Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Global Warming


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International Journal of Global Warming (29 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for toxicity testing of Cr (IV)   Order a copy of this article
    by Afsin Cetinkaya, Bestami ÖZKAYA 
    Abstract: Water scarcity is one of the major challenges facing many communities in the 21st century and will become one of the most sensitive environmental matters in the next decade. Diversified chemical and biological tracing analyzes are used to check the state and quality of superior quality drinkable water. But, these technologies are facing several difficulties, such as high costs, complex operating system, on-site and online restrictions. The latest techniques in the use of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensors has an extraordinary possible for fast and real-time tracing of water supply quality. MFC-based biosensor can perform self-sustaining monitoring without additional transducers or power supplies. This research proposes a new appreance to improve sensor performance. MFC-based sensor technology has also been investigated to remove different toxic compounds and to determine the avaliability of toxic compounds in the wastewater. In this study, the effect of Cr (VI) heavy metal on MFC based-biosensor was investigated.
    Keywords: Toxicity; Biosensor; Water Treatment.

  • How might Shandong achieve the 2030 CO2 emissions target? A system dynamics analysis from the perspective of energy supply-side structural reform in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yingying Ma, Zaixu Zhang, Feifei Zhang, Zhiyang Liu 
    Abstract: As China pledges to peak CO2 emissions and reduce its carbon intensity by 60-65% of 2005 levels by 2030 on Paris Conference, this paper, from the perspective of energy supply-side structural reform, takes Shandong Province as an example to forecast the CO2 emission from 2017 to 2030 by system dynamics under four designed scenarios. The results indicate that with the current scenario, the coal consumption, CO2 emission and the CO2 emission intensity of 2030 would be 43594.7*104tce, 37298.5*104 t and 0.2292Kg/CNY. Furthermore, despite the coal consumption, CO2 emission and the CO2 emission intensity of low intensity scenario and medium intensity scenario both decrease compared to the results of current scenario. However, neither the coal consumption peak year nor the CO2 emission peak year is before 2030. We find that with the high intensity scenario, in which the proportion of coal, oil, natural gas and renewable energy consumption is 55: 14: 14: 17 by 2030, the CO2 emission would peak on 2027 and the coal consumption would peak on 2021. Besides, the CO2 emission intensity of 2030 dropped significantly to 0.172 Kg/CNY, which is a reduce by almost 80% of 2005 level. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are concluded based on the simulations results.
    Keywords: energy supply-side structural reform; CO2 emissions reduction; energy consumption; economic growth; system dynamics model.

  • Greenhouse gas emission estimation for a UASB reactor in a dairy wastewater treatment plant   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Greenhouse gases emissions have been increasing, recently. One of the greenhouse gas emission resources is the anaerobic wastewater treatment process. The Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor is the anaerobic treatment unit located in a dairy wastewater treatment plant in Turkey. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission emits from the anaerobic reactor due to the biogas generation. In this study, the on-site greenhouse gas emissions from the anaerobic reactor with and without biogas recovery were estimated from biogas amount and content using a developed model based on IPCC approach. Then, the off-site GHGs emissions were estimated from electricity consumption and chemical use. The biogas recovery reduced the greenhouse gas emissions. The highest reduction of the on-site GHGs emissions was 97%. Chemical use was the major source of the off-site GHGs emissions, in this study. The main emission resource was chemical consumption for a UASB reactor located in a dairy WWTP.
    Keywords: anaerobic treatment; biogas; dairy industry; global warming; greenhouse gas; on-site emissions; off-site emissions; renewable energy; UASB reactor.

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) based modeling for global warming analysis incorporated with the nuclear energy productions   Order a copy of this article
    by T.A.E. H.O. WOO 
    Abstract: For future estimation of energy industry, the machine learning is used for the reliability of the nuclear energy productions where the game theory is incorporated with neural networking algorithm. As a major non-carbon production energy source, the nuclear power would be developed with the regeneration energy instead of the fossil fuels such as oil or gas. That is, the nuclear energy could mitigate the global warming which has been produced by the carbon based fuels. In the graph, the slope is flatted from 100th to 350th month. In addition, it jumps up around 730th and 950th months. It is necessary to enhance the nuclear technology to the higher level as much as the cheaper and easier production energy source to the public in our society.
    Keywords: Global warming; Nuclear energy; Artificial intelligence; Complex.

