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International Journal of Global Warming


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International Journal of Global Warming (71 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • The calculation of domestic flight-caused global warming potential from aircraft emissions in Turkish airports   Order a copy of this article
    by Onder Altuntas 
    Abstract: In this study, Global Warming Potential (GWP) is calculated for aircrafts used in Turkish airports. The basic idea of this study is to investigate both emissions and their GWP values. This study is conducted in three steps, namely (i) finding busiest airports in Turkey, (ii) specifying the most used aircraft types and its engines, and (iii) calculation of domestic flight-caused GWP value for both the total number of aircraft and per-passenger evaluation. In this regard, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 GWP 100a methodology is utilized along with the method of the life cycle assessment. While the total average GWP value is 1,629 kg Carbondioxide equivalent (CO2e) per landing and takeoff (LTO), the total domestic flight-caused GWP value was calculated as 257,305 tons of CO2e per year in 2002 and 998,118 tons of CO2e per year in 2012. While, the last two years have had an average value of 1213 kg CO2e per passenger for one airport, the GWP values per passenger have averaged 15.35 kg CO2e per passenger, per airport over these years.
    Keywords: Global warming potential, emission, aviation, Turkish airports, aircraft engines
  • The Jobs Impact of GHG Reduction Strategies in the USA   Order a copy of this article
    by Roger Bezdek 
    Abstract: To address climate change concerns, the USA will have to displace 1.2 billion tons of carbon emissions annually by 2030 using massive applications of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. The economic and jobs consequences of such a strategy are highly controversial and subject to intense debate. We assess the technologies that will have to be deployed, their costs, and the necessary time frames. We then estimate the job impacts of such a policy and find that it will generate more than 4.5 million net jobs. We disaggregate the jobs created by industry, occupation, skill, and salary, and discuss the policy implications of these findings.
    Keywords: Climate change mitigation; global warming jobs; GHG job impact; energy efficiency and renewable energy jobs
    by serdar AYDIN, Samir Bakhshaliyev, Dursun Zafer Şeker , Nüket Sivri 
    Abstract: This study is aimed to determine current water resources in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan Republic, usage possibilities of these sources and integrated water resource management. For this purpose, water shortage and rainfall amounts are calculated with data obtained from water observation station in districts, meteorology and agriculture-irrigation fields of the country. At the same time, the scope of water shortage is visualized by means of Geographical Information Systems based on numerical values obtained from the land use analysis. rnrnWater management plans currently used in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is not insufficient. Thus, there is a serious water shortage problem in the country. Due to this problem, either unsuitable surface resources or water which has lower quality are used. The results showed that water demand is generally met by surface water resources across the country. In addition to drought and water shortage are occasionally seen due to seasonal rainfalls and evaporation by years. Results also showed that the year of 2008 has higher level of droughness among the year of 2004 and 2009, which caused by decreasing rainfall.
    Keywords: landscape management, water shortage, rainfall, GIS, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
    by Marco Alemanno, Attilio Di Diodato, Luigi Lauria, Nicola Santobuono 
    Abstract: Continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements performed by Italian Air Force Mountain Centre (IAFMC) at Mt. Cimone Observatory in the period 1980-2009 were analyzed in order to select data representing background concentrations. A filtering technique using the fast Fourier transform and two low-pass filters was used to smooth background data and to separate the annual (or seasonal) cycle from the long-term increase. All these operations were intended to study CO2 data features at Mt. Cimone and their correlations with global-scale phenomena. The average growth rate of CO2 was found to be 1.708
    Keywords: Atmospheric CO2 concentrations; column ozone; UV indexes
    by Filiz Ugur Nigiz, Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu 
    Abstract: Pervaporation (PV) is an alternative membrane based process for removal of sulfuric components with low energy consumption. In PV, selective removal bases on the concentration difference between two sides of membrane. In sulfur removal process hydrophobic membranes are generally used due to the flexible chain structure. If the solution parameters and polarities of membranes are close to the sulfur components then hydrophilic membranes are preferred. In this study, pristine and wt. 3%, 5% and 10% of poly(oligosilsesquioxanes) (POSS) loading poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) membranes have been prepared for pervaporation experiment. Sorption and desorption experiments have been performed at room temperature to determine the swelling characters and sorption selectivity values of the membranes with respect to the sulfur concentration.
    Keywords: Pervaporation, sulfur removal, poly(dimethylsiloxane), poly(oligosilsesquioxanes)
    by Deniz D. Genc Tokgoz, Gurdal Tuncel 
    Abstract: In this study ionic compositions of 350 aerosol samples collected between April 2006 and May 2008 in a rural area at Northwestern Turkey (Black Sea coast of Turkey) were discussed. Ions accounted for approximately 30% of PM mass. Contributions of secondary aerosol species (NO3-, SO42- and NH4+) were higher than the ions with crustal origin. This indicated that sampling station was under the influence of long range transport because there were no industrial emissions around. Concentrations of ions demonstrated a large variation from day to day. Mann-Whitney W test was applied to compare the medians of summer and winter concentrations of ions. All ions, except for NH4+ and SO42-, showed statistically significant difference between seasons with 95% confidence level.
    Keywords: Air pollution; anion; cation; climate change; long-range transport; seasonal variation.
  • Performance and Emission characteristics of CI engine, fuelled with diesel and oxygenated fuel blends   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramabalan Sundaresan, Pushparaj T, Arul Mozhi Selvan V. 
    Abstract: Vegetable oils are a potential alternative towards partial or total substitution of diesel fuels. In this study, we used ethanol as the solvent, and a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive to explore the possible use of higher percentages of biodiesel in an unmodified diesel engine. Biodiesel was produced from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) by pyrolysis process. A mixture containing 80% (by volume) of Number 2 diesel fuel and 20% (by volume) of biodiesel is called here as B20. The effect of 10 % ethanol, blended with B20 (by volume) was studied in a single cylinder, four strokes direct injection diesel engine after adding a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive. The impact of test fuels on engine torque, power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature were investigated by the performance tests. The influence of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NO and smoke opacity were measured by emission tests. The experimental results showed that when a fuel mixture containing 10% ethanol, B20 and a Bio Fuel Enhancer as additive was used, the exhaust emissions were fairly reduced; especially the NO is reduced remarkably by 30% when compared to using B20 alone. Smoke opacity was reduced by 20% when compared to using diesel alone.
    Keywords: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL); Emission; Ethanol; Pyrolysis; IC engine; Performance; Bio Fuel Enhancer (BFE).
  • Single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems in CO2 capture by absorption: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by Wojciech Budzianowski 
    Abstract: CO2 capture by absorption requires solvents which can meet performance criteria such as fast absorption rate, high CO2 loading capacity, low regeneration energy, low degradation rate, low corrosiveness, low environmental impact and low solvent cost. The development of a suitable solvent is central for design of decarbonised power plants with minimal energy penalty in a cost-effective and environmentally benign manner. Therefore, the current review characterises promising single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems, suitable for CO2 capture applications by solvent absorption. The focus is on comparison of solvents by means of carefully selected performance criteria. The review analyses the state of the art, major technological advantages, as well as R&D challenges of promising single solvents, solvent blends, and advanced solvent systems in large-scale CO2 capture applications.
    Keywords: CO2 capture, solvent, absorption, power plant, performance criteria, evaluation
  • Computable General Equilibrium Analyses of Global Economic Impacts and Adaptation for Climate Change: The Case of Tropical Cyclones   Order a copy of this article
    by Koichi Yamaura, Toyoaki Washida, Shin Sakaue 
    Abstract: Computable general equilibrium models have been widely used for simulating global warming and evaluating economic damages caused by climate change. However, to date little research has focused on the economic consequences incurred across several industry sectors at a global level. This article uses the Evaluation Model for Environmental Damage and Adaptation (EMEDA) to simulate direct economic damages caused by tropical cyclones any losses that are offset through growth in other sectors to measure the global economic impacts arising from climate change. Simulated results by EMEDA indicate that: i) several regions experience economic growth, with four regions offsetting economic damages in the primary industry sector whilst the other regions increase their damages; ii) seven regions show economic growth whilst only North America neutralizes damage in their secondary sectors, with the other regions revealing more severe losses; iii) several regions are able to offset their tertiary sector losses yet the other regions show an increase in damages; and iv) the equivalent variation in all regions except East Asia decreases as temperature increases.
    Keywords: EMEDA; CGE models; global warming; climate change; tropical cyclones; equivalent variation
  • Cyclic CO2 capture performance of CaO based sorbents obtained from various precursors   Order a copy of this article
    by Dengfeng Zhang, Lili Gu, Yunhua Huang 
    Abstract: The effects of pore morphology and crystal structure of CaO based sorbents derived from various precursors were investigated to elucidate the property dependence of CaO based sorbent performance for cyclic CO2 capture. The results indicate that CO2 capture capacity of the first carbonate looping cycle is dependent on the specific surface area of CaO based sorbents. The carbonation conversions of the initial calcined sorbent are restricted from 29% to 83% due to the limitations in the small pores with diameter range from 20 to 70 nm. The initial calcination of CaO based sorbents obtained from the inorganic precursors leaves an imprint in the following carbonation/calcination cycles, which leads to greater decay rate of carbonate conversion than the organic precursors. Increase of carbonate conversion with cycle number is found for CaO based sorbent obtained from calcium L-lactate hydrate and this reactivation phenomenon is probably due to its special crystal structure.
