International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (14 papers in press)
WATER SCARCITY MANAGEMENT: PART 2: SATELLITE-BASED COMPOSITE DROUGHT ANALYSIS
by Nicolas R. Dalezios, Nicholas Dercas, Saeid Eslamian
Abstract: Abstract. This paper attempts to explore the composite use of two drought indices, namely the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) for meteorological drought and the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) for agricultural drought, for drought quantification and monitoring leading to water scarcity. Several drought features and characteristics, such as severity, duration, areal extent, onset and end time, are analyzed from monthly remotely sensed RDI and VHI images, respectively, for the period 1981-2001 for Thessaly, Greece. For the case of severe and extreme droughts based on RDI, the start usually coincides with the beginning of the hydrological year (October), whereas for moderate droughts the start is usually in spring (April), both lasting until the end of the hydrological year (September). There is also an increase in the areal extent of drought during each drought period with the maximum occurring usually in the summer. Similarly, the results of VHI indicate that drought occurs every year during the warm season starting in May with increasing severity and areal extent throughout the warm season with the maximum occurring towards the end of the summer. The majority of pixels is accumulated between mild to moderate VHI drought severity classes indicating a significant decrease in the number of pixels from mild to extreme drought classes for all the months. Similarly, the same increasing drought severity trend occurs throughout each warm season. There is also an increase in the areal extent of drought during each drought period with the maximum occurring usually towards the end of the summer. In summary, for meteorological drought based on RDI, there are eight detected drought periods lasting 12 months each within the same 20-year study period. However, agricultural drought using VHI, and for the same period, occurs every year during the warm season, namely from April till October. This finding justifies the composite use of drought indices of different drought types for drought assessment and monitoring. Abstract. This paper attempts to explore the composite use of two drought indices, namely the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) for meteorological drought and the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) for agricultural drought, for the assessment of space-time drought variability and monitoring. Several drought features and characteristics, such as severity, duration, areal extent, onset and end time, are analyzed from monthly remotely sensed RDI and VHI images, respectively, for the period 1981-2001 for Thessaly, Greece. For the case of severe and extreme droughts based on RDI, the start usually coincides with the beginning of the hydrological year (October), whereas for moderate droughts the start is usually in spring (April), both lasting until the end of the hydrological year (September). There is also an increase in the areal extent of drought during each drought period with the maximum occurring usually in the summer. Similarly, the results of VHI indicate that drought occurs every year during the warm season starting in May with increasing severity and areal extent throughout the warm season with the maximum occurring towards the end of the summer. The majority of pixels is accumulated between mild to moderate VHI drought severity classes indicating a significant decrease in the number of pixels from mild to extreme drought classes for all the months. Similarly, the same increasing drought severity trend occurs throughout each warm season. There is also an increase in the areal extent of drought during each drought period with the maximum occurring usually towards the end of the summer. In summary, for meteorological drought based on RDI, there are eight detected drought periods lasting 12 months each within the same 20-year study period. However, agricultural drought using VHI, and for the same period, occurs every year during the warm season, namely from April till October. This finding justifies the composite use of drought indices of different drought types for drought assessment and monitoring.
Keywords: Composite drought analysis; indices; water scarcity; satellite methods.
Water Scarcity Management: Part 1: Methodological Framework
by Nicolas R. Dalezios, Andreas N. Angelakis, Saeid Eslamian
Abstract: Abstract. Water scarcity and water availability puts significant constraints in the social and economic development of many regions and countries around the world, especially the arid and semi-arid regions, as well as deteriorates the quality of life. The current problem of water scarcity consists of the adverse result of ineffective water resource management and policies, as well as the availability of water in these regions. This paper presents a methodological overview of a sustainable water resource management framework through technical and scientific analyses of water scarcity management in regions vulnerable to drought and water scarcity. The methodological framework consists of procedures, including database development, climate variability and modelling, water quantity and quality modelling, a summary of hierarchical drought analysis, water demands assessment. In case of significant reduction in water availability, the analyses are expected to explore altenative water resource solutions, such as non-conventional measures related to marginal waters, including rain enhancement, desalination, water treatment and reuse potential, water harvesting, trends and practices under drought and water scarcity conditions. Once the water demands are assessed, a water resource management scheme is implemented, along with an economic model to evaluate the economic feasibility of the management scenarios.
Keywords: Keywords. Water scarcity; water demands and availability; non-conventional measures.
Comparison of Reference Evapotranspiration Inside and Outside the Glasshouse
by Mohammad Javad Amiri, Jahangir Abedi-Koupai, Saeid Eslamian
Abstract: In this study daily evaporation rate from class A pan and reduced pan installed inside the glasshouse with a class A pan installed outside were compared. The results showed that the mean weekly ET0 value estimated by the class A pan installed outside and inside the glasshouse were 27.6 mm and 17.6 mm respectively, and 20.3 mm for the reduced pan. The ET0 in the glasshouse was found to be 64% of outdoor ET0. With regard to the comparisons between the weekly ET0 values estimated by the class A pan and reduced pan, both inside the glasshouse, coefficient of correlation was obtained 0.95 for the reduced pan method and with comparing between the weekly ET0 values estimated by the class A pan outside the glasshouse and those estimated by the different methods inside, coefficient of correlation was obtained 0.71 for the class A pan and 0.68 by the reduced pan.
