Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Global Warming


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International Journal of Global Warming (64 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • The environmental impact of renewables   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The aim of this research is twofold. Firstly, to introduce a trilemma of a global sustainable energy system and, secondly, to perform a quantitative assessment of the effect of renewables on the environmental impacts of electricity generation, taking into account the existing divergences between developed and developing countries. In a multi-regional, multi-country, dynamic approach, a regression analysis is performed to determine the causal relationship between renewables and environmental indicators on climate change, human toxicity, respiratory impacts, ionising radiation, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, land use and mineral and fossil resource depletion. Results show that renewable energy consumption significantly improves environmental outcomes in both developed and developing countries. As a result, renewables represent a suitable climate change mitigation option.
    Keywords: renewables; environment; developed countries; developing countries; trilemma

    Abstract: Ethyl ester of Jatropha oil (JEE) was prepared using acid catalyzed transesterification method. The physico-chemical properties of JEE were determined. Blends of JEE were prepared with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% butanol on volumetric basis. Performance, emission and heat release analysis of different blends were carried in a single cylinder diesel engine. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with JEE and its blends was higher than diesel. The emissions of CO, NOx, and Smoke for JEE and blends were lower while emission of HC was higher than diesel. The peak heat release rate for diesel and JEE100 were 135.41/
    Keywords: Jatropha Ethyl Ester, Butanol, Performance , Emission

  • Technical, Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Hybrid System Containing CHP, Solar Panel, Wind Turbine with Electrolyzer and Battery as Energy Storage: Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Effatnejad, Kambiz Rezapour, Farzad Vazinram 
    Abstract: Abstract: The environmental problems by fossil fuels and shortage of these kinds of energy cause that many governmental organization put incentive conditions to attract private companies to invest in renewable energies. In this regard, Iran has many potential of renewable resources. From view point of solar radiation, Iran has potential of installation of 60,000 MW as solar power plant and 100,000 MW as Wind power plant. In this paper the economic and environmental analysis of some available renewable resources including photovoltaic panels (PV), Wind Turbine (WT), combined heat and power (CHP) plant, reformer, electrolyzer and battery have been utilized for a hospital in Tabriz. The cost of energy (COE), internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) of all feasible and economical combination of resources have been investigated. The input related data have been entered in HOMER software based on Tabriz climate. The simulation has been carried out for different amount of sensitivities including price of natural gas, CO2 social penalty cost, wind speed and global solar radiation. Moreover, different combination of utilization of resources from viewpoint of NPV, IRR and COE has been studied. Finally the most economic hybrid system for the mentioned hospital in different amount of sensitivities has been analyzed.
    Keywords: Hybrid system; renewable resources; combined heat and power (CHP); environmental impacts; cost of energy; internal rate of return (IRR); net present value (NPV).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10001277
  • Climatic and Energetic Analysis of the Atmospheric Clearness Index in Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Qassem Tarawneh 
    Abstract: This study presents the solar potential of Saudi Arabia in terms of the clearness index (CI) to explore the effect of climate on solar irradiation. Solar irradiance polygons (SIP) are used to find the variations in solar terrestrial irradiation. The country is divided into four climatic regions based on similar weather conditions as determined by numerous studies, and the solar irradiation records in these regions are grouped into two time periods of roughly 10-years each, depending on data availability. The SIPs show a decline in solar irradiation in the second time period for all regions except the eastern region. The maximum difference between the time periods, of approximately 10.9 (MJ/M2 Day), is found in October at Alhefa station in the southwestern region, while at Khurais station in the eastern region the values of solar irradiation are very close together, within 2 (MJ/M2 Day). In the eastern region, an increase in solar irradiation was rather frequently encountered the second time period, which is unusual for Saudi Arabia and is a tendency only found elsewhere at the Tayef station in the western region. To engage in climatic interpretation and determine the effect of monthly climate conditions on solar energy, the Angstrom equation is used, incorporating data regarding solar irradiation and sunshine hours (i.e. cloud cover), to produce solar Angstrom polygons (SAP). Finally, CI is taken from the SAP to estimate the solar irradiation potential in order to compare the measured solar irradiation against what was estimated, and a maximum relative error of 11% was found. Variation in cloud cover was found to be insignificant over the two time periods, in spite of the fact that solar irradiation generally declined in the second period, which strongly indicates anthropogenic factors are at play.
    Keywords: Clearness Index; climatology; Saudi Arabia; Solar Radiation; Weather Systems

  • The Effects of Land Cover Changes on Forest Carbon Storage in 40 Years: A Case Study in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Uzay Karahalil, Emin Zeki Baskent, Sinan Bulut 
    Abstract: In this study, forest biomass carbon storage changes were estimated for a case study area of
    Keywords: Carbon storage; land cover change; landscape metrics; forest dynamics; Çaykara planning unit; Uzungöl Lake.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006060
  • Heat island effect on outdoor meteorological parameters for building energy-saving design in a large city in Northern China   Order a copy of this article
    by Mingcai Li, Jun Guo, Mingming Xiong, Cao Xiang 
    Abstract: The climate change and urban heat island (UHI) effects on outdoor meteorological parameters were determined by analyzing design temperatures for heating and air-conditioning in urban center, suburban and outer suburban areas in a large city in northern China. The results showed that design temperatures increased apparently over the past 20 years and decreased considerably from the urban center to suburban and outer suburban areas. The climate change and UHI impacts would lead to 1- 5 % changes in design loads, decreasing the heating design load and increasing the cooling design load as the buildings moves from outer suburban, suburban to urban areas and from the past to the present. The decrease in the heating load exceeds the increase in the cooling load, being beneficial to improve building energy efficiency. Climate change and UHI impacts should be fully considered to promote energy-saving of building design.
    Keywords: climate warming, urban heat island, building energy efficiency, large city, design meteorological parameters, energy consumption, large cities, heating load, cooling load, outdoor conditions

    by Chandra Mathy, Jinu Louishidha Kitchley 
    Abstract: Urbanization has a dynamic relationship with Land Surface Temperature (LST), which leads to urban heat island effect. It further leads to global climatic changes and global warming resulting in a decline in the quality of life and the environment. Madurai, a Temple city in Tamilnadu, India has experienced rapid urbanization that has been resulting in an Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect since 1990. Climatic data for a period of 21 years from 1990 to 2010 reveals that Madurai has experienced an increase in average LST from 38.33
    Keywords: Urban Heat Island Effect; Urbanization; Land use Land cover; Land surface temperature; Green Plot Ratio; Green space; LANDSAT TM/ETM.

  • Adsorption of lead and copper using waste foundry sand: statistical evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: In this study, the adsorption characteristics of lead and copper ions on waste foundry sand were investigated. Multiple regression model with dummy variables was developed to explore and model the effects of experimental factors which are metal type, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration on adsorption capacity. According to regression model, initial concentration has a quadratic effect on adsorption capacity and the effect of concentration reaches a maximum at 234.15 mg/L and becomes negative afterward. The adsorption equilibrium data were then analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and results have shown that adsorption behavior of two metal ions could be described reasonably well by a generalized isotherm. These results indicate that waste foundry sand could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of metal ions.
    Keywords: Waste foundry sand, adsorption, lead, copper, statistical evaluation

  • Impacts of El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean SSTs on inflow to the Roseires Dam in the Sudan   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassin Osman 
    Abstract: Several studies on East Africa climate have indicated strong teleconnections between El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with the region climate. These teleconnections have resulted in severe positive and negative impacts on the hydrological system of the upper catchment of the Blue Nile which feeds the Roseires Dam in the Sudan. In this study potential impacts of these teleconnections on variability of inflow to the Roseires Dam is investigated. The objective is to investigate the relationship between these climatic indices and the river flow to enable building a forecasting tool to give a lead time prediction of inflow to the dam using lead time information of these indices. Ninety one years of annual flow (1914-2004) from El-Diem station, upstream the Dam, the Wright ENSO-SST index, and the NOAA ERSSTv3 Indian Ocean-SST indices were used in the analysis. Correlation results showed that the annual inflow to the dam has negative relation with the ENSO-SST index and SST indices from two regions in the Indian Ocean. Two probabilistic prediction models were developed. The developed models use the concept of conditional probability to forecast a certain category of the inflow (dry, average or wet year) given the condition of the ENSO-SST or Indian Ocean-SST index (hot, normal or cold). Models results showed significant improvements in the annual inflow predictability when these indices are used as predictors. The results also showed that performance of the model, using the Indian Ocean -SST as predictor, is better than performance of the model using the ENSO-SST as predictor. The models developed could contribute to better water management and operation of the dam reservoir.
    Keywords: Roseires Dam, Blue Nile River, ENSO, Indian Ocean SST, drought, flood