    Keywords: precursors; CaO based sorbent; CO2 capture; pore morphology; crystal structure
    Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of pretreatment to the garden wastes under thermal and alkali conditions and to evaluate biochemical methane potential. In thermal pretreatment different temperatures and application times were examined and solubilisation improved by heating. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) concentration upgraded by increasing temperature with different time intervals. 90
    Keywords: thermal pretreatment; alkali pretreatment; solubilisation; biochemical methane potential; garden waste
  • Biohydrogen production from normal starch wastewater with heat-treated mixed microorganisms from a starch factory   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Budsakorn Kanchanakhan, Suchat Leungprasert 
    Abstract: Biohydrogen production was studied from normal starch factory wastewater of approximately 20,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l with heat-treated mixed microorganisms originating from the plant. Acclimated heat-treated microorganisms that produced H2 50% during the acclimation period were used as the parent culture. Experiments were performed in a batch and semi-continuous operation through dark fermentation. The results found that normal starch wastewater can be the sole carbon source for biohydrogen. For batch operation, the maximum hydrogen yield and specific hydrogen production rate of 250 ml at standard temperature and pressure (STP)/g COD degraded and 13.9 ml at STP/ g cells-hour were obtained when operating the system at initial wastewater pH 4. For semi-continuous operation, the maximum hydrogen yield of 100 ml at STP/g COD degraded was obtained when operating the system at an organic loading rate of 28.6 kg COD/m3-day or a hydraulic retention time of 18 hours. The fermentation medium pH should not be much higher than pH 5 during digestion.
    Keywords: Anaerobic digestion;biogas;biohydrogen;global warming;mixed microorganisms;starch wastewater
  • Long Term Rainfall Trends of Indian Urban Station and its Variation in Different Phases and Seasons   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramachandran Andimuthu, Anushiya Jeganathan 
    Abstract: This work studies rainfall trends for 196 years (1813-2009) of Meenambakkam Station, an old observatory located in Chennai, which is the fourth largest Metropolis in India. Precipitation data have been studied on the basis of months, seasons and periods. Long-term trends in rainfall were determined by Man-Kendall rank statistics and linear regression. There is a significant increase of long term Annual and Monsoon rainfall and insignificant increase of Winter and Post monsoon rainfall. Post monsoon, the main rainy season of Chennai contributes 59.8% of the annual rainfall, while contribution decreases to 57.6 % in 1951-2009 and a further decrease to 54.7% in the last nine years. Summer rainfall shows decreasing trend. Further, this study tries to find for an explanation for precipitation trends by two global climate phenomena, IOD and PDO. Annual rainfall has significant positive correlation with PDO and insignificant negative correlation with IOD. Rainfall in Post monsoon season has significant positive correlation with PDO. The negative PDO (PDO-) phases show a decrease in rainfall and positive phases shows excess rainfall. Teleconnections with other global indices have to be studied further and deeper.
    Keywords: long term trend, seasonal variation, time periods, IOD, PDO
  • Removal of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere to Reduce Global Warming: A Modeling Study   Order a copy of this article
    by J.B. Shukla, M.S. Chauhan, Shyam Sundar, Ram Naresh 
    Abstract: In this paper, a nonlinear model is proposed to study the feasibility of removing from the atmosphere by introducing some external species such as liquid droplets and particulate matters in the atmosphere, which may react with this gas and get it removed by gravity. Further, this gas can also be removed by photosynthesis process by using plantation of leafy trees around the sources of emissions. The following two cases are thus considered, I. Removal of from the upper atmosphere by externally introduced species such as liquid droplets and particulate matters. II. Removal of by an externally introduced species in the near earth atmosphere and plantation of green belt around the sources of emission. In both the cases, the proposed non-linear model is analyzed by using the stability theory of differential equations and computer simulations. From the model analysis, the following conclusions are drawn, (i) In case I, it is shown that the concentration of global warming gas decreases as the rates of introduction of liquid droplets and particulate matters increase. It is noted that this gas can be removed almost completely from the atmosphere, if the rates of introduction of these external species are very large. (ii) In case II, it is shown that the concentration of decreases as the absorption of by green belt increases. It decreases further if the rate of introduction of external species in the atmosphere increases The numerical simulation of the model confirms these analytical results.
    Keywords: Global warming; liquid species; particulate matters; green belt; stability
  • Counting the non-CO2 diversion of biogenic carbon: An improvement suggested for the UNFCCC methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Ijaz Ahmad, Ghulam Rasul Athar 
    Abstract: UNFCCC has developed a software to support Non-Annex I parties for preparation of their national GHG inventories. This paper identifies a weakness in the software on double counting of some GHG emissions. Most of the biogenic activities, livestock, rice cultivation, use of biomass, etc. are carbon neutral. However, these activities emit CH4 and CO consuming atmospheric CO2. The UNFCCC software counts CH4 and CO emissions without adjusting the consumed CO2. GHG inventory of Pakistan was prepared for the year 2008 with the help of this software and guidelines of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The biogenic CH4 emissions, 34% of the 2008 GHG inventory, consumed 3.16 million tonnes of atmospheric carbon. The deduction of this carbon reduces the GHG inventory by 3.74%. This paper suggests improvements in the software to enhance the accuracy of GHG inventories.
    Keywords: Pakistan; UNFCCC software; climate change; double counting; GHG inventories; atmospheric carbon; livestock; rice; biomass; biogenic CH4
    by Abul Quasem Al-Amin 
    Abstract: Malaysia has been experiencing an unusual harsh mixture of droughts and extreme rainfall events at present. As consequence, significant fall in crop production will be caused in the coming years. Current agriculture adaptation strategies are not significantly enough to cope with this issue. Therefore, this study aims to capture the scenarios in the field of climate change adaptation. The main focus of this study is to chalk out the adaptation efforts that the government and local stakeholders should consider. This study identifies the challenges associated with the implementation of adaptation options for the agricultural sector in response to climate change. Furthermore, this study presents some insight on the possible future strategies for adaptation that legislators may consider in designing and formulating the policy which may ultimately help the agricultural sector of Malaysia to be effective. Such adaptation framework actions and measures are adjudicated to assure cohesive participation of all concerned development bodies including government and non-government organizations along with local communities towards achieving the appropriate climate change response.
    Keywords: Adaptation; Agriculture; Impacts; Climate Change; Malaysia
  • Assessment of a CHP system based on economical, fuel consumption and environmental considerations   Order a copy of this article
    by MOHAMMAD ABBASI, Mahdi Deymi-Dashtebayaz, Mahmoud Farzaneh-Gord, Sedigheh Abbasi 
    Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems which are able to produce heating and power simultaneously, are getting more attention since have many economical and environmental benefits. CHP systems for buildings are an important application of CHP various systems designs. In this study, we have investigated a CHP system applicable for the building of Azad university of Shahrood. The prime mover utilized here is an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) with Natural Gas fuel, and the CHP system is evaluated under different sizes of engine, between 200 kW to 1800 kW. Based on the cost analysis, fuel consumption and emission deducting, an evaluation factor indicator (EFI) is defined which can be applied to select an ideal engine for the proposed CHP system. The lower the EFI, the better option for the engine sizes can be achieved. The result shows that a gas engine with the size of 1200 kW has the lowest EFI factor. Regarding this size of engine, a CHP system is designed and it found that the CHP system is economically viable for the operation period, and the return on investment will be higher than the interest rate.
    Keywords: CHP System; Internal Combustion Engine (ICE); Fuel Consumption; Emissions Reduction; Economic Analysis; Selecting Engine Size.
  • Economic Implications of Climate Change: Evidence from Agricultural Productivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Inoussa Boubacar 
    Abstract: The increased frequency and severity of drought episodes have characterized the natural environment of the Sahel region in Africa during the past four decades. With little to no mitigation option available to them, countries of the Sahel will face a further deterioration of their economic environment, as an ill-agricultural sector will most likely drag down their whole economies. This paper uses a six-month standardized precipitation index and average temperature during the growing season days to quantify the adverse impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity. I first estimate a Malmquist productivity index and its efficiency and technical change components. I further assess the statistical significance of the indices by estimating confidence intervals around the point estimates using a bootstrap method. In the second stage of the analysis, I model the adverse effects of drought and temperature on agricultural productivity using a probit specification. The findings of this paper point to a dismal agricultural productivity. These findings also highlight the significant cumulative negative impacts of higher temperatures and recurrent droughts on agricultural-based economies.
