Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Global Warming


These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in IJGW, but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.


Forthcoming articles must be purchased for personal use only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.


Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase – click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.


Articles marked with this Open Access icon are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.


Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues of IJGW are published online.


We also offer RSS feeds which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.


International Journal of Global Warming (122 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Vulnerability and adaptation assessment a way forward for sustainable sectoral development in the purview of climate variability and change: Insights from the coast of Tamil Nadu, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramachandran Andimuthu, Dhanya Praveen, Radhapriya P, Divya S.K, Remya K, Palanivelu k 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to identify the most vulnerable coastal districts of Tamil Nadu with respect to climate variability. This research has taken three sectors namely Groundwater, Agriculture, and Fisheries sector for consideration. It reveals that individual sectors vulnerability levels vary widely across the districts due to the differences in its physical exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. In the groundwater sector Villupuram and Thanjavur districts showed very high vulnerability. Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi district exhibited highest vulnerability with respect to agricultural sector. In the fisheries sector Thoothukudi and Villupuram district demonstrated high levels of vulnerability. From the overall composite vulnerability assessment. Thoothukudi and Villupuram districts needs extra care and immediate attention as it falls under high to very high vulnerability category in all the three sectors among 13 coastal districts. It implies that need for strengthening the adaptive capacity to tackle the present situation of climate variability and change. Adaptation options have been identified and prioritized through interaction with the stakeholders using pair wise ranking of adaptation matrix. Public awareness on conservation of water resources, changes in the farming practices, improving water efficiency and diversification of market& products and diversified livihood portfolio got first priority in the adaptation. Therefore the result of this assessment recommends that adaptation policies have to be incorporated with sustainable development strategies take these sectors forward.
    Keywords: Climate variability, Vulnerability,Indicators, Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive capacity, Adaptation Matrix
  • Effects of Regional Climate Variability on the Prevalence of Diseases and their Economic Impacts on Households in the Lake Victoria Basin of Western Kenya   Order a copy of this article
    by Gabriel O Dida 
    Abstract: Climate variability has a strong influence on disease prevalence and subsequently on the economic wellbeing of the affected households, especially in the low lying Lake Victoria basin of Kenya. This paper focuses on the prevalence of diseases and their economic impacts on households living in six climatically different regions within the Lake Victoria Basin of Western Kenya. The six study regions were clustered into three groups based on their climatic conditions as follows; areas prone to droughts namely Rarieda and Bondo; areas prone to floods namely Budalangi and Nyando; and areas with relatively good weather namely Bomet and Kisii central. A total of 480 adult respondents, aged between 18 and 80+ years were randomly selected to represent the households. Respondents were interviewed and the effects of prevailing climatic conditions on the prevalence of diseases within the previous 12 months and their direct and indirect economic implications on the households compared and statistically analyzed. Malaria, respiratory tract infection, typhoid, pneumonia and diarrhea were the major diseases among the Lake Victoria basin (LVB) inhabitants. The annual disease frequency per household was highest in Budalangi, a flood prone region; and lowest in Bomet, a region with relatively good weather. There was a significant difference in disease frequency in the three climatically different regions (flood prone, drought prone, and favorable weather) (p <0.001). High medical bills (72%), inability to work (24%), too much time spent on the sick (3%) and slowed economic development (1%), were cited as some of the impacts of diseases on the household by the respondents. High medical bills were cited by most respondents (over 90%) from Budalangi region, and 62% of respondents from Nyando (both of which are flood prone regions). The findings reveal the often unseen or ignored subtle effects of adverse climatic conditions on economically vulnerable communities in the Lake Victoria basin (LVB) and elsewhere, and recommends flood/drought prevention and mitigation strategies and awareness creation to better cope with the adverse climatic conditions.
    Keywords: Climate variability; disease prevalence; economic impact; Kenya; Lake Victoria basin
  • Long-Term Mean Monthly Temperature Trends of the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Umran Komuscu 
    Abstract: The Gulf region, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has been experiencing warming trends since late 1980s, an era of rapid economic development in the region. This study investigates non-stationary behaviour of the long-term mean monthly temperature series of the UAE by time series analysis. Surface temperature data at six coastal and internal stations, for the period 1983-2012, have been used in the study. The study indicates that the period after 1990s is distinctly characterized with definite rising trends in the temperatures in majority of the stations, with exception of the Al Ain station which indicated cooling temperature trends. Cumulative warming varied between 0.3 and 2.8
    Keywords: temperature trends; United Arab Emirates; autocorrelation; periodogram; spectral analysis
  • Green hydrogen energy system: A Policy on reducing petroleum based global unrest   Order a copy of this article
    by Adnan Midilli 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of green hydrogen energy system in reducing petroleum based global unrest. For this purpose, in terms of the policy parameters, the followings are discussed i) the main factors accelerating petroleum based global energy imbalance and the negative effects resulting from the petroleum based global unrest, ii) possible advantages of green hydrogen energy system, iii) the key driving forces and their roles for green hydrogen based global stability, iv) qualitative evaluation of the effects of petroleum and green hydrogen consumption on some global issues. Consequently, it can be said that green hydrogen energy system will be a key tool to minimize petroleum based global unrest and to improve the green hydrogen based global stability. Thus, it is suggested that green hydrogen energy system should be gradually encouraged by governmental bodies and other authorities for improving and ensuring the green hydrogen based global stability and sustainability.
    Keywords: Green hydrogen, hydrogen utilization, petroleum consumption, hydrogen energy system, global stability, global unrest, sustainability.
  • Sequestration of carbon dioxide by red mud through direct mineral carbonation at room temperature   Order a copy of this article
    by Rushendra Revathy T.D, Palanivelu K, Ramachandran A 
    Abstract: In the developing countries, power generation is likely to be primarily dependent on coal reserves in the coming years, thereby they face the scenario of upsurge in CO2 emissions. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered as a promising tool to mitigate CO2 emissions. In this work, direct mineral carbonation capacity of red mud (RM) has been studied which is one of the major solid waste produced from the non-ferrous industries in the country and that is largely land filled. Carbonation (dry and wet) studies were performed at low pressure (1 -10 bar) conditions and at room temperature using a simple methodology in a batch reactor with pure CO2 gas. The dry route resulted in a maximum sequestration capacity of 5.16 g of CO2/kg of RM (10 bar and 3 h), whereas wet phase aqueous carbonation route yielded 20.09 g of CO2/kg of RM (liquid to solid (L/S) ratio- 0.6, 6 bar and 1 h). The carbonated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis which evidenced the carbonation process. Thus it can be concluded that the solid waste that generated in ample quantities pose to be a promising option towards climate change mitigation.
    Keywords: Carbon capture and storage; carbon dioxide; mineral carbonation; gas-solid carbonation; aqueous carbonation; red mud.
  • Regional characteristics of CO2 emissions from Chinas power generation: Affinity Propagation and Refined Laspeyres Decomposition   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Sun, Yujun He, Hong Chang 
    Abstract: The Chinese power sector plays a vital role in national emissions reduction goal due to its large contribution to overall emissions. This paper explores the regional similarities and disparities of power generation emissions among 30 provinces. First, the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm is applied to find the similar characteristics in emissions among 30 provinces. The clustering results of CO2 emissions indicate that the 30 provinces are divided into five clusters in 1997 and seven clusters in 2012 based on four indicators (generation structure, energy intensity, GDP per capita and electricity intensity). Then, the regional differences in driving forces on CO2 emissions from power industry are examined using refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Results showed that there are significant contribution differences of five indicators (power generation emission coefficient, generation structure, electricity intensity, economy and population) on power generation emissions among different provinces. The provincial emissions reduction target and supporting policies for power industry should be customized and consistent with the actual situations considering the similarity and differences in emission characteristics.
    Keywords: Affinity propagation; refined Laspeyres decomposition; power generation; CO2 emissions
  • A review on improvement of coal-fired power plants and environmental benefits of ash utilization   Order a copy of this article
    by Selcuk Samanli, Haluk Celik, Ozcan Oney, Yasar Can 
    Abstract: Electricity generation in coal fired power plants produces large amount of residues. These materials are known as coal combustion products (CCPs) and can release pollutants to the environment. However, CCPs are environmentally and technically suitable for uses in many areas. The utilization of CCPs in these areas helps to reduce the overall harmful effects of coal combustion for electricity generation by stabilizing the environmentally toxic pollutants. This study focused on bottom ash (BA) and especially fly ash (FA). BA is used as a source of aggregate in concrete. FA is used as a pozzolanic additive to Portland cement concrete. The current paper reviews the general characteristic features of coal bottom ash and fly ash. It reveals the possible usage areas of improved ash and presents the general approaches have been developed to obtain improved fly ash. The recycling of coal combustion ash provides significant environmental benefits. Electrostatic separator with tribocharging technique has great potential for utilization of coal ash. It significantly contributes to reduce fly ash disposal problems. In recent years, triboelectrostatic separators have increased significantly for the feasibility and success of the implementation of the electrostatic separation. Studies carried out by various researchers on triboelectrostatic separation for utilization of fly ash were also compiled in this article.
    Keywords: Bottom ash; fly ash; improved fly ash; triboelectrostatic separator.
  • Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of aqueous basic dye solutions using waste foundry sand   Order a copy of this article
    by Semra Çoruh, Elif Hatice Gürkan 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solution using waste foundry sand Adsorption studies were carried out at different initial dye concentrations (12.5 - 400 mg l-1), contact time (5 - 240 min), pH (3.0 9.0), sorbent doses (0.125 - 2 g l-1) and adsorption temperature (20
    Keywords: Waste foundry sand, adsorption, basic dye, isotherm, kinetic, thermodynamic
  • Simulation of CO2 adsorption-separation from an N2/CO2 gas mixture in a Fixed MgMOF-74 Column   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed A. Habib, Rached Ben-Mansour, B. O. Eyitope, A. M. P. Peedikakkal 
    Abstract: A computational study of adsorption-separation of CO2 from an N2/CO2 gas mixture is presented in this paper. A detailed one-dimensional, transient mathematical model has been formulated to include the heat and mass transfer, the pressure drop and multi-component mass diffusion. The model has been implemented on a MATLAB program using second order discretization. Validation of the model was performed using a complete experimental data set for carbon dioxide separation using activated carbon. Simulation of the adsorption breakthrough experiment on fixed bed has been carried out to evaluate the capacity of Mg-MOF-74 for CO2 capture with varying feed gas temperature of 301K, 323K, 373K and 423K. The results show the superiority of MOF adsorbent in comparison to activated carbon. The simulated breakthrough time for CO2 on Mg-MOF-74 with feed temperature and pressure of 301K and 1.02bar respectively is about 500min as compared to 50min for Activated Carbon. The amount of CO2 adsorbed on Mg-MOF-74 under this condition is 6.43mole per kilogram of adsorbent. The maximum temperature exhibited in the system is at the bed exit with a value of about 356K after about 500min of simulation.
    Keywords: CO2 adsorption, carbon capture, carbon dioxide, CO2 separation, Mg-MOF-74
  • The evaluation of CO2 emissions mitigation scenarios for Turkish electricity sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Betül Özer, Selahattin İncecik, Erdem Görgün 
    Abstract: This study presents the results on the simulations of the scenarios based on the CO2 emission reduction of the electricity sector in Turkey, utilizing the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) model, and the mitigation costs of the scenarios. Three scenarios including Baseline Scenario, (Scenario 1) and the two mitigation scenarios (Scenario 2 and Scenario 3) are employed. The Scenario 1 is based on the continuation of the recent electricity generation composition. Scenario 2 is established for the evaluation of all the renewable energy potential, except solar, of Turkey while Scenario 3 included all the renewable and nuclear energy. The CO2 emission intensity decreased by 20.5% and 35.6% for the Scenarios 2 and 3 in 2030, respectively compared to the Baseline Scenario. The CO2 emission mitigation costs are found 17 $/ton CO2 and 40 $/ton CO2 for the Scenarios 2 and 3, respectively through 2010 to 2030.
    Keywords: electricity sector, CO2 emission mitigation scenarios and costs, LEAP model, renewable and nuclear energy, Turkey
  • Optimum insulation thickness for piping system using exergy and environmental methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Emin Açıkkalp, Gülcan Özel, Burak Görgün, Hasan Yamık, Necmettin Caner 
    Abstract: Optimum insulation thickness for a piping system is investigated using a novel method that combines exergy and environmental is analyzed. Analyses are conducted by using the rockwool and glasswool as insulation materials. Investigation is performed for the different nominal pipe sizes (NPS or Diameter Nominal: DN) of 50, 100 and 150. This study was carried out for Bilecik in Turkey. The environmental impacts of the various parameters are described. Results for the environmental impact of the system, the net environmental saving, exergetic heat loss, the net exergy saving, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions according to insulation thickness are presented. Results show that optimum points are calculated as 0.109 m, 0.126 m and 0.137 m for DN 50, 100, and 150, respectively for the glasswool. Optimum insulation thickness for the rockwool was determined as 0.064m, 0.073 m and 0.079for DN 50, 100, and 150, respectively.
    Keywords: Optimum insulation thickness, exergy analysis, environmental impact, life cycle assessment.
    by Zekiye Yenen, Cenk Hamamcıoğlu 
    Abstract: Abstract: Fundamental impacts of climate change due to global warming reveal undeniable consequences on planning for future. Taking the question have we cognized to incorporate the effects of climate change in planning yet? into account, this paper brings up the factors of human activities precipitating climate change and its probable impacts on the hierarchy of settlements to the agenda in order to stimulate planners, policy makers, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders to be ready for different possibilities with flexible approaches and efficient adaptation policies. In this context, two main projected scenarios stated by the UNFCCC (2001) and IPCC (2013)s reports are predicted and discussed on the future characteristics of settlement system to undergo a change in the case of G
    Keywords: Key Words: basin; river basin; basin-based approach; climate change; hierarchy of settlements; Göksu Basin; Mediterranean; Turkey.
  • A Methodology and Assessment for the Viability of Trigeneration Systems to Reduce Emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Aghaei Meybodi, Chanel Gibson, Masud Behnia 
    Abstract: Trigeneration systems allow for an efficient way of consuming fossil fuels and therefore utilisation of such systems is amongst the adopted measures to address environmental issues. Carbon pricing was introduced in Australia in July 2012 and subsequently repealed by the newly elected government due to its questionable effectiveness. In this paper, a thermo-economic methodology was developed to attempt to provide an insight into the optimisation and economics of small and medium scale turbine-based trigeneration systems under three environmental policies through the application of two case studies. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results indicate that carbon pricing is a sound policy to make the installation of small scale trigeneration systems economically favourable. All medium scale trigeneration systems in the study were uneconomical, although the system was marginally (1%) more profitable under the new policy than under carbon pricing. It was also observed policy concerning feed-in tariffs should be revised.
    Keywords: carbon pricing; combined cooling heating and power systems; emissions trading schemes; emissions reduction; gas turbine; global warming impacts; microturbine; partial load operation; turbine-based trigeneration systems; thermo-economic analysis
  • The governance of adaptation financing: pursuing legitimacy at multiple levels   Order a copy of this article
    by Louis Lebel, Albert Salamanca, Chalisa Kallayanamitra 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess how climate change adaptation funds have been legitimized; that is, how they have been justified and made acceptable to different actors. To this end, it analyses the way various actors have sought to promote and challenge the legitimacy of ten multi-lateral international and national climate change adaptation funds in the Asia-Pacific region. The study shows that adaptation funds draw on multiple sources of legitimacy, including: ethical or justice arguments; participation and deliberation; transparency; accountability; coherence; and effectiveness. Efforts to strengthen one source of legitimacy can have an impact on other sources, with evidence of both synergies and trade-offs. International and national adaptation funds are primarily legitimized to state actors, even though funds and projects are justified in terms of assisting vulnerable groups and communities. International financing has helped legitimize adaptation as an important development and policy objective. An adaptation financing architecture that is more multi-level, if not yet polycentric, has emerged alongside new legitimacy challenges; but at the same time, providing opportunities for improving outcomes on the ground if greater attention is given to access by vulnerable groups and communities.
    Keywords: climate; adaptation; financing; funds; legitimacy; accountability; governance
  • A Modelling Study for Predicting Temperature and Precipitation Variations   Order a copy of this article
    by Azadeh Navazi, Abdolreza Karbassi, Shapour Mohammadi, Seyed Masoud Monavari, Saeed Motesaddi Zarandi 
    Abstract: Under the current extreme conditions, the trend of climate change and consequently global warming have put pressure on the urban environment and have led to serious environmental damages. The main objective of this study is to make a 10-year prediction of climatic parameters in Tehran metropolis in order to identify the impacts of climate change on urban environments and provide adaptation strategies to be used in future studies. For this purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms were employed. A long-term study of the mean daily temperature and precipitation in Tehran (1982-2011) indicates an increasing trend, with 0.03
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Prediction; Urban environment; Climatic parameters; Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
  • Chinas Low Carbon Competitiveness: An Assessment Based on International Comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Chaoqing Yuan 
    Abstract: Today, national competitiveness has evolved into the low-carbon competitiveness. This paper attempts to assess Chinas low carbon competitiveness, measure the overall level of Chinas low-carbon competitiveness based on international comparisons, and then offer some recommendations to improve China's low carbon competitiveness. Specially, it includes: 1) the concept of national low carbon competitiveness is defined. 2) A new national low carbon competitiveness index is designed, which is made up of two comprehensive indexes, national low carbon development ability and national low carbon constraints. 3) The corresponding evaluation system and calculation method are built. National low carbon development ability mainly includes the ability of national economic growth, the ability of national low-carbon technology development and the ability of governmental low carbon management. And national low carbon constraints include saturating force of energy consumption and carbon emission, national environmental carrying capacity and national expansion capability of consumption. 4) 19 countries with relatively strong global competitiveness and international influence are selected for low-carbon competitiveness assessment. The results show that China's low-carbon competitiveness ranks 18 in the 19 countries. 5) Several suggestions to enhance Chinas low carbon competitiveness are proposed.
    Keywords: Low carbon competitiveness; Global warming; Economic Development; Carbon emission; Energy consumption
    by Syed Muhammad Hassan Ali, Murat Fahrioglu, Muhammad Jibran Shahzad Zuberi, Fassahat Ullah Qureshi 
    Abstract: The electricity demand and supply gap in Pakistan has reached 6000MW, for which the Government of Pakistan has planned some power generating projects. Environmental feasibility analysis is done for one of these projects. The Government of Pakistan has planned to build a coal based mega power plant project of 6600MW capacity at Gaddani, Karachi. Coal for this project will be imported from South Africa, Indonesia and Australia, even though Pakistan also has huge reserves of coal at Thar, Sindh. CO2 of 208.92 804.02 tons/GWh and SO2 emissions of 3.73 14.55 tons/GWh are estimated from this project using stoichiometric calculations. Renewable energy potential of Pakistan is presented in order to discourage the Government of Pakistan on these environmental unfriendly projects. Solar, wind, biomass and hydro electric energy options are encouraged to invest in as they are sustainable and environment friendly.
    Keywords: Coal, Carbon Emissions; Sulfur Emissions; Renewable Energy; Pakistan; Gaddani Power Project; Environmental feasibility
  • Experimental Investigation on Reduction of NOx Emission of Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Bio-Diesel and Di-ethyl Ether (DEE)   Order a copy of this article
    by Paresh Patel, Sajan Chourasia, Niraj Shah, Absar Lakdawala, Rajesh Patel 
    Abstract: The present work emphasis on reduction of diesel engine emission using jatropha based bio-diesel and Di-ethyl ether (DEE). The experiments show that with 20% (B20) addition of bio-diesel, the BSFC and BSEC increase by 7 and 10 % while eciency and emissions 􀀀 CO, CO2, NOx, and HC 􀀀 decreases by 1, 64, 5,18 and 48% respectively. However, it also shows that, even optimized blend (B20) is not able to meet stringent emission norms particularly for NOx - set by EURO IV. For the further reduction of the NOx, DEE is added from 0 % to 5 % in B20. The results show that addition of 4 % DEE, does not signicantly inuenced the engine performance, however reduction in NOx found to be 40 % compared with diesel fuel. A hypothesis is proposed that, The reduction in engine emission is due to improvement in combustion in presence of DEE. The hypothesis is validated through combustion analysis showing increase in peak pressure (Pmax) by 7 % and reduction in delay period by 1.5 degree with addition of 4 % DEE in B20.
    Keywords: Bio-diesel, Di-ethyl ether, Diesel engine, NOx emission, Combustion characteristic.
  • Optimization of Physical Activation Process for Activated Carbon Production from Tire Wastes   Order a copy of this article
    by Zakaria Loloei, Mansooreh Soleimani, Mehrdad Mozaffarian 
    Abstract: The reuse of waste tires is of great importance due to problems and damages that they pose to the environment. This paper presents the work conducted in order to study the conversion of waste tires to activated carbon. Activated carbon was prepared by two step process: 1-pyrolysis under nitrogen and activation with carbon dioxide. Experiments have been conducted based on Taguchi experimental design method with orthogonal arrays (L16). Pyrolysis temperature, pyrolysis holding time, activation temperature, activation holding time, process heating rate and activating CO2 gas flow rate were optimized as operating parameters. The Effect of these operating parameters on the yield and iodine number as two main results of this process has been investigated. Experimental results and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that activation temperature and activation holding time are the most effective variables, respectively. Optimum conditions for both yield and iodine number have been found which provided33.22% for yield and 439.86 (mg I2/gr of activated carbon) for iodine number.
    Keywords: waste tire; activated carbon; physical activation; optimization; Taguchi