  • Cutting Interval of napier grass affecting methane yield in anaerobic digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Yuwadee Sangsil, Suriya Sawanon 
    Abstract: Digestion of napier grass at cutting intervals of 30, 45, 60 and 90 days was investigated in two-stage anaerobic reactors. Four sets of reactors with working volumes of 4 and 5 L for acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at 30 ๐C. Acidogenic reactors were fed a slurry of napier grass at 200 mL/day. Hydraulic retention times were 20 and 25 days for the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors, respectively. Mixed ruminal microorganisms from cow were used as inoculum. The highest methane yield was obtained from napier grass with a cutting interval of 60 days producing 6,500 m3/ha.year.
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, bioenergy, energy crop, global warming, grass, methane, napier, waste treatment

  • Geographical Dispersion and Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Power Generation in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Zehra Yumurtacı, A. Jasin Demirhan 
    Abstract: In the current study, different temporal electricity generation cases of wind farms are examined. The maximum and minimum power generation and capacity factor variations for various regions are calculated based on the actual data taken from the available wind power plants. Also, the amounts of CO2 emission prevention, due to the established wind power plants in these regions, and the related environmental impacts are studied in detail. Furthermore, three distinct regions are taken into account for study, and its results show that the total wind power generation for available 34 wind power plants can go up to 1.2 GW/year in each region. By employing wind power plants in each region, significant reductions of CO2 emissions are possible compared to the conventional coal based power generation. For example, the reductions of CO2 emissions are estimated to be 47,700, 770,000 and 1,032,000 tonnes/year, respectively for three regions of Mediterranean, Marmara and Aegean regions.
    Keywords: wind power; environmental impact; CO2 emissions; geographical dispersion; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10002929
  • Nonparametric Trend Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ijaz Hussain, Sajid Gul 
    Abstract: Reference evapotranspiration (ETo ) is a key element of the hydrological cycle that integrates atmosphere demand and surface environment conditions. In this study, we aimed to determine the trend of ETo using nonparametric methods Mann-Kendall and Sens slope estimator, whereas ETo is estimated using globally accepted Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Montieth FAO-56 (PM) method. We used 10 years data (2000-2009) of 11 weather stations located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. We identified a decreasing trend in ETo rate has been recorded mostly in winter, pre-monsoon and spring with an upward trend during autumn and red-summer. Further, the statistical analysis shows a significant decreasing trend in during winter. In summary, we provide a systematic approach that may be used in agro meteorological modeling and irrigation development.
    Keywords: Evapotranspiration; FAO-56 PM; Trend Analysis; Mann-Kendall; Sen0s slope estimator;Season

  • The Association of Weather Variables with Rice Production and Simulation of Agro-adaptation Measure for Northeast Thailand: Evidence from Panel Data Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirote Sinnarong, Kotchaporn Pongcharoen, Kasama Thaeye, Siriporn Phuntulee, Worawut Ngampiboonwet 
    Abstract: Climate change poses a significant threat to agriculture and global food supply. This study aims to estimate the potential impacts of weather on rice production and agro-adaptation to mitigate its impacts in northeast Thailand. Based on the rice production and weather data from 17 provinces over the 1989-2014 periods, the unit root tests and feasible generalized least squares involving a panel data model are explored to obtain reliable estimates. The results showed that weather variables have a major impact on rice production. Increase in the temperature during the crop-growing season has adverse effects on the rice production. The rainfall increases are found to increase rice production levels. To explore the potential effect of agro-adaptation, numerical simulations provided evidence that altering planting can reduce the impact of weather on rice production risk by 25.16 to 57.95% for the possible adaptations. Applying a new rice variety can reduce rice production risk by 35.50 to 44.56%. Simulation results revealed that the decrease in impact of weather on rice production can be mitigated significantly using proper management practices in terms of altering planting dates and changing rice varieties. These agro-adaptations can prevent the crop from adverse effect weather during growing period.
    Keywords: rice production; weather; climate change; panel data; agro-adaptation; Thailand.

  • Green Transportation: Increasing Fuel Consumption Efficiency through HHO Gas Injection in Diesel Vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharaf Alkheder 
    Abstract: Oxy-Hydrogen (HHO) is a non-toxic gas that is used as a supplement to any engine working on Petrol, Diesel, Heavy oil, Acetylene, Propane, Kerosene, or LPG. Through adding HHO to the air intake manifold engine and injection into the cylinders, where HHO mixes with fuel, an increase in mileage of engine performance; enhancement of hydrocarbon fuel combustion; lower emission rates and an increase in fuel efficiency are observed. HHO gas is produced through the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (Hydrogen generator). This study examines the effect of HHO gas, that was directly injected into a single cylinder diesel engine, on the manifold intake air at varying operating speeds of 1500-3000 rpm in diesel engine. The experiments demonstrated positive results including (13.87-15.48%) fuel consumption reduction, lower exhaust temperature, and consequently a reduction in pollution. Furthermore, results indicated that the injection of HHO improved the combustion efficiency and increased the brake thermal efficiency by an average of approximately 17.1%. It also decreased brake specific fuel consumption and gases' exhaust temperature. In addition, the optimal surface area of an electrolyte needed to generate sufficient amount of HHO was found to be thirty six times that of the piston surface area, and also the volume of water needed in the cell is about one and half times that of the engine capacity.
    Keywords: Direct injection; Diesel; HHO gas; Brake thermal efficiency; specific fuel consumption.

  • Historically evolved practices of the Himalayan transhumant pastoralists and their implications for climate change adaptation   Order a copy of this article
    by Suman Aryal, Jeeban Panthi, Yub Raj Dhakal, Narayan Prasad Gaire, Kabita Karki, Narendra Raj Joshi 
    Abstract: The people living in the agrarian societies develop different strategies in response to climatic variability and environmental uncertainties. Transhumant pastoralists in the Himalayas are among those who follow natures rhythm of seasonality. The traditional practices built in groups experience might be useful to adapt with climate variability and change. Therefore, this study aims to 1) study perceptions of transhumant herders towards changes in key climatic variables and validate them with observed data; 2) explore traditional practices of transhumant herders and their significances for climate change adaptation in Khaptad National Park, far-Western Nepal. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interview and focus groups discussions. The results showed that the perceptions of transhumant herders match with observed climatic trends in many instances and herders traditional strategies have potential in reducing risk from climate change. The findings indicate that the historically evolved practices might be useful for climate change adaptation.
    Keywords: adaptation strategies; climate change; Himalayas; Nepal; pastoralists; perceptions; transhumance; trends.

  • Integrating metaheuristics and Artificial Neural Network for weather forecasting   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Gocken, Asli Boru, Ayşe Tugba Dosdogru, Mehmet Ozcalici 
    Abstract: Over the years, researchers have been analyzing to forecast the weather as precisely as possible in order to provide the better living conditions. Nevertheless, there is no consensus on the effective weather forecasting methods and therefore, research on providing applicable and effective forecasting methods has been continued. In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN)s are integrated with two metaheuristic methods including Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Harmony Search (HS) to determine the most relevant input variables and to search the most appropriate number of hidden neurons. Proposed forecasting methods are implemented for six different cities of Turkey that are selected according to Aydenizs Climate Classification. The results of the graphical analysis and performance measures show that daily mean temperature forecasting is improved by GA-ANN and HS-ANN methods due to the ability to capture the advantages of metaheuristic and ANN simultaneously.
    Keywords: Artificial neural network; Genetic algorithm; Harmony search; Weather forecasting.