    Keywords: Agriculture productivity; climate change; drought; international development; Sahel; Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Trends of Climate Change as Related To Elevation above sea level   Order a copy of this article
    by Nada Jallo 
    Abstract: The HadCRUT3 data are used to analyze the dependence of the linear correlation slope parameter between monthly temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The analysis demonstrated that the mean correlation coefficient at all elevation is always positive. This indicates an increase in the mean surface temperatures with increasing CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, it is shown that the positive values of the mean correlation coefficients are strongly related to the elevation above sea level. Most significantly is the decrease in this value at position located at 100-400 meter above sea level
    Keywords: Climate change, Global Warming, HadCRUT3
  • Security of Energy Supply in Japan: A Key Strategy and Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Omer Ozkan, Leman Erdal, Ali Osman Pektaş, Filiz Ozkan 
    Abstract: Energy plays an important role in determining the economic activities of the countries and is mainly used to produce goods and satisfy the required services. The economy of Japan is basically dependent on imported energy which is nearly 85 % of its total energy consumption per year, the highest percentage of any major industrialized nation. In this study four indices are constructed to measure Energy Supply Security (ESS): Dependency Index, Intensity Index, Local Production Index and Composite Index. The main determinants of energy supply security and with the availability of data, statistical models are formed out to investigate the significance and the sensitivities between the ESS indexes and the input parameters that are; petroleum prices (PP), Gross domestic products (GDP), total primary energy supply (TPES), energy consumption per capita (PCEC), share of renewable energy sources (REN), carbon dioxide emissions (CEM), population (P), total traffic volume (TV), human development index (HDI) and mean of democracy indexes of energy supplier countries of Japan (DI). A comprehensive methodology is used to research the interrelationships of correlated parameters. To this aim, five statistical procedures including simple correlation analysis, multiple linear regression models, stepwise multiple linear regression model, principal component analysis and cluster analysis are used. Empirical results indicate that PCEC, P and HDI have significant effect on energy supply security.
    Keywords: Japan, Energy supply security, Energy import, principal component and cluster analyses.
  • Adapting to climate variability: the views of peasant farmers in Nepal   Order a copy of this article
    by Sudarshan Chalise 
    Abstract: There are growing concerns, especially from farmers in rural mid-east Nepal, about main-streaming locally-led climate adaptation strategies. Using a bottom-up approach, we analysed the bio-physical and socio-economic impacts on Nepalese agriculture from three focus group discussions and a survey of 60 peasant farmers to identify the relevant climate change impacts which were used to investigate how farmers practices overcome any climate-based barriers. The results suggest that farmers are partially able to minimize the impacts of climate-based barriers whereas they have difficulty in coping with non-climatic barriers. The results emphasise the role of government and other stakeholders in locally-led adaptation (not only in mitigation) as an avenue to combat the negative impacts of climate-based variability.
    Keywords: climate variability, farmer perception, locally-led adaptation
    by Mustafa ERTURK 
    Abstract: In this study, annual, monthly and hourly ambient temperature distributions are determined and analyzed for Karab
    Keywords: heating degree-hour, energy change according to indoor reference temperature, energy, emission, carbon-dioxide and sulphur-dioxide.
  • Assessment of Spatial Models for Interpolation of Elevation in Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Ijaz Hussain 
    Abstract: Elevation has major impact on the climate change. Interpolation of elevation at any location in Pakistan may be useful for predicting environmental parameters such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and wind speed. Present study interpolates the amount of elevation at unobserved locations using: 1) model based ordinary kriging, 2) model based Bayesian kriging with constant trend, 3) model based Bayesian Kriging with varying trend,4) %spatial Gaussian process with andwithout trend and 5) spatial artificial neural network. Prediction maps of elevation for complete domain are estimated along with prediction standard deviation. The results of suggested methods are compared with means of leave one take others cross validation method. It is observed from cross validation method that model based Bayesian kriging with constant trend performs better than the other methods of predicting the amount of elevation in Pakistan.
    Keywords: Bayesian kriging; elevation; ordinary kriging ; spatial artificial neural network
    by Sema Yurdakul, Aysel Atimtay 
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical treatment and heating rate on the emissions released from various waste wood samples including untreated pine and chemically treated MDF, plywood and particleboard after thermal treatment. Emission characteristics of the samples were determined in situ by using their FTIR spectra. Some toxic and carcinogenic gases such as formaldehyde, isocyanate, ammonia and phenyl group were detected in emissions from low temperature combustion of treated samples. For this reason, urea-formaldehyde or melamine formaldehyde treated waste wood samples should be oxidatively pyrolyzed at low heating rates and low temperatures to remove nitrogen-containing toxic compounds such as ammonia and isocyanate.
    Keywords: Biomass; Toxic Emissions; FTIR; Thermal oxidation; Chemical treatment;Formaldehyde
  • Toward utilising geothermal waters for cleaner and sustainable production: potential of Li recovery from geothermal brines in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ziya Cetiner, Özgür Dogan, Göksel Özdilek, Pembe Özer Erdoğan 
    Abstract: Geothermal fluids are potentially significant sources of technology critical minerals and metals. As water flows through different geological layers of the earths crust, it gets heated and dissolves minerals and metals from the rocks. These geothermal fluids can be processed to recover valuable metals such as gold, silver, zinc, and lithium. Freely discharged geothermal water can be source of pollution in the environment. However recovery of some elements, such as mercury, arsenic, lithium, etc., can be a part of environmental protection in such areas. Interest and demand in lithium (Li) sources have increased in recent years. This is, in part, due to the wide applications of Li and its compounds in high-energy storage Li batteries, and in other technological fields e.g., nuclear energy systems. Moreover, the costs associated with resource extraction from geothermal fluids are believed to be relatively low, and therefore many possible recovery techniques have been suggested. Lithium is one of the metals that dominate Na-Cl type of geothermal fluids in Turkey with its potential value. This article presents lithium concentrations of selected geothermal waters in Turkey and compares different methods that can be used to recover Li from them. Specifically, three methods will be discussed including direct precipitation as Li salts, separation by membrane filter and captured form through ion exchange resins.
    Keywords: lithium recovery, geothermal waters, sustainable metal production, Turkey
  • Impact of environmental education on mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions: a modeling study   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Misra, Maitri Verma 
    Abstract: Human activities have contributed significantly to the menace of global warming by enhancing the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Environmental education is an avenue to persuade people to reduce their CO2 emissions. Comprehension of the impact of environmental education on the reduction of CO2 emissions aids in devising effectual environmental education policies. In this view, we have formulated a nonlinear mathematical model to study the impact of educational programs on the abatement of CO2 emissions. It is considered that the educational programs are implemented at a rate proportional to the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO2 due to human activities. Model is analyzed by using stability theory of differential equations. Model analysis reveals that the educational programs are helpful in reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. But if reduction rate of carbon footprint by educated people is small, increase in execution rate of educational programs and/or dissemination rate of education among people cannot effectively curtail CO2 emissions. Moreover, for high values of reduction rate coefficient of carbon footprint, atmospheric concentration of CO2 may not get stabilized. Numerical simulation is carried out to illustrate the theoretical findings.
    Keywords: mathematical model, CO2 gas, environmental education, stability.
  • Modeling of stand volume and tree density using Spot-4 satellite data: a case study in Devrez planning unit   Order a copy of this article
    by Alkan GUNLU, İlker ERCANLI, Sedat KELEŞ, Cihat ANLAR 
    Abstract: Estimation of forest stand attributes such as stand volume, basal area, tree density, crown closure and aboveground biomass in a large area using remotely sensed data are important for sustainable management and use of natural resources. Modeling forest stand attributes and combined characteristics are necessary for forest planning and management. The aim of this research was to evaluate the possibility of using Spot-4 satellite image for estimating stand volume and tree density in Devrez planning unit, northwestern part of Turkey. Based on a single Spot-4 satellite data, reflectance values and eight vegetation indices (VIs) were connected to the stand volume and tree density using multiple regression analysis to develop the stand volume and tree density models. Our results showed that a linear combination of Band 1, Band 3, SR, DVI, SAVI, EVI and IPVI were better predictors of stand volume (adjusted R2=67 %; root mean square error (RMSE) =8.93 m3 ha-1). In addition, the regression model with Band 1, Band 3, SR, DVI, NLI and IPVI as independent variables was a better predictor of tree density (adjusted R2= 62 %; RMSE=6.03 n ha-1). In conclusion, forest stand attributes including the stand volume and tree density can be estimated and modelled using the reflectance values and VIs obtained from spot-4 satellite image. Keywords: Ground data, spot 4 satellite data, stand volume, tree density.
    Keywords: Ground data, spot 4 satellite data, stand volume, tree density
  • Analyzing the Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emissions in China Using Segmented Equations and Partial Least Squares   Order a copy of this article
    by Qian Gao, Ming Meng, Lei Wen, Dongxiao Niu 
    Abstract: This study investigates the dynamic relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in China from 1979 to 2010. We propose a segmented equation for the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The partial least squares method is used to estimate the equation parameters. The conclusions drawn are as follows. (1) Chinas CO2 emissions are still in the first stage of the EKC. A significant increase in income per capita is needed for Chinas CO2 emissions per capita to reach its peak point in the inverted U-shaped EKC. (2) The ideal equation used to simulate the relationship between Chinas income per capita and CO2 emissions per capita after 2010 is . This equation can help Chinas government set its ideal CO2 control target at a specific income per capita, at least until the income per capita reaches RMB 19137.2. (3) Chinas CO2 emissions per capita will peak some time between 2026 and 2027. After 2027, Chinas CO2 emissions per capita will decrease as income per capita increases.
    Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve; China; CO2 emissions; segmented equation; partial least squares
  • Fabrication, characterization and CO2/N2 gas permeance study of Novel blended membrane.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarah Farrukh, Fozia T. Minhas, Arshad Hussain, Muhammad Mujahid 
    Abstract: The CO2 gas is the primary green house gas, which is the main cause of global warming. To capture CO2 gas, it is important to study the permeance behavior of CO2 and N2 gases from different membranes. In this work, 5,11,17,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis-(2-piprazinoethyl)-26-dihydroxycalix[4]arene (CLP)was blended into Cellulose Acetate (CA) membrane to be used for gas permeation. Diffusion Induced Phase Separation (DIPS) method was applied to fabricate membranes. The CA/CLP membranes were fabricated by varying concentration of CLP with respect to CA at 10wt%, 20wt%, 30wt% and 40wt%.The prepared membranes were characterized via Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). CO2 and N2 gases were used for the gas permeation experiments. The increasing trend was observed in permeance of N2 gas as compared to CO2 gas for CA-CLP blended membranes.
    Keywords: : calix[4]ene; cellulose acetate; global warming; green house gas; permeance; DIPS; N2/CO2; piprazene; blended membranes, fabricated membranes; FTIR; SEM analysis of membranes;
  • Investigation of Alternative Blasting Process in Terms of Impact Behaviour of Blasting Materials for Green Shipyards   Order a copy of this article
    by Veysel Alankaya, Ugur Celebi 
    Abstract: Blasting process in shipyards could be marked as one of the most significant sources of waste; thus it is considered mandatory for the surface preparation before painting process in new shipbuilding or for the removal of the old paint from the surface of old vessels. The particulate emissions are contaminated by blasting abrasives and paint chips during surface preparation processes and might contain toxic metals concerning the production area, off-site and surrounding surface waters when blown off-site. Environmentally friendly shipyards have gained more importance due to global warming and its undeniable effects. Therefore, replacement of traditional production methods with less contaminating, more environmentally safe and alternative processes which do not affect human health as much is vital. In this study, abrasive-blasting materials for surface preparation are investigated by means of impact effectiveness of the material. The numerical results, derived from a commercial dynamic explicit finite element program, are presented denoting the blasting efficiency and damage behavior by material type, material geometry and particle velocity. A new point of view regarding choosing blasting material, decreasing amount of waste and pollution for a green world is tried to be presented.
    Keywords: pollution sources; shipbuilding and ship repair industry; blasting materials; waste minimization
  • Effect Of Nanoparticle Additives On Nox Emissions Of Diesel Fueled Compression Ignition Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Tayfun OZGUR, Gökhan TÜCCAR, Erinc ULUDAMAR, Ceyla GUNGOR, Mustafa OZCANLI, Hasan SERIN, Kadir AYDIN 
    Abstract: The amount of emitted harmful emission gases increases in parallel with increasing energy consumption. This increase has forced many countries to take various precautions and various restrictions on emitted emissions have been carried. In this study, effects of addition of oxygen containing nanoparticle additives to NOx emissions of diesel fuel were investigated. Nine different nanoparticle additives namely Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3), Magnesium Oxide (MgO), Titanium Oxide (TiO2), Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Silicon Oxide (SiO2), Iron Oxide Fe2O3, Nickel Oxide (NiO), Nickel Iron Oxide (NiFe2O4) and Nickel Zinc Iron Oxide Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were added to diesel fuel at the dosages of 25, 50 and 100 ppm. As a result, optimum additive and addition dosages were determined and NOx emissions were decreased with the addition of nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanoparticle, nitrogen oxide, emission, additive, diesel
  • Uncertainties, Risks and Challenges Relating to CO2 Emissions and Its Possible Impact on Climate Change in the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Hasan Arman 
    Abstract: CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by around 35% since the beginning of the industrial era. Both human-induced and natural factors trigger climate changes and associated risks. Since the discovery of oil in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) around 1960, the country has experienced high population growth and very rapid economic development with associated high demand on energy in various sectors. The response to this remarkable energy demand was the burning of fossil fuel. CO2 emissions in the UAE in last 51 years have averaged about 32.4 metric tons per capita (mtcp). During the last 16 years the highest annual mean temperature maximum was 28.9oC in 2010. The lowest annual mean temperature maximum was 27.2oC in 1997. During the same period the highest yearly rainfall was 21.5 mm in 1995, while the lowest was 1.0 mm in 2001. The main objective of this paper is to identify and discuss the potential risks and uncertainties that trigger global warming and climate change, including the expected challenges to come from these changes, and to analyze the likely impact of CO2 emissions on the UAEs climate change, respectively.
    Keywords: uncertainties; risks; challenges; CO2 emissions; climate change; global warming; U.A.E.
  • Climate Change, Seasonal Changes in Cassava Production and Konzo Epidemics   Order a copy of this article
    by Olusegun Steven Ayodele Oluwole 
    Abstract: Abstract: Seasonal konzo epidemics, which occur during droughts in Central, East, and Southern Africa, are attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. Severe droughts of global warming are predicted to increase cassava production. Trends and seasonal changes of temperature, precipitation, and cassava production were analyzed, and a model was proposed to explain the impact of climate change on cassava production and seasonal konzo epidemics. Spectral analyses of temperature, precipitation and cassava production data from 1961 to 2012 were done. Temperature increased by 1.1 ∘C in 52 years, while cassava production increased by 13 % during low precipitation. Correlation of seasonal changes of precipitation and cassava production was 1 at periods of 4 and 6 years. Severe droughts of environmental warming will increase seasonal cassava production, water shortage, and seasonal konzo epidemics in areas of subsistence farming. Food and water programmes are needed to control seasonal konzo epidemics. rn
    Keywords: keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, Cassava, Cyanide, Konzo, Epidemic, Seasonal
  • Potential of GHG Emission Reduction from Agriculture Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Indrayani Nimkar, Anju Singh, Seema Unnikrishnan, Neelima Naik 
    Abstract: Land use change activities, use of fertilizers, and open field burning of agricultural waste are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the agriculture sector. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of Kyoto protocol has proved useful in the mitigation of such GHGs. A total of 167 CDM projects of the agriculture sector are being studied across 19 countries. Out of these, Brazil has implemented a maximum of 46 CDM projects. Expected carbon emission reduction from the above 167 projects was about 10,083,912 metric ton of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e), out of which actual emission reduction achieved till October 2012 was 4,989,448 MtCO2e per annum. India has implemented 12 projects in the agriculture sector with estimated carbon emission of 620,457 metric ton CO2e, out of which actual emission reduction achieved was 265054 metric ton CO2e. Fifteen different methodologies were used worldwide in the above mentioned CDM projects, in which India has used 9 methodologies, followed by Chile with 7 methodologies. Methodology AMS-III.D Methane Recovery in Animal Manure Management Systems was used for 66 projects. Manure from livestock generates biogas, releasing methane directly into the atmosphere. Implementation of CDM methodology AMS-III.D pertains to the use of generated biogas for flaring or energy generation. Methodology AMS-I.D titled Grid Connected Renewable Electricity Generation was used in 49 projects. Application of the AMS-I.D methodology relates to the generation of renewable energy units that supply electricity to regional or national grid. CDM promotes projects that use renewable energy sources with clean technology leading to less dependency on conventional energy sources, ultimately reducing GHG emissions. It is, hence, valuable to have CDM projects in the agriculture sector as these provide various GHG mitigation options that reduce energy needs, recycle the generated waste and enable the use of alternate energy sources. This paper presents for the first time an overview of the contribution of CDM towards GHG mitigation in the agriculture sector.
    Keywords: Clean Development Mechanism, Green House Gases (GHGs), Agriculture
  • The Effectiveness of Climate Change Communication and Information Dissemination via the Internet: experiences from the On-Line Climate Conference Series   Order a copy of this article
    by Walter Leal Filho, Franziska Mannke, Evangelos Manolas 
    Abstract: Despite the importance of and the need for using internet-based approaches to promote information and raise awareness on climate change, there is a paucity of initiatives which may foster this cause on a long-term basis. This paper presents the concept, approaches, methods, experiences and results from an on-line climate change conference series led by the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg), which, since its inception in 2008, has engaged over one million participants in over 150 countries. Covering a wide range of topics including water use, disasters management, and technologies, the on-line climate change conferences provide useful insights on matters which may be considered, in ensuring climate change can be successfully communicated via on-line tools.
    Keywords: Communication; Climate change; Internet; Information; Dissemination
  • Hydrogen Production by Spirulina Maxima 2342 Under Different Light Intensities And Quantification Employing A Fuel Cell   Order a copy of this article
    by Pathiyamattom Joseph Sebastian, Alina Juantorena, Orlando Lastres, Geovanni Hernandez, Armando Bustos, Delfeena Eapen 
    Abstract: In this work the photosynthetic hydrogen production employing Spirulina maxima 2342 microorganisms was determined under different experimental conditions, for the same biomass property (concentration) and three different light intensities (150, 112 and 75 μE/m2.s). The hydrogen production was quantified employing a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) which produces electricity using the hydrogen produced in this experiment. The highest faradaic efficiency and hydrogen flow rate into the PEMFC (1,54 x10-8 kg/h) was obtained for a light intensity of 150 μE/m2. s.
