International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (5 papers in press)
Comparison of Reference Evapotranspiration Inside and Outside the Glasshouse
by Mohammad Javad Amiri, Jahangir Abedi-Koupai, Saeid Eslamian
Abstract: In this study daily evaporation rate from class A pan and reduced pan installed inside the glasshouse with a class A pan installed outside were compared. The results showed that the mean weekly ET0 value estimated by the class A pan installed outside and inside the glasshouse were 27.6 mm and 17.6 mm respectively, and 20.3 mm for the reduced pan. The ET0 in the glasshouse was found to be 64% of outdoor ET0. With regard to the comparisons between the weekly ET0 values estimated by the class A pan and reduced pan, both inside the glasshouse, coefficient of correlation was obtained 0.95 for the reduced pan method and with comparing between the weekly ET0 values estimated by the class A pan outside the glasshouse and those estimated by the different methods inside, coefficient of correlation was obtained 0.71 for the class A pan and 0.68 by the reduced pan.
Keywords: evapotranspiration; glasshouse; class A pan; reduced pan.
The Evaluation of the Usage of the Fuzzy Algorithms in Increasing the Accuracy of the Extracted Land Use Maps
by Mojtaba Pirnazar, Hafez Hasheminasab, Arash Zand Karimi, Zahra Ghasemi, Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari, Majedeh Haeri-Hamedani, Elham Mohri-Esfahani, Saeid Eslamian
Abstract: Within this paper, weevaluate the accuracy of three methods of classification including: object-oriented algorithms of the satellite images classification without the use of fuzzy algorithms, algorithm based on fuzzy algorithms, and pixel based algorithms The accuracy of each method obtained by comparing the results with pixel based algorithm in land use/ land cover classification in Maragheh County. To reach this goal, AVNIR2 sensor images that generated from ALOS satellite were used to classify land use. The results obtained from the methods indicated that the classifications which produced by object-oriented classification method were more accurate than that of pixel-based method. The accuracy of fuzzy knowledge based method was93.28%.However the accuracy of the object-oriented method without using of the fuzzy algorithms and the pixel based algorithm method were 88.06% and 83.79% respectively. According to these results, using higher spatial resolution images along with proper algorithms for extracting of features of land use classes is recommended to environmental researches.
Keywords: remote sensing; object-oriented classification methods; pixel base; fuzzy algorithms; land use map.
Global Problem-Solving and Ethics: A Theoretical and Practical Analysis
by Suraj Sood
Abstract: This article focuses on how a more reciprocally-beneficial relation between humans and planetary ecologies can be achieved. Global problems and their potential solutions are considered from the perspectives of research nonprofit The Millennium Project, the United Nations, the late cyberneticist Gregory Bateson, and the late psychoanalyst Felix Guattari. These approaches are contextualized within Ken Wilbers AQAL (all quadrants, all levels) epistemological framework with the intent of making the problems discussed more amenable to higher-level analysis and problem-solving methodology. Within and following this latter endeavor is an assessment of practical approaches to global problem-solving, including The Millennium Projects Global Futures Intelligence System (GFIS) and Barrett Browns Quadrant Dynamics: Thwarting or Supporting (Q-DyTS) algorithm. Lastly, a plural ethical approach is proposed and compared with American psychology, Guattaris ethico-aesthetic paradigm, and The Millennium Projects Global Challenge #15 (which concerns global ethics).
Keywords: global problem-solving; AQAL; Sustainable Development Goals; The Millennium Project; United Nations; Felix Guattari; Gregory Bateson; Ken Wilber; mind; ecologies; plural ethics; psychology; GFIS; Q-DyTS; global solution networks.
The Dynamics of Governance, Tourism and Environmental Degradation: The World Evidence
by Muhammad Haseeb, Sallahuddin Hassan, Muhammad Azam
Abstract: Efficient utilization of scarce resources is always the prime aim of every state to ensure social welfare while maintaining a clean and green environment for sustainable development. The growing threats of global warming and climate changes have called for the more sensible attention of the policy makers. Therefore, this study is an attempt to empirically investigate the linkages between corruption, democracy, tourism, and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions (used for environmental degradation) for selected low, lower middle, upper middle, and high-income countries using disaggregate and aggregate panel data over the period 1995-2015. After checking the stationary properties of the data, Pedroni (1999) tests of cointegration were implemented for cointegration purposes. The Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) was employed for parameters estimation. The FMOLS results indicate corruption and tourism factors at disaggregate and aggregate levels as substantial contributors of CO2 emissions. These empirical results also reveal that corruption and tourism for low-income countries have higher impact on CO2 emissions compared to high-income countries. Besides, democracy in all panels with the exception of low income countries, has helped to reduce CO2 emissions. The Granger Causality Test results suggest that there is a bidirectional positive causality existing between democracy and tourism variables, as well as between corruption and CO2 emissions, and a unidirectional positive causality was found running from tourism to CO2 emissions and from tourism to corruption. The empirical finding of the study also suggests that though tourism is undeniably a source of economic growth, however, it should not be at the cost of environmental degradation. Similarly, high endemic corruption needs to be controlled, and unregulated CO2 emissions must be reduced in order to ensure sustainable development.
Keywords: Governance; Tourism; Environmental Degradation; CO2 Emissions; FMOLS.
Impact of Bioenergy Policy Induced Land Use Change on Water Quality under Changing Climate in the Northern Great Plains of the United States
by Mengqi Xiong, Zhulu Lin, G. Padmanabhan
Abstract: Lake Ashtabula, located in the Northern Great Plains of the United States, has been listed as a nutrients-impaired water body by the United States Environmental Protection Agency with high priority to develop Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) reduction plans. The watershed draining into the lake is predominantly of agricultural land uses, which have changed considerably in recent years due to bioenergy policies. The region has also been experiencing a decade-long abnormally wet weather pattern since the early 1990s. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool model for Lake Ashtabula watershed was developed and calibrated to estimate annual sediment and nutrient loads into Lake Ashtabula under different land use and climate scenarios. The model could be used further for developing sediment and nutrient TMDLs for Lake Ashtabula and for identifying contributing areas targeted for watershed management and lake water quality improvement.
Keywords: bioenergy policy; climate change; eutrophication; land use change; Northern Great Plains; nonpoint source pollution; Soil and Water Assessment Tool; Total Maximum Daily Load; water quality; watershed modelling.