Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Global Warming


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International Journal of Global Warming (75 papers in press)


Regular Issues


    by Stella Bezergianni, Athanasios Dimitriadis, Loukia Chrysikou 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and environmental benefits from integrating waste cooking oil (WCO) in a refinery, towards producing a new hybrid diesel. This new hybrid diesel, partially of fossil- and partially of bio-based origin, was evaluated as an alternative to market diesel according EN 590 specifications, showing comparable if not superior quality in the case of the former. Another scope was to compare the environmental impacts of the new hybrid diesel and the market diesel, in order to identify the most environmentally friendly fuel with the higher sustainability potential. The comparison was based on a Well-To-Tank analysis (WTT) including only the production processes of both fuels considered. Based on this study, the new hybrid diesel produced via co-hydroprocessing petroleum fractions with WCO presented the lower carbon foot-print, validating its sustainability superiority. It is evident that integrating residual biomass in a refinery is the most sustainable approach for incorporating biomass in the transportation sector.
    Keywords: co-hydroprocessing; hybrid diesel; biofuel; LCA; HVO; WCO

  • Regional Climate Model simulation for temperature and precipitation over South Asia using different physical parameterization schemes   Order a copy of this article
    by Mujtaba Hassan, Du Pengfei 
    Abstract: The ability of ICTP Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4.3) is investigated by using two land surface schemes: the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer scheme (BATS) and the Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5). To attain the best model configuration over the South Asia region, six sensitivity experiments are conducted with three different cumulus convection schemes. RegCM4.3 coupled with CLM3.5 and mixed convection scheme option (MIX-CLM), produced better simulation than BATS. The cold winter bias and the intensities of wet-dry biases over the foothills of HindukushKarakorum-Himalaya (HKH) and Central India are substantially reduced with MIX-CLM. In terms of seasonal variability, results suggest that different convection schemes behaved differently over sub-regions of the domain. The annual cycles of precipitation and temperature are better captured over the Bay of Bengal and Western Ghats by MIX-CLM. In spite of some deficiencies, the MIX-CLM scheme improves the model performance over the various parts of the domain.
    Keywords: Regional climate modeling, Seasonal variability, Physical parameterization, South Asia, Model evaluation

    by Emmanuel Onuh, Freddie Inambao 
    Abstract: Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Carbon (II) oxide (CO) emissions from engine running on pure biodiesel constitute one of the environmental challenges to its application as fuel. Verifying their sources and production pattern is an essential first step to tackling the challenge. 100% biodiesel derived from Moringa, Jatropha and Waste oil along with petroleum diesel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. It was observed that oxygen concentration and combustion temperature are the primary drivers of a kinetically determined process. NOx emission trended with Zeldovich mechanism prediction and thus increases with increasing O2 concentration and temperature. CO2 dissociation at elevated combustion temperature in a suppressed O2 concentration regime governs CO production for normal diesel running at high load but, low temperature and high viscosity account for same effect in biodiesel runs. CO therefore increases with increasing temperature and decreasing O2 concentrations for petroleum diesel but for biodiesel, the reverse is the case. Novel EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) and LTC (Low temperature combustion) engine therefore holds the key to unlocking biodiesel potential and remediating some of the difficulties observed with petroleum diesel.
    Keywords: Pure biodiesel, Zeldovich mechanism, Dissociation, EGR(Exhaust Gas Recirculation), LTC (Low Temperature Combustion.

  • A novel alternative fuel for diesel engine: a Comparative experimental investigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Senthil Ramalingam, Ramalingam Ganesan, Silambarasan Rajendran, Pranesh Ganesan 
    Abstract: In this present study performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jamun Methyl Ester in a direct injection diesel engine was experimentally investigated. Fuels were tested in a Single cylinder, Direct Injection (DI), water cooled diesel engine. The effects of JAME-diesel blends on engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads.. It is found that JAME20 (20% JAME + 80% diesel) blend showed better performance and reduced emission. However a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to diesel was observed when using biodiesel-diesel blends. The ignition delay, maximum heat release rate and combustion duration were poor for biodiesel-diesel blends compared to diesel. The experiment shows that JAME20 can be used as an alternate fuel for direct injection diesel engine without any modifications. Thus jamun methyl ester can indeed become the new appropriate source for biodiesel, with environmental benefits.
    Keywords: Jamun methyl ester; performance; emission; combustion; transesterification;diesel engine;

  • Green Sports Supporting a Low-Carbon Society: Inspiration from Japan   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaochen Chen, Jia Niu, Ken'ichi Nakagami, Qian Zhang, Xuepeng Qian, Jun Nakajima 
    Abstract: Global warming, mainly due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, has a devastating effect on our living planet. To combat it and foster a low-carbon society, contributions from the sports community are needed. Accordingly, the concept of green sports has emerged, calling for green performance of sports infrastructure, green production in sports manufacturing, and green awareness of sports community. In this respect, Japan, as a leader in both Asian sports and worldwide sustainable development, has valuable experiences, including widespread stakeholders participation, substantial efforts, and outstanding achievements. Inspired by Japans examples, this study not only summarizes mainstream recommendations for the development of green sports, but also presents two innovative proposalslinking green sports with market-based flexibility mechanisms and promoting environmental education through sports celebritiesand the prospects for these approaches. This article could be used by worldwide sports community as reference for making contributions to the establishment of a low-carbon society.
    Keywords: Green Sports; Low-Carbon Society; Green Performance; Green Production; Green Awareness; Flexibility Mechanism; Environmental Education; Japan.

  • A review on characteristics, advantages and limitations of palm oil biofuel   Order a copy of this article
    by Md Iqbal Mahmud, Haeng Muk Cho 
    Abstract: Consumption and use of natural resources is a high concerning issue in modern days. Increasing in fuel price, limited resources of fossil oil and great concerns on environmental matters has led the researchers and scientists to concerted and escalating research and development efforts in search of renewable and environmental friendly alternative energy sources. In this connection, recent strong demand for renewable fuels has resulted in increased production of biofuels worldwide for solving transportation fuel problems. Currently, biofuels from palm oil is establishing as a great source of alternative fuel. Palm oil can be used to produce biodiesel, which is also known as palm oil methyl ester. Palm oil biodiesel is often blended with other fuels to create palm oil biodiesel blends. This paper highlights on biofuel/biodiesel production from palm oil, use, advantages and limitations.
    Keywords: Palm oil, Biofuel, Biodiesel, Emission, Transesterification.

  • Nonlinear Dynamics Of Monthly Temperature Data Set In The Northwestern (Marmara Region) Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Haci Ahmet Yildirim, Hamza Altinsoy 
    Abstract: Studies observing climatic and atmospheric events have had great importance, especially in the 21 th century. The destructive impacts of unprecedented natural events on human life inherently triggered researchers to be concentrated on this significant area. The extreme climatic events, natural hazards, unexpected and continuing alterations of climatic parameters behaviors evoke an increasing interest to understand the main dynamics lying behind them. Temperature is one of the essential quantities which affect the agriculture, economy, survival of animal and plant species. Turkey, located in the interconnection of Europe and Asia, contains various climate types. In this research, dynamics of temperature values over northeastern Turkey is investigated via nonlinear time series techniques. Monthly data set, through the period between 1960 and 2006, from various parts of the region is used to understand the underlying dynamics and its spatial distribution. Well-known phase space reconstruction method is used to calculate the maximal Lyapunov exponent for each data set which will indicate the chaotic behavior. Along with the nonlinear time series analysis, statistical properties of the data are also determined to reveal any possible trends in the data. Calculated positive Lyapunov exponents indicate that the time series of average monthly temperature values have a possible chaotic underlying dynamics over the region.
    Keywords: Chaos, Lyapunav Exponents, Turkey, Marmara, Maximum Temperature

  • Evaluation of Wind Energy Potential in a University Campus   Order a copy of this article
    by Saban Pusat, Mustafa Tahir Akkoyunlu 
    Abstract: Today, zero energy campus concept is a popular topic. Zero energy attempts are important for reducing global warming effect and greenhouse gas emissions. In the current study, wind characteristics and wind energy potential of Yildiz Technical University Davupaşa Campus were investigated. Data from wind measurement station (10 m height) in Campus area was examined. Due to the gaps in the measured data, one year long data was lumped by using all the measured data (25 months). The lumped data was used in all energy analyses. Mean wind speed was calculated as 3.45 m/s at 10 m and north northeast (30o) was defined as prevailing wind direction. Annual wind energy production and capacity factor for Fuhrl
    Keywords: Zero energy; Wind Speed; Wind Energy Potential; Yildiz Technical University; Turkey; Wasp; University Campus.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10002423
  • A study on the use of propane (R-290) in vending machines as a substitute for R-134a to minimize the global warming potential   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaled Alkhaledi, Kenneth Means 
    Abstract: The refrigerant R-134a is widely used in vending machines, and it is a greenhouse gas with high global warming potential. The Unites States Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that R-134a be replaced with an environmentally friendly refrigerant. In this study, we compared the performance and safety of R-290 as a substitute for R-134a in vending machines. We compared the two refrigerants in a vending machine equipped with a single-stage compressor, four thermocouples, and a data log recorder. Our results demonstrate that R-290 performs as well as R-134a; in addition, it uses 31.4% less energy and 60% less refrigerant. The evaporator and condenser temperatures for R-290 were comparable to those for R-134a. Therefore, we conclude that R-290 is an excellent replacement for R-134a. In addition, R-134as global warming potential is 1300, while R-290s global warming potential is 3, and its ozone depletion potential is zero. Finally, R-290 can be used safely and complies with Underwriter Laboratory
    Keywords: global warming potential; greenhouse gas; R-134a refrigerant; propane (R-290) refrigerant; vending machine.