  • Characterization Analysis of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions in DPR of Korea: Emission trends for a twelve-year period   Order a copy of this article
    by Nam-Chol O, Hun Kim, Gi−Sun Kim, Gum-Su Ri 
    Abstract: DPR of Korea ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 5 Dec. 1994, the Kyoto Protocol on 27 Apr. 2005 and the Paris Agreement on 1 Aug. 2016. As a party of the convention on climate change, DPR of Korea submitted the national Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions inventories to the UNFCCC secretariat, respectively. This study aimed at analysing the characterization of national GHG emissions in DPR of Korea for a twelve-year period (1990-2002), conducted according to 2006 IPCC guidelines. The results show that DPR of Korea accounted for 0.5% of the world GHG emissions in 1990, but only 0.2% of the emissions in 2002. The amount of cumulative GHG emissions was approximately 1,503,820 Gg CO2e (CO2 equivalent) in the period 1990-2002, which accounted for 0.3% of the world cumulative GHG emissions. This showed that DPR of Korea definitely contributed to global warming, although the emissions were negligible, compared to the world emissions.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Characterization Analysis; Carbon Emission; Carbon dioxide; GHG emissions; GHG removals; Net emissions; Global warming.

  • Efficiency Evaluation of Huge Space Shield for Mitigating Global Warming   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie He, Fei Zheng 
    Abstract: The efficiency of a huge space shield(HSS) is evaluated through temperature analysis and experiments. The analysis is divided into two categories. One is to evaluate long term effect of the HSS on temperature based on the solar constant, which shown that the difference of the temperature between before and after shielded is 0.2℃ . Another is to assess the target area effect by multiple regression analysis, and the conclusion is that ten of such systems with the diameter of 1.4km could lead the temperature to be declined 0.09℃ . Furthermore, a scaling model by similarity theory is elaborated, that shows the feasibility of the system. Then, an actual model in the laboratory is assembled, and the effect experiments was carried out based on this model.The results show that the temperature is decreased 0.33℃ under long term. There is error between the experimental and theoretical results. Many factors(such as accuracy of the measuring instrument, the number of random samples and so on) would affect the final experimental results. However, the decrease in temperature can still show the effectiveness of the HSS. Thus, both the analysis and experiments indicate that the HSS could make an substantial effect on mitigating global warming in a certain degree with a relatively low cost.
    Keywords: Effect; Global warming; Experiment; Temperature.

  • Energy consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission assessment in the Algerian sector of fertilizers production with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali MAKHLOUF, Gaetana QUARANTA 
    Abstract: Fertilizers are important for agriculture and other industries and provide food security for many countries. However, we do not deny that fertilizer production is a polluting sector causing many public debates. The fertilizer company of Algeria, Fertial is an undisputed leader in the Mediterranean basin and second in the Arab world, behind Saudi Arabia. It has two production sites, Annaba and Arzew, for the production of ammonia and nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, with an annual production capacity of one million ton of ammonia. Part of this production is intended for the production of a wide range of nitrogen fertilizers and phosphates. It also occupies a comfortable seventh place in the world. This study aims to evaluate the main economic and environmental performances of the Algerian fertilizer production sector by analyzing the Cumulative Energy Consumption (CEC) and the greenhouse gases emissions (GHG). Six scenarios of products have been studied: two phosphate-based -Single Superphosphate (SSP) and Triple Superphosphate (TSP), two nitrogen-based -Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN 27% N) and Sulfazot and two compounds fertilizers -Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium (NPK) Chlorine-based (NPKch3x15) and Sulphate-based (NPKs3x15)-. The system boundaries include raw materials extraction (natural gas and phosphate); raw materials transportation and fertilizers production phases. The selected Functional Unit (FU) for this system is one ton of each fertilizer produced according to the "Mixed Acid Process with Rock Digestion". A detailed inventory of the energy flows of each product has been completed, and primary data collection was executed at Algerian production facilities. Impact assessment was carried out using according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and calculated by "CML" life cycle impact assessment method and "GEMIS 4.7" software Results showed that fertilizer production processes require important quantity of fossil energies (energy consumption) and GHG emissions in Algerian fertilizers production process are significant. Nitrogenous fertilizers are the main pollution sources: production of one FU of "Sulfazot" requires 20.44 GJ of energy, and emits 8.64 t CO2 eq.
    Keywords: Algeria; CAN 27%N; Fertilizers; GHG; LCA; Sulfazot.