    Keywords: Hydrogen, photosynthetic microorganisms, Spirulina maxima 2342, PEMFC.
    by Murat Özyavuz, Bayram Cemil Bilgili, Gülşah Elkıran 
    Abstract: The term heat island describes built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas. The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.85.4
    Keywords: Open and green space, temperature, geostatistics, landscape planning
  • Development of methodology for the assessment of changes in household electricity consumption and calculation of CO2 emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilze Laicane, Andra Blumberga, Marika Rosa, Dagnija Blumberga, Uldis Bariss 
    Abstract: This study outlines a methodology for assessing changes in household electricity consumption and CO2 emissions. The method is proposed to analyze large data sets of residential electricity consumption in the case study of the first smart metering pilot project in Latvia. The goal of the project is to achieve a reduction of electricity consumption in households by 10%. In order to do so project aims to increase household users awareness of smart technologies, as well as to promote households involvement in energy efficiency measures. The proposed methodology is based on several steps, including: 1) baseline situation analysis; 2) normalization of electricity consumption data; 3) identification of the factors affecting household electricity consumption; 4) an empirical analysis of households electricity consumption using regression analysis; 5) assessment of changes in electricity consumption at the end of evaluation period and 6) calculation of CO2 emissions. Finally, the first results of the smart metering pilot project in 9-month period has been presented. The recommendations for policy development on promoting smart metering has been raised at the end of this Paper
    Keywords: Smart metering, electricity consumption, household, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, data normalization, assessment of changes in household electricity consumption
  • Climate Variability and its Impacts on Water Resources in the Upper Indus Basin under IPCC Climate Change Scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Juergen Pilz, Firdos Khan, Muhamad Amjad, David Wiberg 
    Abstract: The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), having latitude 320 N to 370 N and longitude 72.40 E to 810 E is chosen for hydrological impact assessment. The output of a Regional Climate Model (RCM), Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies (PRECIS), is used as input data to the hydrological model to produce inflow projections at the Tarbela Reservoir on the Indus River. Maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation are investigated for possible climate change in the region. The above mentioned variables are changing over time and clearly indicating that climate change is happening. The Best Easy Systematic (BES) estimator and Mean Monthly Correction Factor (MMCF) techniques were used for statistical bias correction in temperature and precipitation, respectively. The hydrological model was calibrated for the 1995-2004 period and validated for the 1990-1994 period with almost 90 % efficiencies. The results show that the variables have a slightly increasing trend under the A2 scenario compared to the B2 scenario. The projections of inflow to the Tarbela Reservoir show that there is an overall increase of 59.42 % and 34.27 % to the Tarbela Reservoir during the period of 2040-2069 under the A2 and the B2 scenarios, respectively. It is important that there will be much more water available in the future, with the highest inflow and comparatively more water shortage noted in the 2020s under the A2 scenario. Finally, the impacts of changing climates on the operation of Tarbela Dam are investigated. It is noted that there is no chance of overtopping the dam during the 2020s and the 2050s under the A2 and the B2 scenarios.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Hydrological Model, Impacts assessment, Indus River, Inflow, Scenarios, Tarbela Reservoir, Reservoir management, Calibration, Bias correction.
  • Examining the potential impact of land use/cover changes on the NPP ecosystem services of Yanan region of China: A scenario-based analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Jing 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the potential impacts of the past and future land use/cover (LUC) changes on the ecosystem services of Yanan region of China, and discuss their implications for policy development and implementation. Remote sensing-derived LUC maps for 2009, a Geographic Information Systems-based LUC change model, and ecosystem service value of NPP were used to facilitate the analysis. The results forests have significantly higher NPP values than farmlands, whose NPP is approximately equal to that of brushlands. The scenario-based LUC change analysis revealed that if the urban LUC change pattern continues, the total ecosystem service value of NPP will also change, especially if the forest cover is not fully protected and conserved. Geospatial tools and techniques facilitate exploratory analysis critical to the understanding of the potential impacts of future LUC changes under different scenarios. Our results highlighted that under the great pressure of urbanization, there is a need to strengthen the proper implementation of policies in order to maintain and improve ecosystem services. Although there are limitations to the estimated ecosystem service value of NPP of yanan to be taken into account in future studies, the magnitude of the estimated changes in the LUC is substantial. Thus, it may still be possible to draw general inferences about the effect of the perceived LUC changes on the estimated ecosystem service value of NPP.
    Keywords: ecosystem service; NPP; land use patterns; Yan’an; scenario-based analysis
    by Ali Osman Pektas 
    Abstract: Appropriate prediction of sediment load concentration being carried by streams has a vital importance of water resources quantity and quality studies. In most studies some dimensionless parameters are derived by using observed variables of sediment system and then used as inputs of predictive models. In this study, instead of deriving new variables, widely used non-dimensional sediment model parameters have been compiled and examined. The main purpose of the study is to decide the essential parameters to establish effective models in predicting for both bed load and suspended sediment load. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis and sensitivity analysis in artificial neural networks are used to determine the most influential parameters. The results of all methods are evaluated together and the parameters that are found significant are detected as the most relevant parameters.
    Keywords: Bed load; Suspended Sediment Load; Cluster analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Multiple Linear Regressions; Neural networks.
  • Process Simulation of Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture and Regeneration in Packed Column   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Asif, Woo-Seung Kim 
    Abstract: Post-combustion CO2 capture using aqueous ammonia offers advantages over the conventional amines solvent, including a lack of corrosion, an enhanced CO2 loading capacity, a lower solvent degradation rate and a low energy input requirement for solvent regeneration. In this paper, an aqueous ammonia-based CO2 absorption-desorption process integrated with a washing column is modeled and simulated in Aspen Plus
    Keywords: aqueous ammonia, chemical absorption, CO2 capture, global warming, Post-combustion
  • Climate change awareness, coping mechanisms and adaptation in poor rural coastal communities, Ben Tre Province, Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Curtis Jolly, Kim Anh Nguyen, Trang Le, Chuong Bui 
    Abstract: Ben Tre Province in Vietnam is ranked among the most vulnerable places in Asia to climate change events. We conducted a study to evaluate community knowledge, awareness, perception severity, coping mechanism and adaptation to climate change in Ben Tre Province. Community members were aware of changing climatic conditions. About 90 percent of respondents suffered losses from salt water intrusion. Households adopted coping mechanisms to deal with these changes. Age, education and previous affliction with climate change events influence knowledge, awareness, perception of severity and preparedness to manage climate change events. Local governments proposed adaptation strategies such as building of dikes to prevent salt water intrusion and developing of irrigation systems. Of the two adaptation strategies evaluated to losses from climate change, the sea dike system protected more land but the irrigating system was more cost effective in mitigating losses from climate change
    Keywords: Vietnam; climate; change; community; awareness; adaptation; mitigation; strategies; cost-effectiveness.

Special Issue on: "Loss and Damage from Climate Change"

  • Climate Change Impacts and the Value of Adaptation-Can Crop Adjustments Help Farmers in Pakistan?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirza Nomman Ahmed, Peter Michael Schmitz 
    Abstract: According to the climate vulnerability index Pakistan is ranked 12th globally and economic losses of approximately 4.5 billion dollars for the entire economy are anticipated. However, all these future estimates of losses for Pakistan do not consider past adaptations by the farmers in their calculations and thus tend to overestimate climate change induced losses. This paper contributes to the literature by studying the effectiveness of households adaptation and coping measures regarding the prevention of loss and damage using choice-modelling. In order to assess, whether loss and damage is likely to occur in future and to determine, whether crop-cultivating farmers have well adapted, simulations are run. Farmers are found to adjust their crop choices considering climate and expected income. If farmers adapt, benefits exceeding 300 million dollars are possible for the crop sector. In the business as usual scenario, losses between 4 and 12 million dollars (2030/2090) are found. The findings hint towards well-directed adaptations of farmers in Pakistan, preventing loss and damage.
    Keywords: Developing Countries; Environmental Impact; Hedonic; Global Warming; net revenue and adaptations; agriculture; Pakistan; Structural Ricardian Model; Crop Switching
  • Observations on the role of the private sector in the UNFCCCs loss and damage of climate change work programme   Order a copy of this article
    by Swenja Surminski, Jillian Eldridge 
    Abstract: Private sector engagement, particularly in relation to public policy based action and strategy, has become a buzz word in most policy areas, but this is often accompanied by a lack of clarity on roles and responsibilities between public and private sector. We investigate this for the new United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) work stream on addressing loss and damage (L&D) from climate change. This paper presents evidence gathered from official submissions by Parties and other bodies to the UNFCCC, the small but growing L&D literature, and experience from the related fields of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). The results from the study show: a degree of vagueness in outlining the role the private sector, but expectation that they will support the emerging L&D framework through knowledge, skills and resource. Private sector engagement is mainly seen in the context of utilizing private sector expertise based in developed countries, rather than assessing current and future impacts on the growing private sector in developing countries. Unclear conceptual boundaries of L&D, DRR and CCA are posing a challenge for stakeholders. While evidence of existing engagement in the L&D debate is noticeable for the insurance industry, there remains only a limited understanding on how to actually measure the effectiveness of such private sector engagement. Creating greater clarity on expectations of and the ability to deliver by the private sector would be important tasks for the UNFCCC to focus on.