  • Climate-Related Economic Losses in Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ling-Ling Chen, Chao-Heng Tseng, Yi-Hsuan Shih 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to quantify the relationship between CO2 emissions and economic losses under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2, A1B and B1. Previous trend is used to formulate predictions with regard to future climate-related hazards and quantify the expected economic consequences for Taiwan. We establish an equation with which to forecast economic losses related to agricultural damage, death toll, and medical expenditures. The results are as follows: (1) According to SRES A2, A1B and B1 projections, cumulative total economic losses of unit CO2 emission between 2013 and 2100 are US$75- 261/tCO2, US$76-215/tCO2, and US$75-169/tCO2, respectively; (2) Total economic losses related to natural disaster exhibits a strong correlation with GDP between 1991 and 2012, compares to the period from 1971 to 1990 (this is not including the medical expenditure losses in the total economic losses); (3) According to SRESs A1B scenario, predicted total economic losses related to natural disasters are expected to be strongly correlated with GDP between 2013 and 2100.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Climate-Related Loss; SRES Scenario; Natural Disaster; Total Economic Loss (TEL); Agricultural Economic Loss (AEL); Life Expectancy Value Loss (LEVL); Medical Expenditure Loss (MEL); Cumulative Loss; Normalized Damage; Relative Loss Ratio (RLR); IPCC; Taiwan; GDP; Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon dioxide capture by facilitated transport membranes: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by A. uma maheswari, K. palanivelu 
    Abstract: In recent years, the increase in industrial carbon dioxide emissions has put forward serious threats in atmospheric conditions. In order to address this problem various conventional techniques are available, but they have several limitations in terms of cost and energy. Carbon dioxide capture in a post combustion scenario needs cost effective and energy efficient alternatives to the conventional technologies. In this sense, membranes attract a great deal of attention for the bulk removal of CO2 as they offer a viable option to the established conventional techniques. In this review, the effective separation of CO2 by facilitated transport membranes (FTMs) and their recent developments in concurrence with past research findings have been reviewed and discussed. The FTMs are grouped into different categories based on the type of the carrier. Also, the various methods of improving stability, permeability, and selectivity of FTMs are discussed scrupulously. A special emphasis is put on reviewing the process challenges and the viability of the techniques in capturing industrial CO2 emissions. Current drawbacks in the existing research and future direction for performance development are also discussed broadly.
    Keywords: Keywords: carbon dioxide capture; facilitated transport membranes; mobile carrier; fixed site carrier; polymeric blend; cross linking agent
  • Spatially Explicit Estimates and Temporal Changes of Forest Tree Biomass in a Typical Department of Forest Management, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Sedat KELEŞ, İdris Durusoy 
    Abstract: This study presents temporal changes in forest timber biomass of a department of forest management consisting of four forest management units in Turkey. Changes in forest tree biomass are linked to forest cover change during 1986-2011 period based on forest inventory data. We also produced forest biomass density maps using Geographical Information Systems. The results showed a net increase of 1755 ha in forested areas of the Department of G
    Keywords: Forest timber biomass, Biomass expansion factor, Climate change, Forest management plan, Geographical information systems
  • Analysis of the Air Temperature records of Djelfa   Order a copy of this article
    by Boubakeur Guesmi, Mohamed Sahnoune, Chakali Gahdab 
    Abstract: The delay of defoliation, the advance of blooming, in January, of some recently planted palm trees, the appearance of the housefly in winter, and the disappearance of the featuring cold and frost of Djelfa both prompted the need of a scientific explanation, based on The analyses of mean, minimum and maximum air temperatures records for a period of forty years by the methods (coefficient of variation (CV), trend test, correlation and homogeneity test),which have shown that, although, the fluctuations of the mean temperature, especially in winter (CV=27%), a global warming of 1
    Keywords: Semi Arid, Djelfa , Global warming, climate change, Air temperature, Mann Kendall test, Algeria, steppe , frost, cold, homogeneity test, correlation, coefficient of variation
  • Bin weather data for different climates of Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Saban Pusat, İsmail Ekmekçi 
    Abstract: In this study, bin weather data and bin method for Turkey which is a well-known and simple method to estimate heating and cooling loads were investigated. The bin weather data for dry-bulb temperature from -50
    Keywords: Bin data; Typical meteorological year; Energy analysis; Heating load; Cooling load; Turkey; Climate
  • An Estimation of Offset Supply for the Korean Emissions Trading Scheme Using the Bass Diffusion Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Intaek Yoon, Sohyun Kate Yoon 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the possible carbon offset supply in the Korean Emissions Trading Scheme using the Bass Diffusion Model. To estimate the quantity of the likely offset supply, both a bottom-up and top-down approach were used. The forecasted supply of offsets from 2015 to 2020, for non-covered companies in the industrial sectors, is approximately 12.60 million tCO2e. For a realistic estimation, scenario based analysis on the marginal abatement costs for each project type and sector has been conducted. Five offset project scenarios (6,000; 12,000; 20,000; 33.000; and 100,000 Korean Won/tCO2e) have been selected. It is estimated that there will be 2.44~3.43 million tCO2e of offsets available until 2020. This analysis forecasts a significant shortage of domestic offsets in ETS periods if no additional offset programs or methodologies are allowed.
    Keywords: Carbon Offset, Korean Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), Bass Diffusion Model, Marginal Abatement Cost, Offset supply
  • ANFIS Based Comparative Exhaust Gases Emissions Prediction Model of a Military Aircraft Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Isil Yazar, Yasin Şöhret, T. Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: In this paper, comparison of estimation methods for exhaust gaseous emissions developed for a military aircraft engine via adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) structure is introduced. For system identification process, combustion efficiency, engine work load and air-fuel ratio are preferred to be system inputs to obtain emission indexes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbon as system outputs. While comparing the estimation methodologies, two clustering methods in adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system structure, grid partitioning and subtractive clustering, are benefited to define membership functions. Hybrid optimization is preferred in training parts. As a conclusion remark of the present study, estimation error values of both clustering methods are found for different number of membership functions with the common training method. Nonetheless, training time saving is the advantage of subtractive clustering method in our study.
    Keywords: Aircraft emission, ANFIS, military aircraft, modelling, neuro-fuzzy, prediction, turboprop.
  • Assessing spatio-temporal dynamics of growing stock and increment: a case study in Andrn and Trabzon forest district enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatih Sivrikaya, Veysel Yıldırımer 
    Abstract: Monitoring and assessing spatio-temporal changes in forest ecosystem are quite important for sustainable management of natural resources. In order to assess these changes, total growing stock and annual increment of a forest must be known. For this purpose, we identified the spatio-temporal changes in the growing stock and increment, and explained the factors driving these changes using Geographical Information System (GIS) within forest management plans of Andırın and Trabzon Forest District Enterprise (FDE) in Turkey. To determine the spatio-temporal variability of growing stock and increment, the stand type maps related to case study areas were digitized and analyzed in GIS. The results indicated that there wasnt any significant increase in the forests area, whereas the total amount of growing stock increased by 39.0 % and 39.2 % in Andırın and Trabzon FDE, respectively. The main factors affecting growing stock changes were growing stock differences in same stand types in different periods, increase in productive forest area, increase in forest area and conversion of coppice forests to high forests in Andırın FDE. As a result, the stand types should be determined correctly in order to see whether there is a true increase in growing stock and increment and differences in site index should be take into account for determining stand type. It is suggested that the permanent sample plots should be used for preparing forest management plan instead of temporary sample plots as much as possible.
    Keywords: Coppice forests; Forest management plan; GIS; Growing stock, Increment
  • Extreme Precipitation Climate Change Scenario Evaluation over Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmet Öztopal 
    Abstract: Extreme precipitation events are the most important quantities for flood occurrences in any area and especially for groundwater recharge in arid and semi-arid regions. Their future predictions help to provide a scientific basis for evaluation and management of water resources potential. Among the future impacts on water resources are the climate change effects, which must be properly modeled and predicted for each region and country. In general regional climate models (RCM) are frequently used all over the world for such purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to expose the extreme precipitation occurrence estimations based on the A1B scenario for Turkey by using a RCM. In this paper, 8 different precipitation parameterizations are applied by use of the RegCM climate model on the basis of A1B climate scenario data. After extensive runs of the model 98-2 parameterization is selected as the best one according to root mean square error (RMSE) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis. Additionally, bias correction values are calculated for the same climate output from RegCM model and bias correction is performed. Finally, the extreme precipitation amounts are defined and calculated at 0.95 confidence level of the probability density function (PDF) over Turkey for different reference periods of past (1960-2000), near future (2021-2060) and far future (2061-2100). In the mean-time, the numbers of daily extreme precipitation occurrences are identified. Although the winter season results indicate significant increase in the extreme precipitation amount around the Northern Aegean and Eastern Black Sea regions for near future and around Southern Aegean and Western Black Sea regions for far future periods, significantly decreasing trend appear in the Northern Iraq, Syria, Mediterranean coasts and Southeastern Anatolia for both future periods. Another important result is that increase in the precipitation is expected in of the northern Iraq, Syria and Southeastern Anatolia for both future periods in autumn season. In winter, an increase in the number of daily extreme precipitation is obvious in the Black Sea Region for far future period and only in of the Northern Iraq there is high number of daily extreme precipitation for both future periods, however, for spring and summer seasons reductions are expected in general.
    Keywords: Climate change, downscaling, extreme precipitation, regional model, Turkey, water.
  • The influence of motorization on the climate warming   Order a copy of this article
    by Mariusz Holtzer, Marcin Górny, Angelika Kmita 
    Abstract: The automotive industry is under continual pressure because of the harmful effects of cars on the environment. Highly Developed Countries must implement programs related to the efficient use of fuel. One way to do this is to reduce vehicles weight, where an important role is played by the foundry industry, searching for new construction materials, with a lower specific gravity and suitable mechanical properties. The paper discusses the materials for the automotive industry: spheroidal graphite cast iron (SGI), compacted graphite cast iron (CGI), grey cast iron (FGI), aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys, comparing their functional properties, important from the point of view of their use as automotive castings. An assessment was performed of the impact of the aforementioned casting materials on the environment based on life-cycle analysis of the product.
    Keywords: warming; climate warming; motorization; greenhouse gases; castings.
  • Variability in stream flows of the Xiang River in a changing climate   Order a copy of this article
    by Guoqing Wang, Cuishan Liu 
    Abstract: Stream flow plays a crucial role in the environment, society and the economy. Variability and trends of recorded discharges of the Xiang River and the responses to climate changes were investigated. Results indicate rising trends in the annual and four seasonal temperatures over the Xiang River catchment and sub-catchments for 1960-2010, as well as variations in precipitation. Spring and autumn precipitation showed a slight decreasing trend, while annual precipitation presented increasing trend mainly due to greater increases in summer and winter precipitation. As a result of changes in climate, annual discharges recorded at three hydrometric stations Laobutou on the Xiangs upper reaches, Hengshan on its mid-section, and Xiangtan on its lower part, exhibit insignificant increasing trends for 1960-2010, with linear upward rates of 7.0, 45.7, and 47.5m3s-1/10a respectively. Variations of annual discharge series for 1960-2010 exist in three different phases from wet to dry to wet with a time span of approximately 16 years (i.e. 1960-1975, 1976-1992, and 1993-2010). During the dry phase (1976-1992), mean discharges at the three hydrometric stations were -5.52% (Laobutou), -6.73% (Hengshan), and -5.65% (Xiangtan) less than multiple-year average for 1960-2010. Variation trends of the seasonal discharges are generally in accordance with that of seasonal precipitation, with the exception of autumn discharges at the Xiangtan and Hengshan stations due to the influences of antecedent precipitation. Annual and seasonal discharges are highly correlated to catchment precipitation and weakly correlated to temperature. Changes in precipitation highly influence variability of stream flows of the Xiang River. A 1% change in precipitation will roughly lead to 2.08-2.27%, 2.02-3.37% and 1.9-2.05% changes in discharges at the Laobutou, Hengshan, and Xiangtan stations respectively. It is essential to consider potential impacts of climate change in future water resources management.
    Keywords: variation; climate change; stream flow; Xiang River
    by Z. Sen 
    Abstract: As for the trend identification, the literature is full of quantitative studies, but with respect to two-probability distribution function (PDF) description remains at qualitative level. The main purpose of this paper is to convert the two-PDF description into quantitative form for objective and quantitative assessments. Such a goal is achieved on the basis of innovative trend templates, which indicate the arithmetic averages and the standard deviations of the two equal length halves of the given temperature record. Two-PDF explanations are represented by three combinations as changes in the arithmetic averages, standard deviations and in both parameters through their logical connections with the innovative template description. The application of the methodology is given for four mean annual temperature records from Istanbul City, Turkey. Global warming variations are described quantitatively as increases or decreases in the statistical parameters. The proposed methodology can be applied for any temperature record in the world.
    Keywords: Global warming, trend, probability, innovative, template, quantification, climate change
  • Aerosol direct shortwave radiative forcing effect based on SBDART model in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong (China)   Order a copy of this article
    by Lili Li, Yunpeng Wang 
    Abstract: Aerosols play an important role in the energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. In this paper, we studied aerosol shortwave direct radiative forcing (DRF) effects in Pearl River Delta based on SBDART and a two-layer-single-wavelength model. Simulation results indicated that the underlying surface type and solar zenith angle have significant impacts on aerosol radiative forcing. The comparison between aerosol radiative forcing effects on urban asphalt surface and vegetation shows cooling and warming effects of aerosol shortwave radiative forcing on urban asphalt are much more apparent than that on vegetation, implying aerosols over asphalt-predominated cities will impact the local climate. Then we estimated variations of average DRF and net radiation flux with solar zenith angle in the Pearl River Delta. DRF indicates warming at solar zenith angles of 0
    Keywords: Aerosols; Shortwave direct radiative forcing; SBDART; Net flux; Underlying surface; Solar zenith angle;
  • Changes in precipitation from 1958 to 2012 in arid and semiarid regions of northern China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinchang Li, Yanfang Zhao, Xiaohui Fan 
    Abstract: We used a precipitation dataset from 1958 to 2012, collected at 58 meteorological stations across arid and semiarid regions of northern China, to look for monotonic trends and steps (abrupt changes) in the trends for annual and seasonal precipitation. We found that annual precipitation during the study period had decreased by 40.8 mm in semiarid regions, mainly caused by decreasing precipitation during the rainy season, versus increases of 34.4 mm in eastern arid regions and 36.4 mm in western arid regions, mainly caused by increasing precipitation in the pre-rainy season and winter. In arid regions, the magnitude of the precipitation increase increased moving from east to west, and the lower the annual precipitation, the larger the percentage increase. If the precipitation trends during the study period continue into the future, the west to east gradient in dryness may decrease in the study regions. An abrupt increase in the pre-rainy season precipitation occurred in the semiarid, eastern arid, and western arid regions in the early to mid-1980s, which was consistent with the period when rehabilitation of aeolian desertified land began in these regions. Therefore, although human activities undoubtedly had some impacts on aeolian desertification in arid and semiarid regions of northern China, the change in pre-rainy season precipitation may have been the key factor responsible for changes in aeolian desertification in the region through its effects on soil moisture, vegetation cover, and wind erosion of the soil.
    Keywords: precipitation; trend analysis; climate change; aeolian desertification; arid and semiarid regions.
  • Impact of climate change scenarios on hydrologic response of Upper Wardha catchment, Central India   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajashree Bothale 
    Abstract: Aim of present study is to investigate the impact of climate change scenarios on response of hydrologic unit based on global climate model. Impact of climate change is studied in Upper Wardha catchment, India by using Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM) and the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3) Global Circulation Model (GCM) A2 and B2 scenario data. Changes in extreme climate which affects the society and the environment is studied by 7 indices which show statistically significant increase in frequency of warm days, warm nights and hot days and decrease in cold days and cold nights. Continuous dry days and simple precipitation intensity index show negligible change in the future scenarios. Future scenarios (2011-2099) developed for downscaled meteorological variables, viz., minimum temperature (TMIN), maximum (TMAX) temperature and precipitation (PPT) show an increasing trend for TMIN, TMAX and summer season precipitation after calibration (1969-1985) and validation(1986-2001). An average rise of 2.430C and 1.880C in TMAX and 1.980C and 1.450C in TMIN is observed by 2080s under A2 and B2 scenario. Present scenario of the study lies between A2 and B2 scenario with trend from observed past data being observed as 0.70C. With general warming over the area, potential evapo-transpiration showed increase in loss by 5.9% and 6.24% in 2080s under A2 and B2 scenarios. The overall precipitation shows a decrease with respect to base but 54% and 46% rise in summer rain in A2 and B2 scenario by 2080s. The downscaled variables were used in Hydrologic Engineering Centers Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS). After calibrating (1988-2005) the model for daily flows (R2=0.72) and monthly flows (R2=0.81) and validating (2006-2012) for daily flows (R2=0.82) and monthly flows (R2=0.96), future flow scenarios were generated. The average annual streamflow showed a decrease of -7.6%, -6.7%, -9.29% respectively in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under A2 scenario and an increase of 8.06%, 10.34% and 7.81% respectively in the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under B2 scenario.
    Keywords: Climate change; Statistical downscaling; Extreme indices; SDSM; HEC-HMS; Central India; Upper Wardha
  • CFD analysis of CO2 adsorption in different adsorbents including activated carbon, zeolite and Mg-MOF-74   Order a copy of this article
    by Medhat Nemitallah 
    Abstract: The present study focuses on modelling of an adsorption system for CO2 in different adsorbents including activated carbon, zeolite and metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as one of the most promising methods for post-combustion carbon capture. The adsorption model is based on a modified Dubinin-Astakov (D-A) adsorption equation. The D-A adsorption equation parameters like enthalpic factor, entropic factor, limiting pressure, limiting adsorption are found by regression analysis using CO2 adsorption isotherm for different adsorbents. Simulations are performed using Fluent CFD commercial software. At tank entrance, mass flux profile of CO2 is established using UDF written in visual C++. Heat and mass transfer features of the numerical model are validated by the experimental data of hydrogen adsorption on activated carbon. The adsorption characteristics of CO2 in activated carbon are studied in details under fixed pressure of 2 bar. This is followed by comparisons between different adsorbents including activated carbon, zeolite and MOFs. The effects of storage pressure on adsorption are studied for different adsorbents for a range of pressure from 20 kPa to 100 kPa. For all adsorbents, the results showed high adsorption at the entrance and near wall regions. However, low adsorption and high temperature are obtained at the central region of the storage bed. The adsorption capacity of all adsorbents has been increased by increasing the storage pressure. Under the same pressure, Mg-MOF-74 adsorption material is found to have the highest adsorption capacity as compared to zeolite and activated carbon.
    Keywords: Post-combustion carbon capture; CO2 Adsorption; Activated carbon; Zeolite; Metal organic frameworks (MOFs).
  • Determination of Efficient Execution of Dry-Ice Blasting for Shipyard Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Veysel Alankaya 
    Abstract: Blasting process in shipyards can be marked as one of the most significant source of waste. Blasting is mandatory for the surface preparation before painting process in new shipbuilding or the removal of the old paint from the surface of used vessels. In this study, dry-ice blasting for surface preparation is investigated by means of impact effectiveness of the abrasive material replacing the traditional methods with less contaminating, environmental safe and less human health effecting alternative process. An experiment is performed to observe the efficiency and commercial usage of dry-ice blasting method. Additionally, numerical analyses which are derived by a commercial dynamic explicit finite element program, are presented denoting the blasting efficiency and damage behavior by particle velocity according to paint thickness. A new point of view on choosing dry-ice blasting velocity, decreasing amount of waste, time and the pollution for a green world is investigated. The effective use of dry-ice pallets which are the most environmentally friendly blasting material, is investigated to perform a commercially suitable method. A chart is presented for dry-ice blasting, performing the effective velocity through paint thickness and cleaning area.
    Keywords: Blasting process, dry-ice blasting, waste materials, paint removal, impact damage.
  • Modeling of lead removal from battery industrial wastewater treatment sludge leachate on cement kiln dust by using Elmans RNN   Order a copy of this article
    by Semra Coruh 
    Abstract: In this study, an Elman type recurrent neural network (RNN) was employed to develop a prediction model for lead removal from industrial sludge leachate using cement kiln dust. The leaching characteristics of industrial sludge were observed through the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Dosage, contact time, and temperature were considered as independent experimental factors. A comparison between the model results and experimental data showed that Elmans RNN model is able to predict lead removal from industrial sludge leachate. The outcomes of suggested Elmans RNN modeling were then compared to batch experimental studies. The results show that industrial sludge leachate using cement kiln dust is an efficient sorbent, and Elmans RNN is dynamic in nature and is able to model the batch experimental system.
    Keywords: Lead, cement kiln dust, leaching, adsorption, Elman’s RNN
  • Understanding Climate Change Risk Perception in the United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Himanshu Grover, Samuel Brody, Arnold Vedlitz 
    Abstract: Public perception of risk from climate change is an important determinant of willingness and cooperation of the citizens in supporting climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Although there is a growing body of research focusing on a variety of individual, cultural, and organizational factors that affect an individuals perception of risk, only a few studies have adopted an interdisciplinary analytical approach to understand public perception of climate change risks. This study extends earlier interdisciplinary research initiatives and proposes an integrated model for understanding climate change risk perception. Using measures of objective risk, individual climate stress, and individual capacity, we explain the public perception of climate change risks based on a national representative survey of American citizens. Geographic Information Systems and spatial analytical techniques are used to supplement the survey data with measures of objective risk associated with the location of each respondent. Analysis of the data using multivariate regression suggests that increased objective risk and individual capacity result in significantly higher perception of risk from climate change, whereas higher individual climate stress results in lower risk perceptions.