Keywords: evapotranspiration; glasshouse; class A pan; reduced pan.
The Evaluation of the Usage of the Fuzzy Algorithms in Increasing the Accuracy of the Extracted Land Use Maps
by Mojtaba Pirnazar, Hafez Hasheminasab, Arash Zand Karimi, Zahra Ghasemi, Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari, Majedeh Haeri-Hamedani, Elham Mohri-Esfahani, Saeid Eslamian
Abstract: Within this paper, weevaluate the accuracy of three methods of classification including: object-oriented algorithms of the satellite images classification without the use of fuzzy algorithms, algorithm based on fuzzy algorithms, and pixel based algorithms The accuracy of each method obtained by comparing the results with pixel based algorithm in land use/ land cover classification in Maragheh County. To reach this goal, AVNIR2 sensor images that generated from ALOS satellite were used to classify land use. The results obtained from the methods indicated that the classifications which produced by object-oriented classification method were more accurate than that of pixel-based method. The accuracy of fuzzy knowledge based method was93.28%.However the accuracy of the object-oriented method without using of the fuzzy algorithms and the pixel based algorithm method were 88.06% and 83.79% respectively. According to these results, using higher spatial resolution images along with proper algorithms for extracting of features of land use classes is recommended to environmental researches.
Keywords: remote sensing; object-oriented classification methods; pixel base; fuzzy algorithms; land use map.
Environmental regulation and international competitiveness: a critical review
by Abay Mulatu
Abstract: In this paper we critically review the literature on environmental regulation and competitiveness at a national level. The concept of international competitiveness (in relation to environmental regulation) is assessed in two broad schools of thought: neoclassical economics and the competitiveness school to which the Porter Hypothesis belongs. We identify the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) as the least common denominator for empirical evaluation of the main themes of these two competing schools of thought. As a minimum, one would need to find evidence on PHH to question the validity of the Porter Hypothesis. A fully legitimate test of the Porter Hypothesis should, inter alia, have a particular emphasis on the impact of well-designed environmental policies on high-value sectors of an economy. Examining the recent empirical literature on the PHH we find that the evidence remains inconclusive. This leaves the Porter Hypothesis largely unscathed and challenges the widely-held view of the existence of a trade-off between economic performance and environmental quality.
Keywords: competitiveness; environmental regulation; Porter Hypothesis.
Shallow Sediment Physiognomies of Manakudy Estuary Southwest Coast of India
by Muthusamy S, SHANMUGASUNDHARAM A, Jayaprakash M
Abstract: Abstract rnTwenty surface sediment samples are collected from the Manakudy estuary (8
Keywords: Keywords: Estuarine environment; CaCO3; OC; anthropogenic and Trace elements.
Special Issue on: Environment and Sustainable Development
Recognising Conservationism of the poor towards holistic sustainability: Study of an Indian National Park
by DIPTIMAYEE NAYAK, BHARATI PURI, Vrajaindra Upadhyay
Abstract: This paper analyzes perceptions of poor households living in and around an Indian national park, the Bhitarkanika national park (BNP), towards conservation, in the lens of the concepts conservationism of the poor and environmentalism of the poor as a theoretical tool. Values and motives held to conserve this pristine beauty are determined based on raison d
Keywords: National Parks; People-park relationship; Conservation; Conservationism of the poor; Non-use values; Environmentalism; WTP.
Impact of Technical and Efficiency Changes on Productivity
by Christina Bampatsou, George Halkos, Dimitra Kaika, Efthimios Zervas
Abstract: Better management of natural capital, an efficient allocation of resources and technological progress can contribute to productivity change. The present study uses Data Envelopment Analysis to determine the Total Factor Productivity Index, in the case of the EU15 countries, using panel data on energy consumption for a period spanning from 1995 to 2011. The aim is not only to determine the index of total factor productivity change but also to record its driving forces for the decision making units under consideration, showing whether the productivity gains come mainly from an improvement in efficiency or derive merely as a result of technological progress. In terms of eco-efficiency, the paper contributes in showing whether the overall development is more driven by input-saving or environmental-saving processes. The detailed decomposition offers policy makers additional insights into more valuable reference material representing the driving forces of productivity gains or losses.
Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Total factor productivity index; Panel Data; Energy Consumption; Carbon emissions; Eco-Efficiency.
The application of system dynamics as a framework for establishing sustainable cave management policies: a case study in the Philippines
by Nemi Lorraine Escalante, Jonathan Uy, Hanah Marie Tonggol, Amando Radomes, Lanndon Ocampo
Abstract: Sustainable tourism has become a critical concern for local and global communities due to several detrimental issues on tourist destinations. However, traditional tourism research generally adopts a reductionalist approach that has its limitations as it fails to see the interdependencies of many components within the tourism system. This study attempts to demonstrate an alternative approach to dealing with complexities of cave sustainability in the form of system dynamics. Two major policies for cave tourism sustainability were employed to simulate the long-term sustainability of the tourist cave system.A case study was carried out on an emerging cave destination in central Philippines in order to explore the dynamic impacts of the policies. As a result, the combination of dynamic pricing and vegetation improvement is the best policy mix that can be implemented by management to ensure that the requirements of sustainable tourism are not violated in running the cave system.