    Keywords: Loss and Damage; private sector; stakeholder engagement; climate change; insurance; UNFCCC

Special Issue on: "Loss and Damage from Climate Change,"

  • Problematising Loss and Damage   Order a copy of this article
    by David Wrathall, Anthony Oliver-Smith, Alexander Fekete, Ebru Gencer, Patrick Sakdapolrak, Marqueza Lepana 
    Abstract: In the space of a few short years, the UNFCCC process has given birth to a new policy regime, the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage, to prepare for the adverse consequences of climate change to vulnerable societies. The justification for this policy is that a residual domain exists wherein climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and public/private risk transfer mechanisms are insufficient for peoples and places overwhelmed by climate impacts. We link this domain conceptually to scientific research on climate change impacts, and specifically to research on limits to adaptation. The normative position of this academic debate is generally oriented toward the need for transformative adaptation. This paper aims to anticipate the challenges that the Warsaw Mechanism will encounter achieving transformation in practice. Both policy design (as it is taking shape) and implementation face a set of interrelated conceptual and operational problems that challenge whether resources can and will address adverse consequences among the most vulnerable. In the end, loss and damage policy may suffer from the same limitations as adaptation policy: it is concerned with the reconstitution of vulnerable states of being, rather than their transformation into something more fundamentally conducive of wellbeing and development.
    Keywords: Climate change; vulnerability; adaptation; compensation; loss and damage

Special Issue on: "R&R 2012 Global Warming Solutions throughRecycling and Reuse"

  • Use of Asphalt Plant Residue in Hot Mix Asphalt   Order a copy of this article
    by Murat Karacasu, Fatih Hattatoğlu, Sinan Hınıslıoğlu, Yetis Sazi Murat 
    Abstract: Environmental solid wastes increase more and more as a result of the industrial waste production day by day. Management of the solid wastes is the thrust area for researchers. In this study, the effects of Asphalt Plant Residue (APR) on the properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)s are investigated. APR was added into asphalt concrete in 25, 50 and 100 percent by weight of filler. In order to determine optimum bitumen content, Marshall Design procedure was applied. Optimum bitumen content (OBC) values were obtained less than Control Specimen (CS). APR specimens have showed little increase in Marshall Stability and little decrease in flow except for APR-50 in comparison to the CS. All APR specimens have higher MQ than that of the control mixture. Although there are no meaningful differences between CS and APR specimens, APR can be used as filler aggregate in asphalt mixtures. Use of APR will enable recycling of an environmental waste as well as providing some benefits in asphalt concrete performance. Thus, resources will be used more effectively all over the world as part of sustainability.
    Keywords: Asphalt, environment, plant, residue, sustainability
  • Characterization of waste fluorescent lamps to investigate their potential recovery in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Sezen Coskun, Gokhan Civelekoglu 
    Abstract: The investigations in this study were performed on two types of waste linear (tubular) T8 and T12 lamps, which are mostly spent in Turkey. Total average value of the mercury mass for the T8 and T12 lamps were calculated to be about 6 mg and 12 mg per lamp, respectively. SEM-EDX elemental analysis showed that approximately 52% percent of phosphor powders of waste T8 and T12 lamps was measured as calcium (Ca) by weight. ICP-OES analysis showed that some rare earth elements were determined in the T8 and T12 phosphor powders. These waste lamps could be considered as an ore of secondary raw materials. The use of recycled metals in lamp production instead of virgin metals may have positive environmental impacts through reduced energy use and reduced pollution related to the mining of the virgin source in Turkey.
    Keywords: Fluorescent lamps; mercury; metal recovery; rare earths, waste characterization
  • Thermal Treatment of Fleshing Residue for Producing Syngas   Order a copy of this article
    by Atakan Ongen, Semiha Arayici 
    Abstract: In this paper, characteristics of syngas from the pyrolysis and gasification of tannery industry fleshing residues has been investigated. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior were evaluated in terms of syngas composition and total energy production. Dried air and pure oxygen (99%) were used as gasification agents. Experiments were also performed in oxygen-free media. H2, CO and CH4 levels in producer gas were analysed and calorific values were calculated. Besides, weight and volume reductions during each experiment were reported. Dried air flow varied between 0,05 and 0,5 l/min during experiments. Syngas composition with higher calorific value was achieved between 0,1-0,2 l/min. It was determined that calorific values decreased related to the decrease in volume percentages of H2, CO and CH4 over 0,2 l/min gas flow. According to the statistical analysis, gasification agent had an important role in gasification performance. Average calorific value, achieved by pure oxygen, was higher than the value achieved by dried air. The lowest efficiency was achieved in oxygen-free media.
    Keywords: fleshing residue; gasification; thermochemical treatment; syngas.
  • Monitoring and Examination of Adaptation Period of Microorganisms in MBR System Treating Fruit Juice Industry Wastewaters   Order a copy of this article
    by Güler Türkoğlu Demirkol, Sevgi Guneş Durak, Suleyman OVEZ, Nese Tufekci 
    Abstract: In this study, fruit juice industry wastewaters by using MBR process have been monitored and examined considering effective microorganisms and changes in biodiversity during the treatment period. Microbiological examinations have been carried out using conventional microbiological methods and microscopic observations. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms and also floc structure of the activated sludge were identified and characterized. On the other hand, environmental parameters effective on microbial diversity of MBR process treating fruit juice wastewaters have been identified and discussed. Fruit juice wastewaters supported almost all kinds of microorganisms, primarily filamentous fungi Aspergillus spp., and ciliated protozoa Coccidia spp. and eliminated Nematodes from the MBR system.
    Keywords: Aspergillus spp., Coccidia spp., Nematodes, Filamentous microorganisms, Fruit Juice Wastewater, MBR, Microbiological Monitoring.
  • Time series analysis for the sulfur dioxide and particulate matter concentrations in the Aegean Region of Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Sibel Cukurluoglu, Ulker Guner Bacanli 
    Abstract: Air pollution shows temporal and spatial variability. Time series analysis is widely used to describe movement history of a particular variable in time. The SO2 and PM10 concentrations in the cities of the Aegean Region for the period of 19902009 were modeled by using autoregressive and autoregressive moving average models for yearly, monthly, and winter season pattern. The AR(2) model was generally observed for the yearly SO2 data in the Aegean Region according to the all investigated and AR(p) models. This model can provide reliable, satisfactory predictions for the yearly SO2 pollution data. The most suitable model of the monthly SO2 and PM10 data was predominantly determined as ARMA(1,2) model according to the all investigated models, while the best fitted model of monthly SO2 and PM10 data was mainly determined as AR(1) model according to the AR(p) models.
    Keywords: Keywords: air pollution; autoregressive model; autoregressive moving average model; time series analysis
  • Effect of Ferric Chloride Coagulation, Lime Precipitation, Electrocoagulation and the Fentons Reagent on the Particle Size Distribution of Olive Mill Wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by B. Hande Gursoy-Haksevenler, Serdar Dogruel, Idil Arslan Alaton 
    Abstract: Size fractionation of olive mill wastewater (COD:155000 mg/L; TOC:40000 mg/L; BOD5:37700 mg/L; total phenols:4100 mg/L; colour as absorbance at 395 nm:145 cm-1) before and after chemical treatment by FeCl3 coagulation, Ca(OH)2 precipitation, electrocoagulation and the Fentons reagent employing different molecular weight cut-off membranes was investigated to examine the fate of organic matter of different molecular sizes. The size distribution analysis of the wastewater revealed that particulate organic compounds were the major components of COD (54%), TOC (43%), BOD5 (43%), colour (57%) and acute toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri, followed by an appreciable soluble size fraction. For the total phenols parameter, a dominant fraction (54%) appeared in the colloidal (5-8 nm) size range besides significant particulate (22%) and soluble (24%) size fractions. FeCl3 coagulation and Ca(OH)2 precipitation appeared to be most successful in the removal of organic matter (COD and TOC), whereas the electrocoagulation process was superior in the removal of the phenolic compounds (27%). No shift in the size distribution pattern was observed after chemical treatment as for the fact that phase-transfer was the dominant removal mechanism of the selected processes. For both raw and chemically treated OMW, the highest inhibiton of photobacteria was observed in particulate size range and decreased in the solube size ranges by elimination of phenolic content.
    Keywords: Keywords: Acute toxicity, coagulation, electrocoagulation, Fenton’s reagent, lime precipitation, olive mill wastewater, particle size distribution analysis, removal mechanism.
  • Microwave and MicrowaveAlkali Effecton Barley Straw for Total Sugar Yield   Order a copy of this article
    by Hatice INAN, Ozge TURKAY, Can AKKIRIS 
    Abstract: Lignocellulose is the most remarkable plant material resource for obtaining energy; however, its utility is restrained by its recalcitrant structure. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a convenient pretreatment method to increase the sugar yield. Microwave pretreatment method assists to break down hard lignin structure for improve degradation of cellulose and release sugar. The objectives of this study are to investigate microwave and microwave-alkali pretreatment efficiency of barley straw before enzymatic hydrolysis. In both pretreatment methods, remarkable findings were obtained as sugar concentration. The maximum reducing total sugar concentration of 354.1 mg/L was achieved after 10 minutes of pretreatment time in 30 mL of 3 % NaOH solution (w/v) at microwave power of 200 W. The evaluations of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were carried out within pretreatment of barley straw, as well. The results suggest that microwave and microwave-alkali pretreatment can increase total sugar concentration.