    Keywords: climate change, risk perception, objective risk, individual climate stress, individual capacity
  • A comparison of thermal decomposition of vineyard pruning waste in the flow of air and nitrogen   Order a copy of this article
    by Peter Rantuch, Juraj Ondruska, Igor Wachter 
    Abstract: The article deals with a thermal decomposition of vineyard pruning waste. The samples were tested by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry in the flow of air and nitrogen. Thermal gravimetric analyses were performed up to a temperature of 650
    Keywords: thermal oxidation, pyrolysis, thermogravimetry, activation energy, vineyard waste
  • Analysis of time series variations of temperature and its forecast in the northeastern Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Hasan Nury, Khairul Hasan, Jahir Bin Alam, Mahedi Hasan 
    Abstract: Variation of temperature due to climate change has an intense effect of meteorological and other environmental areas. Therefore, time series analysis of temperature data can be a valuable tool to investigate variability pattern as well as to predict short and long-term changes in the temperature time series. Summing up this entire problem, here in this study linear trend analysis has been conducted to sort out the basic idea of the pattern of temperature variation and SARIMA (Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) model has been employed to make a forecast of the upcoming five years on a monthly basis. The linear trend showed a rise in the maximum (2.97℃ and 0.59℃ per hundred years) & minimum temperature (2.17℃ and 2.73℃ per hundred years) at Sylhet and Sreemanal station respectively. Anomaly of these regions also showed increasing temperature. SARIMA model was fitted for temperature time series with its traditional three steps, identification, diagnosis and forecasting respectively. For monthly maximum and minimum temperature at Sylhet and Sreemangal stations, respective models were (3, 1, 3) (1, 1, 1)12, (2, 1, 3) (0, 1, 1)12, (3, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)12 and (2, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)12. This will help the policy makers to understand the nature and scale of possible temperature changes in Northeastern Bangladesh.
    Keywords: SARIMA; linear trend; anomaly; temperature; time series; maximum temperature; minimum temperature; variability pattern; predict short and long-term change
  • Combustion performance and emissions of diesel/biodiesel blended fuels in a residential reverse flame boiler   Order a copy of this article
    by Bilal Sungur, Bahattin Topaloglu, Lutfu Namli, Hakan Ozcan, Mustafa Ozbey 
    Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the performance of diesel and biodiesel blended fuels in a water-cooled flame tube boiler. The combustion performance and gas emissions of B10, B20 and B30 were studied and these were compared with the diesel fuel. To investigate the combustion characteristics of biodiesel blends, including pure diesel, the temperature distributions in the combustion chamber and smoke tube, exhaust temperature, and exhaust gas emissions were determined. The results showed that the size of the peak temperature zones in the combustion chamber decreased gradually from B0 to B30. As a consequence of reduced temperatures in combustion chamber, NOx emissions decreased from 53 to 47 ppm and CO emissions increased slightly from 9.6 to 12.8 ppm. Also, CO2 emissions decreased from 13.2 to 12.8 with increasing biodiesel ratio in the diesel fuel. Results also showed that the thermal efficiencies of diesel/biodiesel blended fuels remained almost the same.
    Keywords: biodiesel blends; boiler; emissions; temperature distribution in combustion chamber; renewable fuels
  • The active-layer ice temperature (ALIT) increases more obvious on a cold glacier than a temperate glacier during the past 30 years   Order a copy of this article
    by Wang Shijin, Ding Baohong 
    Abstract: On the basis of the historical documents and measured active-layer ice temperatures (ALIT) on Baishui Glacier No. 1 (BG1), Yulong Snow Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau and Urumqi Glacier No. 1 (UG1), the eastern Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, this paper revealed and compared their inter-decadal response of the ALIT in the past 30 years. The results showed that the daily mean ALIT increased by 0.24
    Keywords: the active-layer ice temperature; inter-decadal variation; comparative study
  • Climate Variability, the Proliferation and Expansion of Major Livestock Diseases in East Gojjam, Northwestern Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Desalegn Y Ayal, Muluneh Woldetsadikb Abshare, Tesfu Kassa, Getachew Tilahun, Nigatu Kebede , Walter Leal Filho 
    Abstract: The livestock sector in developing countries is subject to climate and non-climate stressors. Previous studies did not address the effect of climate variability and extremes on the livestock diseases and livestock system in the highlands of Ethiopia. This study explores the link between climate variability and its effect on livestock production and system. Mixed research method was used to explore and explain the problem. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The results of the study show that farmers have perceived an increase in temperature and the erratic behavior of rainfall in its onset, cessation and intensity over time. The study also reveals that tick and tick borne diseases, trypanosomiasis and epidemics of infectious diseases such as anthrax and black leg occurred frequently. Farmers in the area practiced mixed rainfed livestock farming system. Deterioration of pasture, diseases and shortage of water and land are among the major constraints for livestock development. Livestock are kept for drafting, manure, milk, meat, packing, means of income and transportation. Oxen, calves, small ruminants and donkeys are kept in the same house with the farmers. Multifunctionality of the sector is complemented with other livelihoods and used to diversify their economic interest and open access to informal loan. Thus, the sector acts as insurance against shocks.
    Keywords: climate variability, disease, awareness, livelihood, livestock
    by Stella Bezergianni, Athanasios Dimitriadis, Loukia Chrysikou 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and environmental benefits from integrating waste cooking oil (WCO) in a refinery, towards producing a new hybrid diesel. This new hybrid diesel, partially of fossil- and partially of bio-based origin, was evaluated as an alternative to market diesel according EN 590 specifications, showing comparable if not superior quality in the case of the former. Another scope was to compare the environmental impacts of the new hybrid diesel and the market diesel, in order to identify the most environmentally friendly fuel with the higher sustainability potential. The comparison was based on a Well-To-Tank analysis (WTT) including only the production processes of both fuels considered. Based on this study, the new hybrid diesel produced via co-hydroprocessing petroleum fractions with WCO presented the lower carbon foot-print, validating its sustainability superiority. It is evident that integrating residual biomass in a refinery is the most sustainable approach for incorporating biomass in the transportation sector.
    Keywords: co-hydroprocessing; hybrid diesel; biofuel; LCA; HVO; WCO
  • Coupled Geomechanical and Reactive Geochemical Model for Fluid, Heat Flow and Convective Mixing: Application for CO2 Geological Sequestration into Saline Aquifer with Heterogeneity   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronglei Zhang 
    Abstract: The significance of thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes is well-identified in the operation of CO2 geo-sequestration. Geomechanical and geochemical effects may significantly affect aqueous phase composition, porosity and permeability of the formation, which in turn influence fluid advection, convection and transport. A sequentially coupled mathematical algorithm is employed to simulate reactive transport of water, CO2 gas and species in subsurface formation with geomechanics, which is bale to model the THMC processes of the fluid advection and convection, heat and solute transport in aqueous and gaseous phase, mean stress, and geochemical reactions under both equilibrium and kinetic conditions. A 2D model with complex chemical compositions is presented to analyse the THMC processes quantitatively, including geomechamical effect due to CO2 injection, dispersion and convective mixing due to CO2 dissolution, mineral alteration due to chemical reaction of water, CO2 and rock minerals, coupled effects of geochemical reaction and geomechanics.
    Keywords: THMC Processes; Convective Mixing; CO2 Geo-sequestration;Chemical Reaction; reactive Transport
  • Decreasing energy consumption and carbon footprint in a school building: A comparative study on energy audits   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Zeki Yilmazoglu 
    Abstract: Energy audit of a school building was carried out to evaluate the effects of the building retrofitting on energy efficiency and carbon footprint. Lighting intensities of the selected areas in the building were measured and thermal images of the building envelope were compared before and after retrofitting. Combustion performance of the boilers was measured and the effects of the insulation on the natural gas consumption were investigated. According to the results, the lighting system renovation decreased the share of lighting in total electricity consumption of the buildings by 53.2% for the recommended lighting intensities in the selected zones. As a result of the lighting system renovation, carbon footprint of the campus decreased 308715 kgCO2 per year. Natural gas consumption decreased by 25.3% after building envelope insulation which equals to 137078 kgCO2 per year.
    Keywords: energy audit; carbon footprint; energy efficiency; lighting; thermal image; building retrofitting; greenhouse gases
  • Regional Climate Model simulation for temperature and precipitation over South Asia using different physical parameterization schemes   Order a copy of this article
    by Mujtaba Hassan, Du Pengfei 
    Abstract: The ability of ICTP Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4.3) is investigated by using two land surface schemes: the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer scheme (BATS) and the Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5). To attain the best model configuration over the South Asia region, six sensitivity experiments are conducted with three different cumulus convection schemes. RegCM4.3 coupled with CLM3.5 and mixed convection scheme option (MIX-CLM), produced better simulation than BATS. The cold winter bias and the intensities of wet-dry biases over the foothills of HindukushKarakorum-Himalaya (HKH) and Central India are substantially reduced with MIX-CLM. In terms of seasonal variability, results suggest that different convection schemes behaved differently over sub-regions of the domain. The annual cycles of precipitation and temperature are better captured over the Bay of Bengal and Western Ghats by MIX-CLM. In spite of some deficiencies, the MIX-CLM scheme improves the model performance over the various parts of the domain.
    Keywords: Regional climate modeling, Seasonal variability, Physical parameterization, South Asia, Model evaluation
    by Emmanuel Onuh, Freddie Inambao 
    Abstract: Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Carbon (II) oxide (CO) emissions from engine running on pure biodiesel constitute one of the environmental challenges to its application as fuel. Verifying their sources and production pattern is an essential first step to tackling the challenge. 100% biodiesel derived from Moringa, Jatropha and Waste oil along with petroleum diesel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. It was observed that oxygen concentration and combustion temperature are the primary drivers of a kinetically determined process. NOx emission trended with Zeldovich mechanism prediction and thus increases with increasing O2 concentration and temperature. CO2 dissociation at elevated combustion temperature in a suppressed O2 concentration regime governs CO production for normal diesel running at high load but, low temperature and high viscosity account for same effect in biodiesel runs. CO therefore increases with increasing temperature and decreasing O2 concentrations for petroleum diesel but for biodiesel, the reverse is the case. Novel EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) and LTC (Low temperature combustion) engine therefore holds the key to unlocking biodiesel potential and remediating some of the difficulties observed with petroleum diesel.
    Keywords: Pure biodiesel, Zeldovich mechanism, Dissociation, EGR(Exhaust Gas Recirculation), LTC (Low Temperature Combustion.
  • A novel alternative fuel for diesel engine: a Comparative experimental investigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Senthil Ramalingam, Ramalingam Ganesan, Silambarasan Rajendran, Pranesh Ganesan 
    Abstract: In this present study performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jamun Methyl Ester in a direct injection diesel engine was experimentally investigated. Fuels were tested in a Single cylinder, Direct Injection (DI), water cooled diesel engine. The effects of JAME-diesel blends on engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads.. It is found that JAME20 (20% JAME + 80% diesel) blend showed better performance and reduced emission. However a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to diesel was observed when using biodiesel-diesel blends. The ignition delay, maximum heat release rate and combustion duration were poor for biodiesel-diesel blends compared to diesel. The experiment shows that JAME20 can be used as an alternate fuel for direct injection diesel engine without any modifications. Thus jamun methyl ester can indeed become the new appropriate source for biodiesel, with environmental benefits.
    Keywords: Jamun methyl ester; performance; emission; combustion; transesterification;diesel engine;
  • Green Sports Supporting a Low-Carbon Society: Inspiration from Japan   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaochen Chen, Jia Niu, Ken'ichi Nakagami, Qian Zhang, Xuepeng Qian, Jun Nakajima 
    Abstract: Global warming, mainly due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, has a devastating effect on our living planet. To combat it and foster a low-carbon society, contributions from the sports community are needed. Accordingly, the concept of green sports has emerged, calling for green performance of sports infrastructure, green production in sports manufacturing, and green awareness of sports community. In this respect, Japan, as a leader in both Asian sports and worldwide sustainable development, has valuable experiences, including widespread stakeholders participation, substantial efforts, and outstanding achievements. Inspired by Japans examples, this study not only summarizes mainstream recommendations for the development of green sports, but also presents two innovative proposalslinking green sports with market-based flexibility mechanisms and promoting environmental education through sports celebritiesand the prospects for these approaches. This article could be used by worldwide sports community as reference for making contributions to the establishment of a low-carbon society.
    Keywords: Green Sports; Low-Carbon Society; Green Performance; Green Production; Green Awareness; Flexibility Mechanism; Environmental Education; Japan
  • A review on characteristics, advantages and limitations of palm oil biofuel   Order a copy of this article
    by Md Iqbal Mahmud, Haeng Muk Cho 
    Abstract: Consumption and use of natural resources is a high concerning issue in modern days. Increasing in fuel price, limited resources of fossil oil and great concerns on environmental matters has led the researchers and scientists to concerted and escalating research and development efforts in search of renewable and environmental friendly alternative energy sources. In this connection, recent strong demand for renewable fuels has resulted in increased production of biofuels worldwide for solving transportation fuel problems. Currently, biofuels from palm oil is establishing as a great source of alternative fuel. Palm oil can be used to produce biodiesel, which is also known as palm oil methyl ester. Palm oil biodiesel is often blended with other fuels to create palm oil biodiesel blends. This paper highlights on biofuel/biodiesel production from palm oil, use, advantages and limitations.
    Keywords: Palm oil, Biofuel, Biodiesel, Emission, Transesterification.
  • Nonlinear Dynamics Of Monthly Temperature Data Set In The Northwestern (Marmara Region) Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Haci Ahmet Yildirim, Hamza Altinsoy 
    Abstract: Studies observing climatic and atmospheric events have had great importance, especially in the 21 th century. The destructive impacts of unprecedented natural events on human life inherently triggered researchers to be concentrated on this significant area. The extreme climatic events, natural hazards, unexpected and continuing alterations of climatic parameters behaviors evoke an increasing interest to understand the main dynamics lying behind them. Temperature is one of the essential quantities which affect the agriculture, economy, survival of animal and plant species. Turkey, located in the interconnection of Europe and Asia, contains various climate types. In this research, dynamics of temperature values over northeastern Turkey is investigated via nonlinear time series techniques. Monthly data set, through the period between 1960 and 2006, from various parts of the region is used to understand the underlying dynamics and its spatial distribution. Well-known phase space reconstruction method is used to calculate the maximal Lyapunov exponent for each data set which will indicate the chaotic behavior. Along with the nonlinear time series analysis, statistical properties of the data are also determined to reveal any possible trends in the data. Calculated positive Lyapunov exponents indicate that the time series of average monthly temperature values have a possible chaotic underlying dynamics over the region.
    Keywords: Chaos, Lyapunav Exponents, Turkey, Marmara, Maximum Temperature
  • Evaluation of Wind Energy Potential in a University Campus   Order a copy of this article
    by Saban Pusat, Mustafa Tahir Akkoyunlu 
    Abstract: Today, zero energy campus concept is a popular topic. Zero energy attempts are important for reducing global warming effect and greenhouse gas emissions. In the current study, wind characteristics and wind energy potential of Yildiz Technical University Davupaşa Campus were investigated. Data from wind measurement station (10 m height) in Campus area was examined. Due to the gaps in the measured data, one year long data was lumped by using all the measured data (25 months). The lumped data was used in all energy analyses. Mean wind speed was calculated as 3.45 m/s at 10 m and north northeast (30o) was defined as prevailing wind direction. Annual wind energy production and capacity factor for Fuhrl
    Keywords: Zero energy; Wind Speed; Wind Energy Potential; Yildiz Technical University; Turkey; Wasp; University Campus
  • A study on the use of propane (R-290) in vending machines as a substitute for R-134a to minimize the global warming potential   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaled Alkhaledi, Kenneth Means 
    Abstract: The refrigerant R-134a is widely used in vending machines, and it is a greenhouse gas with high global warming potential. The Unites States Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that R-134a be replaced with an environmentally friendly refrigerant. In this study, we compared the performance and safety of R-290 as a substitute for R-134a in vending machines. We compared the two refrigerants in a vending machine equipped with a single-stage compressor, four thermocouples, and a data log recorder. Our results demonstrate that R-290 performs as well as R-134a; in addition, it uses 31.4% less energy and 60% less refrigerant. The evaporator and condenser temperatures for R-290 were comparable to those for R-134a. Therefore, we conclude that R-290 is an excellent replacement for R-134a. In addition, R-134as global warming potential is 1300, while R-290s global warming potential is 3, and its ozone depletion potential is zero. Finally, R-290 can be used safely and complies with Underwriter Laboratory
    Keywords: global warming potential; greenhouse gas; R-134a refrigerant; propane (R-290) refrigerant; vending machine.
  • The environmental impact of renewables   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The aim of this research is twofold. Firstly, to introduce a trilemma of a global sustainable energy system and, secondly, to perform a quantitative assessment of the effect of renewables on the environmental impacts of electricity generation, taking into account the existing divergences between developed and developing countries. In a multi-regional, multi-country, dynamic approach, a regression analysis is performed to determine the causal relationship between renewables and environmental indicators on climate change, human toxicity, respiratory impacts, ionising radiation, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, land use and mineral and fossil resource depletion. Results show that renewable energy consumption significantly improves environmental outcomes in both developed and developing countries. As a result, renewables represent a suitable climate change mitigation option.
    Keywords: renewables; environment; developed countries; developing countries; trilemma
    Abstract: Ethyl ester of Jatropha oil (JEE) was prepared using acid catalyzed transesterification method. The physico-chemical properties of JEE were determined. Blends of JEE were prepared with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% butanol on volumetric basis. Performance, emission and heat release analysis of different blends were carried in a single cylinder diesel engine. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with JEE and its blends was higher than diesel. The emissions of CO, NOx, and Smoke for JEE and blends were lower while emission of HC was higher than diesel. The peak heat release rate for diesel and JEE100 were 135.41/
    Keywords: Jatropha Ethyl Ester, Butanol, Performance , Emission
  • Technical, Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Hybrid System Containing CHP, Solar Panel, Wind Turbine with Electrolyzer and Battery as Energy Storage: Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Effatnejad, Kambiz Rezapour, Farzad Vazinram 
    Abstract: Abstract: The environmental problems by fossil fuels and shortage of these kinds of energy cause that many governmental organization put incentive conditions to attract private companies to invest in renewable energies. In this regard, Iran has many potential of renewable resources. From view point of solar radiation, Iran has potential of installation of 60,000 MW as solar power plant and 100,000 MW as Wind power plant. In this paper the economic and environmental analysis of some available renewable resources including photovoltaic panels (PV), Wind Turbine (WT), combined heat and power (CHP) plant, reformer, electrolyzer and battery have been utilized for a hospital in Tabriz. The cost of energy (COE), internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) of all feasible and economical combination of resources have been investigated. The input related data have been entered in HOMER software based on Tabriz climate. The simulation has been carried out for different amount of sensitivities including price of natural gas, CO2 social penalty cost, wind speed and global solar radiation. Moreover, different combination of utilization of resources from viewpoint of NPV, IRR and COE has been studied. Finally the most economic hybrid system for the mentioned hospital in different amount of sensitivities has been analyzed.
    Keywords: Hybrid system, renewable resources, combined heat and power (CHP), environmental impacts, cost of energy, internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV).
  • Climatic and Energetic Analysis of the Atmospheric Clearness Index in Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Qassem Tarawneh 
    Abstract: This study presents the solar potential of Saudi Arabia in terms of the clearness index (CI) to explore the effect of climate on solar irradiation. Solar irradiance polygons (SIP) are used to find the variations in solar terrestrial irradiation. The country is divided into four climatic regions based on similar weather conditions as determined by numerous studies, and the solar irradiation records in these regions are grouped into two time periods of roughly 10-years each, depending on data availability. The SIPs show a decline in solar irradiation in the second time period for all regions except the eastern region. The maximum difference between the time periods, of approximately 10.9 (MJ/M2 Day), is found in October at Alhefa station in the southwestern region, while at Khurais station in the eastern region the values of solar irradiation are very close together, within 2 (MJ/M2 Day). In the eastern region, an increase in solar irradiation was rather frequently encountered the second time period, which is unusual for Saudi Arabia and is a tendency only found elsewhere at the Tayef station in the western region. To engage in climatic interpretation and determine the effect of monthly climate conditions on solar energy, the Angstrom equation is used, incorporating data regarding solar irradiation and sunshine hours (i.e. cloud cover), to produce solar Angstrom polygons (SAP). Finally, CI is taken from the SAP to estimate the solar irradiation potential in order to compare the measured solar irradiation against what was estimated, and a maximum relative error of 11% was found. Variation in cloud cover was found to be insignificant over the two time periods, in spite of the fact that solar irradiation generally declined in the second period, which strongly indicates anthropogenic factors are at play.
    Keywords: Clearness Index; climatology; Saudi Arabia; Solar Radiation; Weather Systems
  • The Effects of Land Cover Changes on Forest Carbon Storage in 40 Years: A Case Study in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Uzay Karahalil, Emin Zeki Baskent, Sinan Bulut 
    Abstract: In this study, forest biomass carbon storage changes were estimated for a case study area of
    Keywords: Carbon storage; land cover change; landscape metrics; forest dynamics; Çaykara planning unit; Uzungöl Lake.