  • Temporal analysis of reference evapotranspiration to detect variation factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Valipour, Mohammad Ali Gholami Sefidkouhi 
    Abstract: There are many factors that can change reference evapotranspiration (ET0). In this study, after comparison of six reference evapotranspiration equations, variations of each model have been investigated to detect main factor(s) of temporal changes of ET0 from 1981 to 2010 in Goragn, Iran. Although Priestley-Taylor (PT) estimates ET0 is more identical to FPM than the other equations during 30-year period, the results show that accuracy of PT is reduced after 2000. The study of variations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine, underlines that there is a considerable difference between the averages of the weather variables before and after 2000. Compared to 19811999, the average of wind speed has been increased more than three times after 2000 that it introduces the wind speed as the most important variable for changes of ET0 and alarms a climatic change in Gorgan, Iran.
    Keywords: climatic change; Iran; Mann-Kendall test; trend analysis; wind speed.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10002058
    by Stefanos Nastis, Konstadinos Mattas 
    Abstract: Climate change policy is steadily gaining momentum and is being implemented at the national and international level. The European Union has been committed to control and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, implementing rigorous climate change policy. The aim of this study is to provide the first willingness-to-pay and income elasticity of willingness-to-pay estimates for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through a carbon tax in Greece. Based on a survey of 1393 adults, households are willing to pay, on average, an annual carbon tax of 81 for the next ten years in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 17% by 2025. Furthermore, results confirm that income elasticity of willingness-to-pay for climate change isnt constant, but increases with income, from 0.48 for low income households to 1.40 for high income households. The full sample income elasticity of WTP was estimated at 0.96, raising distributional questions regarding the social profitability of any climate change policy and the probability of public acceptance.
    Keywords: EU climate policy; contingent valuation; willingness-to-pay; income elasticity of willingness to pay; non-market valuation; carbon tax.

  • A deterministic carbon footprint modeling across the supply chain of electricity   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatemeh Dalir, Majid Shafiepour Motlagh, Khosro Ashrafi 
    Abstract: Electricity sector is one of the major contributors to climate change and global warming. Hence, decarbonization of electricity which is generated by current technologies is inevitable. For a better policy implementation in energy portfolio, this paper presents a deterministic carbon footprint model for frame F fossil fuel power plant from raw material until the product is delivered to the end user. The model has been designed to cover the effect of investigated parameters. Controlling the investigated parameters can reduce carbon footprint of electricity through its life phases. The distinguished feature of the proposed model is the integration of raw material, operation of the power plant and transmission and distribution phases. The result shows good agreement between statistical data and proposed model.
    Keywords: carbon footprint; power plant; electricity transmission and distribution.

  • The use of response surface methodology (RSM) for modeling of lead (II) removal from industrial waste by pumice and vermiculite   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Gamze Turan 
    Abstract: The main objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of pumice and vermiculite as the sorbents for lead (II) removal from industrial waste using Box-Behnken method. Batch adsorption method was used in order to evaluate the feasibility. Experiments were carried out as per Box-Behnken surface statistical design with three input parameters namely pH (2-5-8), adsorbent concentration (10-50-100 mg L-1), and contact time (5-30-120 min). Regression analysis demonstrated good fit of the experimental data to the linear model with coefficient of determination () values of 91.49% and 98.51% for vermiculite and pumice, respectively. Optimization of pH (2-2), adsorbent concentration (57.81-75 mg L-1), and contact time (89.06-5 min) gave a maximum of 99.99% lead (II) removal for vermiculite and pumice, respectively.
    Keywords: Box-Behnken design; ANOVA; vermiculite; pumice; lead (II) removal.

  • Complex analysis for the climate change impact on the nuclear industry incorporated with the green energy   Order a copy of this article
    by T.A.E. H.O. WOO 
    Abstract: The economic value based investigation is performed for the nuclear energy incorporated with the global warming in which the dynamical simulations are performed. The nuclear power source is studied for the climate consideration in the aspect of the justification of energy usage. The price of the relevant energy is examined for the modeling, which is analyzed by the climate change related quantifications for the improved energy policy incorporated with the anticipated carbon quantity. In the simulations, the earlier time has much higher values comparing to the later part, which means that the impact of the nuclear energy for climate is effective. Most minus values are shown in the simulations where the climate impact related with global warming decreases gradually. However, the abrupt jumping up value is on 2083.25th year when the impact of nuclear energy by climate change is abnormal status in this study.
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Nuclear energy; Economy; Plant.

  • Linear-fractional model for global warming   Order a copy of this article
    by Nizar Jaoua 
    Abstract: A unique linear-fractional model is designed to describe the global warming in terms of the ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to the pre-industrial level. As an application, doubled CO2 concentration is expected to raise surface temperatures by about 2°C in average (above pre-industrial records). Prior to that, an algebraic greenhouse function is provided to correlate the global average temperature to the atmospheric emissivity, for which a parameterised collection of linear-fractional models involving CO2 ratio is proposed using a practical characterisation of such models.
    Keywords: atmospheric carbon dioxide; CO2; atmospheric emissivity; equilibrium global average temperature; EGAT; global warming; greenhouse function; linear-fractional model.

  • Optimization of cropping pattern considering stomatal response to elevated CO2 emission and climate change   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Valipour, Mahmoud Raeini–Sarjaz, Mohammad Ali Gholami Sefidkouhi 
    Abstract: The current article seeks to explore the function of elevated CO2 emission on the variations of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) for optimizing cropping pattern in 18 Iranian regions. Accordingly, meteorological data and agricultural information were collected since 1961 to 2010 and 2002 to 2013, respectively. A trendfree prewhitening (TFPW) approach was applied to modify Mann-Kendall test to determine the ET0 trend based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO)-Penman-Monteith (FPM) method. Then, the function of stomatal response was investigated as an assimilation coefficient to adjust the ET0 since 2050 to 2100. In the next step, the anomalies of the ET0 were calculated in both monthly and annual scales with respect to the significant trends of the meteorological parameters and stomatal response via three different schemes. Finally, to optimize cropping pattern, two indicators namely total virtual water (TVW) and unit blue water value (UBWV) were employed. The results indicate that both stomatal and surface resistances can be increased in the future specially for the moderate to high elevated CO2 emission scenarios (A1B & A2). In some of the regions under study, although meteorological variables (particularly temperature) were superior factors to increase the ET0 in the warm seasons (May to October), their role was adjusted by the stomatal response in the cold seasons (November to April). All of the anomalies will be intensified in 2100 for both low to moderate and moderate to high scenarios. The considerable decreasing rate of the ETo for all regions introduces stomatal response as the main factor to control the ETo variations in 2100 with respect to the moderate to high elevated CO2 emission scenarios (A1B & A2). In 50% of the regions, field maize has the maximum value of the UBWV, and is recommended as the dominant culture in cropping pattern. Then tomato and grape benefit from the high values of the UBWV by an amount of 17% and 11%, respectively. According to the results, water resource allocation should be done with the highest accuracy for Mashhad and Jiroft because of high increasing rate of the TVW to deal with water crisis issues in the future. In contrast, Urmia and Qazvin are the best choices to achieve the maximum save in water resources and to meet sustainable agriculture in Iran since 2050 to 2100, respectively.
    Keywords: adaptation; crop water requirement; effective rainfall; greenhouse gases; global warming; Iran.