  • Assessment of the reliability of three gauged-based global gridded precipitation datasets for drought monitoring   Order a copy of this article
    by Babak Aminnejad, Edris Ahmad Ebrahimpour, Keivan Khalili 
    Abstract: This study evaluates the reliability on three global gridded precipitation dataset including CRU-TS-V.4.01, GPCC-V.7 and UDEL-V.4.01 to drought monitoring over Lake Urmia basin in Iran using standardized precipitation index (SPI). Assessing the precipitation data of global datasets indicate that the major error in precipitation of global datasets is Bias error which means that they can recognize the behavior of precipitation time series but there is a difference in estimation of precipitation amount. To diminish the Bias error, Bias Correction (BC) was done before evaluating the datasets in drought monitoring. The results indicated that GPCC is the most suitable dataset over the study area for drought studies. In addition, results revealed that there is no significant difference between original and BC data in drought monitoring. For example, in 9-month SPI, the Critical Success Index (CSI) for original CRU and CRU-BC were equal to 71 and 76%, respectively, and the GPCC and UDEL in both original and BC versions were equal to 88 and 55%, respectively. Also, it can be claim that the Bias error is not important in drought studies due to the fact that during calculation of SPI, standardization process will remove Bias significantly.
    Keywords: Bias Correction; Climatic Research Unit; Critical Success Index; Global Precipitation Climate Centre; University of Delaware.

    by Rita De Cassia Souza Ribeiro Torres, Ceio Andrade, Sonia Maria Da Silva Gomes, Igor Souza Ribeiro 
    Abstract: The implementation of instruments for carbon pricing has increased to achieve the goals set in the Paris Agreement with respect to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil has already expressed its interest in using carbon pricing as a method to meet its goals. This study aims to determine the impact of the implementation of internal carbon prices on the outturn of the Brazilian power distribution sector and on the energy tariff paid by end consumers. The results of this investigation, which includes data from 31 companies and scenarios with eight reference prices, show that the net income decreases by 1% when the carbon price is US$ 0.4 and the energy tariff increases by 1% when the carbon price is US$ 4. This study contributes to the implementation of carbon pricing by the Brazilian power distribution sector and the elaboration of future energy tariff regulations by policy makers. Suggestions for future studies are provided in the conclusions.
    Keywords: Climate change; power distribution sector; carbon pricing; GHG emissions; Brazil.

    by Babak Keivani, Hayati Olgun, Aysel T. Atimtay 
    Abstract: This work covers co-combustion of biocoal obtained from red pine wood chips with Orhaneli lignite in a 30 kW-thermal capacity circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) system in air and oxygen-enriched atmosphere. The combustor was of 108 mm inside diameter and 6 m height. The combustion temperature was held at 850+50
    Keywords: biomass; torrefaction; biocoal; oxygen enriched combustion; circulating fluidised bed combustion.

  • An observational maximum seasonal freeze depth changes for a Province   Order a copy of this article
    by Liguang Li, Hongbin Yang, Kangkang Ding, Hongbo Wang, Ziqi Zhao 
    Abstract: Frozen ground plays an essential role in high latitude regions of northern hemisphere, and it is an important indicator of climate change. We analyzed temporal and spatial variations of the Maximum Seasonal Freeze Depth (MSFD) from 1965 to 2015 in 53 observational stations of Liaoning province in the northeast China. The results indicate that the average MSFDs in each month are obviously different, with the highest value of 93 cm in February. The annual MSFD is in a decreasing trend with the rate of -5.25 cm per decade. The spatial distribution of MSFD is in a pattern of decreasing from the northwest to the southeast. The response of the MSFD to global warming showed that the relationships of MSFD with the air temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are negative. The starting and ending dates of the MSFD are in delaying and moving ahead trends. The 100 cm MSFD line moved northward gradually.
    Keywords: maximum seasonal freeze depth (MSFD); air temperature; response.