Special Issue on: "R&R2014 "Application of Sustainable Technologies for Water and Waste Recycling and Reuse,"

  • Composition and Energy Potential of Industrial Sludge Derived Synthetic Gas   Order a copy of this article
    by Atakan Ongen, Serdar Aydin, Semiha Arayici 
    Abstract: The study focused on the synthetic gas formation and gasification efficiency of an industrial sludge. Optimum conditions for gasification were determined and content of synthetic gas was investigated. Gasification process was carried out at over 700 oC in a lab-scale fixed bed steel reactor. The gasification is a chemical process in which organic matter, high pressure and high temperature steam and oxygen are reacted to form a synthetic gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons which can be used as a gaseous fuel, or can be further refined to produce hydrogen gas. The solid fuel gas mixture is typically carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. This process requires more steps than the conventional combustion. The results showed that synthetic production increased in parallel with the reactor temperature. It is reported that during the gasification process, all of the useful molecules which produce energy when burned are separated from the unwanted parts of the organic matter such as soot, tar, and ash. Therefore, this process is much cleaner than combustion process. Gasification studies over 700 oC produced a synthetic gas that involved 20-30% CO, 30-40% H2 and 5-15% CH4 by volume. Calorific values of 2000 kcal/m3 in average and maximum 3000 kcal/m3 were achieved by gasification both with dried air and pure oxygen as gasification agents.
    Keywords: Energy recovery, synthetic gas, sludge, gasification
  • The Relationship between Income Level and CFP Level of the Provinces in Turkey: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Emine Elmaslar Ozbas, Nuket Sivri, Batuhan Sarıturk, Atakan Ongen, H. Kurtuluş Ozcan, Dursun Zafer Seker 
    Abstract: This study determines the distribution of carbon footprint values (CFP) in Turkey by income levels, gender, age group, provinces where people live and the geographical regions of these provinces. In addition, % distribution of human activities which lead to CFP (food, travel, home, stuff) has been analyzed. The carbon emission values assessed in this study have been compared with annual carbon emission distributions of various countries. In comparison by income levels, it was observed that mainly consumption-based usages (48%) take part in spending of people in the lowest income section while travel costs (42%) of people having high income have a significant contribution to CFP values. In assessment by age groups, it was observed that the highest CFP value is obtained by those aged 40 or older (in average; 17.1 tons CO2 per capita). In assessment of CFP values on the basis of geographical region and province, it was seen that high CFP values which result from the fuel type used for heating in eastern regions of Turkey replace CFP values related to transportation in western parts. In Turkey, annual carbon emission value is 15.1 tons CO2 per capita in average. This value is similar to annual carbon emission per capita of European countries such as Spain, France.
    Keywords: Carbon footprint (CFP); Turkey; annual CO2 emission; income level
  • Treatment of waste activated sludge by means of alkaline hydrolysis under mild conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Cristina Collivignarelli, Marco Sordi, Alessandro Abbà, Federico Castagnola, Giorgio Bertanza 
    Abstract: Proper strategies for reducing the sludge production are a key factor for a correct wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) management. This paper describes an experimental study on sludge thermal alkaline hydrolysis under mild conditions (temperatures from 40 to 70
    Keywords: Alkaline hydrolysis; thermal treatment; sludge minimization; COD solubilization; dewaterability
  • Optimization of Nutrients and Metals Release from Municipal Sewage Sludge by Chemical Extraction using Box-Behnken Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayla Uysal, Dilara Tuncer 
    Abstract: Chemical extraction is a promising method for separating elements from sewage sludge by using chemicals. In this study, sulfuric acid (inorganic acid) and citric acid (organic acid) using Box-Behnken design were utilized in order to release the nutrients and metals fixed in the anaerobic digested sludge and dewatered sludge. For the dewatered sludge, release of 16.27 mg/L P and 120.74 mg/L NH4+ were obtained at optimized conditions with citric acid 0.3 M, sulfuric acid 6% and reaction time 105 min, respectively. For the digested sludge, release of 764.1 mg/L P and 388.3 mg/L NH4+ were achieved at optimized conditions with citric acid 0.1 M, sulfuric acid 6% and reaction time 180 min, respectively. Extraction from digested sludge would give a higher release of nutrients than extraction from dewatered sludge. The results indicate a high release of P and NH4+ from digested sludge with only use of inorganic and organic acids, without heat or pressure. In all experimental conditions, Fe and Zn were released together with nutrients. But, Al and Cu were extremely low release from the sludges. For digested sludge, a minimum Fe and Zn release amount of 154.6 mg/L and 58.1 mg/L was achieved at optimized conditions with citric acid 0.5 M, sulfuric acid 2% and reaction time 105 min, respectively. Thus, this test conditions are thought to be more appropriate for the phosphorus and ammonium recovery from digested sludge due to a low release of metals.
    Keywords: Box-Behnken design, dewatered sludge, digested sludge, extraction, metals release, nutrients release, optimization.
  • A Study on Biodiesel Production from the Compounds of Brewed Tea Waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Duygu Celebcioglu Yavuz, Hayriye Olcer 
    Abstract: Biomass takes an important place in renewable energy sources and pyrolysismethod, one of the thermal processes, has been widely used in the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel and chemical substances. The main aim in pyrolysis is to obtain synthetic, liquid and gas fuels from biomass. In this study pyrolysis of tea waste and the products yielded at the end of the pyrolysis, which is one of biomass sources which has an important place in the renewable energy sources, have been researched. By thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of brewed tea waste, thermal decomposition phases were viewed in the nitrogen atmosphere from room temperature to 1000 oC. And then FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry) analyses were carried out to make qualitative descriptions of the liquid acquired in the wake of pyrolysis analysis. According to the experiment results, it has been found out that the products can be used as liquid fuel. According to the results of the experiments solid product yielding dropped from 90,85 % to 2,95 % in line with temperature rise. Moreover, FTIR and GC/MS analyses have proved that the products acquired not only consist of acetone, hydrocarbons, phenol-its derivatives and caffeine but they could be used as liquid fuel as well.
    Keywords: biomass; pyrolysis; brewed tea waste; bio fuel; recycling of tea waste
  • Brass Pickling Bath Waste Waters: Nitric Acid, Cu++, Zn++ and Pb++ Separation and Recycling by an Hybrid Process Diffusion Dialysis Cementation - Precipitation   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamel-Eddine Bouhidel, Afaf Lalmi, Chahrazad Amrane 
    Abstract: research work applies a clean technology to treat the concentrated waste waters of a used HNO3 brass pickling bath issued from a large industrial plant. The literature review shows the originality of this topic which has been rarely studied. An hybrid process is applied to separate the mixture nitric acid - dissolved metals (Cu++, Zn++ and Pb++) through the following steps:rn Diffusion dialysis to separate, purify and recycle the HNO3 excess;rn Selective precipitation of Pb++ as Pb3( PO4 )2 at a low pH;rn Cementation of Cu by Zn from the mixture Cu++ / Zn++;rn Crystallization or precipitationof the pure Zn(NO3)2 remaining solution.rnExcellent laboratory scale results have bee obtained. They constitute a feasible alternative to the actual destructive process based on HNO3 neutralization and metallic hydroxides precipitation with serious drawbacks: Loss of an expensive acid, pollution by nitrates, consumption of alcali and an expensive difficult sludge management ( filtration , storage , fate ).rn
    Keywords: brass pickling bath, nitric acid, diffusion dialysis, metals recovery, cementation, plating industry

