International Journal of Global Warming (14 papers in press)
Carbon footprint of the generation of bioelectricity from sugarcane bagasse in a sugar and ethanol industry
by Monica Carvalho, Valdir Bernardino Da Silva Segundo, Mariane Gama De Medeiros, Nataly Albuquerque Dos Santos, Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior
Abstract: Brazil indicated a commitment of reducing greenhouse gas emissions at the Paris Conference in 2015, which has led the Brazilian government to incentivize the use of renewable energy sources. Biomass is a renewable energy source that can be used to produce electricity, with its availability mainly connected to the sugar and alcohol sector in Brazil. The study presented herein applied the Life Cycle Assessment methodology to the generation of electricity from sugarcane bagasse and from diesel in thermoelectric power plants, and verified the potential to mitigate climate change. The production of electricity from sugarcane bagasse presented a low carbon footprint (0.227 kg CO2-eq/kWh), much lower than the diesel thermoelectric process (1.060 kg CO2-eq/kWh). Considering that diesel-based electricity could be substituted by bioelectricity, the result would be overall avoided emissions of -0.833 kg CO2-eq/kWh. The progressive use of sugarcane bagasse as a source of electricity presents therefore the potential to help mitigate climate change, being part of a wider scheme for the substitution of fuels.
Keywords: sugarcane bagasse; electricity; bioenergy; life cycle assessment; carbon footprint.
Biogas Production in Semi-continuous-flow Reactors Using Fresh Water Hyacinth from the Chao Phraya River
by Nusara Sinbuathong, Wannapa Kratay, Netchanok Sombat, Suchat Leungprasert, Suriya Sawanon
Abstract: Biogas production was studied from the digestion of water hyacinth (WH), co-digestion of WH with cow dung and co-digestion of pretreated WH with dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The reactors were fed with 20% by fresh weight of the substrate mixture of various ratios in semi-continuous-flow reactors at 30
Keywords: anaerobic digestion;bioenergy;biogas;co-digestion;cow dung;greenhouse gas; methane;pretreatment;water hyacinth.
Heating Design Temperatures, Freezing Degree-Hours and Number of Freezing Hours for Selected Cities in Turkey
by Saban Pusat
Abstract: In this study, the heating design temperatures (HDTs), the freezing degree-hours (FDHs) and the number of freezing hours (NFHs) were examined for the selected cities in Turkey. Eight cities were selected for the analyses, which represent the different climatic regions of Turkey. In the analyses, the typical meteorological year (TMY) data was used. Therefore, the obtained results may be used as a general knowledge for the selected cities. According to the results of this study, the yearly minimum and maximum FDHs were calculated as 27.2 and 13842.5 for Adana and Sivas, respectively (the case 1). The minimum and maximum NFHs were obtained as 25 and 2355 for Adana and Sivas, respectively (the case 1). Sivas had the highest FDH and NFH values for all the cases. Therefore, Sivas had the highest risk of freezing and icing. Additionally, there was not a significant risk of freezing and icing in Adana, Denizli, İstanbul and Trabzon. The HDTs were calculated for the selected cities, which were the most current data for Turkey and different from the traditional data used by the Authorities. In the literature, there has not been much study on the topic of freezing and design temperature. Therefore, this study contributes to the Turkish and world literature.
Keywords: Freezing; icing; degree-hour; freezing degree-hour; number of freezing hour; Heating design temperature; Turkey.
INVESTIGATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF CALCIUM BROMINE CYCLE FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
by Fatih Yilmaz, Resat SELBAS
Abstract: Thermochemical and hybrid cycles have become increasingly important in recent years among the hydrogen production methods. In this proposed work, a thermodynamic performance evaluation of calcium bromide (Ca-Br2) hybrid thermochemical cycle is investigated for hydrogen generation. This cycle consists of two chemical reactions and one electrochemical reaction. Energy and exergy efficiencies of each step and overall cycle are examined according to several parameters such as reference and reaction temperatures. In addition, we have conducted pure thermodynamic analyses according to the heat demand of steps and reference temperature. Results indicate that the total heat demand and overall exergy destruction rate of Ca-Br2 cycle computed as 409 kJ/mole H2 and 183.55 409 kJ/mole H2, respectively. In addition, energy and exergy efficiencies of the examined cycle are found as 46.64% and 59.04%, respectively, at 25oC reference temperature.
Keywords: Energy; exergy; hydrogen; Ca-Br2.
Assessing heat wave vulnerability in Beijing and its districts,using a three dimensional model
by Mingshun Zhang, Huan Wang, Wei Jin, Meine Pieter Van Dijk
Abstract: An urban Heat Wave Vulnerability Index (HWVI) is created and tested in Beijing and different districts in the city. It is based on a limited number of indicators, but enough indicators to effectively measure heat wave vulnerability, a consequence of urbanization and climate change in many cities. The paper defines heat wave vulnerability based on international literature and in the specific context of Beijing. The heat wave vulnerability index developed uses data on 9 individual indicators covering the three core components exposure, sensibility and adaptive capacity. Together they create a comprehensive HWVI score. Testing the HWVI in Beijing shows that heat wave vulnerability increased slightly in Beijing in the period of 2008 to 2016. Vulnerability differs between the 16 districts of Beijing. High vulnerability is observed in the urban downtown area and development areas, lower vulnerability is measured in the urban periphery. Very low vulnerability is found in the ecological conservation areas of some districts. This study develops and applies a methodological approach that could serve other mega cities in developing heat wave adaptation policies. Findings are relevant for Beijing to develop its climate change adaptation actions. Policy recommendations are provided and further research on heat wave vulnerability assessment is suggested.