  • The environmental impact of renewables   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The aim of this research is twofold. Firstly, to introduce a trilemma of a global sustainable energy system and, secondly, to perform a quantitative assessment of the effect of renewables on the environmental impacts of electricity generation, taking into account the existing divergences between developed and developing countries. In a multi-regional, multi-country, dynamic approach, a regression analysis is performed to determine the causal relationship between renewables and environmental indicators on climate change, human toxicity, respiratory impacts, ionising radiation, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, land use and mineral and fossil resource depletion. Results show that renewable energy consumption significantly improves environmental outcomes in both developed and developing countries. As a result, renewables represent a suitable climate change mitigation option.
    Keywords: renewables; environment; developed countries; developing countries; trilemma

    Abstract: Ethyl ester of Jatropha oil (JEE) was prepared using acid catalyzed transesterification method. The physico-chemical properties of JEE were determined. Blends of JEE were prepared with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% butanol on volumetric basis. Performance, emission and heat release analysis of different blends were carried in a single cylinder diesel engine. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with JEE and its blends was higher than diesel. The emissions of CO, NOx, and Smoke for JEE and blends were lower while emission of HC was higher than diesel. The peak heat release rate for diesel and JEE100 were 135.41/
    Keywords: Jatropha Ethyl Ester, Butanol, Performance , Emission

  • Technical, Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Hybrid System Containing CHP, Solar Panel, Wind Turbine with Electrolyzer and Battery as Energy Storage: Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Effatnejad, Kambiz Rezapour, Farzad Vazinram 
    Abstract: Abstract: The environmental problems by fossil fuels and shortage of these kinds of energy cause that many governmental organization put incentive conditions to attract private companies to invest in renewable energies. In this regard, Iran has many potential of renewable resources. From view point of solar radiation, Iran has potential of installation of 60,000 MW as solar power plant and 100,000 MW as Wind power plant. In this paper the economic and environmental analysis of some available renewable resources including photovoltaic panels (PV), Wind Turbine (WT), combined heat and power (CHP) plant, reformer, electrolyzer and battery have been utilized for a hospital in Tabriz. The cost of energy (COE), internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) of all feasible and economical combination of resources have been investigated. The input related data have been entered in HOMER software based on Tabriz climate. The simulation has been carried out for different amount of sensitivities including price of natural gas, CO2 social penalty cost, wind speed and global solar radiation. Moreover, different combination of utilization of resources from viewpoint of NPV, IRR and COE has been studied. Finally the most economic hybrid system for the mentioned hospital in different amount of sensitivities has been analyzed.
    Keywords: Hybrid system; renewable resources; combined heat and power (CHP); environmental impacts; cost of energy; internal rate of return (IRR); net present value (NPV).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10001277
  • Climatic and Energetic Analysis of the Atmospheric Clearness Index in Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Qassem Tarawneh 
    Abstract: This study presents the solar potential of Saudi Arabia in terms of the clearness index (CI) to explore the effect of climate on solar irradiation. Solar irradiance polygons (SIP) are used to find the variations in solar terrestrial irradiation. The country is divided into four climatic regions based on similar weather conditions as determined by numerous studies, and the solar irradiation records in these regions are grouped into two time periods of roughly 10-years each, depending on data availability. The SIPs show a decline in solar irradiation in the second time period for all regions except the eastern region. The maximum difference between the time periods, of approximately 10.9 (MJ/M2 Day), is found in October at Alhefa station in the southwestern region, while at Khurais station in the eastern region the values of solar irradiation are very close together, within 2 (MJ/M2 Day). In the eastern region, an increase in solar irradiation was rather frequently encountered the second time period, which is unusual for Saudi Arabia and is a tendency only found elsewhere at the Tayef station in the western region. To engage in climatic interpretation and determine the effect of monthly climate conditions on solar energy, the Angstrom equation is used, incorporating data regarding solar irradiation and sunshine hours (i.e. cloud cover), to produce solar Angstrom polygons (SAP). Finally, CI is taken from the SAP to estimate the solar irradiation potential in order to compare the measured solar irradiation against what was estimated, and a maximum relative error of 11% was found. Variation in cloud cover was found to be insignificant over the two time periods, in spite of the fact that solar irradiation generally declined in the second period, which strongly indicates anthropogenic factors are at play.
    Keywords: Clearness Index; climatology; Saudi Arabia; Solar Radiation; Weather Systems

  • The Effects of Land Cover Changes on Forest Carbon Storage in 40 Years: A Case Study in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Uzay Karahalil, Emin Zeki Baskent, Sinan Bulut 
    Abstract: In this study, forest biomass carbon storage changes were estimated for a case study area of
    Keywords: Carbon storage; land cover change; landscape metrics; forest dynamics; Çaykara planning unit; Uzungöl Lake.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006060
  • Heat island effect on outdoor meteorological parameters for building energy-saving design in a large city in Northern China   Order a copy of this article
    by Mingcai Li, Jun Guo, Mingming Xiong, Cao Xiang 
    Abstract: The climate change and urban heat island (UHI) effects on outdoor meteorological parameters were determined by analyzing design temperatures for heating and air-conditioning in urban center, suburban and outer suburban areas in a large city in northern China. The results showed that design temperatures increased apparently over the past 20 years and decreased considerably from the urban center to suburban and outer suburban areas. The climate change and UHI impacts would lead to 1- 5 % changes in design loads, decreasing the heating design load and increasing the cooling design load as the buildings moves from outer suburban, suburban to urban areas and from the past to the present. The decrease in the heating load exceeds the increase in the cooling load, being beneficial to improve building energy efficiency. Climate change and UHI impacts should be fully considered to promote energy-saving of building design.
    Keywords: climate warming, urban heat island, building energy efficiency, large city, design meteorological parameters, energy consumption, large cities, heating load, cooling load, outdoor conditions

    by Chandra Mathy, Jinu Louishidha Kitchley 
    Abstract: Urbanization has a dynamic relationship with Land Surface Temperature (LST), which leads to urban heat island effect. It further leads to global climatic changes and global warming resulting in a decline in the quality of life and the environment. Madurai, a Temple city in Tamilnadu, India has experienced rapid urbanization that has been resulting in an Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect since 1990. Climatic data for a period of 21 years from 1990 to 2010 reveals that Madurai has experienced an increase in average LST from 38.33
    Keywords: Urban Heat Island Effect; Urbanization; Land use Land cover; Land surface temperature; Green Plot Ratio; Green space; LANDSAT TM/ETM.

  • Adsorption of lead and copper using waste foundry sand: statistical evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: In this study, the adsorption characteristics of lead and copper ions on waste foundry sand were investigated. Multiple regression model with dummy variables was developed to explore and model the effects of experimental factors which are metal type, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration on adsorption capacity. According to regression model, initial concentration has a quadratic effect on adsorption capacity and the effect of concentration reaches a maximum at 234.15 mg/L and becomes negative afterward. The adsorption equilibrium data were then analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and results have shown that adsorption behavior of two metal ions could be described reasonably well by a generalized isotherm. These results indicate that waste foundry sand could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of metal ions.
    Keywords: Waste foundry sand, adsorption, lead, copper, statistical evaluation

  • Impacts of El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean SSTs on inflow to the Roseires Dam in the Sudan   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassin Osman 
    Abstract: Several studies on East Africa climate have indicated strong teleconnections between El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with the region climate. These teleconnections have resulted in severe positive and negative impacts on the hydrological system of the upper catchment of the Blue Nile which feeds the Roseires Dam in the Sudan. In this study potential impacts of these teleconnections on variability of inflow to the Roseires Dam is investigated. The objective is to investigate the relationship between these climatic indices and the river flow to enable building a forecasting tool to give a lead time prediction of inflow to the dam using lead time information of these indices. Ninety one years of annual flow (1914-2004) from El-Diem station, upstream the Dam, the Wright ENSO-SST index, and the NOAA ERSSTv3 Indian Ocean-SST indices were used in the analysis. Correlation results showed that the annual inflow to the dam has negative relation with the ENSO-SST index and SST indices from two regions in the Indian Ocean. Two probabilistic prediction models were developed. The developed models use the concept of conditional probability to forecast a certain category of the inflow (dry, average or wet year) given the condition of the ENSO-SST or Indian Ocean-SST index (hot, normal or cold). Models results showed significant improvements in the annual inflow predictability when these indices are used as predictors. The results also showed that performance of the model, using the Indian Ocean -SST as predictor, is better than performance of the model using the ENSO-SST as predictor. The models developed could contribute to better water management and operation of the dam reservoir.
    Keywords: Roseires Dam, Blue Nile River, ENSO, Indian Ocean SST, drought, flood

  • Cutting Interval of napier grass affecting methane yield in anaerobic digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Yuwadee Sangsil, Suriya Sawanon 
    Abstract: Digestion of napier grass at cutting intervals of 30, 45, 60 and 90 days was investigated in two-stage anaerobic reactors. Four sets of reactors with working volumes of 4 and 5 L for acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at 30 ๐C. Acidogenic reactors were fed a slurry of napier grass at 200 mL/day. Hydraulic retention times were 20 and 25 days for the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors, respectively. Mixed ruminal microorganisms from cow were used as inoculum. The highest methane yield was obtained from napier grass with a cutting interval of 60 days producing 6,500 m3/ha.year.
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, bioenergy, energy crop, global warming, grass, methane, napier, waste treatment