  • A Methodology to evaluate the disclosure practices of organizations related to climate change risks: A case study of international airports   Order a copy of this article
    by Ioannis Nikolaou, Thomas Tsalis, Valina Botsaropoulou 
    Abstract: Today, climate change poses unprecedented challenges to the business community. Different stakeholders have recently requested that companies reveal comprehensive information about their performance concerning climate change issues. Despite the growing level of environmental information disclosed (including climate change information) by environmental and sustainability reports, there is no consistency regarding the reporting practices adopted by companies and as a result the assessment of disclosed information is a very difficult task. The lack of standard, formal and mandatory accounting principles for climate change accounting makes the introduction of climate change risks into stakeholders decisions difficult. This paper aims to develop a scoring technique in order to investigate the disclosure habits of organizations regarding climate change risks. It is applied in various international airports which are considered, as an essential part of tourism sector, vulnerable to climate change. The findings indicate that although the sustainability reports published by airport have increased, they do not provide comprehensive information about climate related risks. Also, the majority of the sampled airports provide useful information about climate change regulatory risks, but limited information which would help to strengthen the dialogue between airports and stakeholders regarding climate change risk issues.
    Keywords: climate change accounting; scoring systems; corporate sustainability; sustainability reports; airports.

    by Ildiko Pieczka, Rita Pongracz, Judit Bartholy, Karolina Szabone Andre 
    Abstract: In order to satisfy the continuous urging demands for updated and relevant information from various impact researchers, end-users, and decision makers, the RegCM4.3 model is used taking into account the new RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 radiative forcing scenarios to provide climate projection for Hungary with 10 km horizontal resolution. Overall, the results suggest significant warming in Hungary. The greatest temperature increase is likely to occur in summer, that is why the projected changes in warm extremes are also analysed in this study.
    Keywords: climate projection; RCP4.5; RCP8.5; regional climate model; warming trend; extreme temperature indices; daily maximum temperature; daily minimum temperature; temperature distribution.

  • Factor analysis of urban residential CO2 emissions in Tianjin:1995-2014   Order a copy of this article
    by Caocao Cui, Tao Zhao, Yue Wang 
    Abstract: Carbon emissions caused by urban residential sector have attracted increasing attention due to the rapid urbanization. Choosing Tianjin as a typical example, this paper analyzed the factors causing carbon emissions in urban residential sector. Based on the extended Kaya identity, a multivariate generalized Fisher index(GFI) decomposition model was built to measure the impacts of energy structure, energy intensity, per capita disposable income, household size and number of households on urban residential carbon emissions from 1995 to 2014 in Tianjin. The results show that sustained growth of per capita disposable income was the leading factor of the urban residential carbon emissions in Tianjin, with cumulative contributions of 639.1% in 2014 compared to that in 1995. Number of households had a stimulating effect on the growth of carbon emissions in the same period. The continuous optimization of the energy structure over the past 20 years had no obvious inhibitory effect on carbon emissions. Energy intensity was the primary factor restraining carbon emissions with the cumulative contributions of 0.318%. To a certain extent, household size reduced carbon emissions but only with a slight effect.
    Keywords: Carbon emissions; Urban residential sector; Tianjin; Generalized Fisher index; Factor decomposition.

  • Soil Organic Carbon Change Relating to the Prevention and Control of Rocky Desertification in Guizhou Province, SW China   Order a copy of this article
    by Xianfei Huang, Shijie Wang, Yunchao Zhou 
    Abstract: This article reports on the relationship between the prevention and control of rocky desertification and potential change to soil organic carbon storage (SOC) in Guizhou Province, in southwestern China. Three strategic measures including the return of cultivated land to forestlands (RCLF), construction of artificial pasture (CAP), and artificial afforestation (AA) will be employed, and more than approximately 20,923.22 km2 lands will be improved in Guizhou Province. The SOC density of these areas will change significantly at different calculated depths. At calculated depths of 0.00-0.10 m, 0.00-0.20 m, 0.00-0.0.30 m and 0.00-1.00 m, the total SOC sequestration will reach up to 1.99
    Keywords: Rocky desertification; soil organic carbon; carbon sequestration; land use; global warming; soil thickness; environmental policy; karst mountainous area; Guizhou Province; China.

  • A review of light duty passenger car weight reduction impact on CO2 emission   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilyas Kacar, Ismail Durgun, Fahrettin Ozturk, Rodney J. Simmons 
    Abstract: Over the last few decades, we have witnessed a significant increase in average temperatures all over the globe. Global warming has been now recognized as one of the major problems facing our world. In addition to natural processes, urbanization, industrialization, fossil fuel consumption, deforestation, and other human activities have also contributed to excessive levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting in drastic climate change. This study investigates the relation between vehicle weight and CO2 emission for light-duty passenger cars. This study also analyzes the fuel consumption in different cases. The evaluation of emissions is based on the CO2 composition of the total emission. Results show the relationship among weight, fuel consumption, and CO2 emission. Under this circumstances, the most important way of reducing fuel consumption is to make the mass of the vehicle as small as possible when vehicle speed is constant. Various industry-wide technology adoption on manufacturing methodologies to make vehicles bodywork lighter are reviewed.
    Keywords: Weight reduction; CO2 emission; CO2 pollution; greenhouse gases; lightweight vehicles; transportation; fuel consumption.

  • A comparative life cycle assessment based evaluation of greenhouse gas emission and social study: natural fibre versus glass fibre reinforced plastic automotive parts.   Order a copy of this article
    by Masoud Akhshik, Suhara Panthapulakkal, Mohini Sain, Jimi Tjong 
    Abstract: Current atmospheric CO2 concentration in our atmosphere is already over 400 ppm, which is 50 ppm beyond our planetary boundary. Every single step towards reducing our carbon emission is important. Fuel saving due to the light weighting of the automotive materials will reduce greenhouse gas emission in the transportation sector, if the light weighting roots from a by-product natural fibre, such as sawdust or agricultural waste, the emission reduction would be more effective. The current study is a comparative life cycle assessment based evaluation of greenhouse gas emission of the current plastic engine beauty cover, and natural fibre reinforced counterpart. This study also analyses the questionnaire results gotten from 600 new car owners (or leaser) as a small sample of a buyer society.
    Keywords: LCA; GHG; natural fibre; automotive parts; survey study.

  • The most advantageous partners for Australia to bilaterally link its emissions trading scheme   Order a copy of this article
    by Duy Nong, Mahinda Siriwardana 
    Abstract: The theory of marginal abatement cost (MAC) indicates that if a country has a high MAC, it should link its domestic emissions trading scheme (ETS) with a foreign country, which has either low MAC or low emissions reduction target. This strategy will maximise its economic benefits from the linkage compared to its domestic ETS. On the other hand, if a country has a low MAC, it would seek a partner, which has either a high MAC or a high emissions reduction target. Using a computable general equilibrium model, namely the extended GTAP-E model, we found that Australia could yield the greatest economic benefits by linking its ETS with India. China is the second best alternative for Australia to link its ETS, while the European Union is the most expensive option for Australia. Overall, the results support the contention that any bilateral linkage is always better for Australia than operating its own domestic ETS alone.
    Keywords: Australia; emissions trading scheme; linkage; marginal abatement cost; CGE model.

  • Observed Temperature Extremes in Greece and their Relation with North Atlantic Oscillation   Order a copy of this article
    by Stavros Kolios, Georgia Antonatou, Efthimios Zervas 
    Abstract: This work studies the extreme high/low values (EHT/ELT, respectively) of air temperature in Greece using over 40year time series of data for six stations. Furthermore, the possible relation of temperature extremes in Greece with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is examined, in order to depict if/how this large scale atmospheric circulation pattern can affect the behavior of temperature extremes. The majority of EHT cases is found during July and August, while those of ELT during January and February. In the majority of the stations examined, positive trends of EHT and ELT frequency of occurrence (statistically significant or not) are found, pronouncing an environment exposed more and more to extreme air temperatures. It is also found a negative relation of NAO monthly index values with EHT and ELT frequency of occurrence, which reveals the way the NAO affect the frequency of occurrence of temperature extremes in Greece.
    Keywords: Temperature extremes; Greece; North Atlantic Oscillation; Frequency of occurrence.

  • Characteristics of a double-swirl combustor for the thermal destruction of waste HFC refrigerants   Order a copy of this article
    by Tae-In Ohm, Jong-Seong Chae, Sin-Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Kim, Seung-Hyun Moon 
    Abstract: The use of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons has been banned since the Montreal Protocol. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) series refrigerants were developed as an alternative, but HFC-134a has been found to have a high global warming potential. Thus, an eco-friendly, economical, and stable technology for removing waste HFCs is required. Existing methods involving pyrolysis for destruction of waste HFC include incineration, catalytic oxidation, and plasma pyrolysis. In this study, an economical and eco-friendly combustor that consumes little auxiliary fuel and easily neutralising hydrofluoric acid gas was developed to destroy waste HFC-134a. The conceptual design of a double-swirl combustor was developed based on numerical simulations and used to manufacture a prototype, which was used in a combustion experiment. When the auxiliary fuel LPG was used at a flow rate of 1.0 kg/h with an air ratio of 1.1, the average temperature at the vertical section in the combustion chamber was 1300 K, which is sufficient to destroy waste HFCs. In the waste refrigerant destruction test, the destruction ratio of waste HFCs was 100% when waste HFCs were injected at a flow rate of 2.8 kg/h or less and 99.37% at a flow rate of 2.9 kg/h.
    Keywords: Waste hydrofluorocarbon; double-swirl; combustor; global warming potential; non-CO2 .

