC particles gained oxidation resistance against the outer atmosphere.
    Keywords: oxidation behavior; sol-gel method; alumina/SiC composites

Special Issue on: "Loss and Damage from Climate Change,"

  • Loss and Damage due to climate change: Attribution and Causation Where Climate Science and Law meet   Order a copy of this article
    by Roda Verheyen 
    Abstract: The short paper scrutinises the concept of legal causation in the context of detection and attribution and discusses the approaches of law and climate science to causation. It looks at the issue both with respect to the climate regimes agenda item of loss and damage and with respect to a specific tort-like or nuisance-based case.
    Keywords: Causation, Detection and Attribution, Science, Law, FCCC, Tort