  • Geographical Dispersion and Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Power Generation in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Zehra Yumurtacı, A. Jasin Demirhan 
    Abstract: In the current study, different temporal electricity generation cases of wind farms are examined. The maximum and minimum power generation and capacity factor variations for various regions are calculated based on the actual data taken from the available wind power plants. Also, the amounts of CO2 emission prevention, due to the established wind power plants in these regions, and the related environmental impacts are studied in detail. Furthermore, three distinct regions are taken into account for study, and its results show that the total wind power generation for available 34 wind power plants can go up to 1.2 GW/year in each region. By employing wind power plants in each region, significant reductions of CO2 emissions are possible compared to the conventional coal based power generation. For example, the reductions of CO2 emissions are estimated to be 47,700, 770,000 and 1,032,000 tonnes/year, respectively for three regions of Mediterranean, Marmara and Aegean regions.
    Keywords: wind power; environmental impact; CO2 emissions; geographical dispersion; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10002929
  • Nonparametric Trend Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ijaz Hussain, Sajid Gul 
    Abstract: Reference evapotranspiration (ETo ) is a key element of the hydrological cycle that integrates atmosphere demand and surface environment conditions. In this study, we aimed to determine the trend of ETo using nonparametric methods Mann-Kendall and Sens slope estimator, whereas ETo is estimated using globally accepted Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Montieth FAO-56 (PM) method. We used 10 years data (2000-2009) of 11 weather stations located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. We identified a decreasing trend in ETo rate has been recorded mostly in winter, pre-monsoon and spring with an upward trend during autumn and red-summer. Further, the statistical analysis shows a significant decreasing trend in during winter. In summary, we provide a systematic approach that may be used in agro meteorological modeling and irrigation development.
    Keywords: Evapotranspiration; FAO-56 PM; Trend Analysis; Mann-Kendall; Sen0s slope estimator;Season

  • The Association of Weather Variables with Rice Production and Simulation of Agro-adaptation Measure for Northeast Thailand: Evidence from Panel Data Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirote Sinnarong, Kotchaporn Pongcharoen, Kasama Thaeye, Siriporn Phuntulee, Worawut Ngampiboonwet 
    Abstract: Climate change poses a significant threat to agriculture and global food supply. This study aims to estimate the potential impacts of weather on rice production and agro-adaptation to mitigate its impacts in northeast Thailand. Based on the rice production and weather data from 17 provinces over the 1989-2014 periods, the unit root tests and feasible generalized least squares involving a panel data model are explored to obtain reliable estimates. The results showed that weather variables have a major impact on rice production. Increase in the temperature during the crop-growing season has adverse effects on the rice production. The rainfall increases are found to increase rice production levels. To explore the potential effect of agro-adaptation, numerical simulations provided evidence that altering planting can reduce the impact of weather on rice production risk by 25.16 to 57.95% for the possible adaptations. Applying a new rice variety can reduce rice production risk by 35.50 to 44.56%. Simulation results revealed that the decrease in impact of weather on rice production can be mitigated significantly using proper management practices in terms of altering planting dates and changing rice varieties. These agro-adaptations can prevent the crop from adverse effect weather during growing period.
    Keywords: rice production; weather; climate change; panel data; agro-adaptation; Thailand.

  • Green Transportation: Increasing Fuel Consumption Efficiency through HHO Gas Injection in Diesel Vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharaf Alkheder 
    Abstract: Oxy-Hydrogen (HHO) is a non-toxic gas that is used as a supplement to any engine working on Petrol, Diesel, Heavy oil, Acetylene, Propane, Kerosene, or LPG. Through adding HHO to the air intake manifold engine and injection into the cylinders, where HHO mixes with fuel, an increase in mileage of engine performance; enhancement of hydrocarbon fuel combustion; lower emission rates and an increase in fuel efficiency are observed. HHO gas is produced through the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (Hydrogen generator). This study examines the effect of HHO gas, that was directly injected into a single cylinder diesel engine, on the manifold intake air at varying operating speeds of 1500-3000 rpm in diesel engine. The experiments demonstrated positive results including (13.87-15.48%) fuel consumption reduction, lower exhaust temperature, and consequently a reduction in pollution. Furthermore, results indicated that the injection of HHO improved the combustion efficiency and increased the brake thermal efficiency by an average of approximately 17.1%. It also decreased brake specific fuel consumption and gases' exhaust temperature. In addition, the optimal surface area of an electrolyte needed to generate sufficient amount of HHO was found to be thirty six times that of the piston surface area, and also the volume of water needed in the cell is about one and half times that of the engine capacity.
    Keywords: Direct injection; Diesel; HHO gas; Brake thermal efficiency; specific fuel consumption.

  • Historically evolved practices of the Himalayan transhumant pastoralists and their implications for climate change adaptation   Order a copy of this article
    by Suman Aryal, Jeeban Panthi, Yub Raj Dhakal, Narayan Prasad Gaire, Kabita Karki, Narendra Raj Joshi 
    Abstract: The people living in the agrarian societies develop different strategies in response to climatic variability and environmental uncertainties. Transhumant pastoralists in the Himalayas are among those who follow natures rhythm of seasonality. The traditional practices built in groups experience might be useful to adapt with climate variability and change. Therefore, this study aims to 1) study perceptions of transhumant herders towards changes in key climatic variables and validate them with observed data; 2) explore traditional practices of transhumant herders and their significances for climate change adaptation in Khaptad National Park, far-Western Nepal. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interview and focus groups discussions. The results showed that the perceptions of transhumant herders match with observed climatic trends in many instances and herders traditional strategies have potential in reducing risk from climate change. The findings indicate that the historically evolved practices might be useful for climate change adaptation.
    Keywords: adaptation strategies; climate change; Himalayas; Nepal; pastoralists; perceptions; transhumance; trends.

  • Integrating metaheuristics and Artificial Neural Network for weather forecasting   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Gocken, Asli Boru, Ayşe Tugba Dosdogru, Mehmet Ozcalici 
    Abstract: Over the years, researchers have been analyzing to forecast the weather as precisely as possible in order to provide the better living conditions. Nevertheless, there is no consensus on the effective weather forecasting methods and therefore, research on providing applicable and effective forecasting methods has been continued. In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN)s are integrated with two metaheuristic methods including Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Harmony Search (HS) to determine the most relevant input variables and to search the most appropriate number of hidden neurons. Proposed forecasting methods are implemented for six different cities of Turkey that are selected according to Aydenizs Climate Classification. The results of the graphical analysis and performance measures show that daily mean temperature forecasting is improved by GA-ANN and HS-ANN methods due to the ability to capture the advantages of metaheuristic and ANN simultaneously.
    Keywords: Artificial neural network; Genetic algorithm; Harmony search; Weather forecasting.

  • Temporal analysis of reference evapotranspiration to detect variation factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Valipour, Mohammad Ali Gholami Sefidkouhi 
    Abstract: There are many factors that can change reference evapotranspiration (ET0). In this study, after comparison of six reference evapotranspiration equations, variations of each model have been investigated to detect main factor(s) of temporal changes of ET0 from 1981 to 2010 in Goragn, Iran. Although Priestley-Taylor (PT) estimates ET0 is more identical to FPM than the other equations during 30-year period, the results show that accuracy of PT is reduced after 2000. The study of variations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine, underlines that there is a considerable difference between the averages of the weather variables before and after 2000. Compared to 19811999, the average of wind speed has been increased more than three times after 2000 that it introduces the wind speed as the most important variable for changes of ET0 and alarms a climatic change in Gorgan, Iran.
    Keywords: climatic change; Iran; Mann-Kendall test; trend analysis; wind speed.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10002058
    by Stefanos Nastis, Konstadinos Mattas 
    Abstract: Climate change policy is steadily gaining momentum and is being implemented at the national and international level. The European Union has been committed to control and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, implementing rigorous climate change policy. The aim of this study is to provide the first willingness-to-pay and income elasticity of willingness-to-pay estimates for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through a carbon tax in Greece. Based on a survey of 1393 adults, households are willing to pay, on average, an annual carbon tax of 81 for the next ten years in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 17% by 2025. Furthermore, results confirm that income elasticity of willingness-to-pay for climate change isnt constant, but increases with income, from 0.48 for low income households to 1.40 for high income households. The full sample income elasticity of WTP was estimated at 0.96, raising distributional questions regarding the social profitability of any climate change policy and the probability of public acceptance.
    Keywords: EU climate policy; contingent valuation; willingness-to-pay; income elasticity of willingness to pay; non-market valuation; carbon tax.

  • A deterministic carbon footprint modeling across the supply chain of electricity   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatemeh Dalir, Majid Shafiepour Motlagh, Khosro Ashrafi 
    Abstract: Electricity sector is one of the major contributors to climate change and global warming. Hence, decarbonization of electricity which is generated by current technologies is inevitable. For a better policy implementation in energy portfolio, this paper presents a deterministic carbon footprint model for frame F fossil fuel power plant from raw material until the product is delivered to the end user. The model has been designed to cover the effect of investigated parameters. Controlling the investigated parameters can reduce carbon footprint of electricity through its life phases. The distinguished feature of the proposed model is the integration of raw material, operation of the power plant and transmission and distribution phases. The result shows good agreement between statistical data and proposed model.
    Keywords: carbon footprint; power plant; electricity transmission and distribution.

  • The use of response surface methodology (RSM) for modeling of lead (II) removal from industrial waste by pumice and vermiculite   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Gamze Turan 
    Abstract: The main objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of pumice and vermiculite as the sorbents for lead (II) removal from industrial waste using Box-Behnken method. Batch adsorption method was used in order to evaluate the feasibility. Experiments were carried out as per Box-Behnken surface statistical design with three input parameters namely pH (2-5-8), adsorbent concentration (10-50-100 mg L-1), and contact time (5-30-120 min). Regression analysis demonstrated good fit of the experimental data to the linear model with coefficient of determination () values of 91.49% and 98.51% for vermiculite and pumice, respectively. Optimization of pH (2-2), adsorbent concentration (57.81-75 mg L-1), and contact time (89.06-5 min) gave a maximum of 99.99% lead (II) removal for vermiculite and pumice, respectively.
    Keywords: Box-Behnken design; ANOVA; vermiculite; pumice; lead (II) removal.