Special Issue on: "GCGW-14 "Global Warming and its Energy Solutions,"

  • Causes of Global Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Cuixiang Zhong 
    Abstract: The authors recent research on the origin and evolution of Earth shows that with the growth of Earths mass, Earth can absorb more and more gas molecules from the cosmic space, including water vapor and carbon dioxide produced by the combustion of the Sun, and the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases have caused global warming. Additionally, the author has also discovered that volcanism can obviously alter the orbit of the Earth and therefore is another key factor for climate change. The latter research mainly includes the derivation of a formula on volcanic eruption changing the earths revolution speed and another formula on the earths revolution speed variation causing the Earths orbital variation. According to these formulas, through computers high precision computation, the author found that volcanic eruptions at a certain scale can indeed cause the Earths orbital variation, thus causing global warming or cooling, even making the Earth enter an interglacial period or a glacial period.
    Keywords: global climate change; glacial period; interglacial period; volcanism; orbital variation
  • The Impacts of Vehicle Development on Beijings Climate Change and Relevant Countermeasures   Order a copy of this article
    by Guanhua Yue, Yinghan Yu, Haiyao Miao 
    Abstract: The sharp increase of motor vehicle uses greatly increases traffic pressure, and vehicle emissions are one of the main sources leading to haze weather and other climate change problems. An investigation has been undertaken to review Beijings vehicle development and pollutant emissions trends in recent years. Our data showed that the number of Beijings automobile ownership has been ranked top in China in recent years, nitrogen oxides emissions are higher than that in other fields, and CO2 emissions is about 10% of the total. Furthermore, the PM2.5 concentration in some major traffic areas of Beijing are monitored, the results showed that there is a PM2.5 pollutant peak at the height of 30m-40m and a lowest PM2.5 concentration at 12:00am-16:00pm on a working day. Finally, by comparing the differences in the vehicles number and management policy among major cities in the word, the author put forward some countermeasures for vehicle administration in Beijing.
    Keywords: Beijing; vehicle development; urban traffic; pollutant emissions; PM2.5; haze weather; climate change; policy; differences; countermeasures.
  • Impact of Global Warming on Thermal Performance of Domestic Buildings using Probabilistic Climate Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Tian, Pieter de Wilde 
    Abstract: The uncertainty in climate change predictions is an important factor in research into the impact of global warming on the thermal environment of buildings. This paper explores the impact of climate change on a domestic building in the UK, and assesses the measures that can be taken for better adaptation to such changes. Probabilistic climate change projections (UKCP09) are used to explore the uncertainties in predictions of annual heating energy, carbon emissions, and overheating risk due to climate change for a representative case study house. Global sensitivity analysis methods are implemented to identify key variables affecting these three performance indicators. Simulations indicate that the uncertainties in overheating risk will become significantly larger over time than uncertainties in heating energy and carbon emissions. For this case study building, the room heating set-point temperature has more influence on heating energy use compared to continuous/intermittent heating mode. The energy use of appliances is the most influential source for carbon emissions in this house.
    Keywords: climate change; residential buildings; ground source heat pump; uncertainty analysis; sensitivity analysis

Special Issue on: "Developments in Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage,"

  • Supercritical drying: A promising technique on synthesis of sorbent for CO2 capture   Order a copy of this article
    by Yong Kong, Xiaodong Shen, Sheng Cui, Maohong Fan 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present a new technique, supercritical drying (SCD), for CO2 capture, utilization and storage (CCUS). To investigate the effect of drying methods on the structure and CO2 capture performance of an aerogel sorbent, amine hybrid silica aerogel (AHSA) was prepared by SCD and ambient pressure drying (APD). The characterization results of N2 adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the pore structure and surface amine content of the sorbent are significantly improved because of the use of SCD. The CO2 adsorption capacities of AHSA dried by SCD are much higher than that of AHSA dried by APD. The CO2 adsorption kinetics of the adsorbent under different conditions was also investigated. The results reveal that the sorbent preparation method is inspiring and its resulting sorbent is dynamic in low-concentration CO2 capture.
    Keywords: CO2 capture; supercritical drying; aerogel; sorbent; adsorption
  • Analysis of the Impact of CO2 Content on the Physical Properties of the Liquid Phase Mixtures in Oil Production Wells   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiaming Zhang, Xiaodong Wu, Zhangxin Chen, Jingyao Wang, Zongxiao Ren 
    Abstract: CO2 injection not only enhances oil recovery dramatically, but also it has a potential to reduce the greenhouse effect. During the process of CO2 displacement, when CO2 breaks through in oil production wells, CO2 content will impact the phase state and physical properties of the liquid phase mixture in wellbore. As a result, it will affect the calculation of temperature and pressure in oil production wells. Therefore, it is unacceptable to use the conventional black-oil model for calculating the phase state of miscible fluids. For dealing with this problem, we use a gas-liquid flash theory and a compositional model to develop a new model. The Jilin oilfield is used as a case study; the phase state (gas, liquid or gas-liquid) and physical properties of the liquid phase mixture (including CO2 and hydrocarbons) under initial conditions are calculated by this new model. The results indicate that the molar content of CO2 has a great impact on the physical properties of the liquid phase mixture in oil production wells under certain temperature and pressure. A scientific guide for the calculation of temperature and pressure in oil production wells can be provided with the developed model.
    Keywords: CO2 displacement; gas-liquid equilibrium; constituent; flash
  • Improving Water-Alternating-CO2 Flooding of Heterogeneous, Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs Using Ensemble Optimization Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Changlin Liao, Xinwei Liao, Longxin Mu, Xianghong Wu, Jing Chen, Hongna Ding, Feng Xu 
    Abstract: Injecting CO2 into reservoir has been proven to be not only a feasible method for improving ultimate oil recovery, but also reducing CO2 emissions and greenhouse effects. In this paper, the advantages of optimization algorithm and numerical simulation are combined to establish mathematics model of production optimization of Water-Alternate-Gas (WAG) flooding. Augmented Lagrange function (ALF) and logarithm transformation (LT) are applied to convert constrained problems into unconstrained ones. The ensemble optimization algorithm (EOA) is used to solve the latter. Then, the optimization technology of reservoir production is formed. The optimization technology is applied in a low permeability oil reservoir to test its feasibility of improving oil production. The results indicate that the CO2 swept efficiency, miscible region and recovery, can be effectively improved by the optimization technology which increases the economic benefit of the reservoir.
    Keywords: CO2 Injection; CO2 storage; Ensemble optimization algorithm; WAG; Oil reservoir
  • Implementing carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) in the circular economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Wojciech Budzianowski 
    Abstract: The circular economy relies on closing materials loops and using renewable energy sources (RES). It benefits from turning wastes into resources thus reduces pollution and improves local resource base. It is therefore a useful strategy for the valorisation of CO2, which is today mostly released into the atmosphere. The current conceptual study shows that in order to stabilise atmospheric CO2 concentration below 500 ppm CO2 by 2100, the future global circular economy will require high penetration of RES and energy efficiency together with the implementation of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS). CCUS needs to be configured to close carbon loops and fit into the future rich matrix of technologies. Preferable CCUS technological options need to meet the requirements of cost-effectiveness and fitting local conditions. This study focuses on analysing (i) symbioses between CCUS and other co-existing technologies, (ii) economic instruments suitable for implementing CCUS in the circular economy, (iii) techno-economic performance of CCUS and (iv) impacts of CCUS implemented in the circular economy on economic development. Thus CCUS is put in a perspective that will allow for optimal CCUS configuration based on informed decisions. The results emphasise that in the short term (a few decades), CCUS will need to combine the utilisation and storage of CO2, focusing on the deep reduction of CO2 emissions. In the long term (beyond 2050-2100), the CO2 storage option might be no longer required while the CO2 utilisation coupled to RES will still provide carbon resources for the circular economy. Choices regarding CCUS are highly complex and interdisciplinary conceptual studies are needed to guide future low-carbon transformations.
    Keywords: circular economy; CCUS configuration; symbiosis; economic instrument; business line; economic development
  • The influence of Carbon Capture and Compression Unit on the Characteristics of Ultramodern Combined Cycle Power Plant   Order a copy of this article
    by Janusz Kotowicz, Mateusz Brzęczek, Marcin Job 
    Abstract: In this paper the influence of carbon capture and compression unit on the characteristics of ultramodern combined cycle power plant is presented. The chemical absorption of the CO2 from the flue gases using MEA in the carbon capture unit was used. The effective use of heat recovered from the turbine blade cooling air in order to increase the efficiency of combined cycle power plant with the carbon capture and compression unit is proposed. The power plant is analyzed in a wide range of compression ratios and temperatures in the gas turbine. Thermodynamic and ecological characteristics of this combined cycle unit as a function of the basic operating parameters are made. The equation connecting the efficiency of combined cycle power plant with and without the carbon capture and compression unit is proposed. The calculations indicate that the reduction of energy consumption of the absorbent by 1 MJ/kgCO2 causes an increase in net electric efficiency of the unit by 1.25 percentage points. The analyzed combined cycle power plants are characterized by the highest electricity generation efficiency achievable for large energy units and exceptionally low CO2 emissions, lower than 41 kg/MWh throughout the analyzed range of compression ratio.
    Keywords: carbon capture, compression unit, post-combustion, combined cycle, gas turbine, chemical absorption, thermodynamic analysis, ecological analysis, CO2 emissions,
  • Upgrading the integration of supercritical coal-fired power plant with post-combustion CO2 capture process through process simulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Chen, Xiaoyan Liu 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to alleviate the negative effect of post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) process on the generating efficiency of a 600 MWe supercritical coal-fired power plant (CFPP) through modelling and simulation. Steady state models for a 600 MWe supercritical CFPP and a MEA-based PCC plant with corresponding compression unit were developed and integrated in Aspen Plus. In the two basic cases with steam extracted from different locations, efficiency penalty of 14.48% points and 11.89% points were caused, respectively. Subsequently, four steps were taken to improve the overall performance of the integrated process, which involves: (1) waste heat recovery, (2) throttling loss reduction, (3) capture flowsheet modification, and (4) temperature difference narrowing. From the final simulation results, the efficiency penalty is reduced to 8.07% points. This study indicates that appropriate flowsheet modifications for the integrated process can significantly improve the overall energy efficiency.
    Keywords: process simulation; flowsheet modification; supercritical coal-fired power plant; post-combustion CO2 capture; efficiency penalty.
  • Process Simulation and Energy consumption for CO2 Capture with different flowsheets   Order a copy of this article
    by Boyang Xue, Yanmei Yu, Jian Chen 
    Abstract: In this work, a systematic simulation study of post-combustion CO2 capture process is presented. Including six individual process modifications and six combinations of process modifications, thirteen different process configurations are simulated using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) solutions. Process modifications presented a good performance with respect to the reduction of energy consumption. It is carried out with 3.45% to 13.45% of reduction for MEA and 2.36% to 14.10% for DEA. Furthermore, a detailed analysis is presented to study the effect of three significant parameters in capture process, i.e., CO2 loading of lean amine solvent, pinch of heat exchanger and stripper pressure. This work presents the influence of the combination of solvent and process, as well as the combination of different processes on energy consumption, which are essential in post-combustion process design to make optimization strategy.
    Keywords: CO2 capture, absorption, process simulation, flowsheets, energy consumption
  • Analysis of efficiency of zero-emission oxy-type ultra-supercritical power unit based on high-temperature membranes   Order a copy of this article
    by Adrian Balicki, Janusz Kotowicz 
    Abstract: Oxy-combustion technology by eliminating, in the stage of preparation of oxidant, atmospheric nitrogen from combustion process is characterized by a high concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas, and thus, facilitates its sequestration. Power unit that operates in classic (air) combustion technology with a gross power output similar to the power of the investigated model is characterized by a CO2 emission of 860 kg/MWh. The use of oxy-combustion allows to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions by more than 90%, so it is worth to present both thermodynamic and economic consequences of the introduction of this technology. Thermodynamic analysis of the model assumed investigation of the impact of changes in the oxygen recovery rate on the basic characteristics of the power unit. In the next stage of calculations the estimated capital expenditures and a break-even price of electricity under the assumption that NPV is equal to zero were determined.
    Keywords: oxy-combustion; zero-emission power unit; thermodynamic analysis; economic analysis; high-temperature membranes; carbon dioxide; clean coal; carbon capture; CFB boiler; efficiency enhancing; NPV analysis

Special Issue on: "IJGW "Climate Literacy and Innovations in Climate Change Education,"