  • Greenhouse gas emissions of livestock raised in a harsh environment   Order a copy of this article
    by FLAVIO FORABOSCO, Federico Antonio Canu, Roberto Mantovani 
    Abstract: Domestic animals are large emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG), and developing countries raise a large number of those animals. Livestock can be divided into local and improved animals. Local animals are usually not well characterized and seldom subject to structured breeding programs but well adapted to local environmental conditions while improved animals are characterized by high productions but limited capacity to adapt to extreme conditions. Analysis conducted with the use of Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool software indicated that the use of local livestock reduces the GHG emissions. Local dairy cattle emitted 1.54 kg CO2-eq/kg of milk and improved dairy cattle emitted 2.63 kg CO2-eq/kg of milk. Local livestock in extreme climate conditions can perform better than improved livestock and, because of their lower GHG emissions, they can contribute to mitigating climate. Overall, the findings support the existing literature on preserving local genetic resources due to their important role for future generations.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions; mitigation; local livestock; improved livestock; cattle; small ruminants; pigs; chicken; climate change; biodiversity conservation; Armenia; Asia.

  • The impact of climate-related extremely low river levels on zooplankton in two oxbow lakes of a temperate river (the lower Vistula, Poland).   Order a copy of this article
    by Paweł Napiórkowski, Teresa Napiórkowska 
    Abstract: Oxbow lakes are important elements of river valleys. Regardless of whether they are natural or artificial (e.g. oxbow lakes of the Lower Vistula), they play a key role in water retention and biodiversity maintenance. To function properly, they need to be regularly flooded by rivers. Unfortunately, due to accelerated climate change, water levels in rivers and oxbow lakes have dropped dramatically. Climate change is responsible for temperature rise (which increases evaporation) and decreased precipitation. The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on the environmental conditions and zooplankton population in two different oxbow lakes. Decreased water levels lead to higher water fertility and dominance of eurytopic organisms, mainly rotifers in the zooplankton. Rotifer species thrive because they are able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. In addition, low water levels affect biodiversity in oxbow lakes and threaten the proper functioning of these water bodies.
    Keywords: Old river bed; zooplankton; rotifers; diversity; water level; nutrient load.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009310
  • A Multifractal Analysis of Time Series of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration   Order a copy of this article
    by Srimonti Dutta 
    Abstract: This paper studies the multifractality of the time series of atmospheric CO2 concentration using the MFDFA methodology. The data of the atmospheric CO2 recorded from Jubany Station, (Antarctica) during the period 1994-2009 was analyzed. The data was further divided to subsets of 4 years and the analysis was repeated. The results show that the complete set reveals more complex pattern than subsets in most of the cases. The degree of multifractality and degree of correlation does not vary appreciably in recent past. However a low value of ? suggests that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to increase at a higher rate in future.
    Keywords: Non-stationary time series; multifractal; monofractal; degree of multifractality; long range correlation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006662
  • Current Trends and Policies of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission from the Largest Asian Economies   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Sujahangir Kabir Sarkar, Rawshan Ara Begum, Sumaiya Sadeka, Joy Jacqueline Pereira 
    Abstract: This article presents the current trends of energy consumption and CO2 emission as well as their relationship for the five largest Asian economies i.e. People
    Keywords: Trends; relationship; growth; energy consumption; CO2 emission; policy; Asia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006663
  • Possible climate change implications for Saudi Arabian meteorology station maximum daily rainfall records   Order a copy of this article
    by Z. Sen 
    Abstract: Global and local models of climate change indicate that in many parts of the Arabian Peninsula rainfall increments are expected during this century. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is also subject to rainfall increases especially in the northern and southwestern high mountainous parts with some local increments and decrements in some other parts. Such impacts are very important, because they are bound to affect also the infrastructure in the urban areas and also engineering water structures such as dams, reservoirs, levees, culverts, flood protection canals, groundwater recharge, etc. So far in almost all water related application projects, the possible impact of climate change has not been taken into consideration. It is the main purpose of this paper to develop suitable preliminary climate change indicators in terms of trend component technique and expose its applications throughout the historical annual daily maximum rainfall records. Trends in the past records are implementations of future possible tendencies in other words they are helpful as preliminary descriptors of possible trends.
    Keywords: Change; climate; daily; implications; maximum; rainfall; Saudi Arabia; simulation; stochastic; innovative trend.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006664
  • Can methane oxidizing bacteria reduce global warming? A modelling study   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Global warming is an important environmental problem caused by the gases such as Carbon dioxide, methane, etc. Specially the emission of methane is difficult to control at source, but its concentration in the atmosphere can be controlled by a bacteria which consume methane for its survival and existence. Although MOB decreases the concentration of methane in the atmosphere by increasing the concentration of $CO_2$, it can still assist in reducing the overall effect of global warming since $CO_2$ has less detrimental effect than $CH_4$ on the environment. Its role in controlling global warming and to what extent is very speculative. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a non-linear model to study this problem and show that with the presence of MOB, the rise in mean atmospheric temperature will be 0.22 $^oC$ less in the next 100 years as compared to the rise in mean atmospheric temperature without MOB.
    Keywords: Methane oxidizing bacteria; Methane; Temperature; Mathematical Model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006665
  • The effect of injection well arrangement on CO2 injection into carbonate petroleum reservoir   Order a copy of this article
    by Yehia Khulief 
    Abstract: The injection of CO2 into the reservoir, during long-term subsurface containment of CO2, increases the pore pressure, as well as the adsorption induced strains. The associated decrease in permeability causes the transport of the injected CO2 to decrease to a critical value, after which it becomes impossible to transport the injected carbon dioxide to regions of the reservoir far away from the injection well, regardless of its capacity. This problem initiated the need for multiple injection wells. The present investigation considers a dual porous carbonate reservoir. A new methodology is developed for reducing the pore pressure build-up and increasing the reservoir storage capacity by varying both the number and arrangement of the carbon dioxide injection wells. An equation based finite element method is utilized for the numerical modelling of various carbon dioxide injection scenarios for Ghawar Arab D carbonate reservoir. The obtained results demonstrated the significance of changing the number and arrangement of the injection wells and suggested the existence of an optimum arrangement.
    Keywords: CO2 sequestration; naturally fractured porous media; injection well arrangement; ground surface uplift; global warming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006666
  • Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Parks Using Criteria Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying-Chu Chen 
    Abstract: An innovative greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory using criteria air pollutants (CAPs) was constructed to evaluate GHG emissions from industrial parks. The inventory included both on- (CAPs from air quality monitoring stations) and off-site GHG emissions from waste generation, wastewater treatment, electricity consumption and transportation. According to the inventory, the total GHG emissions from the industrial parks in Taiwan were ranged from 899.41 to 1,329.69 ppmv CO2-eq yr-1 for on-site emissions and 2.19*10^4 to 1.22*10^7 t CO2-eq yr-1 for off-site emissions. Electricity consumption was the most important factor contributing to higher GHG emissions in the industrial parks. Methane was found to contribute the highest GHG emissions in the wastewater treated. GHG emissions from transportation can be expected to undergo a 1.9