  • Complex analysis for the climate change impact on the nuclear industry incorporated with the green energy   Order a copy of this article
    by T.A.E. H.O. WOO 
    Abstract: The economic value based investigation is performed for the nuclear energy incorporated with the global warming in which the dynamical simulations are performed. The nuclear power source is studied for the climate consideration in the aspect of the justification of energy usage. The price of the relevant energy is examined for the modeling, which is analyzed by the climate change related quantifications for the improved energy policy incorporated with the anticipated carbon quantity. In the simulations, the earlier time has much higher values comparing to the later part, which means that the impact of the nuclear energy for climate is effective. Most minus values are shown in the simulations where the climate impact related with global warming decreases gradually. However, the abrupt jumping up value is on 2083.25th year when the impact of nuclear energy by climate change is abnormal status in this study.
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Nuclear energy; Economy; Plant.

  • Linear-Fractional Model for Global Warming   Order a copy of this article
    by Nizar Jaoua 
    Abstract: A unique linear-fractional model is designed to describe the global warming in terms of the ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to the pre-industrial level. As an application, doubled CO2 concentration is expected to raise surface temperatures by about 2
    Keywords: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide; Atmospheric Emissivity; Equilibrium Global Average Temperature; Global Warming; Greenhouse Function; Linear-Fractional Model.

  • Optimization of cropping pattern considering stomatal response to elevated CO2 emission and climate change   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Valipour, Mahmoud Raeini–Sarjaz, Mohammad Ali Gholami Sefidkouhi 
    Abstract: The current article seeks to explore the function of elevated CO2 emission on the variations of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) for optimizing cropping pattern in 18 Iranian regions. Accordingly, meteorological data and agricultural information were collected since 1961 to 2010 and 2002 to 2013, respectively. A trendfree prewhitening (TFPW) approach was applied to modify Mann-Kendall test to determine the ET0 trend based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO)-Penman-Monteith (FPM) method. Then, the function of stomatal response was investigated as an assimilation coefficient to adjust the ET0 since 2050 to 2100. In the next step, the anomalies of the ET0 were calculated in both monthly and annual scales with respect to the significant trends of the meteorological parameters and stomatal response via three different schemes. Finally, to optimize cropping pattern, two indicators namely total virtual water (TVW) and unit blue water value (UBWV) were employed. The results indicate that both stomatal and surface resistances can be increased in the future specially for the moderate to high elevated CO2 emission scenarios (A1B & A2). In some of the regions under study, although meteorological variables (particularly temperature) were superior factors to increase the ET0 in the warm seasons (May to October), their role was adjusted by the stomatal response in the cold seasons (November to April). All of the anomalies will be intensified in 2100 for both low to moderate and moderate to high scenarios. The considerable decreasing rate of the ETo for all regions introduces stomatal response as the main factor to control the ETo variations in 2100 with respect to the moderate to high elevated CO2 emission scenarios (A1B & A2). In 50% of the regions, field maize has the maximum value of the UBWV, and is recommended as the dominant culture in cropping pattern. Then tomato and grape benefit from the high values of the UBWV by an amount of 17% and 11%, respectively. According to the results, water resource allocation should be done with the highest accuracy for Mashhad and Jiroft because of high increasing rate of the TVW to deal with water crisis issues in the future. In contrast, Urmia and Qazvin are the best choices to achieve the maximum save in water resources and to meet sustainable agriculture in Iran since 2050 to 2100, respectively.
    Keywords: adaptation; crop water requirement; effective rainfall; greenhouse gases; global warming; Iran.

  • A Methodology to evaluate the disclosure practices of organizations related to climate change risks: A case study of international airports   Order a copy of this article
    by Ioannis Nikolaou, Thomas Tsalis, Valina Botsaropoulou 
    Abstract: Today, climate change poses unprecedented challenges to the business community. Different stakeholders have recently requested that companies reveal comprehensive information about their performance concerning climate change issues. Despite the growing level of environmental information disclosed (including climate change information) by environmental and sustainability reports, there is no consistency regarding the reporting practices adopted by companies and as a result the assessment of disclosed information is a very difficult task. The lack of standard, formal and mandatory accounting principles for climate change accounting makes the introduction of climate change risks into stakeholders decisions difficult. This paper aims to develop a scoring technique in order to investigate the disclosure habits of organizations regarding climate change risks. It is applied in various international airports which are considered, as an essential part of tourism sector, vulnerable to climate change. The findings indicate that although the sustainability reports published by airport have increased, they do not provide comprehensive information about climate related risks. Also, the majority of the sampled airports provide useful information about climate change regulatory risks, but limited information which would help to strengthen the dialogue between airports and stakeholders regarding climate change risk issues.
    Keywords: climate change accounting; scoring systems; corporate sustainability; sustainability reports; airports.

    by Ildiko Pieczka, Rita Pongracz, Judit Bartholy, Karolina Szabone Andre 
    Abstract: In order to satisfy the continuous urging demands for updated and relevant information from various impact researchers, end-users, and decision makers, the RegCM4.3 model is used taking into account the new RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 radiative forcing scenarios to provide climate projection for Hungary with 10 km horizontal resolution. Overall, the results suggest significant warming in Hungary. The greatest temperature increase is likely to occur in summer, that is why the projected changes in warm extremes are also analysed in this study.
    Keywords: climate projection; RCP4.5; RCP8.5; regional climate model; warming trend; extreme temperature indices; daily maximum temperature; daily minimum temperature; temperature distribution.

  • Factor analysis of urban residential CO2 emissions in Tianjin:1995-2014   Order a copy of this article
    by Caocao Cui, Tao Zhao, Yue Wang 
    Abstract: Carbon emissions caused by urban residential sector have attracted increasing attention due to the rapid urbanization. Choosing Tianjin as a typical example, this paper analyzed the factors causing carbon emissions in urban residential sector. Based on the extended Kaya identity, a multivariate generalized Fisher index(GFI) decomposition model was built to measure the impacts of energy structure, energy intensity, per capita disposable income, household size and number of households on urban residential carbon emissions from 1995 to 2014 in Tianjin. The results show that sustained growth of per capita disposable income was the leading factor of the urban residential carbon emissions in Tianjin, with cumulative contributions of 639.1% in 2014 compared to that in 1995. Number of households had a stimulating effect on the growth of carbon emissions in the same period. The continuous optimization of the energy structure over the past 20 years had no obvious inhibitory effect on carbon emissions. Energy intensity was the primary factor restraining carbon emissions with the cumulative contributions of 0.318%. To a certain extent, household size reduced carbon emissions but only with a slight effect.
    Keywords: Carbon emissions; Urban residential sector; Tianjin; Generalized Fisher index; Factor decomposition.

  • Soil Organic Carbon Change Relating to the Prevention and Control of Rocky Desertification in Guizhou Province, SW China   Order a copy of this article
    by Xianfei Huang, Shijie Wang, Yunchao Zhou 
    Abstract: This article reports on the relationship between the prevention and control of rocky desertification and potential change to soil organic carbon storage (SOC) in Guizhou Province, in southwestern China. Three strategic measures including the return of cultivated land to forestlands (RCLF), construction of artificial pasture (CAP), and artificial afforestation (AA) will be employed, and more than approximately 20,923.22 km2 lands will be improved in Guizhou Province. The SOC density of these areas will change significantly at different calculated depths. At calculated depths of 0.00-0.10 m, 0.00-0.20 m, 0.00-0.0.30 m and 0.00-1.00 m, the total SOC sequestration will reach up to 1.99
    Keywords: Rocky desertification; soil organic carbon; carbon sequestration; land use; global warming; soil thickness; environmental policy; karst mountainous area; Guizhou Province; China.

  • A review of light duty passenger car weight reduction impact on CO2 emission   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilyas Kacar, Ismail Durgun, Fahrettin Ozturk, Rodney J. Simmons 
    Abstract: Over the last few decades, we have witnessed a significant increase in average temperatures all over the globe. Global warming has been now recognized as one of the major problems facing our world. In addition to natural processes, urbanization, industrialization, fossil fuel consumption, deforestation, and other human activities have also contributed to excessive levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting in drastic climate change. This study investigates the relation between vehicle weight and CO2 emission for light-duty passenger cars. This study also analyzes the fuel consumption in different cases. The evaluation of emissions is based on the CO2 composition of the total emission. Results show the relationship among weight, fuel consumption, and CO2 emission. Under this circumstances, the most important way of reducing fuel consumption is to make the mass of the vehicle as small as possible when vehicle speed is constant. Various industry-wide technology adoption on manufacturing methodologies to make vehicles bodywork lighter are reviewed.
    Keywords: Weight reduction; CO2 emission; CO2 pollution; greenhouse gases; lightweight vehicles; transportation; fuel consumption.

  • A comparative life cycle assessment based evaluation of greenhouse gas emission and social study: natural fibre versus glass fibre reinforced plastic automotive parts.   Order a copy of this article
    by Masoud Akhshik, Suhara Panthapulakkal, Mohini Sain, Jimi Tjong 
    Abstract: Current atmospheric CO2 concentration in our atmosphere is already over 400 ppm, which is 50 ppm beyond our planetary boundary. Every single step towards reducing our carbon emission is important. Fuel saving due to the light weighting of the automotive materials will reduce greenhouse gas emission in the transportation sector, if the light weighting roots from a by-product natural fibre, such as sawdust or agricultural waste, the emission reduction would be more effective. The current study is a comparative life cycle assessment based evaluation of greenhouse gas emission of the current plastic engine beauty cover, and natural fibre reinforced counterpart. This study also analyses the questionnaire results gotten from 600 new car owners (or leaser) as a small sample of a buyer society.
    Keywords: LCA; GHG; natural fibre; automotive parts; survey study.

  • The most advantageous partners for Australia to bilaterally link its emissions trading scheme   Order a copy of this article
    by Duy Nong, Mahinda Siriwardana 
    Abstract: The theory of marginal abatement cost (MAC) indicates that if a country has a high MAC, it should link its domestic emissions trading scheme (ETS) with a foreign country, which has either low MAC or low emissions reduction target. This strategy will maximise its economic benefits from the linkage compared to its domestic ETS. On the other hand, if a country has a low MAC, it would seek a partner, which has either a high MAC or a high emissions reduction target. Using a computable general equilibrium model, namely the extended GTAP-E model, we found that Australia could yield the greatest economic benefits by linking its ETS with India. China is the second best alternative for Australia to link its ETS, while the European Union is the most expensive option for Australia. Overall, the results support the contention that any bilateral linkage is always better for Australia than operating its own domestic ETS alone.
    Keywords: Australia; emissions trading scheme; linkage; marginal abatement cost; CGE model.