Keywords: Heat wave; Vulnerability assessment; Climate change; Adaptation; Heat wave vulnerability index; Beijing.
Assurance of sustainability environmental contingencies experience from France
by Clementine Evain, Joshua Onome Imoniana
Abstract: The study investigates the mode by which auditors assure the environmental contingencies disclosed in the financial statements. Taking interpretivist perspective through discourse analysis, we argue for understanding of measures taken by assuror to mitigate the environmental contingencies risks. Data corpus consists of interview of seven practicing external auditors. Our findings show that auditors understanding of the business plays major role; and has to lead with certain amount of diligences in view of ascertaining true and fair view of the financial statements. By doing so, third parties confirmation is quintessential in connection to the rights and obligations enhanced by experts, lawyers and business partners. Based on our study, we conclude that assurance of environmental contingency ought to be treated on case-by-case basis in order to abridge the expectation gap and be effective. Finally, assuring sustainability of environmental contingencies lies within the companys control activities, the environmental compliance roles, and the auditors understanding of the business.
Keywords: Assurance; Audit; Sustainability Accounting; Environmental Contingencies; France.
The role of macroeconomic development on carbon emissions for 15 Asian countries: panel ARDL approach
by Wen-Cheng Lu
Abstract: This article utilised the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to examine the link between macroeconomic developments and carbon emissions for 15 Asian countries from 1990 to 2013. The results of the panel ARDL model showed that there exist long-run equilibrium relationships between principal macroeconomic variables and carbon emissions in the sample. The long-run elasticity of renewable energy and fossil fuels energy consumption with respect to CO2 emissions was calculated as −0.299 and 0.967, respectively. The long-run elasticity of GDP, financial development, urban population density and industry value added share with respect to CO2 emissions was calculated as 0.473, 0.079, −0.633 and −0.10, respectively. FDI was significantly negatively related to CO2 emissions which were calculated as −0.06 in the short-run. These results suggested that FDI inflow was not yet an environmental threat for Asian economies. Renewable energy and upgrades to industry value added share will help various governments mitigate carbon emissions.
Keywords: carbon emissions; industry value added; foreign direct investment; FDI; energy consumption; macroeconomic development; renewable energy.
Current trends in scientific research on global warming: a bibliometric analysis
by José Luis Aleixandre-Tudó, Máxima Bolaños-Pizarro, José Luis Aleixandre, Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the scientific knowledge in global warming, as well as to investigate the evolution of the research knowledge through the published papers included in Web of Science database. A bibliometric and social network analyses was performed to obtain indicators of scientific productivity, impact and collaboration between researchers, institutions and countries. A subject analysis was also carried out taking into account the key words assigned to papers and subject areas of journals. A number of 1,672 articles were analysed since 2005 until 2014. The most productive journals were Journal of Climate (n = 95) and the most frequent keyword have been climate change (n = 722). The network of collaboration between countries shows the central position of the USA. Papers on the topic are published in a vast amount of journals from several subject categories.
Keywords: global warming; research trends; scientific collaboration; bibliometric analysis; social network analysis; SNA.
Long term analysis of the subtropical jet over the Arabian Peninsula
by Falah Al-Dalabeeh, Emad Imreizeeq, Hajar Al-Naqbi
Abstract: In this study, the long term change of the Arabian Peninsula subtropical jet stream (APJS) is investigated for winter time of the period 1980-2014, using data retrieved from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis of the geopotential heights 300 hPa, 200 hPa and 150 hPa. The value and position of the monthly mean of the maximum zonal wind in the jet core are determined for the mentioned period and analysed. We found that the APJS has experienced a pronounced change. It is shifting poleward and eastward for about 1.5° in January and 2.5° in February also its speed has a slight increase during autumn and more pronounced in winter. However, it is decreasing during spring and the beginning of summer. The analysis of points of different positions shows that the wind speed is broadly decreasing in the tropics, whereas the wind speed increases in the subtropics.
Keywords: long term changes; trends; spectral analysis; Arabian Peninsula; subtropical jet stream; STJ.
Thermodynamic assessment of the impact of the climate change on the honeybees
by Cennet Yildiz, Mustafa Özilgen
Abstract: Injury of honeybees with climate change will jeopardise pollination and food security. Thermodynamic parameters which may affect the honeybees due to global warming are assessed based on their sucrose metabolism. With 3,000 honeybees, work performance was 3.17 kJ/kg dry air, heat generation was 4.44 kJ/kg dry air and the entropy generation is 161.6 W/g honeybee K while raising the temperature of the hive by 1°C. On the other hand, they have to perform 4.5 kJ/kg dry air of work, generate 7.27 kJ/kg dry air of heat and 308.9 W/g honeybee K of entropy to reduce the temperature of the hive by 1°C. The results show that during cooling by 1°C the honeybees perform 1.4 folds of work and generate 1.9 folds of entropy when compared to that of heating by 1°C, implying that global warming may create 90% more entropy stress on the honeybees, when compared to that of cooling.