    Keywords: air quality monitoring station; criteria air pollutants; electricity; greenhouse gas; industrial park; mitigation; sludge; transportation; waste; wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006667
  • Effects of Titanium Dioxide and Butanol Additions on Performance, Combustion, Emission and Vibration Characteristics of a Diesel Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Keskin 
    Abstract: In this study, the effects of metal titanium dioxide and butanol additives on engine performance, combustion, emissions, vibration, and noise characteristics were investigated experimentally. The experiments were conducted at various partial load conditions with diesel engine having variable compression ratio. Engine was fuelled with diesel fuel and butanol-diesel blends with titanium dioxide (TiO2) based additive. The results revealed that the properties of the blend fuels with the additive didn
    Keywords: Diesel Engine; Fuel Additive; Titanium Dioxide; Butanol; Combustion; Engine Performance; NOx emissions; CO emissions; Particulate Matter; Smoke Opacity; Noise; Vibration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006668
  • Classical and Innovative-?en Trend Assessment under Climate Change Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Ismail Dabanli 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to provide a comparison between the Innovative-?en and classical trend methods. Additionally, significance levels at
    Keywords: Category; climate change; Innovative-?en; significance; trend; Akarcay.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006669
    by Isabel Gallego-Álvarez, Beatriz Cuadrado-Ballesteros, Jennifer Martínez-Ferrero 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine two closely related issues based on social awareness of greenhouse gas emissions. The first aim is to find whether firms choose to include carbon accounting in their financial and accounting statements. The second aim is to find what the explanatory factors are behind the decisions managers take to reflect them. A sample of 119 firms from different developed and developing countries and industries for 2011 was employed. We then formulated a dependence model in which the dependent variable was whether or not the company included carbon accounting in its annual reports. By using two logit regression models, our findings show that not all the firms analysed publish such information in their annual accounts and that only the variables related to emission trading schemes and no Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators on climate change positively affect the firm
    Keywords: Environmental disclosure; Carbon accounting reporting; Greenhouse gas emissions; Global Reporting Initiative; KPMG.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006670
  • Modeling Water Scarcity for Policy Adaptation to Future Droughts under Various Stresses (Case Study: Delfan Plain)   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Albaji 
    Abstract: This study investigated the effect of management practices on the status of the aquifer using the finite difference method. Modeling was done with 60 cycles of stress using MODFLOW Model for a five-year period (60 months). The calibration was done in October, 2007 because of fewer fluctuations of groundwater level as the stable state. The state of the aquifer for November 2014 to November 2024 was predicted. In order to predict the future status of the aquifer, two options (i. to continue the current trend of exploitation and ii. 20% reduction of exploitation in drought condition) were performed and the model was run again for the next ten years. Running the model under drought condition indicates that groundwater level decreases with the average of (-7.80 m) in the following ten years, and 20% reduction in exploitation from the aquifer can somewhat improve the water level.
    Keywords: Aquifer; MODFLOW model; Groundwater; Drought; Delfan Plain (Iran).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006671
  • Effect of Supercritical CO2 on Various Rank Coals: Implications for CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seams with Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhicong Wei 
    Abstract: Sequestration of CO2 in coal seams with enhanced coalbed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM) can mitigate CO2 emissions. In this work, the effects of the supercritical CO2 fluid on the physicochemical property of coals were elucidated. The results show that CO2 interaction can mobilize the volatile hydrocarbons in the coal matrix and subsequently result in the decrease of volatile matter content. The volatile matter contents of coals decrease with temperature, pressure and injection rate of CO2 interaction. The extracted volatile matters are of biological toxicity, thus CO2-ECBM process should be operated at the optimum temperature, pressure and CO2 injection rate. The moisture contents of Zhangji coal and Liulin coal after CO2 interaction increase which implies that the pore morphology of the above two coals grows up. For low rank Bulianta coal and high rank Qinshui coal, the swelling effect induced by CO2 is dominant. Thus, the moisture content after CO2 interaction decreases in comparison with the raw state.
    Keywords: CO2 Sequestration; Coal; Supercritical Fluid Extraction; Swelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006672
  • Discovering meaningful patterns for tropical climate change in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghassan ALDharhani 
    Abstract: This paper investigated patterns of climate change in Malaysia and proposed a fuzzy based symbolic data representation known as a Shapelet Patterns Algorithm (SPA). The Shapelet Pattern visualize climate change patterns in the form of coloured shapes to indicate annual changes in temperature patterns. The experiment used climate change data collected from four stations in Malaysia, thus Petaling-jaya, Subang, KLIA-Sepang and University Malaya, to produced three types of results. The results revealed various climate change patterns that can be used by climate change experts to further analyse the effects of climate change and for better decision making.
    Keywords: time series; symbolic data representation; climate shapelet patterns; fuzzy logic; climate change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006673
  • Soil respiration in shrub willow (Salix x dasyclados) biomass crop increased on the third year after removal   Order a copy of this article
    by Miraç Ayd?n 
    Abstract: The SWBC production system is not only a source of renewable energy, but also a carbon sink. However, one of the uncertainties in the greenhouse gas potential analysis of this system is soil CO2 efflux (Fc) rates after its termination. We examined the Fc rates for three years and determined the total CO2 production of SWBC fields following the termination and removal of SWBC fields. Four current SWBC fields of 5-, 12-, 14-, and 19-years old were used as sampling plots. The mean Fc rates did not differ statistically between ages (p = 0.66), and there was no significant interaction effect between age and year (p =0.94). However, Fc rates significantly increased in the third year (p = 0.01). Annual cumulative Fc ratios at different seasons were 52% for summer, 26% for fall, 16% for spring, and 6% for winter.
    Keywords: Carbon sequestration; dedicated bioenergy crops; soil moisture; soil organic carbon; soil temperature.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10006674
  • A practice to mitigate greenhouse gases from a wheat-grown soil by the phosphogypsum waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong-sheng Wu, Ji Zhou, Ji Li, Su-yun Chen, Zhi-qiu Gao, Li-dong Shen, Dong-liang Yiao, Yue Zhao, Kai-kai Chen 
    Abstract: A large amount of industrial phosphogypsum (Pg) waste pollutes the environment. The reuse of these waste resources in agriculture not only amended the soil and stimulated crop growth but also decreased soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A continuous two-year-field-experiment of phosphogypsum application in winter wheat was conducted to investigate whether and how phosphogypsum affects soil N2O and CO2 emissions. A two-month lab incubation was also performed to explore the possible mechanism of Pg reducing GHGs. The results indicated that soil CO2 and N2O was mitigated by phosphogypsum. Compared to the control (Pg0), soil N2O emissions in the treatment phosphogypsum decreased by 5.8-29.9% and CO2 emissions decreased by 2.5-6.6% in the winter wheat growing season of 2013-2014, while N2O emissions decreased by 20.6-30.4% and CO2 emissions decreased by 6.2-9.6% in 2014-2015. N2O emissions declined by 18.9-28.5% and CO2 emissions declined by 33.5-50.1% in the lab incubation. The unit weight grain/biomass CO2 and N2O emission equivalents were reduced by phosphogypsum. The soil proteinase and urease activity increased by 20% and 50%, respectively, and sucrase increased by 40%. However, soil cellulase was inhibited, which suggested that the decreased soil N2O and CO2 emissions were ascribed to the changed soil enzyme activity as a result of phosphogypsum. This result suggested that mitigating agricultural GHGs, stimulating crop growth and protecting the environment could be achieved simultaneously by phosphogypsum.
    Keywords: Phosphogypsum (Pg); wheat; CO2; N2O; soil enzyme.