  • Observed Temperature Extremes in Greece and their Relation with North Atlantic Oscillation   Order a copy of this article
    by Stavros Kolios, Georgia Antonatou, Efthimios Zervas 
    Abstract: This work studies the extreme high/low values (EHT/ELT, respectively) of air temperature in Greece using over 40year time series of data for six stations. Furthermore, the possible relation of temperature extremes in Greece with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is examined, in order to depict if/how this large scale atmospheric circulation pattern can affect the behavior of temperature extremes. The majority of EHT cases is found during July and August, while those of ELT during January and February. In the majority of the stations examined, positive trends of EHT and ELT frequency of occurrence (statistically significant or not) are found, pronouncing an environment exposed more and more to extreme air temperatures. It is also found a negative relation of NAO monthly index values with EHT and ELT frequency of occurrence, which reveals the way the NAO affect the frequency of occurrence of temperature extremes in Greece.
    Keywords: Temperature extremes; Greece; North Atlantic Oscillation; Frequency of occurrence.

  • Characteristics of a double-swirl combustor for the thermal destruction of waste HFC refrigerants   Order a copy of this article
    by Tae-In Ohm, Jong-Seong Chae, Sin-Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Kim, Seung-Hyun Moon 
    Abstract: The use of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons has been banned since the Montreal Protocol. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) series refrigerants were developed as an alternative, but HFC-134a has been found to have a high global warming potential. Thus, an eco-friendly, economical, and stable technology for removing waste HFCs is required. Existing methods involving pyrolysis for destruction of waste HFC include incineration, catalytic oxidation, and plasma pyrolysis. In this study, an economical and eco-friendly combustor that consumes little auxiliary fuel and easily neutralising hydrofluoric acid gas was developed to destroy waste HFC-134a. The conceptual design of a double-swirl combustor was developed based on numerical simulations and used to manufacture a prototype, which was used in a combustion experiment. When the auxiliary fuel LPG was used at a flow rate of 1.0 kg/h with an air ratio of 1.1, the average temperature at the vertical section in the combustion chamber was 1300 K, which is sufficient to destroy waste HFCs. In the waste refrigerant destruction test, the destruction ratio of waste HFCs was 100% when waste HFCs were injected at a flow rate of 2.8 kg/h or less and 99.37% at a flow rate of 2.9 kg/h.
    Keywords: Waste hydrofluorocarbon; double-swirl; combustor; global warming potential; non-CO2 .

  • Greenhouse gas emissions of livestock raised in a harsh environment   Order a copy of this article
    by FLAVIO FORABOSCO, Federico Antonio Canu, Roberto Mantovani 
    Abstract: Domestic animals are large emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG), and developing countries raise a large number of those animals. Livestock can be divided into local and improved animals. Local animals are usually not well characterized and seldom subject to structured breeding programs but well adapted to local environmental conditions while improved animals are characterized by high productions but limited capacity to adapt to extreme conditions. Analysis conducted with the use of Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool software indicated that the use of local livestock reduces the GHG emissions. Local dairy cattle emitted 1.54 kg CO2-eq/kg of milk and improved dairy cattle emitted 2.63 kg CO2-eq/kg of milk. Local livestock in extreme climate conditions can perform better than improved livestock and, because of their lower GHG emissions, they can contribute to mitigating climate. Overall, the findings support the existing literature on preserving local genetic resources due to their important role for future generations.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions; mitigation; local livestock; improved livestock; cattle; small ruminants; pigs; chicken; climate change; biodiversity conservation; Armenia; Asia.

  • The impact of climate-related extremely low river levels on zooplankton in two oxbow lakes of a temperate river (the lower Vistula, Poland).   Order a copy of this article
    by Paweł Napiórkowski, Teresa Napiórkowska 
    Abstract: Oxbow lakes are important elements of river valleys. Regardless of whether they are natural or artificial (e.g. oxbow lakes of the Lower Vistula), they play a key role in water retention and biodiversity maintenance. To function properly, they need to be regularly flooded by rivers. Unfortunately, due to accelerated climate change, water levels in rivers and oxbow lakes have dropped dramatically. Climate change is responsible for temperature rise (which increases evaporation) and decreased precipitation. The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on the environmental conditions and zooplankton population in two different oxbow lakes. Decreased water levels lead to higher water fertility and dominance of eurytopic organisms, mainly rotifers in the zooplankton. Rotifer species thrive because they are able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. In addition, low water levels affect biodiversity in oxbow lakes and threaten the proper functioning of these water bodies.
    Keywords: Old river bed; zooplankton; rotifers; diversity; water level; nutrient load.