  • Moving beyond scientific knowledge: Leveraging participation, relevance, and interconnectedness for climate education   Order a copy of this article
    by Lauren B. Allen, Kevin Crowley 
    Abstract: Climate change requires a massive global response: individuals, communities, regions, and nations all need to make substantial change to current habits and behaviours. Education is an important part of changing habit and behaviour, yet most contemporary climate change education focuses primarily on individuals knowledge about climate science, which research suggests has limited utility in supporting collective response to climate change. This article proposes a new focus on educational intervention that is sensitive to the shared need for rapid, collective impact. Drawing on socio-cultural learning theory and a review of research on climate change learning, we argue that interventions based on three core principlesparticipation, relevance, interconnectednessare more likely to result in people taking steps to respond to climate change than interventions based on knowledge acquisition alone.
    Keywords: Climate education, climate change learning, limitations of climate knowledge acquisition, informal learning, participation for climate education, relevance for climate education, interconnectedness, collective efficacy, collective impact, socio-cultural learning, collective response to climate change
  • Categorizing Students Evaluations of Evidence and Explanations About Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Doug Lombardi, Elliot Bickel, Carol Brandt, Colin Burg 
    Abstract: Just as scientists evaluate explanations of climate change, students should also engage in critically evaluative practices when studying global warming. The purpose of the present study was to investigate middle school students evaluations when they examined different explanations for the causes of climate change. We observed four distinct categories of evaluation in student explanations about how evidence texts related to climate change models: (a) erroneous evaluation, (b) descriptive evaluation, (c) relational evaluation, and (d) critical evaluation. These findings allow us to better understand and recognize types of student thinking, so that we may be able to better implement instruction that promotes critical evaluation about climate change and other complex scientific topics, as is called for by recent science education reform efforts.
    Keywords: climate change, science education, evaluation skills, critical thinking

Special Issue on: "Climate Literacy and Innovations in Climate Change Education,"

  • Lived experience of climate change a digital storytelling approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Otto 
    Abstract: While the term climate change is firmly anchored in the global discourse, its visibility is often vague and subliminal. Education
    Keywords: digital storytelling; climate change; lived experience; higher education; interdisciplinary; e-learning; blended-learning; sustainable development; virtual learning; constructivism
  • Climate Change Education and Literacy at the Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences of the University of Chile   Order a copy of this article
    by Maisa Rojas, Claudia Mac-Lean, Juan Morales, Andres Monares 
    Abstract: Considering the role that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) play in terms of catalysing change within societies, over the past years, sustainability initiatives within HEIs have flourished worldwide. Likewise, the scientific evidence of anthropogenic climate change has been on the political and academic agenda for decades, thus the importance of ameliorating climate change education and literacy both at the society and university training levels. Accordingly, certain questions arise: What are the most effective current climate change educational methodologies? Which road map would be the most appropriate to be suggested to HEIs to promote climate change literacy for future professionals? In order to begin addressing these questions, the Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences of the University of Chile (FCFM) approach to climate change teaching and literacy is here described. The later contemplates the history of the institutionalisation of sustainability at the FCFM, collection of courses and Minors for students which incorporate climate change related-topics, as well as climate change related research centres.
    Keywords: climate change, global warming, education, literacy, sustainability, engineering, sciences.
  • Making climate change public? A dramaturgically inspired case-study of learning through transition management   Order a copy of this article
    by Katrien Van Poeck, Joke Vandenabeele, Gert Goeminne 
    Abstract: This article reports on an in-depth case study aimed at understanding the process of public-formation around contested sustainability issues such as climate change. We analyse a so-called transition arena established by an urban government in order to realise a climate neutral city through a transition management process. Scrutinising this case, we are particularly interested in the interrelatedness of educational and political processes in such a non-formal learning setting. That is, we build on this empirical analysis so as to further conceptualise educations role in tackling societal challenges. Therefore, we combine a conceptual framework drawing on Noortje Marres distinction between privatisating and public-ising forms of issue formation with a dramaturgical analytical framework that puts the setting in which public participation takes place centre stage. This performative perspective allows us to grasp the co-production of public and issue, that is to say the concrete ways in which the design of a setting shapes and transforms not only the issue at stake but also the public involved in it. Connecting our findings to recent theory development in (environmental and sustainability) education research allows us to conceptualise climate literacy and teaching and learning about global climate change as a political-educational process. The development of a climate literate public, we argue, cannot be limited to learning predefined answers but should rather enable people to think critically in relation to taken-for-granted norms by opening-up democratic spaces where people can discuss and discover options through the exploration, evaluation, and critique of emerging ideas and the creative contribution to their development.
    Keywords: education; climate change; global warming; transition management; controversy; environmental literacy; case study; public pedagogy; dramaturgical analysis; climate change education; environmental education
  • Power plant workers knowledge, attitudes and behavior on climate change   Order a copy of this article
    by Constantina Skanavis, Evangelos Manolas, Aristea Kounani, Konstantinos Fergadis 
    Abstract: This paper assesses the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of the workers in the local station of the Greek Electric Company at Skyros Island in Greece on the issue of climate change. The research was carried out in January 2015. The methodology used was interviews through questions formed as a result of the study of the relevant bibliography on knowledge, attitudes and behavior on environmental issues and particularly issues related to climate change. The findings showed that there was a misunderstanding of the term of Global Climate Change. Most of the time power plant workers attitudes seemed to be environmentally friendly, never the less their behavior appeared to be influenced by their personal interests and benefits, rather than the global well-being.
    Keywords: Global Climate Change; Environmental behavior; Power plant workers; Environmental attitude; Greece
  • Climate literacy: a systematic review and model integration   Order a copy of this article
    by José Azevedo, Margarida Marques 
    Abstract: C.P. Snows division between cultures is visible in scientific literacy (SL) research: there is a gap between the science education and the science communication fields. We reflect on a way to end this critical disparity. To this end, we choose the case of climate change as a situational prototype that helps to unite broad communication issues and established knowledge. The choice of this case is justified by the current international interest and calls for the development of a climate-literate public. The scientific community has collected cumulative evidence supporting climate change and the human responsibility in the changing climate system. Yet, climate literacy (CL) research has shown that misunderstandings about climate change can persist even after instruction and that some scepticism emerged in several developed countries. This may be associated with a low adoption of proactive behaviours by todays citizens related to climate issues. This work aims to bolster the utility of literacy" as a conceptual tool for science promotion among students, climate-related professionals and laypeople. Thus, we conducted a literature review of CL research in the last decade, focusing on the conceptualisation of this term in education and communication approaches. The analysis resulted in a new integrative model for understanding literacy. We hope that the proposed model can be the basis for the re-emergence of science literacy as a key concept, of well-grounded practices and of accurate measurement tools.
    Keywords: science literacy, science education, science communication, climate literacy, literature review
    by Gopalsamy Poyyamoli, Ramadoss Alexandar 
    Abstract: India is one of the worlds most vulnerable countries to climate change. A number of studies and synthesis reports have concluded that climate change is inevitably underway and that human modification of the natural ecosystems, landscape and the atmospheric composition of greenhouse gases are likely to be the most dominant forces. Most of the people in our society, are still unaware, unconcerned and ignorance on the serious issue of climate change. Climate change education promotes not only knowledge of the environment, and the associated challenges, but also fosters attitudes and motivations to mitigate, adapt and coping with climate change. The main Objectives of this study were to facilitate the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior focused on climate change and global warming with school students in Puducherry and Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu. The sample size consisted of 180 students from two middle and high schools from urban and rural areas of Puducherry and Villupuram districts. The selected students were divided into two groups in which forty five students were experimental and the remaining forty five were kept as control groups for each school. The experimental group students were facilitated with climate change education program. It has been concluded that the activity based and experiential teaching, learning approach for climate change education program is more effective among school children.
    Keywords: Climate change, multiple method, Knowledge, Attitudes, Behavior
  • Climate Literacy among University Students in Mexico and Spain: Influence of Scientific and Popular Culture in the Representation of the Causes of Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Mónica Arto-Blanco, Pablo Ángel Meira-Cartea, José Gutiérrez-Pérez 
    Abstract: This article analyses climate literacy among university students, using their knowledge of the causes of climate change. Based on the theory of social representation,this comparative study examined a sample of 503 students. Using drawings and text,students were asked to respond to the question What is climate change? They then completed an ad hoc survey. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data revealed that most students recognized human responsibility in climate change but demonstrated gaps in their understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that more specialized university education in the natural and technological sciences did not translate into more accurate representation, which was affected by common culture and scientific representation. In light of these findings, we offer recommendations for incorporating climate change into higher education curricula.
    Keywords: Climate change, global warming, causes, climate literacy, higher education.
  • Integrative Education for Climate Change Resilience x Sustainable Development Transformations   Order a copy of this article
    by Timothy J. Downs, Nikita Golovko 
    Abstract: To meet societys need to better understand and respond to complex, interwoven problems of climate and sustainability, we herein introduce an integrative framework being applied in a U.S. university setting for conceptualizing, designing and deploying educational programs that interconnect climate change resilience (CCR) with sustainable development (SD). The framework weaves together five main strands of integration: 1) socio-political stakeholder interests and influences; 2) development sectors; 3) knowledge types; 4) socio-technical capacities, including education; and 5) the smart networking of project sites across varying geographical scales. We pose and answer: What kinds of integrative educational programs, curricula and project practicums can enable transformations in CCRxSD practice? A philosophical foundation undergirds the knowledge and skills base of the suggested programming. Two collaborative case studies illustrate integrative practicums: 1) Fisherville Mill Site, Grafton, Massachusetts, USA a showcase in urban sustainability; 2) Fijian Islands - a prospective case study in integrative CCRxSD program design.
    Keywords: integrative approach; climate change resilience; sustainable development; social learning; graduate education.

Special Issue on: "GCGW-14 Global Warming and its Energy Solutions,"

    by Tahir Abdul Hussain Ratlamwala 
    Abstract: The present study focuses on a comparative exergo-environmental analysis of two solar based integrated systems for hydrogen production. Two integrated systems namely (a) solar heliostat field system integrated with Cu-Cl cycle and Kalina cycle (as system 1) and (b) solar heliostat field system integrated with Cu-Cl cycle, Kalina cycle and photocatalytic reactor (as system 2) are considered. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of varying the operating parameters such as solar light intensity and ambient air temperature on the exergo-environmental performance of these integrated systems. The results show that the environmental impact factors of systems 1 and 2 vary from 0.54 to 0.52 and 0.45 to 0.44, respectively with increase in solar light intensity. The environmental impact index of systems 1 and 2 are noticed to be varying from 1.2 to 1.1 and 0.8 to 0.78, respectively with rise in ambient temperature. The results obtained show that system 2 performs better than system 1 from exergo-environmental perspective due to better utilization of solar light intensity.
    Keywords: Exergo-environment; heliostat field system; Cu-Cl cycle; photocatalytic; hydrogen
  • A power generation system based on ferriferous oxide magnetic fluid   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Mingjun, Luo Feng, Xu Shuangyan, Zhang Huan 
    Abstract: Global warming refers to the climate system warming by the Greenhouse effect, and the new energy will create positive change by using less coal and oil. In this paper, a new micro-distributed energy supply system which is redesigned based on the published designs. It presents experimental findings using this device and theoretical analysis for its performance. The paper discusses the relationships between the electromagnetic force, velocity and temperature. The measured data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The experiments show that a higher electric output can be achieved by increasing the flow velocity and magnetic strength.
    Keywords: power generation system, ferriferous oxide magnetic fluid, MHD set-up, electromotive force
  • A Numerical Investigation on How to Efficiently Utilize Carbon Dioxide in Convection-based Energy Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuhui Cao, Xin-Rong Zhang 
    Abstract: Owing to the environmentally benign nature and the special property variation at supercritical pressure, greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is regarded as the best retrofit to meet the future demand on long-term environmental-friendly working fluids. However, how to efficiently utilize carbon dioxide to reduce energy consumption and mitigate global warming is still an unsolved problem. In this paper, the natural convection heat transfer of carbon dioxide under supercritical pressure condition in a small cavity is studied for the first time. The potential of carbon dioxide as working fluid is quantitatively estimated in terms of enhancing heat transfer and reducing the cost of heat exchangers. It is found that the operating conditions including the temperature, temperature difference and pressure all have significant effects on heat transfer rate due to the special property variations of the CO2 fluid. Furthermore, a heat transfer correlation is proposed for the first time to quantitatively describe the natural convection heat transfer of CO2 at supercritical pressure in a small cavity.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide; natural convection; heat transfer
  • Methane production from napier grass by two-stage anaerobic digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Yuwadee Sangsil, Suchat Leungprasert, Suriya Sawanon 
    Abstract: Digestion of napier grass was investigated in two-stage anaerobic reactors. The reactor volume was 4 and 5 litres for the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors, respectively. The acidogenic reactors were fed once daily at 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 ml/day with a slurry of napier grass. The organic loading rates (OLRs) were 0.60, 0.90, 1.20, 1.50 and 1.80 kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)/ Mixed ruminal microorganisms from cows were used as the inoculum. The pH was adjusted to 7.5 for all methanogenic reactors at the start-up period. The reactors were operated at 30
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion;bioenergy;biogas;global warming;methane;napier grass
  • Assessing the potential impact of future precipitation trends on urban drainage systems under multiple climate change scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Hua Bai, Xin Dong, Siyu Zeng, Jining Chen 
    Abstract: Investigations of climate change impacts on urban drainage system have been discerned worldwide in the past decades and will attract more attention in the coming future. This paper presents an approach to assessing the possibility of extreme rainfall events under variation greenhouse gas emission scenarios as well as a case study in Hefei city, China. Future precipitation projections were downscaled in a spatiotemporal way firstly, and summarized into Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The changes of the IDF were then compared subsequently between the present condition and the future scenarios. The results indicate that, the local rainfall regime will generally stay the same or slightly increase for the drizzles, but the extreme events will become more intensive and frequent. Although uncertainty has been found among the different emission scenarios and the various future periods, it is still notable to take climate change into consideration to deal urban drainage system issues.
    Keywords: Climate change; urban drainage systems; statistical precipitation downscaling; multiple scenarios
    by Yacine Moussaoui, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Brahim Youcef Meklati 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT Airborne particulates were collected daily during three year seasons by using medium-volume aspirating systems equipped with PM10 inertial impactors. The organic fraction was solvent extracted with soxhlet, fractioned and cleaned-up through column chromatography, then processed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors. Chemical analyses allowed to characterize a set of groups of compounds, namely n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and highly-polar chemicals. Besides that, the potential sources of pollution were investigated by analyzing the n-alkane carbon preference index and selected diagnostic ratios among PAH and NPAH concentrations. Total concentrations of n-alkanes varied widely over the study period (from 48 to 170 ng m-3); PAHs behaved similarly (2
    Keywords: particulate organic matter, n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Nitrated PAHs (NPAHs), molecular markers, atmospheric pollution

Special Issue on: "GCGW2015 Energy, Transportation and Global Warming,"

  • Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewables and Conventional Fuels for Different End Use Purposes   Order a copy of this article
    by Canan Acar, Ibrahim Dincer 
    Abstract: In this study, we present a comparative environmental impact assessment of renewables and conventional fossil fuels for electricity and hydrogen generation. The conventional fossil fuels investigated in this study are coal, oil, and natural gas. Renewables considered in this study are geothermal, hydropower, ocean, solar, and wind energies. Furthermore, nuclear and biomass energies are taken into consideration while assessing environmental impact and performances. Environmental impact criteria considered in this study are CO2, NOx, and SO2 emissions, land use, water consumption, water quality of discharge, solid waste and ground contamination, and biodiversity. For comparison purposes, all collected data are normalized and ranked between 0 and 3 while 0 giving highest negative environmental impact and 3 giving lowest negative environmental impact. Our results showed that overall, in terms of both electricity and hydrogen production, ocean gives the highest rankings (2.71 for electricity and 2.73 for hydrogen). Coal has the lowest rankings in terms of environmental impact (0.26 for electricity and 0.30 for hydrogen).
    Keywords: Global warming, emissions, energy, exergy, electricity, hydrogen, renewables.
  • Experimental Investigation to Reduce CO2 Emission in a Single Cylinder CI Engine Using Low Carbon Fuel Blend with Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Amine Injection in the Exhaust Manifold   Order a copy of this article
    by Thiyagarajan Subramanian, Edwin Geo, Leenus J Martin, Nagalingam B 
    Abstract: The present study investigates various methods for reduction of CO2 emission in a Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) fueled single cylinder CI engine. Combustion of KOME emits more CO2 due to longer carbon chain. The reduction in CO2 emission was done in three phases. In the first phase, low carbon pine oil (PO) fuel was blended with KOME in equal volume. The results indicated 7% reduction in CO2 emission for KOME-PO blend compared to KOME. In the second phase, methanol, n-butanol and acetone were blended on 20% volume basis with KOME-PO blend for further CO2 reduction. Mono ethanol amine (MEA) was injected in exhaust for achieving minimum CO2 emission in the third phase. KOME-PO+MEA injection emits minimum CO2 emission compared to other blends. However, considering NO-CO2 tradeoff, KOME-PO + methanol with amine injection is optimum for simultaneous reduction of both the pollutants.
    Keywords: Global Warming; CO2 emission; Karanja oil; Pine oil; Mono ethanol amine; methanol; acetone; n-butanol
    by Dimitrios-Sotirios Kourkoumpas, Georgios Stamatiou, Sotirios Karellas, Panagiotis Grammelis, Emmanuel Kakaras 
    Abstract: The present study aims to evaluate the power generation system based on the lignite fuel in environmental and economic terms. Three alternative firing cases are examined: 1) raw lignite firing, 2) 30% pre-dried lignite co-firing and 3) 6% biomass co-firing case. The implementation of the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology proves that the overall environmental footprint can be decreased by as much as 4.5% in the case of pre-dried lignite co-firing, while the lignite mining activities represent about 32% of the total. The implementation of the Life Cycle Costing (LCC) methodology indicates that the total electricity generation cost is decreased by about 0.92 /MWhe in the case of pre-dried lignite co-firing and about 1.22 /MWhe in the case of biomass co-firing. A sensitivity analysis based on the total net electric efficiency, the raw lignite composition, the CAPEX-OPEX of the power plant, the biomass direct fuel cost and the external cost of CO2 was carried out, in order to identify the range of the results depending on the impact of each parameter.
    Keywords: life cycle analysis; life cycle costing; global warming; lignite; externalities; Greece
    by Alberto Romero, Ricardo Chacartegui, Monica Carvalho, Jose A. Becerra, Dean Millar 
    Abstract: Mining is an economic activity that intensively uses energy in the extraction and processing of raw minerals. This means that large amounts of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are released into the atmosphere. Natural gas in conjunction with combined cycle power plants (CCPP) could replace other more contaminant sources of energy, such as diesel, the fuel traditionally preferred in mining to generate power in remote sites. Today, however, the operation of CCPP in stand-alone power systems under frequent load variations and potentially plant start-ups remains challenging. During start-up operations of combined cycle power plants (CCPP), high thermal and mechanical stress negatively affects the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) components. Special off-grid CCPP applications require additional considerations regarding design and operation. rnMotivated by the challenges associated with using CCPPs in off-grid mines as a main source of electrical power, a mathematical model of a CCPP was developed to evaluate load changes during operation as start-up and shut-down procedures. Using the model two strategies aiming to minimize life consumption of steam drum were investigated: gas turbine exhaust gases bypass for a given time interval and GT warm-up hold. The results show how they reduce the steam drum stresses and the lifetime consumption. Nevertheless it was found under the tested profiles that bypass or warm-up hold of the GT may induce additional fatigue cycles during the plant start-up operation.
    Keywords: Combined cycle; Energy in Mining; Transient operation; Numerical modelling; off-grid mines
    by Lori Nalbandian, Antigoni Evdou, Vassilis Zaspalis 
    Abstract: Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) offers a solution for CO2 separation without energy penalty by using a solid oxygen carrier to transfer the oxygen to the fuel, instead of air. In place of costly manufactured oxygen carrier materials, cheap, naturally occurring minerals and solid industrial waste materials with comparable compositions are needed. Such materials should have a sufficient reaction rate and Oxygen Transfer Capacity, retain stable performance under a large number of consecutive reduction / oxidation cycles, and if possible would not require pre-treatment and activation. Two inexpensive iron containing minerals, a Fe-Mn based mineral from Egypt and Attapulgite, a Fe-containing Mg-Al phyllosilicate mineral from Greece, as well as a Fe-Mn based solid industrial waste are investigated in this study as candidate oxygen carriers for CLC. The materials are tested in a laboratory bench-scale test unit for the evaluation of their performance and their ability to retain stable performance under a large number of consecutive reduction / oxidation cycles. Methane is used for the fuel oxidation step, while subsequent oxidation of the solid is performed with gaseous oxygen. The stability of the materials is evaluated during 5-10 subsequent cycles, comprising of a solid reduction and an oxidation step. All the samples exhibited the ability to deliver their lattice oxygen to the fuel and to some extent regain it, in the presence of air. The 3 different materials presented different performance characteristics concerning their Oxygen Transfer Capacity, OTC (0.35-4 % wt), their reactivity towards CH4 (50-100%) and their stability (50% drop up to 200% increase of their initial OTC after 5 redox cycles). Samples of both fresh materials and materials used in several redox cycles were physicochemically characterized by using X‒ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with X‒ray Microanalysis (SEM-EDS). The crystalline phases present as well as the particle size and morphology were examined for the fresh and used samples in order to identify structural and morphological changes and thus determine the stability of the examined materials in repetitive CLC cycles
    Keywords: Chemical Looping Combustion; CLC; low cost; oxygen carrier; iron manganese minerals; attapulgite; industrial waste; Oxygen Transfer Capacity.
    by George Giannopoulos 
    Abstract: Governments so far have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce GHG emissions, on the grounds that they reduce the level of adaptation required in the future and prevent costly impacts. Mitigation has been referred to as the number one preparedness strategy. However, in view of the increased uncertainty and economic hardship worldwide that prevents governments spending and the quick pace of arrival of the anticipated adverse effects from climate change, growing attention is placed now on adaptation in the form of preventive actions that will enhance intra- and cross-sectorial resilience in all sectors of the economy. rnThis paper focuses on the Transport sector - a key economic sector of todays society and aims to examine the issues and prospects related to the adaptation of this sector in order to face the future climate change related events. In other words what will be the main issues, constraints, and policy guidelines that will help reduce the vulnerability of todays transport systems against actual or expected Extreme Weather Events (EWE) and other Natural Hazards (NH) that will result from the changing climate in the planet.rn
    Keywords: Transport Adaptation, Global Warming, transport policy, preparedness strategy, Climate adaptation
  • The Driving Factors of CO2 Emissions from electricity generation in Greece: An Index Decomposition Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Danae Diakoulaki, Dionysis Giannakopoulos, Sotirios Karellas 
    Abstract: The scope of this paper is to investigate the driving factors of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in Greece and to compare the revealed trends with the overall progress recorded in EU-28. The analysis covers the period 2005-2012 and focuses on the effect produced by the following determinant factors: a) economic growth, b) electricity intensity of the economy, c) electricity trade, d) fuel mix, and e) efficiency of electricity generation process. Decomposition Analysis is widely recognized as a powerful tool for detecting the driving forces behind changes of various indicators over time. The model developed in this study is based on LMDI-I method which is increasingly used in a wide range of applications because of its several theoretical and practical advantages. The obtained results show that the economic crisis that occurred in the middle of the examined period has substantially influenced the evolution of CO2 emissions. Specifically, in times of economic growth the main factors counterbalancing the economic growth effect was the change in the fuel mix and to a lesser extent the more efficient use of electricity in the economy. On the contrary, the economic downturn has driven emissions down but at the same time it contributed to a less efficient use of energy resources in power generation and of electricity in the final demand sectors, which resulted in an upward trend of emissions.
    Keywords: Electricity generation, CO2 emissions, Global Warming, Decomposition Analysis, Divisia
  • Exploring possible impacts of sea level rise: the case of Izmir, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by HIFZI AKSOY, Hande Demirel, Dursun Zafer Seker 
    Abstract: Due to global warming and climate change, sea levels worldwide have been rising significantly since the early 1990s, where most of the coastal areas are under inundation risk. The impacts of such expose could be global, regional and local. According to results of global models, among other metropolitan areas in the world, İzmir will be one of the riskiest cities will be affected by the optimistic sea level rise. Within this study, the vulnerability of the İzmir, Turkey, was analysed under the projected inundation by the end of the century. In order to assess the degree of magnitude of such possible effects of SLR, various scenarios of sea level rise, being 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 meters, were tested and inundation risk maps of Izmir were produced for each scenario. The focus was on the settlement patterns, population, agricultural land and road transport network. In order to aid to reproduce the analyses for various coastal zones, open source-data was preferred. According to the applied Geographic Information System (GIS)-based methodology, several assets could be under risk at the İzmir Bay. For the worst-case scenario almost 35% of the population at the coastal zone were under the risk of flooding, where 24,49% of the artificial surfaces were inundated together with 16,54% of agricultural areas and 0,24% of forests. According to the scenario results, inundation of motorways in the area cost approximately 143 million . The framework and quantitative assessment methodologies outlined in this paper could be employed to make an inventory of the assets in the vulnerable zones, where results could contribute to enhance to prioritize further mitigation and adaptation activities.
    Keywords: Global warming, sea level rise, geographical information science
  • Potential Impact of Global Warming on Whiting in a Semi-Enclosed Gulf   Order a copy of this article
    by A Shanableh, M Imteaz, K Hamad, M Omar, T Merabtene, M siddique 
    Abstract: In this article, the potential impact of the rising atmospheric CO2 level on whiting in the semi-enclosed Arabian Gulf is considered. Chemical equilibrium models were developed to assess the spatial and temporal distributions of aragonite and calcite saturation indices due to acidification resulting from increasing atmospheric CO2 level. The models accounted for the spatial and temporal distributions of salinity and temperature in the surface water of the Gulf, which vary in the range of 3643 psu and 15oC to 32oC. The spatial variations of CaCO3 saturation revealed that the southern part of the Gulf along the coastlines of the UAE, Qatar and Bahrain experiences the highest CaCO3 saturation levels and corresponds to the observed whiting phenomenon. Potential acidification and erosion of the whiting phenomenon in the Gulf threaten the ecosystem, which deserves significant additional attention from the scientific community and decision makers in the region.
    Keywords: whiting phenomenon; aragonite saturation index; calcite saturation index; CaCO3 saturation; acidification of sea water; global warming; increasing atmospheric CO2; phytoplankton; cyanobacteria
  • Potential economic and environmental benefits from the interconnection of the Greek islands   Order a copy of this article
    by Eleni Zafeiratou, Catalina Spataru 
    Abstract: Greece consists of 58 non-interconnected islands, located mainly in the Aegean Sea. Electricity is supplied to this region by 32 Autonomous Power Systems (APS) using heavy fuel oil or diesel power generators. A number of interconnections between the islands and the national grid system have been scheduled for the upcoming years. In this paper, we analyze the economic and environmental benefits following the interconnections. It was concluded that Greece could save between 2015 and 2040, from 9.73 to 17.82 billion Euros, subject to fuel price costs and demand growth. These amounts are charged to the Greek power customers through a cross subsidization policy known as public service obligation. Additionally, avoided costs for APS upgrade, range between 2.63 and 1.80 billion Euros. Interconnectors will also reduce the carbon footprint in the area by 51.1%-65.5% compared to the scenario of preserving APS. This is attributed mainly to renewable energy development reaching proportions of 84.7%-119% of the total power demand by 2040.
    Keywords: autonomous power systems, carbon emissions, Greek islands, interconnections, public service obligation, projections, renewable energy, wind energy, submarine cables, energy scenarios
  • Smart Hybrid Renewable Microgeneration System for Residential Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Evgueniy Entchev 
    Abstract: Microgeneration systems generate power and heat at the point of use by utilizing a variety of conventional and renewable technologies. They demonstrate a comparable electric efficiency to the conventional power generation stations, good environmental performance and ability to serve as a source for both primary and back-up power. Assembled in microgrids or in virtual power plant they can serve multiple buildings and be active participants in load management efforts both on site and on the grid. rnThe study investigates the performance of a hybrid renewable ground source heat pump (GSHP)/Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) microgeneration system serving multiple residential and small office buildings in Ottawa (Canada) and Incheon (South Korea). The analysis shows that the hybrid system operational cost savings are strongly dependent on the current energy (natural gas and electricity) prices, buildings heating, cooling and electric loads and occupants behaviour patterns. The cost analysis results indicate that the extra capital investment incurred to the GSHP-PVT system is possible to be returned within its lifespan, especially with the current trend of continuous equipment and installation price reductions. rn
    Keywords: Hybrid system, simulation, load sharing, photovoltaic thermal, ground source heat pump

Special Issue on: "ICCE-2014 Clean Energy to Combat Global Warming,"