  • Heavy metal removal with pure and biochar rice husks: modeling and optimization using Box-Behnken design   Order a copy of this article
    by Fulya AYDIN TEMEL, Nurdan Gamze Turan, Okan Ozgonenel, Yüksel Ardalı 
    Abstract: In this work, the most common heavy metals such as Cu(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) removal from aqueous leachate of industrial waste were investigated using pure and biochar rice husks. The influence of such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose (g L-1), and contact time (min) on the biosorption of rice and biochar rice was examined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken surface statistical design at a leaching solution, Ci = 32.69 g L-1 as a fixed input parameter. The results show that both linear and squared terms of process variables are found significant on the response variable. The optimum conditions depending on both combinations and individual of all responses for the removal of Zn (II), Cu (II), and Pb (II) ions were determined using the optimizing algorithm. To sum up, the use of biochar rice husk is found better than the use of pure rice husk according to statistical analysis. This study strongly indicated that pure and biochar rice husks are an influential alternative adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions by sorption.
    Keywords: heavy metal removal; response surface modeling (RSM); Box-Behnken design (BBD); rice husk; biochar rice husk; optimization.

    by Kumru Rende, Özgen Ercan, Pinar Ergenekon, Hasan SADIKOĞLU 
    Abstract: The reduction of CO2 emissions in cement industry especially for the countries with growing demand for cement, is crucial. The objective of this study is to reveal the importance of CO2 emission reduction in cement industry for the countries with strong demand. As a case study we worked on the opportunities of reducing CO2 emissions in cement industry in Turkey. There are only dry process kilns in 2017 in Turkey. Improving the technology, the average specific energy consumption in 2012 decreased to 3416 MJ/ton clinker as it was 3541 MJ/ton clinker in 2005. Moreover, in 2012, the average specific electric consumption was 100.1 kWh/ton cement compared to 104.9 kWh/ton in 2007. These consumption levels are in the range of the best available consumption levels that are referred in Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document. Process based CO2 emissions followed a slight decrease due to changes in the utilized fuel and raw material blend from 0.50 ton CO2/ton cement in 2001 to 0.45 ton CO2/ton cement in 2015. Reducing of CO2 can be achieved mainly by effective waste heat recovery (WHR) systems and the increasing use of alternative fuel. It is estimated that, 0.5 1.5 million tons of CO2eq reduction would be achieved theoretically for 72.8 million tons of cement production for the year 2015 in Turkey. Besides, alternative fuel utilization in Turkey has been increasing in recent years. If the percentage of alternative fuel usage reaches to 30.5%, approximately 1.4 million tonnes of CO2eq reduction will be achieved.
    Keywords: Climate change; CO2 emissions; reduction techniques; cement industry; Turkey.

  • An Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Annual Streamflow in Rivers in Western Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Olcay HISAR 
    Abstract: Global warming and its impacts are known to cause serious problems in sustainability of natural resources. In this study, change-point analysis and trend analysis were applied to climatic (temperature, precipitation, evaporation) and streamflow data for Tuzla, Gediz and B
    Keywords: Climate change; Streamflow; Trend analysis; Change-point analysis; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10007543
  • Standard aerosol optical depth index (SAODI) and application in the Middle East countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Zekâi Şen 
    Abstract: Middle East is one of the most aerosol subjected region of the world. The records of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2003 to 2016 inclusive are investigated through some innovative methodologies and also suggestion of standard AOD index (SAODI) procedure that provides visual, verbal and numerical interpretations about the AOD records at different locations, which include Syria-Iraq northern, west Iraq, Iraq marshes, Iran Ahwaz and Ilam regions in addition to Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. It is shown that AOD records at different countries have different probability distribution functions (PDF), and therefore, the criteria of the average AOD plus 1, 2, 3 and 4 times the standard deviation of AOD record methodology as available in the literature does not provide a common footing for AOD assessment. Hence, a standard methodology is suggested as SAODI, which depends on the standard normal (Gaussian) PDF universally. The application of innovative trend analysis of the aerosol records indicated that although trends have rather small slopes, but in the Marshes, Ahwaz and Ilam locations there are decreasing trends, whereas in other locations the trends have increasing tendency. It is recommended that the unauthorized groundwater abstractions must be systematized with a systematic management program, reforestation and mulching.
    Keywords: Aerosol; classification; index; innovative; Middle East; optical depth; probability; SAODI.

    by Kruamas Smakgahn, Tamon Fumoto, Kazuyuki Yagi 
    Abstract: This study applied the DNDC-Rice model and simulated against field observation in Thailand. Simulated CH4 emission data shown acceptable results compared to field observation recorded. Rice straw incorporation into field play important role on CH4 emission by continuous increase soil organic carbon as well as soil iron contents, consequently to low soil Eh which is suitable for CH4 production. Higher amount of rice straw applied induces higher CH4 emission vice versa. Therefore, reduction of rice straw amount incorporation into soil, is possible practical mitigation options for CH4 production.
    Keywords: DNDC-Rice model; global warming; methane emission; mitigation option; rice cropping system.

  • Risk analysis of the European Union 2030 greenhouse gas emission target compliance   Order a copy of this article
    by Marko Ćirović 
    Abstract: As the central objective of the Europe 2030 strategy, member countries of the European Union (EU) are striving to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 40% compared to 1990 levels. This paper examines the ability of EU countries to reach this goal in the mentioned timeframe. Although the EU 2020 target of 20% reduction has already been achieved by EU28 in total (GHG emissions are 19.8% lower than 1990 level, they have not been achieved by all the member states individually, but rather by the higher achievements than targeted by the leading countries in this field. The paper examines each of the member states capabilities of reaching EU2030 targets individually. Risk analysis has been done in order to evaluate and rank countries by their current and projected progress towards targeted outcomes. The approach that was used is integrated Fuzzy AHP and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FAHP FMEA). FAHP FMEA method is used in risk evaluation and it is an inductive modelling approach used to evaluate potential failure modes and their causes. Each countrys potential inability to fulfil marked greenhouse gas emissions was considered as a FMEA failure effect. The main goal was to prioritize and rank specific countries and the risk they pose to unfulfillment of the marked EU 2030 targets. As a result, the countries have been ranked by risk priority numbers.
    Keywords: environmental risk assessment; EU 2030; risk analysis; Fuzzy; FAHP; FMEA.

  • Vulnerability to climate change and residents adaptations in coastal areas of Soc Trang Province, Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Makoto Tamura, Kazuya Yasuhara, Kiyotake Ajima, Van Trinh, Pham Song 
    Abstract: Many climate-sensitive areas and communities are insufficiently prepared for climate change induced natural disasters due to a mismatch of perceptions and the risks and economic limitations associated with these disasters. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam, which is home to a growing population that currently stands at 17.2 million people, has been experiencing more frequent and severe flooding, especially in Soc Trang Province. Historical and present-day images obtained using an uncrewed aerial vehicle and satellites showed rapid erosion of coastal areas and damage to infrastructure for flood control. A perception survey on more than a thousand residents conducted in 2014 showed that the adaptations pursued at the community level were limited by economic factors and education level. Finally, multiple strategies harmonized with local ecosystems and livelihoods were proposed to protect the area against climate change induced events.
    Keywords: adaptations; climate induced events; erosion; Mekong Delta; natural disasters;perceptions; Soc Trang Province; vulnerability; Vietnam.