  • Adsorption Of Cadmium (II) By Using Clays Modified With Ultrasound   Order a copy of this article
    by Erkan KALIPCI 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the Cd(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions with raw and ultrasound clay samples. In the batch experiments, effect of the some parameters such as contact time, pH levels, temperature, stirring rate on the adsorption were investigated. BET (BrunauerEmmettTeller) surface area of the clay samples increased from 28.5 m2/g to 52.7 m2/g result of ultrasound modification. Adsorption systems were best described with pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. It was determined that the maximum adsorption capacity of the ultrasound modified clay samples is higher compared to raw clay samples. It was determined that the optimum pH value is 6, and the optimum stirring speed is 250 rpm for the adsorption. Adsorption for modified and raw clay samples increased significantly with increasing system temperature which revealed the endothermic nature of the adsorption.
    Keywords: Adsorption; cadmium; clay; ultrasound; modification.

Special Issue on: GCGW2018 Special Issue for Potential Energy Solutions for a Better Environment

    by Waqas Ahmed, Qingmei Tan, Sharafat Ali, Najid Ahmad 
    Abstract: Pakistans eastern provinces are very badly affected by haze and smog caused by burning of rice straw and stubbles after reaping season. This practice causes emission of greenhouse gases and pollutant materials which not only has severe health consequences but also the main source of traffic disturbance and accidents due to poor visibility. A ban on burning of crop residue deems to be ineffective without alternative means and consultation of farmers. Previous studies were aimed to figure out causes, contributing factors and impacts of stubble burning, but largely ignored farmers choices and market environment. In this study, a survey-based farmers preference order was obtained through Hybrid AHP-TOPSIS model. The analysis traces out why most of the farmers prefer open field burning. The present study proposes a National Residue Management Service (NRMS) platform based on preferences of the alternatives and considering market externalities. This research provides an appropriate mechanism and policy suggestions to policy-makers and practitioners that may help in minimizing the environmental impacts due to improper management of the crop residue.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Global Warming; Environmental Protection; Crop Residue; Burn; AHP; TOPSIS; Innovation Platform; Pakistan.

  • Impact of Climate Change on Indoor Environment of Historic Libraries in Mediterranean Climate Zone   Order a copy of this article
    by Cihan Turhan, Zeynep Durmuş Arsan, Gulden Gokcen Akkurt 
    Abstract: Most historic library buildings house valuable paper-based collections that are kept in unconditioned environments. This vulnerable cultural heritage is expected to be highly affected by climate change in the future. In this study, indoor microclimate of an unconditioned historic library, Necip Paşa Library (Izmir, Turkey) is analysed for existing conditions and future climate data. The measured and predicted indoor microclimate data from present till 2080s are used to determine possible chemical degredation risk on library collection and human comfort. Comparison of periodic results of future climate data indicates an increase in temperature that could cause both an increase in chemical degredation risk on the library collection and a decline in thermal comfort conditions. Mitigation of climate change effects on library collection and human comfort requires taking some actions such as adding light and adaptive mechanical solutions.
    Keywords: Climate change; Thermal comfort; Degradation risk; Historic libraries; Dynamic simulation.