  • Using Emission Index To Determine Energy Efficiency And Environmental Parameters Of A Turbofan Engine At Various Flight Phases   Order a copy of this article
    by Yasin Sohret, T. Hikmet Karakoc, Onder Turan 
    Abstract: In this study, an unordinary methodology for energy efficiency calculation of a turbofan engine is introduced. Emission indexes of the engine are used to find out energy efficiency and novel parameters for environmental impact assessment. Energy efficiency are proven at take-off, climb-out and approach phases of the flight for the turbofan engine. Additionally, power and energy emission index variations of the turbofan engine for carbon monoxide and unburned hydro carbon constituents of the exhaust are presented in the paper. As a result of the study, energy efficiency of the turbofan engine is determined 35.68%, 41.12% and 36.05 at take-off, climb-out and approach flight phases respectively.
    Keywords: Turbofan, emission, aircraft, energy, environmental impact
  • Numerical modelling of effects of hydrogen supply on combustion behaviours of low calorific value coal gases   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa İLBAŞ, Serhat KARYEYEN 
    Abstract: In this study, the effect of the hydrogen supply on combustion performances and emission levels of low calorific value coal gases has been numerically investigated in a model combustor. The numerical modelling of turbulent diffusion flames has been performed by using a CFD Code. k-Ɛ model of turbulent flow, the PDF/Mixture Fraction model of diffusion flame and P-1 radiation model were used in the present study. The flames of coal gases for pure and hydrogen supply cases were modelled to predict its combustion behaviours. There are five cases of testing, i.e. pure generator gas or pure blast-furnace gas and fuels supplied 4%, 5%, 10% and 15% hydrogen by mass. According to the predictions, the combustion performances of generator and blast-furnace gases were improved by supplying hydrogen progressively. Similarly, NOX formations of generator and blast-furnace gases were increased due to increment of its flame temperatures depending on hydrogen amounts.
    Keywords: Coal Gases, Hydrogen Supply, Combustion and Emissions
  • A review on socio-economic aspects of sustainable biofuels   Order a copy of this article
    by A. K. Azad, M. G. Rasul, M. M. K. Khan, Subhash C. Sharma 
    Abstract: Biofuels are renewable eco-fuel, produced from biological resources. They are classified into 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations based on their feedstocks. The 1st generation biofuels are produced from edible oil sources which have been the main source of biofuel production. However, the biofuel production is progressively moving towards the 2nd generation biofuels which are produced mainly from the non-edible vegetable oils and animal fats. They are also called advanced biofuel since the 1st generation biofuels are unlikely to be sustainable due to facing social, economic and environmental challenges resulting from increased food price and pressure on land uses. Consequently, technologies are starting to develop for alternative feedstocks in an attempt to overcome major shortcomings of 1st generation biodiesels. The 2nd generation biofuel can be a sustainable alternative of 1st generation biofuel. However, the 2nd generation biofuels are not being produced commercially yet because they require more sophisticated processing equipment, more investment per unit fuel production and large scale facilities than the 1st generation biofuel. The study reviewed and discussed about socio-economic aspects of the sustainable biofuel in Australia because economy is seen to be a key driver for use of biofuels. Recent researches focused on sustainable biofuel production, their commercialization worldwide. The world biofuel scenario is presented in this study. Total biofuel production and consumption as well as present production facilities available in Australia are also outlined. The study briefly discussed about Australian energy economy such as energy export, import and trades etc. The study concluded that the 2nd generation biofuel can be considered as sustainable alternatives to petroleum fuel in transport sector providing great economic and environmental benefits to Australia.
    Keywords: Sustainable biofuel; Socio-economic aspects; Second generation biofuel; Energy consumption; Biofuel trades; Energy challenges
  • Implementation of a sustainable energy action plan for municipality of Ptolemaida   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikolaos Margaritis, Petros Dallas, Panagiotis Grammelis 
    Abstract: The first step in the implementation of a SEAP is the collaboration of a BEI, as it will provide knowledge of the nature of the entities emitting CO2 on the municipalitys territory, and will thus help select the appropriate actions. In this paper the basic methodology is presented, step by step, in order to develop a BEI for the municipality of Ptolemaida in Western Macedonia Region, Greece. According to the results, the final energy consumption of Ptolemaida city amounts to 407.994,00 MWh. Through the use of appropriate selected emission factors the carbon footprint of Ptolemaida was deducted. According to the BEI of Ptolemaida during the year 2010 were emitted 172.518 tn CO2 or 5, 37 tn CO2/capita.
    Keywords: covenant of Mayors;sustainable energy action plan;baseline emission inventory; CO2 emission factors; electric energy consumption; thermal energy consumption; public and residential building sector; tertiary and agricultural sector
    by Mehmet Ziya Sogut, Murat Paşa Uysal, Yavuz Gazibey, Arif Hepbasli 
    Abstract: One of the important reasons for global warming and climate change is regarded as the improper management of fossil energy consumption. There may be various models or approaches to energy management (EM). However, strategic EM and its applications are still away from achieving their goals. In this regard, the main objectives of the present study are to design, develop and propose a knowledge framework primarily based on an EM concept map for a holistic EM. Aligned with the research purposes, a qualitative four-phase study was conducted, and the research question was formulated as: What would be the components and concepts required for the holistic EM? The study also integrated systematic literature review (SLR) and focus group discussion (FGD) techniques. Initially, a list of the key EM concepts was formed and a preliminary concept map was constructed. Then, the final version of the concept map was achieved through several iterative revisions and FGDs. This concept map may be seen as a complementary and contributory tool for strategy development and decision-making processes in the EM knowledge domain. It is hoped that the study may extend the previous knowledge both by the tools it has utilized and approaches it has adopted for the holistic EM
    Keywords: Energy management, sustainability, concept maps, strategy, energy policy
  • Arsenic pollution of soils and morbidity prevalence in Racha-Lower Svaneti district of Georgia   Order a copy of this article
    by Vakhtang Gvakharia, Archil Chirakadze, Zakaria Buachidze, Irine Khomeriki, Maiko Chokheli, WIlliam A. Toscano, Leila Gverdtsiteli, Maia Stamateli 
    Abstract: Approximately 120 thousand tons of various molecular forms of highly toxic arsenic waste are located in mountainous areas of Georgia as an inheritance after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The heavy contamination of soil around crumbling storage areas results in pollution and high exposure of local communities, livestock, poultry and wildlife to arsenic.Relative risks for13 diseases in adults: skin diseases, pigmentation maculae, cancer; epigenetic, mental and behavioural, endocrine, urogenital disorders; respiratory, neural, gastrointestinal diseases; tumours, allergy, injury and intoxications are reported. Future work involving transdisciplinary research of epigenetic abnormalities and mental disorders in adults and children including methods of psychological testing are discussed.
    Keywords: arsenic, waste, disposal, contamination, soil, morbidity, health-risk, Georgia
  • Gaseous fuel for lower emissions during the cold start and warming up of spark ignition engines   Order a copy of this article
    by Essam Abo-Serie 
    Abstract: Gasoline engines during cold starting (cranking) and warming-up duration, particularly, at low environmental temperatures have negative impact on air pollutions, especially for sub-zero degrees. Having to inject more fuel to achieve stable engine operation resulting in higher fuel consumptions and more engine-out emissions particularly hydrocarbons. In this study, fuel consumption, emissions and engine-start conditions have been examined using different gaseous fuels during the period from the ignition time until the catalyst reaching its lighting off temperature at no load conditions. The results showed that gaseous fuels reduces fuel consumption and emissions due to achieving substantial reduction in the number of engine cranking in addition to the inherent low emission characteristics of gaseous fuel. Hydrogen, in particular, showed superior performance in comparison to other examined gaseous fuels. The significant number of engine-start using 200 g of gaseous fuel particularly hydrogen makes the gaseous fuel viable to be used together with conventional liquid gasoline fuel.
    Keywords: gaseous fuel, gasoline engine, cold start; hydrogen fuel; engine cranking; cold start emissions; low temperature SIE emissions; engine warming up emissions; cranking time
  • Potential for efficiency improvement of 4-stroke marine diesel gensets by utilization of exhaust gas energy   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitrios Hountalas, Georgios Mavropoulos, Christos Katsanos, Stavros Daniolos, Iosif Dolaptzis, Nikolaos Mastorakis 
    Abstract: In the present paper it is examined the potential application of a Rankine Cycle exhaust gas heat recovery system which recovers and utilizes energy from the exhaust gas of 4-stroke marine diesel auxiliary unit before it is released to the atmosphere, increasing thus its total efficiency. For this purpose a thermodynamic simulation model of the Rankine Bottoming Cycle is used. Heat utilization is initially considered only from the main exhaust gas stream after the T/C turbine. As reference for the investigation are used the values from the official shop tests at various loads ranging from 25% up to 100%. From these using the Rankine cycle simulation model it is investigated the potential for increase of generated cycle power output and optimization of its efficiency. In addition it is examined the effect of working media by considering steam and an organic. The results derived reveal that there exists a significant potential for fuel saving by utilization of exhaust gas energy of auxiliary engines installed on commercial vessels.
    Keywords: Rankine Cycle; 4-Stroke Diesel Engine; Heat Recovery; Exhaust Gas
    by M. Ebrahim Poulad 
    Abstract: A technique is proposed and developed to predict the household hourly electricity demand. The developed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model of residential hourly demand is employed to estimate the potential impacts of Load Curtailment Activation (LCA) on electricity demand on the activation days. Results are separately discussed in two seasons: summer and winter. LCA occurs once per day for no more than four consecutive hours. Electricity demand increases dramatically after peaksaver/LCA is completed on July 6 and August 30 of 2010. Both days show saving if the data are not normalized. Unnormalized load reductions for individual event hours ranged between 0.35 and 0.64 kWh/h or 14% and 24%, respectively
    Keywords: Demand management; artificial neural network; greenhouse gas emmision; peaksaving; load curtailment activation
  • Sulphur Removal from Artvin-Yusufeli Lignite with Acidic Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Menderes Levent, Ömer Kaya, M.Muhtar Kocakerim, Özkan Küçük 
    Abstract: Abstract : In this study, the optimization of sulphure removal by H2O2 / H2SO4 solutions, and a limited kinetic measurements by H2O2/HCl solutions have been carried over Artvin/Yusufeli lignite with higher content of sulphure. In kinetic measurements which have beeen carried out so far, only the effect of temperature on removal of sulphure has been investigated. By keeping all other parameters constant, with increments in temperature at different times, it has been seen that removal of sulphure is increased in obtained data. A statistical experimental arrangement which has six parameters and for each parameter there is twenty five experiments with five levels. In generally, at the end of experiments pyritic sulphure, total sulphure, organic sulphure and ash removal rates have been determined. According to statistical experimental arrangement, optimum sulphure removal and ash removal ratios are determined. The obtained yields in removal of pyritic sulphure is 97.85 %, in removal of total sulphure is 56.54 %, in removal of organic sulphure is 21.33 % and in removal of ash is 61.52 %. According to carried out variance analysis, in removal of pyritic and total sulphure, all parameters are effective, but, in removal of organic sulphure, acid concentration and particle size are not effective, and in removal of ash, only, acid concentration is not effective, however, it has been seen that all other parameters are effective.
    Keywords: Keywords: desulphurisation, pyritic sulphur, total sulphur, organic sulphur, lignite, hydrogen peroxide
  • Clean Development Mechanism in Iran: Does It Need A Revival?   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Alizadeh, Mehdi Majidpour, Reza Maknoon, Saeed Shafiei Kaleibari 
    Abstract: This paper aimed to study Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Iran. Greenhouse Gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. CDM projects are useful tools to reduce these costs. Kyoto Protocol includes three mechanisms, namely: emission trading, joint implementation and CDM. CDM is the only mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in which developing countries can participate. Comprehensive interviews with experts from Iranian oil and energy ministries and Department of Environment (DOE) resulted in detecting the missed opportunities for CDM in Iran. Lack of long term planning for the Kyoto Protocol, limitation of technology and finance, lack of regulation and functionality of a financial system, and international sanctions are the most significant obstacles for implementation of CDM projects in Iran. At the end, a comprehensive analysis for utilizing CDM to Greenhouse Gas reduction and climate change mitigation is presented.
    Keywords: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Kyoto Protocol
  • Application of life cycle assessment to the case studies new nitrogen fertiliser production   Order a copy of this article
    by Tayeb Serradj, Ali Makhlouf, Monia Serradj Ali Ahmed 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to perform well-to-pump LCA to investigate the energy balance and environmental impact of nitrogen fertiliser production using natural gas as feedstock. The energy requirements and GHG emissions were compared with the values which one finds in the BAT to explore the environmental performance of the fertiliser integrated plant located in developing country as Algeria. The goal of the study is to establish the environmental profile of the fertiliser. Five impact categories were selected for the study. The system boundaries were defined for a 'cradle to gate' approach, including extraction of natural resources, intermediate products, and production. The Sulfazot system, as new nitrogen fertiliser, comprises the stages of extraction, processing and pipeline transport of natural gas, ammonia synthesis, production of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate and Sulfazot manufacture. The results showed that the production of a tonne of sulfazot requires 142 M3 of water and 95 MJ of natural gas. The natural gas combustion contributes with climate warming by formation of greenhouse gases, which is about 12.29 T CO2 equivalent/FU, with the production of Tropospheric Ozone which is 25.94x10-3 T TOPP equivalent/FU. The acidification potential is of 32.53x10-3 T SO2 equivalent/FU and the cumulated energy requirement is 178.4 GJ/T of Sulfazot.
    Keywords: LCA; nitrogen fertiliser; environmental impact; energy requirements; greenhouse gas; developing country.
  • Modeling of ammonia combustion characteristics at preheating combustion: NO formation analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jun Li, Hongyu Huang, Haoran Yuan, Tao Zeng, Masayoshi Yagami, Noriyuki Kobayashi 
    Abstract: In order to improve the combustion characteristics and flame stability of NH3-air flame, preheating the reactants at different temperature was proposed in this study. We focused on the formation of NO at NH3 preheated combustion because NH3 is a typical fuel-nitrogen. The NO formation characteristics of premixed NH3air mixtures at various preheating temperatures of the reactants were numerically analyzed. The Miller and Bowman mechanism was applied in the numerically calculation of all species. The results show that the formation reaction rates of thermal NO from N + O2 → NO + O, and N +OH →NO + H increase with the increase of preheating temperatures of the reactants at fuel lean condition. Higher decomposition reaction rate of N + NO → N2 +O at stoichiometric condition finally results in a lower formation of NO comparing to that at fuel lean condition. At fuel rich condition, the reactions of NH2 + NO → N2 +H2O, NH + NO → NNH + OH have grate effect on the decomposition of NO at all preheating temperatures of the reactants, which results in an extremely low formation of NO, showing a potential for reducing NO formation in NH3 combustion.
    Keywords: ammonia; preheating combustion; NO formation; NO formation pathway
    by Zakaria Buachidze, Archil Chirakadze, Akaki Gigineishvili, Vakhtang Gvakharia, Teimuraz Chichua, Lali Gurchumelia, Irine Khomeriki, Tamar Berberashvili, William Toscano, Giorgi Oniashvili, Garegin Zakharov, Mike Wireman 
    Abstract: Georgia could serve as a unique natural testing ground for the development of green industry using advanced technologies for industrial processing of hazardous waste.The goal of the reported work was to improve on the current methods of reprocessing waste by using a combination of a microwave enhanced method of processing used tires and plastic residues with the microwave enhanced processing of manganese bearing waste and low-grade ores into manganese oxide concentrate. The manganese concentrate could be processed into high-grade manganese alloys (metallic manganese, low-carbon ferromanganese, and composite manganese alloys). Microwave heating required lower energy and resulted in a two-fold increase in yield.
    Keywords: hazardous waste, used tires, discarded plastic polymers, low-carbon manganese alloys, fuel, manganese oxide, “green industry”, microwave heating, manganese containing feed additives, composite alloys
    by Nazenin Gure, Mustafa Yilmaz 
    Abstract: Aimed Contribution: Reducing the fuel consumption via car window film implementation will also reduce vehicle-sourced emissions, help to combat global warming; thus, contribute to the economy eventually. Focused Problem: During summer, solar radiation exposure heats up the car and mobile air conditioning (MAC) usage turns into a must. As a result of MAC usage, fuel consumption and vehicle emissions increase. Each of these factors has global economic and health impacts due to imported energy sources and formed Green House Gases (GHGs) effects. Proposed Solution: By car window film implementation, blocked radiation into car cabin will reduce peak cabin temperature of the parked car. Hence, MAC will then consume less energy. This energy saving for diesel, gasoline and hybrid cars -valid for electric cars- also has economic contribution even after the filming cost is subtracted. Research Perspective: Three different types of filming implemented separately on tinted and clear rear and side windows with clear and 20% shaded windshield of the parked passenger cars for Geographic Europe (GE) and only European Union (EU) are analysed. Results: Regarding GE, 50 countries, and EU, 28 member countries, the best possibility has potential to decrease the sum of diesel and gasoline fuel consumption by 3.6 and 2.8 billion litres, reduce the passenger car sourced total GHG emissions by 34 and 27 billion kg and contribute to the economy by 5-year net savings of 270 and 226 billion $, respectively.
    Keywords: alternative solution via car window filming implementation; combat global warming; car window filming resulted benefits; car window filming around geographic Europe and the European Union; EU); vehicle emission reduction; global warming, car window filming; tinted car windows; visible light transmission laws; shaded windshield; parked car soak temperature; MAC; mobile air conditioning; global warming; GHGs; greenhouse gases; vehicle sourced air pollution; emission reduction; emission economy; air pollution economy; MAC fuel consumption; MAC energy saving; Europe; EU; European Union.
    by Archil Chirakadze, William Toscano, Vakhtang Gvakharia, Mike Wireman, Giorgi Kervalishvili, Lali Gurchumelia 
    Abstract: Experimental research was carried out using representative samples of copper processing waste and the manganese processing waste disposed in Georgia to achieve secondary recovery of valuable metals form the waste. Joint autoclave oxygen leaching of different compositions of low-grade ores and waste using microwave treated samples was studied to assess recovery of metals from waste and low-grade ores. The data showed that complex utilization of manganese and pyrite bearing waste can form the basis for a low-cost and environmentally-friendly industrial production of manganese oxide concentrates and low-carbon alloys, sulphur and copper compounds, and concentrates for gold and silver extraction.
    Keywords: manganese, copper, gold, waste, ore, autoclaving, environment

Special Issue on: "R&R2014 Application of Sustainable Technologies for Water and Waste Recycling and Reuse,"

  • Recycling of waste glass in concrete plant as aggregate and pozzolan replacement   Order a copy of this article
    by Cem Kılıcoğlu, Semra Çoruh 
    Abstract: Due to the environmental and the economic reasons, there has currently been a growing trend for the use of the industrial waste by-products as supplementary materials or as an admixture in the production of composite cement and concrete. Waste glasses cannot in general be recyled as a whole. In this study, waste glasses that are not possible to be recyled were used in concretes as a pozzolan and coarse aggregate, and thus those are provided to be used as if those were recyled. In the first group (I); waste glass (WGA) is considered as a fine aggregate in a concrete. The used WGA was reduced to 5-12 mm in size corresponding the proportions of 0-50% in the production of CEM I type cement and used goals 25 MPA and C35 MPa compressive strength. The other group (II); waste glass powder (WGP) were ground and incorporated into concrete with the levels of 5%, 15% and 30% by the weight of binder.Furthermore, two different W/C ratios 0.5 and 0.7 were used in this group repectively. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate these replacements. These tests were performed to investigate the workability, unit weight, compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete. The experimental results indicate for the group I; using WGA as aggregate did not have marked effect on the workability of concrete. For group II; the experimental results indicate that the mixtures which were ground with 5% waste glass as a pozzolan and 10% waste glass as fine aggregate gave compressive strength performance similar to the reference mixture. Higher percentage of waste glass (15%) replacement yielded lower strength values. This study shows that the use of waste glass materials in concretes reduces the costs of the concretes and also provides a partial solution for removing the waste glasses from the environment.
    Keywords: Waste Management, waste glass powder, concrete, strength
  • Solid Waste Collection Route Optimisation by Geographical Information System (GIS) in Fatih-Istanbul, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Goksel Demir, H. Kurtulus Ozcan, Perihan Kurt Karakus, Yener Bakis 
    Abstract: Uncontrolled urban population growth in metropolitan areas of developing countries in recent years has made solid waste management an important issue. Generally, collection and hauling efforts cover a substantial amount of total expenditures on the solid waste management by city authorities. Success of an integrated solid waste management system is directly proportional to the success of solid waste collection and transport systems since all depends on an even and a timely manner collection process. The more populated cities bring increasing difficulties on the reach and utilize services. In order to reduce cost and time on these services, it is very crucial for authorities to search for optimization possibilities. In this manner, for local authorities, one of the most important issues on solid waste management practices is an optimized solid waste collection function. An optimized collection function has become more important in metropolitan areas having improved and sophisticated road systems. In this study, in order to minimize the route and collection cost by employing GIS and using numerical road data, a solid waste collection route optimization study was carried in Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; collection; route optimisation; Geographical Information System (GIS); Fatih district; Istanbul
  • Oxidation prevention of silicon carbide powders   Order a copy of this article
    by Yilmaz Firat Birtane, Azade Yelten, Eray Erzi, Mustafa Merih Arikan, Suat Yilmaz 
    Abstract: Oxidation creates an important problem with the increasing temperature and additionally if one of the components contains an amount of carbon, then there will be a COx emission risk which has a detrimental effect for the atmosphere. One of the methods to prevent the oxidation of silicon carbide (SiC) is to coat it with Al2O3 which has high thermal stability. In this study, the properties of Al2O3 coated SiC composite powders were examined to prevent the oxidation of SiC particles by developing a thermal barrier coating and it is aimed to contribute for reducing the gases which make a greenhouse effect and cause global warming. Firstly, boehmite sol was prepared via the sol-gel route and then 5wt% beta-SiC (<100nm) nanosized particles were added to the boehmite sol and gelation was completed. Alumina coated SiC powders were heat treated at 100, 550, 1000, 1300 and 1600 C under dry air and argon atmospheres. Characterization analyses showed that alumina coated SiC particles underwent to slightly internal oxidation with the partial oxidation depending on the oxygen ion mobility during the transformation from boehmite to alumina in the interior atmosphere while alumina coated SiC particles gained oxidation resistance against the outer atmosphere.
    Keywords: oxidation behavior; sol-gel method; alumina/SiC composites