  • Techno-Economics of Off-grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Power Systems for Electrification of Residential Buildings of Yanbu - A Potential Industrial Location of Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by S.M. Shaahid 
    Abstract: The study analyses wind-speed data of Yanbu (West-Coast, Kingdom of Saudia, K.S.A.) to assess the feasibility of hybrid wind-diesel power systems to meet the electrical load of hundred typical residential buildings (with annual demand of 3512 MWh). The wind speeds range from 3.9-4.8 m/s. The systems simulated consist of 600 kW wind machines supplemented with diesel generators. NREL's HOMER software is employed for techno-economic analysis. The results indicate that for a hybrid system comprising of 600 kW wind capacity with 1.0 MW diesel system (two 500 kW units), the wind penetration (at 50 m hub-height, with 0% annual capacity shortage) is 27%. The cost of generating energy (COE, $/kWh) from this system is 0.070 $/kWh (assuming diesel fuel price of 0.1 $/liter) and the reduction in carbon emissions is 147 tons/year. The study exhibits that the operational hours of diesel gensets decrease with increase in wind farm capacity.
    Keywords: Hybrid wind-diesel systems; Residential loads; Diesel generators; Carbon emissions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009372
  • Regional climate model simulation for temperature and precipitation over South Asia using different physical parameterisation schemes   Order a copy of this article
    by Mujtaba Hassan, Pengfei Du 
    Abstract: The ability of ICTP regional climate model version 4 (RegCM4.3) is investigated by using two land surface schemes: the biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) and the community land model version 3.5 (CLM3.5). To attain the best model configuration over the South Asia region, six sensitivity experiments are conducted with three different cumulus convection schemes. RegCM4.3 coupled with CLM3.5 and mixed convection scheme option (MIX-CLM), produced better simulation than BATS. The cold winter bias and the intensities of wet-dry biases over the foothills of Hindukush-Karakorum-Himalaya (HKH) and Central India are substantially reduced with MIX-CLM. In terms of seasonal variability, results suggest that different convection schemes behaved differently over sub-regions of the domain. The annual cycles of precipitation and temperature are better captured over the Bay of Bengal and Western Ghats by MIX-CLM. In spite of some deficiencies, the MIX-CLM scheme improves the model performance over the various parts of the domain.
    Keywords: regional climate modelling; seasonal variability; physical parameterisation; South Asia; model evaluation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009442
  • An evaluation of neat biodiesel/diesel performance, emission pattern of NOx and CO in compression ignition engine   Order a copy of this article
    by E.I. Onuh, Freddie L. Inambao 
    Abstract: Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon (II) oxide (CO) emissions from engine running on pure biodiesel constitute one of the environmental challenges to its application as fuel. Verifying their sources and production pattern is an essential first step to tackling the challenge. 100% biodiesel derived from moringa, jatropha and waste oil along with petroleum diesel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. It was observed that oxygen concentration and combustion temperature are the primary drivers of a kinetically determined process. NOx emission trended with Zeldovich mechanism prediction and thus increases with increasing O2 concentration and temperature. CO2 dissociation at elevated combustion temperature in a suppressed O2 concentration regime governs CO production for normal diesel running at high load but, low temperature and high viscosity account for same effect in biodiesel runs. CO therefore increases with increasing temperature and decreasing O2 concentrations for petroleum diesel but for biodiesel, the reverse is the case. Novel exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and low temperature combustion (LTC) engine therefore holds the key to unlocking biodiesel potential and remediating some of the difficulties observed with petroleum diesel.
    Keywords: pure biodiesel; Zeldovich mechanism; dissociation; exhaust gas recirculation; EGR; low temperature combustion; LTC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009443
  • A novel alternative fuel for diesel engine: a comparative experimental investigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Senthil Ramalingam, Ramalingam Ganesan, Silambarasan Rajendran, Pranesh Ganesan 
    Abstract: In this present study, performance, combustion and emission characteristics of jamun methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine was experimentally investigated. Fuels were tested in a single cylinder, direct injection (DI), and water cooled diesel engine. The performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) were evaluated. The emission parameters such as carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke were evaluated. The combustion parameters such as cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR), peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, combustion duration and ignition delay were analysed. It is found that JA20 (20% JA + 80% diesel) blend showed better performance and reduced emission. However, the NOx emission for JA20 blend is higher than diesel fuel. The experiment shows that JA20 can be used as an alternate fuel for direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.
    Keywords: jamun methyl ester; JAME; performance; emission; combustion; transesterification; diesel engine.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009444
  • Green sports supporting a low-carbon society: inspiration from Japan   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaochen Chen, Jia Niu, Ken’ichi Nakagami, Qian Zhang, Xuepeng Qian, Jun Nakajima 
    Abstract: Global warming, mainly due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, has a devastating effect on our living planet. To combat it and foster a low-carbon society, contributions from the sports community are needed. Accordingly, the concept of 'green sports' has emerged, calling for green performance of sports infrastructure, green production in sports manufacturing, and green awareness of sports community. In this respect, Japan, as a leader in both Asian sports and worldwide sustainable development, has valuable experiences, including widespread stakeholders' participation, substantial efforts, and outstanding achievements. Inspired by Japan's examples, this study not only summarises mainstream recommendations for the development of green sports, but also presents two innovative proposals - linking green sports with market-based flexibility mechanisms and promoting environmental education through sports celebrities - and the prospects for these approaches. This article could be used by worldwide sports community as reference for making contributions to the establishment of a low-carbon society.
    Keywords: green sports; low-carbon society; green performance; green production; green awareness; Japan; 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games; sports community; sustainable development; flexibility mechanism; environmental education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009445
  • A review on characteristics, advantages and limitations of palm oil biofuel   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Iqbal Mahmud, Haeng Muk Cho 
    Abstract: Consumption and use of natural resources is a high concerning issue in modern days. Increase in fuel price, limited resources of fossil oil and great concerns on environmental matters has led the researchers and scientists to concerted and escalating research and development efforts in search of renewable and environmental friendly alternative energy sources. In this connection, recent strong demand for renewable fuels has resulted in increased production of biofuels worldwide for solving transportation fuel problems. Currently, biofuels from palm oil is being established as a great source of alternative fuel. Palm oil can be used to produce biodiesel, which is also known as palm oil methyl ester. Palm oil biodiesel is often blended with other fuels to create palm oil biodiesel blends. This paper highlights on biofuel/biodiesel production from palm oil, use, advantages and limitations.
    Keywords: palm oil; biofuel; biodiesel; emission; transesterification; green house gas; GHG; energy balance; crude palm oil; CPO; vegetable oil; palm kernel oil; PKO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009446
  • Nonlinear dynamics of monthly temperature data set in the Northwestern (Marmara region) Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Haci Ahmet Yildirim, Hamza Altinsoy 
    Abstract: Temperature is one of the essential quantities which affect the agriculture, economy, survival of animal and plant species. Turkey, located in the interconnection of Europe and Asia, contains various climate types. In this research, dynamics of temperature values over northeastern Turkey is investigated via nonlinear time series techniques. Monthly data set, through the period between 1960 and 2006, from various parts of the region is used to understand the underlying dynamics and its spatial distribution. Well-known phase space reconstruction method is used to calculate the maximal Lyapunov exponent for each data set which will indicate the chaotic behaviour. Along with the nonlinear time series analysis, statistical properties of the data are also determined to reveal any possible trends in the data. Calculated positive Lyapunov exponents indicate that the time series of average monthly temperature values have a possible chaotic underlying dynamics over the region.
    Keywords: chaos; Lyapunov exponents; Turkey; Marmara; maximum temperature.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009447
  • Evaluation of wind energy potential in a university campus   Order a copy of this article
    by Saban Pusat, Mustafa Tahir Akkoyunlu 
    Abstract: Today, zero energy campus concept is a popular topic. Zero energy attempts are important for reducing global warming effect and greenhouse gas emissions. In the current study, wind characteristics and wind energy potential of Yildiz Technical University Davupaşa Campus were investigated. Data from wind measurement station (10 m height) in campus area was examined. Due to the gaps in the measured data, one year long data was lumped by using all the measured data (25 months). The lumped data was used in all energy analyses. Mean wind speed was calculated as 3.45 m/s at 10 m and north northeast (30°) was defined as prevailing wind direction. Annual wind energy production and capacity factor for Fuhrländer FL 30 (30 kW-27 m hub height) wind turbine were estimated as 28.87 MWh and 10.9%, respectively. According to these results, an economically feasible wind energy project seems not possible. However, a possible wind energy project in Davutpaşa campus will help to raise awareness of people. Therefore, it will help and promote to catch the aimed future wind energy capacity of Turkey.
    Keywords: zero energy; wind speed; wind energy potential; Yildiz Technical University; Turkey; WASP; university campus.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10002423
  • A study on the use of propane (R-290) in vending machines as a substitute for R-134a to minimise the global warming potential   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaled A. Alkhaledi, Kenneth Means 
    Abstract: The refrigerant R-134a is widely used in vending machines, and it is a greenhouse gas with high global warming potential. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that R-134a be replaced with an environmentally friendly refrigerant. In this study, we compared the performance and safety of R-290 as a substitute for R-134a in vending machines. We compared the two refrigerants in a vending machine equipped with a single-stage compressor, four thermocouples, and a data log recorder. Our results demonstrate that R-290 performs as well as R-134a; in addition, it uses 31.4% less energy and 60% less refrigerant. The evaporator and condenser temperatures for R-290 were comparable to those for R-134a. Therefore, we conclude that R-290 is an excellent replacement for R-134a. In addition, R-134a's global warming potential is 1300, while R-290's global warming potential is 3, and its ozone depletion potential is zero. Finally, R-290 can be used safely and complies with Underwriter Laboratory® safety standards.
    Keywords: global warming potential; GWP; greenhouse gas; R-134a refrigerant; propane (R-290) refrigerant; vending machines.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2018.10009448