  • Resolving Strategic Conflict for Environmental Conservation of Glacial Ecosystem: An Attitudinal Conflict Resolution Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharafat Ali, Haiyan Xu, Waqas Ahmed, Najid Ahmad 
    Abstract: The efforts of mitigation and adaptation are underway to combat climate changes. But international conservation efforts have not focussed enough to create linkage to issues of regional cooperation for environmental security between the hostile states. Strategic and military conflicts have their environmental consequences and have serious implications for environmental security due to the scarcity of the natural resource. Given the scarcity and vulnerability of quality of natural resources due to human activities, the importance of conservation warrants the consideration of the environmental issues to play a critical role in cooperation. Aspired from this notion, the present study is an attempt to propose a negotiation strategy that may resolve the long-standing Siachen conflict between India and Pakistan. The military presence at Siachen has imperilled its ecosystem. Prolonged militarization of the glaciers would further increase the pollutants and would have adverse impacts on the glacial ecosystem. The resolution of the Siachen conflict is indispensable for the environmental conservation of the glacial ecosystem. The present study analyses possible strategies for the demilitarization of the glacier based on the attitudinal preference in the framework of Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR). It concludes with the fact that demilitarization of the Siachen conflict would not only preserve a spectacular mountain region and retain hydrologic balance in the region, but it would also add to global environmental protection efforts. Furthermore, it would further open the avenues of future constructive agreements and would save the tremendous resources of these economies.
    Keywords: global warming; environmental conservation; resource conservation; climate change; glacial melt; strategic conflicts; demilitarization; attitude-based preference; conflict resolution.

  • Spatiotemporal variability of climate extremes in the Marmara Region (NW Turkey)   Order a copy of this article
    by Hakki Baltaci 
    Abstract: In this study, the long-term variability of climate extremes was investigated for the region Marmara (NW of Turkey). Based on the 21 meteorological stations, Mann-Kendall rank statistic test and fitted ordinary least squares regression method was implemented to the six indices of extreme temperature and eight of extreme precipitation for the period 1960-2006. In regional perspective for temperature indices, statistically significant increasing trends (p<0.05) are shown in the warm days and nights. In regard to warm days, 38% of all stations show significant increasing trends and the stations located in the north part of the region commonly exhibited significant positive trends. For warm nights, 52% of all stations have significant positive trends, which are homogeneously distributed to all of Marmara. Other temperature extremes such as cold, frost and summer days have non-significant increasing trends. Only cold nights show non-significant decreasing trends in the study. For all precipitation indices, it is found non-significant increasing trends in the region. The possible impacts of the extremes on particular sub-basins were also evaluated in the study. The results can give valuable opportunity for policymakers and stakeholders in focusing on the water resources and eco-environment management strategies in the Marmara Region.
    Keywords: Marmara; climate extremes; indices; trends.

  • Thermodynamics performance of cooling pumps with different sea water temperatures for diesel engine in a cargo ship   Order a copy of this article
    by M.Ziya Sogut, Süleyman Ozkaynak, T.Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: In sea transport having dynamic conditions, for all energy consuming constructions of ships, it is important to ensure effective and efficient use of energy. In this study, the engine performance effect related to cooling process according to changes of sea water temperature was examined based on the exergetic irreversibility. Besides, environmental evaluation were also made depending on exergetic losses considering fuel consumption. In this context, effectiveness of cooling water activity for the main engine, which is 69.39% on its average exergy destruction, were calculated. According this data, the effect rate related to CO2 emission potential considering fuel consumption of the ship were also found as approximately 14 ton CO2. Accordingly, evaluations and suggestions based on the results of the analysis were also given in end of the study
    Keywords: Ship; Energy management; pumps; thermodynamics analysis; efficiency.

  • The Impacts of Window to Wall Ratio and Window Orientation on Building Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions Under Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Mumine Gercek, Ilker Gucu 
    Abstract: Decisions about the openings of the buildings play crucial role for improvements in recent and future energy and environmental performance characteristics. Therefore, the effects of window to wall ratio and window orientation on building annual heating, cooling energy consumptions and operational CO2 emissions are investigated regarding recent (2018) and future weather conditions (2050s and 2080s) of Izmir. The simulation model of a typical office building is created, and several scenarios are generated, including four facade orientations and different window to wall ratios, simultaneously. Then, the impacts of retrofits in window characteristics on building performance under climate change are examined for Izmir and Ankara. Finally, the results are evaluated in terms of different weather conditions to reach the most efficient opening design alternative. Considering the average life time of buildings, the outcomes of this study can be used as additional data for understanding the relation between transparent surface design and energy, environmental performance of buildings.
    Keywords: climate change; office buildings; window to wall ratio; window orientation; energy consumption.