Keywords: thermodynamic modelling; climate change; global warming; honeybee; indicator organism.
Global warming analysis for greenhouse gases impacts comparable to carbon-free nuclear energy using neuro-fuzzy algorithm
by Tae Ho Woo
Abstract: As one of energy characteristics, the importance of climate effects has been increasing due to the side-effect such as the drought, flood, heavy snow and so on. The nonlinear artificial intelligence can be reasonably applied in the analysis of the simulations, because the human-brain mimicking algorithm can show the practicable results. Basically, the quantifications in the study results are based on the randomly generated numbers where the Monte Carlo methods are applied. The Boolean numbers are generated in the variable constructions. Furthermore, there are multiplications in population which are decided by the expert judgments. The causes loops for CO2 and temperature are obtained. In addition, there is the result of variable albedo vs. normalised temperature with dimensionless values. Global collaboration can prepare and control the global warming as the geological scale aspect as well as the collaborated idea utilisation that can develop the carbon minimising technology and green energy development.
Keywords: global warming; neuro-fuzzy; nuclear energy; artificial intelligence.
Special Issue on: GCGW2018 Special Issue for Potential Energy Solutions for a Better Environment
A time-varying carbon intensity approach for demand-side management strategies with respect to CO2 emission reduction in the electricity grid
by Can Coskun
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine electricity utilization based on the hourly distribution of CO2 emissions. Turkey was chosen for this case study because of the CO2 intensive characteristics of electricity generation. This study aims to be a pioneer in the spread of a time-varying carbon intensity approach for the calculation of carbon foot prints. There is a 5.98% difference between the proposed method and currently available CO2 reduction amounts for the test renewable energy case study. The aim is to plan electricity utilization according to CO2 intensity characteristics. Total CO2 emissions can be decreased by changing the electricity utilization characteristic. Electricity generation- based hourly emissions are calculated by utilizing actual data. The effective end-user intensity of electricity utilization is calculated for each city. It is determined as the CO2 intensity of electricity generation fluctuates both by the hour and by the day. It varies from 418.6 g CO2/kWh to 824.6 g CO2/kWh, or 597.8 g CO2/kWh on average. According to hourly basis analyses, the highest CO2 intensity of electricity generation occurs between 06:00 and 07:00. The highest CO2 intensity of electricity generation occurs on a Sunday despite this being the time of lowest electricity demand. An annual total of 162.84 metric tons of CO2 is released into the atmosphere as a result of electricity generation. Electricity generation- based CO2 emission per capita is calculated as 1.912 ton CO2.
Keywords: Electricity generation; CO2 intensity of electricity generation; CO2 emission per capita; Global warming; demand-side management; time-varying carbon intensity; Turkey.
BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM SUNN HEMP
by Nusara Sinbuathong, Roj Khun-anake, Suriya Sawanon
Abstract: Sunn hemp at a cutting age of 50 days was investigated for biogas production by studying the anaerobic digestion of sunn hemp alone and the co-digestion of sunn hemp with cow dung at a concentration of 20% by fresh weight but with various proportions. The single-stage, semi-continuous reactors were operated at a hydraulic retention time of 40 days. Mixed ruminal microorganisms from cows were used as inoculum. The results indicated that the CH4 content from the digestion of sunn hemp alone was 47.57% and the CH4 produced per area of cultivation was 9231 m3/hectare.year. Co-digestion could increase the CH4 content to greater than 50%. Proportion of sunn hemp:cow dung:water of 10:10:80 by fresh weight was optimal for co-digestion. At this recommended ratio, the CH4 yield reached 412 L/kg total volatiles solids degraded. Sunn hemp could be a very good renewable energy source for biogas production.
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; bioenergy; biogas; co-digestion; cover crop; cow dung; global warming; green manure; methane; renewable energy;sunn hemp.
Kinetics and Mechanism of Reaction between Carbon Disulfide and Novel Aqueous Amines Solutions
by OZGE YUKSEL ORHAN, FATIMA NESLISAH CIHAN, ERDOGAN ALPER
Abstract: The mechanism and kinetics of Carbon disulfide (CS2) capture by aqueous solutions of well known alkanolamines (monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA)) and novel cyclic mono- and polyamines (morpholine (MRPH), piperazine (PZ), n-methyl piperazine (NMPZ) and n-hydroxyethyl piperazine (NHEPZ)) were investigated by stopped-flow apparatus with conductivity detection. The observed reaction rate constants were obtained for a temperature range of 298.15-313.15 K and it was found that cyclic amines react much faster than others. A modified termolecular reaction mechanism was used to analyse the experimental kinetic data. The activation energies for all systems were also obtained by evaluating the Arrhenius equation.
Keywords: Carbon disulfide capture; absorption kinetics; stopped flow; cyclic amines.