  • A Multifractal Analysis of Time Series of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration   Order a copy of this article
    by Srimonti Dutta 
    Abstract: This paper studies the multifractality of the time series of atmospheric CO2 concentration using the MFDFA methodology. The data of the atmospheric CO2 recorded from Jubany Station, (Antarctica) during the period 1994-2009 was analyzed. The data was further divided to subsets of 4 years and the analysis was repeated. The results show that the complete set reveals more complex pattern than subsets in most of the cases. The degree of multifractality and degree of correlation does not vary appreciably in recent past. However a low value of ? suggests that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to increase at a higher rate in future.
    Keywords: Non-stationary time series; multifractal; monofractal; degree of multifractality; long range correlation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006662
  • Current Trends and Policies of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission from the Largest Asian Economies   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Sujahangir Kabir Sarkar, Rawshan Ara Begum, Sumaiya Sadeka, Joy Jacqueline Pereira 
    Abstract: This article presents the current trends of energy consumption and CO2 emission as well as their relationship for the five largest Asian economies i.e. People
    Keywords: Trends; relationship; growth; energy consumption; CO2 emission; policy; Asia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006663
  • Possible climate change implications for Saudi Arabian meteorology station maximum daily rainfall records   Order a copy of this article
    by Z. Sen 
    Abstract: Global and local models of climate change indicate that in many parts of the Arabian Peninsula rainfall increments are expected during this century. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is also subject to rainfall increases especially in the northern and southwestern high mountainous parts with some local increments and decrements in some other parts. Such impacts are very important, because they are bound to affect also the infrastructure in the urban areas and also engineering water structures such as dams, reservoirs, levees, culverts, flood protection canals, groundwater recharge, etc. So far in almost all water related application projects, the possible impact of climate change has not been taken into consideration. It is the main purpose of this paper to develop suitable preliminary climate change indicators in terms of trend component technique and expose its applications throughout the historical annual daily maximum rainfall records. Trends in the past records are implementations of future possible tendencies in other words they are helpful as preliminary descriptors of possible trends.
    Keywords: Change; climate; daily; implications; maximum; rainfall; Saudi Arabia; simulation; stochastic; innovative trend.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006664
  • Can methane oxidizing bacteria reduce global warming? A modelling study   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Global warming is an important environmental problem caused by the gases such as Carbon dioxide, methane, etc. Specially the emission of methane is difficult to control at source, but its concentration in the atmosphere can be controlled by a bacteria which consume methane for its survival and existence. Although MOB decreases the concentration of methane in the atmosphere by increasing the concentration of $CO_2$, it can still assist in reducing the overall effect of global warming since $CO_2$ has less detrimental effect than $CH_4$ on the environment. Its role in controlling global warming and to what extent is very speculative. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a non-linear model to study this problem and show that with the presence of MOB, the rise in mean atmospheric temperature will be 0.22 $^oC$ less in the next 100 years as compared to the rise in mean atmospheric temperature without MOB.
    Keywords: Methane oxidizing bacteria; Methane; Temperature; Mathematical Model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006665
  • The effect of injection well arrangement on CO2 injection into carbonate petroleum reservoir   Order a copy of this article
    by Yehia Khulief 
    Abstract: The injection of CO2 into the reservoir, during long-term subsurface containment of CO2, increases the pore pressure, as well as the adsorption induced strains. The associated decrease in permeability causes the transport of the injected CO2 to decrease to a critical value, after which it becomes impossible to transport the injected carbon dioxide to regions of the reservoir far away from the injection well, regardless of its capacity. This problem initiated the need for multiple injection wells. The present investigation considers a dual porous carbonate reservoir. A new methodology is developed for reducing the pore pressure build-up and increasing the reservoir storage capacity by varying both the number and arrangement of the carbon dioxide injection wells. An equation based finite element method is utilized for the numerical modelling of various carbon dioxide injection scenarios for Ghawar Arab D carbonate reservoir. The obtained results demonstrated the significance of changing the number and arrangement of the injection wells and suggested the existence of an optimum arrangement.
    Keywords: CO2 sequestration; naturally fractured porous media; injection well arrangement; ground surface uplift; global warming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006666
  • Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Parks Using Criteria Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying-Chu Chen 
    Abstract: An innovative greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory using criteria air pollutants (CAPs) was constructed to evaluate GHG emissions from industrial parks. The inventory included both on- (CAPs from air quality monitoring stations) and off-site GHG emissions from waste generation, wastewater treatment, electricity consumption and transportation. According to the inventory, the total GHG emissions from the industrial parks in Taiwan were ranged from 899.41 to 1,329.69 ppmv CO2-eq yr-1 for on-site emissions and 2.19*10^4 to 1.22*10^7 t CO2-eq yr-1 for off-site emissions. Electricity consumption was the most important factor contributing to higher GHG emissions in the industrial parks. Methane was found to contribute the highest GHG emissions in the wastewater treated. GHG emissions from transportation can be expected to undergo a 1.9
    Keywords: air quality monitoring station; criteria air pollutants; electricity; greenhouse gas; industrial park; mitigation; sludge; transportation; waste; wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006667
  • Effects of Titanium Dioxide and Butanol Additions on Performance, Combustion, Emission and Vibration Characteristics of a Diesel Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Keskin 
    Abstract: In this study, the effects of metal titanium dioxide and butanol additives on engine performance, combustion, emissions, vibration, and noise characteristics were investigated experimentally. The experiments were conducted at various partial load conditions with diesel engine having variable compression ratio. Engine was fuelled with diesel fuel and butanol-diesel blends with titanium dioxide (TiO2) based additive. The results revealed that the properties of the blend fuels with the additive didn
    Keywords: Diesel Engine; Fuel Additive; Titanium Dioxide; Butanol; Combustion; Engine Performance; NOx emissions; CO emissions; Particulate Matter; Smoke Opacity; Noise; Vibration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006668
  • Classical and Innovative-?en Trend Assessment under Climate Change Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Ismail Dabanli 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to provide a comparison between the Innovative-?en and classical trend methods. Additionally, significance levels at
    Keywords: Category; climate change; Innovative-?en; significance; trend; Akarcay.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006669
    by Isabel Gallego-Álvarez, Beatriz Cuadrado-Ballesteros, Jennifer Martínez-Ferrero 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine two closely related issues based on social awareness of greenhouse gas emissions. The first aim is to find whether firms choose to include carbon accounting in their financial and accounting statements. The second aim is to find what the explanatory factors are behind the decisions managers take to reflect them. A sample of 119 firms from different developed and developing countries and industries for 2011 was employed. We then formulated a dependence model in which the dependent variable was whether or not the company included carbon accounting in its annual reports. By using two logit regression models, our findings show that not all the firms analysed publish such information in their annual accounts and that only the variables related to emission trading schemes and no Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators on climate change positively affect the firm
    Keywords: Environmental disclosure; Carbon accounting reporting; Greenhouse gas emissions; Global Reporting Initiative; KPMG.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006670
  • Modeling Water Scarcity for Policy Adaptation to Future Droughts under Various Stresses (Case Study: Delfan Plain)   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Albaji 
    Abstract: This study investigated the effect of management practices on the status of the aquifer using the finite difference method. Modeling was done with 60 cycles of stress using MODFLOW Model for a five-year period (60 months). The calibration was done in October, 2007 because of fewer fluctuations of groundwater level as the stable state. The state of the aquifer for November 2014 to November 2024 was predicted. In order to predict the future status of the aquifer, two options (i. to continue the current trend of exploitation and ii. 20% reduction of exploitation in drought condition) were performed and the model was run again for the next ten years. Running the model under drought condition indicates that groundwater level decreases with the average of (-7.80 m) in the following ten years, and 20% reduction in exploitation from the aquifer can somewhat improve the water level.
    Keywords: Aquifer; MODFLOW model; Groundwater; Drought; Delfan Plain (Iran).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006671
  • Effect of Supercritical CO2 on Various Rank Coals: Implications for CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seams with Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhicong Wei 
    Abstract: Sequestration of CO2 in coal seams with enhanced coalbed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM) can mitigate CO2 emissions. In this work, the effects of the supercritical CO2 fluid on the physicochemical property of coals were elucidated. The results show that CO2 interaction can mobilize the volatile hydrocarbons in the coal matrix and subsequently result in the decrease of volatile matter content. The volatile matter contents of coals decrease with temperature, pressure and injection rate of CO2 interaction. The extracted volatile matters are of biological toxicity, thus CO2-ECBM process should be operated at the optimum temperature, pressure and CO2 injection rate. The moisture contents of Zhangji coal and Liulin coal after CO2 interaction increase which implies that the pore morphology of the above two coals grows up. For low rank Bulianta coal and high rank Qinshui coal, the swelling effect induced by CO2 is dominant. Thus, the moisture content after CO2 interaction decreases in comparison with the raw state.
    Keywords: CO2 Sequestration; Coal; Supercritical Fluid Extraction; Swelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006672
  • Discovering meaningful patterns for tropical climate change in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghassan ALDharhani 
    Abstract: This paper investigated patterns of climate change in Malaysia and proposed a fuzzy based symbolic data representation known as a Shapelet Patterns Algorithm (SPA). The Shapelet Pattern visualize climate change patterns in the form of coloured shapes to indicate annual changes in temperature patterns. The experiment used climate change data collected from four stations in Malaysia, thus Petaling-jaya, Subang, KLIA-Sepang and University Malaya, to produced three types of results. The results revealed various climate change patterns that can be used by climate change experts to further analyse the effects of climate change and for better decision making.
    Keywords: time series; symbolic data representation; climate shapelet patterns; fuzzy logic; climate change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006673
  • Soil respiration in shrub willow (Salix x dasyclados) biomass crop increased on the third year after removal   Order a copy of this article
    by Miraç Ayd?n 
    Abstract: The SWBC production system is not only a source of renewable energy, but also a carbon sink. However, one of the uncertainties in the greenhouse gas potential analysis of this system is soil CO2 efflux (Fc) rates after its termination. We examined the Fc rates for three years and determined the total CO2 production of SWBC fields following the termination and removal of SWBC fields. Four current SWBC fields of 5-, 12-, 14-, and 19-years old were used as sampling plots. The mean Fc rates did not differ statistically between ages (p = 0.66), and there was no significant interaction effect between age and year (p =0.94). However, Fc rates significantly increased in the third year (p = 0.01). Annual cumulative Fc ratios at different seasons were 52% for summer, 26% for fall, 16% for spring, and 6% for winter.
    Keywords: Carbon sequestration; dedicated bioenergy crops; soil moisture; soil organic carbon; soil temperature.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006674
  • A practice to mitigate greenhouse gases from a wheat-grown soil by the phosphogypsum waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong-sheng Wu, Ji Zhou, Ji Li, Su-yun Chen, Zhi-qiu Gao, Li-dong Shen, Dong-liang Yiao, Yue Zhao, Kai-kai Chen 
    Abstract: A large amount of industrial phosphogypsum (Pg) waste pollutes the environment. The reuse of these waste resources in agriculture not only amended the soil and stimulated crop growth but also decreased soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A continuous two-year-field-experiment of phosphogypsum application in winter wheat was conducted to investigate whether and how phosphogypsum affects soil N2O and CO2 emissions. A two-month lab incubation was also performed to explore the possible mechanism of Pg reducing GHGs. The results indicated that soil CO2 and N2O was mitigated by phosphogypsum. Compared to the control (Pg0), soil N2O emissions in the treatment phosphogypsum decreased by 5.8-29.9% and CO2 emissions decreased by 2.5-6.6% in the winter wheat growing season of 2013-2014, while N2O emissions decreased by 20.6-30.4% and CO2 emissions decreased by 6.2-9.6% in 2014-2015. N2O emissions declined by 18.9-28.5% and CO2 emissions declined by 33.5-50.1% in the lab incubation. The unit weight grain/biomass CO2 and N2O emission equivalents were reduced by phosphogypsum. The soil proteinase and urease activity increased by 20% and 50%, respectively, and sucrase increased by 40%. However, soil cellulase was inhibited, which suggested that the decreased soil N2O and CO2 emissions were ascribed to the changed soil enzyme activity as a result of phosphogypsum. This result suggested that mitigating agricultural GHGs, stimulating crop growth and protecting the environment could be achieved simultaneously by phosphogypsum.
    Keywords: Phosphogypsum (Pg); wheat; CO2; N2O; soil enzyme.

  • Heavy metal removal with pure and biochar rice husks: modeling and optimization using Box-Behnken design   Order a copy of this article
    by Fulya AYDIN TEMEL, Nurdan Gamze Turan, Okan Ozgonenel, Yüksel Ardalı 
    Abstract: In this work, the most common heavy metals such as Cu(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) removal from aqueous leachate of industrial waste were investigated using pure and biochar rice husks. The influence of such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose (g L-1), and contact time (min) on the biosorption of rice and biochar rice was examined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken surface statistical design at a leaching solution, Ci = 32.69 g L-1 as a fixed input parameter. The results show that both linear and squared terms of process variables are found significant on the response variable. The optimum conditions depending on both combinations and individual of all responses for the removal of Zn (II), Cu (II), and Pb (II) ions were determined using the optimizing algorithm. To sum up, the use of biochar rice husk is found better than the use of pure rice husk according to statistical analysis. This study strongly indicated that pure and biochar rice husks are an influential alternative adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions by sorption.
    Keywords: heavy metal removal; response surface modeling (RSM); Box-Behnken design (BBD); rice husk; biochar rice husk; optimization.