  • Estimation of Emissions from Crop Residue Burning Using Remote Sensing Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Kubra Gulcek Bahsi 
    Abstract: Nearly one-fourth of the population in Turkey works in the agricultural sector. One common problem in agricultural waste removal is the adverse effects of crop residue burning on public health and environment, after harvest. In this research, a pilot area of 225 km2 in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey was selected where CRB is common. Sentinel-2 satellite images of the pilot area were obtained and processed in order to monitor the spatial distribution and the total area of the agricultural parcels where crop residues are burned in the field. The analysis was extended to find out the crop-specific emissions from fields burned by identifying crop type for each agricultural parcel. Total emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, NMHC, N2O, NH3, SO2 and NOX from the study area as a result of CRB were calculated based on previously reported emission factors and their implication for air quality and the atmosphere was assessed.
    Keywords: Crop residue burning; Agriculture; Remote sensing; Air quality.

    by Çağlar Ulusoy, Delia Sponza 
    Abstract: In this study, Nano-ZnO-SiO2 was used to treat pollutants from olive mill industry wastewaters by photo-degradation. ZnO is widely used for the treatment of these pollutants due to its cheapness and easily obtainable properties. SiO2 is also easy to produce under laboratory conditions. In this study, the main target was to ascertain the synergetic effects of ZnO and SiO2 in the treatment of OMW due to the properties of these nano particles. The effects of increasing Nano-ZnO-SiO2 concentrations (0.5 g/L, 1 g/L 3 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L), photooxidation times in sunlight (8,16, 24 and 36 hours) and different pHs (4, 7 and 10) were evaluated in the treatment of OMW pollutants. The photocatalytic reactions were performed under sunlight irradiation in summer months. The maximum pollutant removal efficiencies for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total phenol and Total Solids (TS) were 77%, 73% and 64% with a Nano-ZnO-SiO2 concentration of 3 g/L after 24 hours of sunlight irradıation at pH 4. According to reusability studies, it was found that the treated Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) can be used again after 8th sequential treatments with the 3 g/L Nano-ZnO-SiO2 composite with total COD and total phenol yields as high as 99%. The treated water was evaluated based on irrigation purposes. The total cost to treat 1L l of OMW containing the seven nano composite expenses is 1.95 euro.
    Keywords: ZnO-SiO2; Photocatalytic degradation; Olive mill Wastewater; Sunlight Irradiation; Reuse; Recovery.

    by Onur Kırdök, Tutku Didem Altun, Deniz Dokgöz, Ayça Tokuç 
    Abstract: Around 40% of the Earths carbon emissions are caused by the construction sector; mainly related to materials extraction and energy requirements. Therefore; architects and engineers are looking for solutions to achieve zero carbon emissions with their designs and production methods. This paper aims to investigate innovative construction methods, which are possible by linking the fields of biology and architecture; hence use them to decrease carbon emissions during construction activities. Although using biomaterials and learning from the examples of and imitating nature is not a new idea, contemporary technological advances and scientific understanding made it possible to emulate more complex ideas from nature. This paper studies three biodesign projects; Neri Oxmans Silk Pavilion, Wolf Hilbertzs Sea-Autopia Ampere and TBTs Sand Architectures to investigate if a low carbon architecture and construction that makes use of biodesign is possible. The innovative construction methods in the cases make use of creatures and natural processes to decrease the amount of raw materials in architectural production, decrease the need for transportation by environmentally friendly on-site production and reduce many steps in the construction process; thus make it possible to decrease carbon emissions compared to conventional construction methods.
    Keywords: Bio-architecture; Bio-based material; Biodesign; Eco-construction; Sustainability; Neri Oxman; Silk Pavilion; Biodesign Team Turkey; Sand Architectures Project; Wolf Hilbertz; Sea-Autopia Ampere; Future architecture; Bio-calcification; Bio-rock; Bio-fabrication.