Keywords: cave tourism; sustainability; system dynamics; cave management policies.
Towards Sustainability Performance Management System of Tourism Enterprises: A Tourism Sustainable Balanced Scorecard Framework
by Christina Beneki, Ioanna Giannoukou
Abstract: This paper intends to provide the components and the process for a firm to establish, maintain and improve a culture of sustainable development in firms in the field of tourism and a framework for an effective management system, the performance of which can be monitored and verified. It is applicable to all firms in the entire tourism industry such as hotels, restaurants, tourism agents, and tour operators. The results are identified through the development of sustainable tourism performance criteria and indicators, which have been divided around four main perspectives: institutional; economic; sociocultural; and environmental. The management tool and methodology of the traditional Balanced Scorecard have been developed further towards the Tourism Sustainability Balance Scorecard integrating institutional, economic, sociocultural and environmental perspectives. The Tourism Sustainability Balanced Scorecard defines the causal relation between factors of firms in order to establish priorities and targets in a rational decision-making process.
Keywords: Sustainability performance; performance management; Sustainability Balance Scorecard; sustainable tourism; tourism marketing.
Challenges and opportunities associated with the role of forestry in promoting water-energy and food security nexus in Ethiopia
by Dawit Guta Guta, Djiby Racine Thiam
Abstract: This paper discusses the extent to which decentralized and participatory forest resources management contributes to promoting water-energy and food security nexus in Ethiopia. After having briefly highlighted the historical and institutional context of forest management policy in the country, we provide an articulated and holistic nexus framework that takes into account the complementarity and interconnectedness that emerge from simultaneous natural resources uses. Moreover, the proposed framework takes into account the competing interests that exist between forest and other natural resources such as water, energy and land use for agriculture. Forest policy is therefore elaborated in a broader context where there are synergies and trade-offs associated with natural resource management. This paper finally outlines the institutional settings and governance structures that support a nexus management approach, which provides policy innovations that are required to achieve optimal economic and non-economic values of forest and alternative natural resources uses.
Keywords: Forest; Natural Resources Management; Water-Energy-Food Nexus; Policy; Ethiopia; Institutional arrangement.
Policies to Support Environmental Risk Management in Investment Decisions
by Edward Barbier, Joanne Burgess
Abstract: Investors are increasingly requiring assessments of environmental risks arising from climate change, natural resource scarcity and pollution. Improved environmental risk management also lowers the total cost of capital of firms, thus making them more attractive to investors. We illustrate this relationship by demonstrating how greater environmental risk may increase a firms after-tax cost of capital. However, better environmental risk management by firms requires a range of complementary policies. The rules governing the financial system should support investment decision-making that takes into account environmental sources of risk and opportunity. Central banks can advance this objective by establishing environmental risk management and reporting requirements and adjusting capital provisioning to account for underpriced environmental threats. There is also a need to develop international guidelines and common policy and legal frameworks to support and streamline such initiatives. Developing such a policy strategy is likely to produce a self-reinforcing gain to firms, investors and society.
Keywords: cost of capital; environment risk management; environmental sustainability; green financing.
Soft Prediction Model for Spatial Data Analysis
by Velmurugan J, Venkatesan M
Abstract: A natural disaster causes huge loss in terms of people life and infrastructures. Landslide is one of the prime disasters in the hill regions such as Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Ooty in india. The extent of damages of landslide could be reduced or minimized by proposing novel landslide risk analysis model. Landslide is generated by various factors such as rainfall, soil, slope, land use and land covers, geology, etc. Data science and soft computing plays major role in landslide risk analysis. In this paper classification data science technique is integrated with rough set model and Soft Bayesian Prediction Model (SBPM) is proposed to analyze the possibilities of various landslide risk level at Coonor taluk of Niligiri district. The proposed model is validated with real time data and performance is compared with other classification models.
Keywords: GIS; Rough Set; Bayesian,Landslide,Disaster.
Environment and Economic growth in the Russian Arctic
by Dmitry Rudenko
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the hypothesis of the inverted U-shaped interdependence between environmental damage from air pollutant emissions and economic growth measured by gross regional product (GRP) per capita in the Arctic regions of Russia. Using the panel data for the period of 2000-2014, we apply FM-OLS panel long-run estimates proposed by Pedroni to investigate the existence of environmental Kuznets curve. Various panel data unit root and co-integration tests are also applied. We examine the stationary properties of individual series in panel datasets using different panel unit root tests. According to the concept of the Environmental Kuznets curve all regions of the Russian Arctic are on the increasing branch of the curve. The economic growth is found to have no beneficial effect on the environment in the Arctic. We actualize the need of concentrated policies and incentives to reduce air pollutant emissions in the Russian Arctic.
Keywords: Arctic; Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC); environment; economic growth.