  • Understanding climate change risk perception in the USA   Order a copy of this article
    by Himanshu Grover, Samuel D. Brody, Arnold Vedlitz 
    Abstract: Public perceptions of risk from climate change are an important determinant of the willingness of citizens to support climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Although there is a growing body of research focusing on a variety of individual, cultural, and organisational factors that affect an individual's perception of risk, only a few studies have adopted a multivariate analytical approach to understand public perceptions of climate change risks. This study extends earlier interdisciplinary research initiatives and proposes a more comprehensive, integrated model for understanding climate change risk perception. Using measures of objective risk, individual climate stress, and individual capacity, we explain public perceptions of climate change risks. The analysis is based on a national representative survey of US citizens. Geographic information systems and spatial analytical techniques are used to supplement the survey data with measures of objective risk associated with the location of each respondent. Analysis of the data using multivariate regression suggests that increased objective risk and individual capacity result in significantly higher perception of risk from climate change, whereas higher individual climate stress results in lower risk perceptions.
    Keywords: climate change; risk perception; objective risk; individual climate stress; individual capacity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2017.10007159
  • A comparison of thermal decomposition of vineyard pruning waste in the flow of air and nitrogen   Order a copy of this article
    by Peter Rantuch, Juraj Ondruška, Igor Wachter 
    Abstract: The article deals with a thermal decomposition of vineyard pruning waste. The samples were tested by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry in the flow of air and nitrogen. Thermal gravimetric analyses were performed up to a temperature of 650°C and differential scanning calorimetry up to a temperature of 600°C. The heating rates were 2°C.min−1, 5°C.min−1, 10°C.min−1, 15°C.min−1 and 20°C.min−1 in both cases. Values of activation energies were subsequently calculated from the obtained results using various methods. The maximum mass loss of the samples was observed in the temperature range from 297.5°C to 319.3°C in the case of test with air and in the case of test with nitrogen in the range between 330°C and 367.3°C. The values of activation energy of thermal decomposition in the air were higher than the values in the case of nitrogen atmosphere.
    Keywords: thermal oxidation; pyrolysis; thermogravimetry; activation energy; vineyard waste; thermal analysis; combustion; biomass; thermal degradation; differential scanning calorimetry; DSC; heating.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2017.10007160
  • Analysis of time series variations of temperature and its forecast in the northeastern Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Hasan Nury, Khairul Hasan, Md. Jahir Bin Alam, Md. Mahedi Hasan 
    Abstract: Time series analysis of temperature data can be a valuable tool to investigate variability pattern as well as to predict short and long-term changes. Here, linear trends showed that the maximum temperature is increasing by 2.97°C and 0.59°C per hundred years, and the minimum, by 2.17°C and 2.73°C per hundred years at the Sylhet and Sreemangal stations. Anomaly of these regions also showed increasing temperature. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was fitted for temperature time series with its traditional three steps: identification, diagnosis and forecasting respectively. For monthly maximum and minimum temperature at Sylhet and Sreemangal stations, respective SARIMA models were (3, 1, 3) (1, 1, 1)12, (2, 1, 3) (0, 1, 1)12, (3, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)12 and (2, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)12. This will help the policy makers to understand the nature and scale of possible temperature changes in northeastern Bangladesh.
    Keywords: seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average; SARIMA; linear trend; anomaly; temperature; time series; maximum temperature; minimum temperature; variability pattern; predict short and long-term change; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2017.10007161
  • Combustion performance and emissions of diesel/biodiesel blended fuels in a residential reverse flame boiler   Order a copy of this article
    by Bilal Sungur, Bahattin Topaloglu, Lutfu Namli, Hakan Ozcan, Mustafa Ozbey 
    Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the performance of diesel and biodiesel blended fuels in a water-cooled flame tube boiler. The combustion performance and gas emissions of B10, B20 and B30 were studied and these were compared with the diesel fuel. To investigate the combustion characteristics of biodiesel blends, including pure diesel, the temperature distributions in the combustion chamber and smoke tube, exhaust temperature, and exhaust gas emissions were determined. The results showed that the size of the peak temperature zones in the combustion chamber decreased gradually from B0 to B30. As a consequence of reduced temperatures in combustion chamber, NOx emissions decreased from 53 to 47 ppm and CO emissions increased slightly from 9.6 to 12.8 ppm. Also, CO2 emissions decreased from 13.2 to 12.8 with increasing biodiesel ratio in the diesel fuel. Results also showed that the thermal efficiencies of diesel/biodiesel blended fuels remained almost the same.
    Keywords: biodiesel blends; boiler; emissions; temperature distributions; renewable fuels.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2017.10007162
  • Coupled geomechanical and reactive geochemical model for fluid, heat flow and convective mixing: application for CO2 geological sequestration into saline aquifer with heterogeneity   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronglei Zhang, Philip H. Winterfeld, Xiaolong Yin, Yu-Shu Wu, Yi Xiong 
    Abstract: The significance of thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes is well-identified in the operation of CO2 geo-sequestration. Geomechanical and geochemical effects may significantly affect aqueous phase composition, porosity and permeability of the formation, which in turn influence fluid advection, convection and transport. A sequentially coupled mathematical algorithm is employed to simulate reactive transport of water, CO2 gas and species in subsurface formation with geomechanics, which is bale to model the THMC processes of the fluid advection and convection, heat and solute transport in aqueous and gaseous phase, mean stress, and geochemical reactions under both equilibrium and kinetic conditions. A 2D model with complex chemical compositions is presented to analyse the THMC processes quantitatively, including geomechamical effect due to CO2 injection, dispersion and convective mixing due to CO2 dissolution, mineral alteration due to chemical reaction of water, CO2 and rock minerals, coupled effects of geochemical reaction and geomechanics.
    Keywords: THMC processes; sequentially coupled method; CO2 geo-sequestration; numerical simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2017.10007163
  • Decreasing energy consumption and carbon footprint in a school building: a comparative study on energy audits   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Zeki Yilmazoglu 
    Abstract: Energy audit of a school building was carried out to evaluate the effects of the building retrofitting on energy efficiency and carbon footprint. Lighting intensities of the selected areas in the building were measured and thermal images of the building envelope were compared before and after retrofitting. Combustion performance of the boilers was measured and the effects of the insulation on the natural gas consumption were investigated. According to the results, the lighting system renovation decreased the share of lighting in total electricity consumption of the buildings by 53.2% for the recommended lighting intensities in the selected zones. As a result of the lighting system renovation, carbon footprint of the campus decreased 308,715 kgCO2 per year. Natural gas consumption decreased by 25.3% after building envelope insulation which equals to 137,078 kgCO2 per year.
    Keywords: energy audit; carbon footprint; energy efficiency; lighting; thermal image; building retrofitting; greenhouse gases.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2017.10007164

Special Issue on: GCGW2015 Energy, Transportation and Global Warming

  • Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewables and Conventional Fuels for Different End Use Purposes   Order a copy of this article
    by Canan Acar, Ibrahim Dincer 
    Abstract: In this study, we present a comparative environmental impact assessment of renewables and conventional fossil fuels for electricity and hydrogen generation. The conventional fossil fuels investigated in this study are coal, oil, and natural gas. Renewables considered in this study are geothermal, hydropower, ocean, solar, and wind energies. Furthermore, nuclear and biomass energies are taken into consideration while assessing environmental impact and performances. Environmental impact criteria considered in this study are CO2, NOx, and SO2 emissions, land use, water consumption, water quality of discharge, solid waste and ground contamination, and biodiversity. For comparison purposes, all collected data are normalized and ranked between 0 and 3 while 0 giving highest negative environmental impact and 3 giving lowest negative environmental impact. Our results showed that overall, in terms of both electricity and hydrogen production, ocean gives the highest rankings (2.71 for electricity and 2.73 for hydrogen). Coal has the lowest rankings in terms of environmental impact (0.26 for electricity and 0.30 for hydrogen).
    Keywords: Global warming, emissions, energy, exergy, electricity, hydrogen, renewables.

  • Experimental Investigation to Reduce CO2 Emission in a Single Cylinder CI Engine Using Low Carbon Fuel Blend with Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Amine Injection in the Exhaust Manifold   Order a copy of this article
    by Thiyagarajan Subramanian, Edwin Geo, Leenus J Martin, Nagalingam B 
    Abstract: The present study investigates various methods for reduction of CO2 emission in a Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) fueled single cylinder CI engine. Combustion of KOME emits more CO2 due to longer carbon chain. The reduction in CO2 emission was done in three phases. In the first phase, low carbon pine oil (PO) fuel was blended with KOME in equal volume. The results indicated 7% reduction in CO2 emission for KOME-PO blend compared to KOME. In the second phase, methanol, n-butanol and acetone were blended on 20% volume basis with KOME-PO blend for further CO2 reduction. Mono ethanol amine (MEA) was injected in exhaust for achieving minimum CO2 emission in the third phase. KOME-PO+MEA injection emits minimum CO2 emission compared to other blends. However, considering NO-CO2 tradeoff, KOME-PO + methanol with amine injection is optimum for simultaneous reduction of both the pollutants.
    Keywords: Global Warming; CO2 emission; Karanja oil; Pine oil; Mono ethanol amine; methanol; acetone; n-butanol

    by Dimitrios-Sotirios Kourkoumpas, Georgios Stamatiou, Sotirios Karellas, Panagiotis Grammelis, Emmanuel Kakaras 
    Abstract: The present study aims to evaluate the power generation system based on the lignite fuel in environmental and economic terms. Three alternative firing cases are examined: 1) raw lignite firing, 2) 30% pre-dried lignite co-firing and 3) 6% biomass co-firing case. The implementation of the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology proves that the overall environmental footprint can be decreased by as much as 4.5% in the case of pre-dried lignite co-firing, while the lignite mining activities represent about 32% of the total. The implementation of the Life Cycle Costing (LCC) methodology indicates that the total electricity generation cost is decreased by about 0.92 /MWhe in the case of pre-dried lignite co-firing and about 1.22 /MWhe in the case of biomass co-firing. A sensitivity analysis based on the total net electric efficiency, the raw lignite composition, the CAPEX-OPEX of the power plant, the biomass direct fuel cost and the external cost of CO2 was carried out, in order to identify the range of the results depending on the impact of each parameter.
    Keywords: life cycle analysis; life cycle costing; global warming; lignite; externalities; Greece

    by Alberto Romero, Ricardo Chacartegui, Monica Carvalho, Jose A. Becerra, Dean Millar 
    Abstract: Mining is an economic activity that intensively uses energy in the extraction and processing of raw minerals. This means that large amounts of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are released into the atmosphere. Natural gas in conjunction with combined cycle power plants (CCPP) could replace other more contaminant sources of energy, such as diesel, the fuel traditionally preferred in mining to generate power in remote sites. Today, however, the operation of CCPP in stand-alone power systems under frequent load variations and potentially plant start-ups remains challenging. During start-up operations of combined cycle power plants (CCPP), high thermal and mechanical stress negatively affects the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) components. Special off-grid CCPP applications require additional considerations regarding design and operation. rnMotivated by the challenges associated with using CCPPs in off-grid mines as a main source of electrical power, a mathematical model of a CCPP was developed to evaluate load changes during operation as start-up and shut-down procedures. Using the model two strategies aiming to minimize life consumption of steam drum were investigated: gas turbine exhaust gases bypass for a given time interval and GT warm-up hold. The results show how they reduce the steam drum stresses and the lifetime consumption. Nevertheless it was found under the tested profiles that bypass or warm-up hold of the GT may induce additional fatigue cycles during the plant start-up operation.
    Keywords: Combined cycle; Energy in Mining; Transient operation; Numerical modelling; off-grid mines.