    Keywords: Barley Straw, Microwave Irradiation, Alkaline Pretreatment, Sugar concentration
    by Bestamin Ozkaya, Cenk Denktaş, Mehmet Çakmakcı, Doğan Karadağ, Erkan Şahinkaya, Afsin Y. Cetinkaya 
    Abstract: In this study, the two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) was continuously long-term operated with young landfill leachate in order to evaluate the impact of CEM fouling on MFC performance. During the operation, the voltage output decreased sharply to almost zero and the voltage output was recovered completely after replacement of CEM, which implied that the voltage decrease was totally due to fouling of the CEM with the observations of Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and long-term operation. The fouled membrane was washed with H2SO4 in order to recover the CEM via removing salts on membrane surface and the replacement of cations on the negatively charged sufonate groups with the H+. After acid treatment, the current and power recoveries were only around 38% and 15%, respectively. The membrane was completely fouled again after one week of operation. Moreover, an alkali treatment with NaOH was applied in order to recover the CEM by removing organics on membrane surface. However, the alkali treatment had almost no effect on the fouled membrane depending on current output.
    Keywords: cation exchange membrane, FTIR, membrane fouling, SEM
  • Sewage Sludge Minimization by means of Wet Oxidation: Process Performance and Economic Sustainability   Order a copy of this article
    by Giorgio Bertanza, Sabrina Zanaboni, Matteo Canato, Giuseppe Laera, Raniero Galessi 
    Abstract: Today, several technologies and management strategies are proposed and applied in WWTPs to minimize sludge production and contamination and their techno-economic feasibility has to be carefully evaluated. In this work (which is being conducted within the European Union project ROUTES), based on bench results, a mass balance was drawn for a WWTP (500 000 PE), where it was supposed to install a wet oxidation (W.O.) stage for sludge minimization. The design of treatment units and the estimation of capital and operation costs were then performed. Subsequently, a procedure for technical-economic assessment was developed. Basically, this procedure consists in the definition and ranking of several technical (e.g. reliability of the technology, complexity and integration with the existing facilities, amount of residues to be disposed of or recovered etc.) and economic aspects. Preliminary results have shown W.O. to be a suitable solution for sludge minimization.
    Keywords: costs; mass balance; ROUTES; techno-economic assessment; wet oxidation
  • Boron Removal from Waste Water Originating in the Open Pit Mines of Bigadi   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Volkan Duman 
    Abstract: In this study, the base water originating in Simav Open Pit Mine containing the most important reserves of colemanite and ulexite boron minerals, has a boron concentration of 150
    Keywords: Boron Removal; Reverse Osmosis; Economical Analysis; High pH Operation
  • Removal Performance of Lignin Compound from Simulated Pulping Wastewater Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Ooi Zing Yi, Norasikin Othman, Mardhiah Mohamad, Roslina Rashid 
    Abstract: Removal of lignin from pulping wastewater is considerable interest due to high market value in conversion to external biofuel and specialty chemicals. Thus, it is important to remove lignin for increasing revenue while reducing environmental problems. Removal of lignin from simulated pulping wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was proposed in this study. Thereby, optimum removal performance of the ELM was achieved by identifying the best set of liquid membrane formulation and affect parameter conditions. Selection of liquid membrane component was made on the basis of conventional liquidliquid extraction studies to accomplish the extraction study in ELM process. The liquid membrane was formulated by dissolving the carrier Trioctylamine (TOA) in kerosene as the diluent, sodium chloride (NaCl) as receiving phase and Span 80 as surfactant. The results showed that the optimum condition can be achieved at feed phase pH of 3, 3% (w/v) of surfactant concentration, 5 minutes of extraction time, 250 rpm of agitation speed, 0.1 M TOA, 1:10 of treat ratio and 1.5M of NaCl. At these conditions, a stable emulsion was performed and 94% of lignin was extracted.
    Keywords: emulsion liquid membrane, lignin, removal, pulping wastewater.
    by Semih Nemlioglu, Naim Sezgin 
    Abstract: In this study, the effect of bottom depth interaction on initial dilution differences of cold water discharge was experimentally investigated. 5
    Keywords: Cold Water Discharge, Dense Jet, Initial Dilution, Marine Outfall, Multi-port Diffuser, Thermal Discharge.
  • Evaluation of Chitosan Flakes as Adsorbent for Palladium and Platinum Recovery from Binary Dilute Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by mansooreh soleimani, Hakimeh Sharififard, Farzin Zokaee Ashtiani 
    Abstract: In the recent years, special attention has been paid to the competitive recovery or separation of metals from industrial wastewaters or solid wastes that contain more than one chemical component. Platinum group metals (PGMs), particularly palladium and platinum, are used together in many fields such as industrial catalyst production. The recovery of these metals from industrial waste streams has required development of present processes and new technologies. In this work, the potential of chitosan for palladium and platinum recovery from aqueous solutions was investigated. The observed results showed that the optimum operating conditions for palladium and platinum recovery by chitosan were initial pH = 2, particle size of adsorbent =0.21 mm and adsorbent dose = 10 g/L. Experimental results indicated that Freundlich isotherm and Langmiur models best fitted with the equilibrium data of platinum and palladium adsorption on chitosan in single solutions, respectively. In binary solutions, the competitive adsorption of palladium and platinum were successfully described by the Langmuir Competitive Model (LCM). As it was expected, experimental results indicated that, equilibrium capacity for each metal decreased in presence of another ion due to competition of palladium and platinum anions for active sites on the chitosan surface.
    Keywords: Competitive biosorption; chitosan; Palladium; Platinum.
  • Oily Wastewater Treatment Using Membrane Bioreactor   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahdieh Safa, Iran Alemzadeh, Manouchehr Vossoughi 
    Abstract: A novel implementation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been studied in this paper. It is utilized as combination of rotating biological contractor (RBC) and an external membrane for oily wastewater treatment. Wastewater biodegradability has been evaluated by two factors: chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). They are both compared together for different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and petroleum pollution concentrations in RBC and MBR. The ratio of TPH to COD of Molasses has been varied between 0.2 to 0.8 at two HRTs of 18 and 24 hours while the temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were kept in the range of 20-25
    Keywords: Biofilm; Biological treatment; Chemical oxygen demand; Membrane bioreactor; Membrane fouling; Oily wastewater; Rotating biological contractor; Total petroleum hydrocarbon
  • Basic Principles of CO2 Emission Calculations at Airport: A Case Study from Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Gulsan Ozdemir, Ayse Filibeli 
    Abstract: Carbon footprint of airports is managed by Airport Council International (ACI) with the Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) program. It is a European carbon standard for airports. The program assesses and recognizes the efforts of airports to manage and reduce their carbon emissions with four levels of certification: 'Mapping', 'Reduction', 'Optimization' & 'Neutrality'. rnAirports must have carbon footprints independently verified in accordance with ISO14064 (Greenhouse Gas Accounting). Evidence of this must be provided to the administrator together with all claims regarding carbon management processes which must also be independently verified. The definitions of emissions footprints used by Airport Carbon Accreditation follow the principles of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI) Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. rnThe carbon footprint calculations are made by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) worksheets. GHG Protocol defines emissions as direct and indirect. Direct emissions come from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity. Indirect emissions are a consequence of the activities of the reporting entity, but occur at sources owned or controlled by another entity.In this study, the basic principles of the carbon footprint calculation for an airport are summarized and an example is given from an airport in Turkey.
    Keywords: carbon footprint;airport;climate change
  • Application of Nanofiltration for Reuse of Wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by NALAN KABAY, Samuel BUNANI, Eren Yörükoğlu, Ümran Yüksel, Mithat YÜKSEL, Gökhan SERT, Taylan Özgür PEK 
    Abstract: The present research is a part of efforts to reuse wastewater by applying nanofiltration (NF) method for the secondary treatment of bio-treated industrial wastewater and to check the quality of product water as irrigation water by using various analytical methods. For this, the performances of three different NF membranes (CK, GE-Osmonics; NF-270 and NF-90, Dow-FilmTech) were investigated using a cross-flow flat-sheet membrane test unit (SEPA CF-II, GE). The bio-treated wastewater obtained from ITOB Wastewater Treatment Plant where Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology is employed as a treatment process has a high salinity and a high conductivity which make the treated water unsuitable for irrigation purposes. After applying NF separation for the three membranes at 10 bar as operating pressure, it was concluded that NF-90 gave the best quality of product water for almost all analyzed parameters such as salinity calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, phosphate-phosphorous, nitrate-nitrogen, and conductivity.
    Keywords: Bio-treated wastewater; membrane; membrane bio reactor (MBR); nanofiltration; water reuse
  • Experimental Investigation into Performance Characteristics of Reversed Flow Cyclone Separators   Order a copy of this article
    by omer sendogan, irfan karagoz 
    Abstract: Cyclone separators have been extensively used both for particle sampling and particle removal from fluids, air or process gases in the field of air pollution control and in industry. In this experimental study, effects of inlet velocity, inlet shape and cyclone length on the cyclone collection efficiency and pressure losses were investigated. A new cyclone design without conical part and its performance were also presented.Experiments show that optimum inlet size and cyclone length can be found for better collection efficiency at a specified flow rate. Experimental results from the tests on the new cyclone are evaluated and compared with the results in conventional cyclone. Results show that the new cyclone gives better efficiency comparing to the conventional cyclone for the same cyclone diameter and inlet velocity.