  • Numerical investigation of valve lift effects on performance and emissions in diesel engine.   Order a copy of this article
    by Kubilay BAYRAMOGLU, Semih YILMAZ, Kerim Deniz KAYA 
    Abstract: Diesel engines are widely used in the world for trade and human transportation because of their efficiency and economical aspects. Approximately thirty percent of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming in the world are due to the transportation sector. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine on combustion characteristics and exhaust gas emissions by changing intake valve lift distances. Combustion analysis and visualization of analysis results at different valve lift values were applied with ANSYS-Forte, which is a commercial software, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for combustion system analysis and ANSYS-Chemkin which is used for reaction kinetics of combustion. Numerical results are shown that CO, CO2, NO, NO2 emissions, pressure and temperature with respect to crank angle. Numerical analysis results were compared with previous experimental data and parametric studies were applied based on verified model. The cylinder pressure and temperature values were found to be parallel with the data examined in the literature. The current study found that gross indicated power, indicated main effective pressure (IMEP) and combustion efficiency increase with the valve lift extension.
    Keywords: valve lift; marine diesel engine; computational fluid dynamics; exhaust emissions.

  • Thermal anomalies in the Mediterranean and in Asia Minor (1951-2010)   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Twardosz, Urszula Kossowska-Cezak 
    Abstract: In Europe, the current climate warming manifests itself with an increasing frequency of anomalously warm months (AWMs) and a declining frequency of anomalously cold months (ACMs). For the purpose of the study the authors define thermally anomalous months as months with the average air temperature at least two standard deviations higher or lower (AWM: t≥tav.+2SD, ACM: t≤tav.-2SD) than the long-term average (1951-2010). The aim of the study is to investigate the frequency of such monthly anomalies in southern Europe (approximately south of 45
    Keywords: Global warming; climate change; thermal anomalies; Mediterranean; Asia Minor.

  • A time-varying carbon intensity approach for demand-side management strategies with respect to CO2 emission reduction in the electricity grid   Order a copy of this article
    by Can Coskun 
    Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine electricity utilization based on the hourly distribution of CO2 emissions. Turkey was chosen for this case study because of the CO2 intensive characteristics of electricity generation. This study aims to be a pioneer in the spread of a time-varying carbon intensity approach for the calculation of carbon foot prints. There is a 5.98% difference between the proposed method and currently available CO2 reduction amounts for the test renewable energy case study. The aim is to plan electricity utilization according to CO2 intensity characteristics. Total CO2 emissions can be decreased by changing the electricity utilization characteristic. Electricity generation- based hourly emissions are calculated by utilizing actual data. The effective end-user intensity of electricity utilization is calculated for each city. It is determined as the CO2 intensity of electricity generation fluctuates both by the hour and by the day. It varies from 418.6 g CO2/kWh to 824.6 g CO2/kWh, or 597.8 g CO2/kWh on average. According to hourly basis analyses, the highest CO2 intensity of electricity generation occurs between 06:00 and 07:00. The highest CO2 intensity of electricity generation occurs on a Sunday despite this being the time of lowest electricity demand. An annual total of 162.84 metric tons of CO2 is released into the atmosphere as a result of electricity generation. Electricity generation- based CO2 emission per capita is calculated as 1.912 ton CO2.
    Keywords: Electricity generation; CO2 intensity of electricity generation; CO2 emission per capita; Global warming; demand-side management; time-varying carbon intensity; Turkey.

  • BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM SUNN HEMP   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Roj Khun-anake, Suriya Sawanon 
    Abstract: Sunn hemp at a cutting age of 50 days was investigated for biogas production by studying the anaerobic digestion of sunn hemp alone and the co-digestion of sunn hemp with cow dung at a concentration of 20% by fresh weight but with various proportions. The single-stage, semi-continuous reactors were operated at a hydraulic retention time of 40 days. Mixed ruminal microorganisms from cows were used as inoculum. The results indicated that the CH4 content from the digestion of sunn hemp alone was 47.57% and the CH4 produced per area of cultivation was 9231 m3/hectare.year. Co-digestion could increase the CH4 content to greater than 50%. Proportion of sunn hemp:cow dung:water of 10:10:80 by fresh weight was optimal for co-digestion. At this recommended ratio, the CH4 yield reached 412 L/kg total volatiles solids degraded. Sunn hemp could be a very good renewable energy source for biogas production.
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion; bioenergy; biogas; co-digestion; cover crop; cow dung; global warming; green manure; methane; renewable energy;sunn hemp.