    by Lori Nalbandian, Antigoni Evdou, Vassilis Zaspalis 
    Abstract: Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) offers a solution for CO2 separation without energy penalty by using a solid oxygen carrier to transfer the oxygen to the fuel, instead of air. In place of costly manufactured oxygen carrier materials, cheap, naturally occurring minerals and solid industrial waste materials with comparable compositions are needed. Such materials should have a sufficient reaction rate and Oxygen Transfer Capacity, retain stable performance under a large number of consecutive reduction / oxidation cycles, and if possible would not require pre-treatment and activation. Two inexpensive iron containing minerals, a Fe-Mn based mineral from Egypt and Attapulgite, a Fe-containing Mg-Al phyllosilicate mineral from Greece, as well as a Fe-Mn based solid industrial waste are investigated in this study as candidate oxygen carriers for CLC. The materials are tested in a laboratory bench-scale test unit for the evaluation of their performance and their ability to retain stable performance under a large number of consecutive reduction / oxidation cycles. Methane is used for the fuel oxidation step, while subsequent oxidation of the solid is performed with gaseous oxygen. The stability of the materials is evaluated during 5-10 subsequent cycles, comprising of a solid reduction and an oxidation step. All the samples exhibited the ability to deliver their lattice oxygen to the fuel and to some extent regain it, in the presence of air. The 3 different materials presented different performance characteristics concerning their Oxygen Transfer Capacity, OTC (0.35-4 % wt), their reactivity towards CH4 (50-100%) and their stability (50% drop up to 200% increase of their initial OTC after 5 redox cycles). Samples of both fresh materials and materials used in several redox cycles were physicochemically characterized by using X‒ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with X‒ray Microanalysis (SEM-EDS). The crystalline phases present as well as the particle size and morphology were examined for the fresh and used samples in order to identify structural and morphological changes and thus determine the stability of the examined materials in repetitive CLC cycles
    Keywords: Chemical Looping Combustion; CLC; low cost; oxygen carrier; iron manganese minerals; attapulgite; industrial waste; Oxygen Transfer Capacity.

    by George Giannopoulos 
    Abstract: Governments so far have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce GHG emissions, on the grounds that they reduce the level of adaptation required in the future and prevent costly impacts. Mitigation has been referred to as the number one preparedness strategy. However, in view of the increased uncertainty and economic hardship worldwide that prevents governments spending and the quick pace of arrival of the anticipated adverse effects from climate change, growing attention is placed now on adaptation in the form of preventive actions that will enhance intra- and cross-sectorial resilience in all sectors of the economy. rnThis paper focuses on the Transport sector - a key economic sector of todays society and aims to examine the issues and prospects related to the adaptation of this sector in order to face the future climate change related events. In other words what will be the main issues, constraints, and policy guidelines that will help reduce the vulnerability of todays transport systems against actual or expected Extreme Weather Events (EWE) and other Natural Hazards (NH) that will result from the changing climate in the planet.rn
    Keywords: Transport Adaptation, Global Warming, transport policy, preparedness strategy, Climate adaptation

  • The Driving Factors of CO2 Emissions from electricity generation in Greece: An Index Decomposition Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Danae Diakoulaki, Dionysis Giannakopoulos, Sotirios Karellas 
    Abstract: The scope of this paper is to investigate the driving factors of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in Greece and to compare the revealed trends with the overall progress recorded in EU-28. The analysis covers the period 2005-2012 and focuses on the effect produced by the following determinant factors: a) economic growth, b) electricity intensity of the economy, c) electricity trade, d) fuel mix, and e) efficiency of electricity generation process. Decomposition Analysis is widely recognized as a powerful tool for detecting the driving forces behind changes of various indicators over time. The model developed in this study is based on LMDI-I method which is increasingly used in a wide range of applications because of its several theoretical and practical advantages. The obtained results show that the economic crisis that occurred in the middle of the examined period has substantially influenced the evolution of CO2 emissions. Specifically, in times of economic growth the main factors counterbalancing the economic growth effect was the change in the fuel mix and to a lesser extent the more efficient use of electricity in the economy. On the contrary, the economic downturn has driven emissions down but at the same time it contributed to a less efficient use of energy resources in power generation and of electricity in the final demand sectors, which resulted in an upward trend of emissions.
    Keywords: Electricity generation, CO2 emissions, Global Warming, Decomposition Analysis, Divisia

  • Exploring possible impacts of sea level rise: the case of Izmir, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by HIFZI AKSOY, Hande Demirel, Dursun Zafer Seker 
    Abstract: Due to global warming and climate change, sea levels worldwide have been rising significantly since the early 1990s, where most of the coastal areas are under inundation risk. The impacts of such expose could be global, regional and local. According to results of global models, among other metropolitan areas in the world, İzmir will be one of the riskiest cities will be affected by the optimistic sea level rise. Within this study, the vulnerability of the İzmir, Turkey, was analysed under the projected inundation by the end of the century. In order to assess the degree of magnitude of such possible effects of SLR, various scenarios of sea level rise, being 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 meters, were tested and inundation risk maps of Izmir were produced for each scenario. The focus was on the settlement patterns, population, agricultural land and road transport network. In order to aid to reproduce the analyses for various coastal zones, open source-data was preferred. According to the applied Geographic Information System (GIS)-based methodology, several assets could be under risk at the İzmir Bay. For the worst-case scenario almost 35% of the population at the coastal zone were under the risk of flooding, where 24,49% of the artificial surfaces were inundated together with 16,54% of agricultural areas and 0,24% of forests. According to the scenario results, inundation of motorways in the area cost approximately 143 million . The framework and quantitative assessment methodologies outlined in this paper could be employed to make an inventory of the assets in the vulnerable zones, where results could contribute to enhance to prioritize further mitigation and adaptation activities.
    Keywords: Global warming; sea level rise; geographical information science.

  • Potential Impact of Global Warming on Whiting in a Semi-Enclosed Gulf   Order a copy of this article
    by A Shanableh, M Imteaz, K Hamad, M Omar, T Merabtene, M siddique 
    Abstract: In this article, the potential impact of the rising atmospheric CO2 level on whiting in the semi-enclosed Arabian Gulf is considered. Chemical equilibrium models were developed to assess the spatial and temporal distributions of aragonite and calcite saturation indices due to acidification resulting from increasing atmospheric CO2 level. The models accounted for the spatial and temporal distributions of salinity and temperature in the surface water of the Gulf, which vary in the range of 3643 psu and 15oC to 32oC. The spatial variations of CaCO3 saturation revealed that the southern part of the Gulf along the coastlines of the UAE, Qatar and Bahrain experiences the highest CaCO3 saturation levels and corresponds to the observed whiting phenomenon. Potential acidification and erosion of the whiting phenomenon in the Gulf threaten the ecosystem, which deserves significant additional attention from the scientific community and decision makers in the region.
    Keywords: whiting phenomenon; aragonite saturation index; calcite saturation index; CaCO3 saturation; acidification of sea water; global warming; increasing atmospheric CO2; phytoplankton; cyanobacteria

  • Potential economic and environmental benefits from the interconnection of the Greek islands   Order a copy of this article
    by Eleni Zafeiratou, Catalina Spataru 
    Abstract: Greece consists of 58 non-interconnected islands, located mainly in the Aegean Sea. Electricity is supplied to this region by 32 Autonomous Power Systems (APS) using heavy fuel oil or diesel power generators. A number of interconnections between the islands and the national grid system have been scheduled for the upcoming years. In this paper, we analyze the economic and environmental benefits following the interconnections. It was concluded that Greece could save between 2015 and 2040, from 9.73 to 17.82 billion Euros, subject to fuel price costs and demand growth. These amounts are charged to the Greek power customers through a cross subsidization policy known as public service obligation. Additionally, avoided costs for APS upgrade, range between 2.63 and 1.80 billion Euros. Interconnectors will also reduce the carbon footprint in the area by 51.1%-65.5% compared to the scenario of preserving APS. This is attributed mainly to renewable energy development reaching proportions of 84.7%-119% of the total power demand by 2040.
    Keywords: autonomous power systems, carbon emissions, Greek islands, interconnections, public service obligation, projections, renewable energy, wind energy, submarine cables, energy scenarios

  • Smart Hybrid Renewable Microgeneration System for Residential Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Evgueniy Entchev 
    Abstract: Microgeneration systems generate power and heat at the point of use by utilizing a variety of conventional and renewable technologies. They demonstrate a comparable electric efficiency to the conventional power generation stations, good environmental performance and ability to serve as a source for both primary and back-up power. Assembled in microgrids or in virtual power plant they can serve multiple buildings and be active participants in load management efforts both on site and on the grid. rnThe study investigates the performance of a hybrid renewable ground source heat pump (GSHP)/Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) microgeneration system serving multiple residential and small office buildings in Ottawa (Canada) and Incheon (South Korea). The analysis shows that the hybrid system operational cost savings are strongly dependent on the current energy (natural gas and electricity) prices, buildings heating, cooling and electric loads and occupants behaviour patterns. The cost analysis results indicate that the extra capital investment incurred to the GSHP-PVT system is possible to be returned within its lifespan, especially with the current trend of continuous equipment and installation price reductions. rn
    Keywords: Hybrid system, simulation, load sharing, photovoltaic thermal, ground source heat pump