    Keywords: Particle collection efficiency; pressure drop; cyclone separators
  • Biological hydrogen production: Effects of inoculation and production media   Order a copy of this article
    by Baran Ozyurt, Gamze Demirtas, Zeynep Hitit, Suna Ertunc, Hale Hapoglu, Bulent Akay 
    Abstract: In this work inoculation media are selected as potato, glycerine and milk to investigate the best storage condition that is important to maintain microorganism activity and stable hydrogen production performance. Cheese whey, potato and enriched potato (with additional glucose and CaCO3) are used as the production media and their hydrogen production results are compared in order to determine the best biohydrogen production media. Batch growth of anaerobic Clostridium butyricum for biohydrogen production are performed in 500 ml screw-capped bottles at 28
    Keywords: Biohydrogen; dark fermentation; clean energy; Clostridium butyricum; inoculation; cheese whey

Special Issue on: "Risk and Global Warming"

  • Virtualized Load Management Algorithm to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Data Center Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Mueen Uddin, Jamshed Memon, Mohd Zaidi Abdul Rozan, Raed Alsaqour 
    Abstract: The environmental footprint of ICT continues to increase. Data centers are key contributors of greenhouse gas emissions that pollute the environment and cause global warming. All of the data centers are overwhelmed with numerous servers as the major components of processing. These servers and other equipment consume high amounts of power, thereby emitting CO2. In an average server environment, 30% of the servers are dead and only consume energy, but such servers are not properly utilized, in which their utilization ratios range from 5% to 10%. This paper proposes a new algorithm to manage and categorize the workload of different underutilized volume servers properly to increase their utilization capacity. The proposed algorithm helps apply server consolidation methodology and increases the utilization ratio of underutilized servers by up to 50%, thereby saving high amounts of power and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by up to 88%.
    Keywords: Server Virtualization; Greenhouse Gases, Server Consolidation; Workload Management; Energy Efficient Data Center; Global Warming.
  • Modelling extreme temperatures in Ireland under global warming using a hybrid peak-over-threshold & generalised Pareto distribution approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassin Osman, Rowan Fealy, John Sweeney 
    Abstract: In the present paper modelling extreme temperature (i.e. maximum and minimum temperatures), for possible use as a tool for assessing risk and impacts of global warming in Ireland is addressed. The approach used is a combination of Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD) in which the scale parameter of the distribution is allowed to vary with a dominant feature of climate pattern at the location. The dominant climatic pattern at a selected location is approximated by climatic variables derived from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data, employed for building the models. Having calibrated the models, the observed large scale variables were then replaced with a corresponding suite of variables, derived from the Hadley Centre Global Climate Model (HadCM3) for the A2 emissions scenario, in order to generate projections of future changes in extreme values. Data from six synoptic stations were employed in the study to develop seasonal models for winter, spring, summer and autumn, for each of the selected station. The software extRemes was used to develop the models as it allows parameters of the fitted distribution to vary as functions of covariate (s). The covariates for each seasonal model are selected from the large-scale atmospheric variables via stepwise regression. The developed models were tested for goodness-of-fit, and model fitting was found to improve when the scale parameter is assumed to vary with the selected covariates. Return level return period relations were developed for each station based on the derived models and four periods were simulated to investigate the effects of climate change on temperature events (Tmax and Tmin). Results indicate that significant changes in extreme temperature events are projected to occur in Ireland over the course of the present century. These include hotter summers and relatively mild winters, which could possibly increase risk of heat-related diseases.
    Keywords: extreme temperature, generalised Pareto distribution, climate change, Peaks-over-threshold.
    by Ayad Aboderheeba, Fatma Alfarjani, Abdul Olabi 
    Abstract: Anaerobic Digestion AD is one of the most biomass conversion technologies. AD can be further divided into four stages: pre-treatment, digestion, gas upgrading and digestate. The main goal of pre-treatment is to improve degradability of the material; this will enhance gas production and anaerobic digester performance. Beating treatment as new mechanical treatment has been applied in this work. Laboratory scale mesophilc AD was operated to determine the methane yield from fresh grass and the potential efficiency increasing in methane production. Fresh grass as main substrate has been treated in three deferent levels of beating treatment (0 mints treatment [without treatment], 15 mints treatment, and 40 mints treatment). Many experiments have been carried out according to the levels of treatment and the amount of biogas was measured for each experiment. The average amount of biogas produced before and after beating treatment was compared. Composition analyses of different chemical compounds in biogas have been measured. Improvements in the degradability during the AD and in the biogas production were successfully achieved for the pretreated fresh grass.
    Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Beating Treatment, Hydrolysis, Biogas, Digestibility.
  • Nitrous Oxide Emission from Agricultural Soils   Order a copy of this article
    by Junliang Liu, Kamal Tawfiq, Gang Chen 
    Abstract: Anthropogenic nitrogen loading, particularly fertilizer usage in agricultural soils is thought to be a potentially important source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, which can be controlled by properly managed fertilizer usage. In this research, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to evaluate N2O production and emission from agricultural soils under variable oxygen availability conditions. N2O was observed to be released from the reactors in the absence of oxygen as well as at low concentrations of oxygen. With the increase of oxygen concentration, N2O production decreased. In addition, N2O emission was found to coincide with corresponding nitrate (NO3-) depletion, indicating that denitrification was the dominating process that was responsible for N2O production. The depletion of NO3- was described by the sum of two exponential functions, i.e., NO3- reduction for N2O and NO3- reduction for N2. The simulation of the experimental results using above model demonstrated that N2 production dominated over N2O production in the absence of oxygen. Both N2O production rate and N2 production rate decreased with the increase of oxygen concentration. However, the decrease of N2 production rate was more pronounced than that of N2O production rate.
    Keywords: Nitrous Oxide, Agricultural Soil, Fertilizer, Oxygen Availability, and Denitrification.
  • Driving force factor analysis of global carbon intensity changes   Order a copy of this article
    by Ming Meng, Dongxiao Niu, Jinpeng Liu, Xiaomin Xu 
    Abstract: This paper presents the first attempt to analyze the driving force factors of global carbon intensity changes. The said changes from 1998 to 2009 are decomposed into a summation of the quantitative effects of three dimensions: (1) time; (2) emitter (195 countries and regions); and (3) influence factor (technological innovation and economic structural adjustment). The decomposition results revealed several important conclusions. First, although both countries are super emitters, the United States and China greatly differ in decreasing global intensity, with the former being the most important contributor and the latter being the most important deterrent. Second, the rate of change in an emitters carbon intensity is considered an indicator of progress speed in realizing sustainable development. This change is not related to the emitters level of economic development. Emitters with similar rates of change tend to cluster together according to their geographic locations. Finally, the annual change in global carbon intensity that is influenced by technological innovation is irregular, whereas those caused by economic structural adjustment present a linear increasing trend, which imposes increasing pressure on the need to decrease global carbon intensity.
    Keywords: driving force factor; carbon intensity; decomposition analysis; technological innovation; economic structural adjustment
  • An Approach to Assess Risks of Carbon Geological Storage Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Maísa Paraguassú, José Célio Andrade, Paulo Rocha, George Câmara 
    Abstract: Carbon Geological Storage (CGS) projects are designed to securely store carbon dioxide (CO2) for thousands of years. Because of this, there are several studies to evaluate the potential risks of long-term storage of CO2 in geological formations. This paper presents a new method for the qualitative risk assessment of CGS: the RA-CO2 (Risk Assessment of Stored CO2) Method. It consists of the systematic and structured identification of CO2 release risk scenarios arising from: seal, well, and fault and fracture zones. The uncertainties associated to each mapped risk scenario and the risks are qualitatively evaluated using the RA-CO2 Method. The characteristics of the RA-CO2 Method enable a comprehensive understanding of the underground evolution and future behaviour of the CO2 in various time scales and their influence on safety. For future studies, the validation of the proposed RA-CO2 method using a real case study is recommended.
    Keywords: RA-CO2 Method; Qualitative risk assessment; CO2 Leakage; CO2 geological storage; CGS.
  • Risks in the Development of Chinese Photovoltaic Industry: A Perspective from Low-carbon Incentive Policies   Order a copy of this article
    by kefan Xie, Tongtong Zheng 
    Abstract: Photovoltaic industry based on the utilization of solar power has an abundant and renewable energy resource and advantage in environmental protection. This paper seeks to elaborate on the status quo of Chinese PV industry and, including the trait of low carbon, the development in China and the risks existed in Chinese PV industry. Then, a simulation of risks in the development of Chinese PV industry is done by employing Evolutionary Game and System Dynamics. Finally, several resolutions are put forward to tackle these risks: (1) merging and re-organization; (2) optimizing incentive policies; (3) strategic alliance; (4) shifting market focus from Europe to Asian-Pacific region and domestic market; (5) adjusting industrial structure.
    Keywords: Photovoltaic industry;low carbon;incentive policies;risk analysis