  • Kinetics and Mechanism of Reaction between Carbon Disulfide and Novel Aqueous Amines Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The mechanism and kinetics of Carbon disulfide (CS2) capture by aqueous solutions of well known alkanolamines (monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA)) and novel cyclic mono- and polyamines (morpholine (MRPH), piperazine (PZ), n-methyl piperazine (NMPZ) and n-hydroxyethyl piperazine (NHEPZ)) were investigated by stopped-flow apparatus with conductivity detection. The observed reaction rate constants were obtained for a temperature range of 298.15-313.15 K and it was found that cyclic amines react much faster than others. A modified termolecular reaction mechanism was used to analyse the experimental kinetic data. The activation energies for all systems were also obtained by evaluating the Arrhenius equation.
    Keywords: Carbon disulfide capture; absorption kinetics; stopped flow; cyclic amines.

    by Neval Baycan, Yiğit Pehlivan 
    Abstract: Environmental pollution and waste management are getting important because of industrial development, increasing population and unplanned urbanization. Sustainable development requires the strategic plans for all nations. Greenhouse gas reduction, development of renewable energy sources, and energy efficiency represent the main supports of sustainable development. There is a growing interest for the quantification of corporate level carbon footprints as a results of the international climate policy and emerging consumer awareness. Consequently, it is very important to quantify and report their Carbon Footprint (CF) for implementing national and international policies/strategies aimed at mitigating and adapting these concerns. First objective of this study mentions to environmental effects of harbours and ports. What kind of waste is given by ships, amount of wastes, their disposal processes are studied. Besides, international and national regulations about ports and harbors waste management applications are examined. The second objective of this work to calculate the carbon footprint of the port that is located in the city center based on emission sources of ships. Carbon footprint that was entered our lives with global warming and greenhouse effects were analyzed. The inventory analysis mainly uses primary data collected from the port. The number of ships coming to the port and their types of engines and amount of fuels were taken into account in the calculation of the carbon footprint. Every type of engine has different operation modes. While calculating the carbon footprint of main engines only two operation modes which are transit mode and maneuvering mode were used. The results of this study show that the port has a carbon footprint 65043 tonnes CO2 equivalent per year. Container ships have the highest rate of carbon footprint which is 43729 tonnes CO2 equivalent per year.
    Keywords: Waste management; global warming; greenhouse gases; carbon footprint; ports.

  • The Effect of Phase Change Material Incorporated Building Wall on the CO2 Mitigation: A Case Study of Izmir-Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Asker, Ersin Alptekin, Ayça Tokuç, Mehmet Akif Ezan, Hadi Ganjehsarabi 
    Abstract: Buildings are considered to be one of the considerable energy consuming systems and greenhouse gas emissions sources, and 14% of this energy is used for cooling. This paper evaluates the energetic benefits and CO2 emissions of incorporating phase change materials (PCMs) on the facade of an office building under real weather data conditions for Izmir- Turkey for cooling. For this purpose, two situations, specifically the effect of the melting temperature (27
    Keywords: building energy consumption; building wall; CO2 mitigation; PCM; TES.

    by ONUR ORUC, Ibrahim Dincer 
    Abstract: In this study, a Rankine cycle is investigated thermodynamic analyses through energy and exergy approaches. Environmental impact assessment for lignite, hard coal, biomass, fuel oil and hydrogen are also performed. For this purpose, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emission values are calculated for different fuels. The emission values are calculated using the emission factor method. The use of biomass and hydrogen significantly reduces emissions. Additionally, the effects of lignite drying process on the emissions from the plant are studied comparatively. It is aimed to decrease the humidity of Turkish (Tuncbilek) lignite from 27% to 19% in the drying chamber. By decreasing the moisture content, the lower heat value of the lignite is increased, and the emissions of CO2 NOX and SO2 resulting from lignite combustion are then decreased. The overall energy and exergy efficiencies are comparatively evaluated as found to be 29.6% and 47%, respectively.
    Keywords: Power plant; environmental impact; exergy; biomass; emissions; hydrogen.