International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (8 papers in press)
Evaluation of sediment yield (Qs) in Bishezard watershed located southwest of Iran, using PSIAC and MPSIAC models
by Abdol Rassoul Zarei, Marzieh Mokarram, Ali Shabani
Abstract: Soil erosion is one of the most significant forms of land degradation and environmental problems in the world. PSIAC (Pacific South West International Agency Committee) and MPSIAC (Modified Pacific South West International Agency Committee) Models are apparently known as an appropriate method to measure sediment yield and erosion. In this research, these models used to assess annual average sediment yield and annual erosion to Bishezard watershed. Results showed, based on MPSIAC model 92.64 % and 5.88 % of study area were in the slight and moderate sedimentation classes, respectively. Based on PSIAC model 75.11 % and 11.1 % of study area were in the slight and moderate sedimentation classes, respectively. The total sediment yield in the study area based on MPSIAC and PSIAC models 1439.27 and 1434.44(m^3 〖km〗^(-2) 〖year〗^(-1)) were calculated, respectively. According to Sensitivity analysis, topography and runoff erosion factors (with Pearson correlation 0.68 and 0.51) were the most sensitive Factors of MPSIAC model. In PSIAC model land use and land cover factors were the most sensitive factors (with Pearson correlation 0.73 and 0.67).
Keywords: MPSIAC model; PSIAC model; Sediment yield; Erosion; Sediment delivery ratio.
Saving Old Cities: Land Use Regression Model for Traffic Emissions in the Historical Peninsula of Istanbul
by Ferhat Karaca, Tugrul Yanik, Ali Turkyilmaz
Abstract: This study aims to develop a pollution distribution model for estimating traffic related intra-urban concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels. Weekly concentrations of NO2 were measured at 45 different locations in the historical peninsula of Istanbul during spring, summer and winter seasons in 2010. The range of NO2 was 14.2-155
Keywords: Clean Cities; Air pollution; Geographic Information Systems; Spatial Regression; Exposure modeling.
Economic evaluation of massive restoration in Brazil: How to achieve the iNDC-Brazil target
by Andrea Lucchesi, Paula Carvalho Pereda, Maria Alice Moz Christofoletti, Keyi Ando Ussami, Eduardo Gusson, Girlei Costa Da Cunha
Abstract: The Brazilian government has established a target to restore 12 million hectares of the countrys forest area by 2030. We address in this study the economic and financial feasibility of this massive restoration, as well as job creation and government receivables, by applying a traditional valuation method and assumptions from the environmental literature. Conservative scenarios, based on an agricultural producer perspective of this restoration, indicate that the recovery of these areas is economically unviable: the net present value is negative, and though the internal rate of return is positive, it is lower than the cost of capital. However, sensitivity analysis suggests that it may become feasible when the restoration is considered an outsourced business and when a market for forest carbon capture is considered. In terms of public policy, there is still room for creating instruments to improve the feasibility of reforestation, since we have not addressed all other positive externalities related to the restoration activity, and also the sale of non-timber forest products.
Keywords: forest restoration; ecological restoration; economic feasibility; environmental economics; natural resource economics; forest economics; iNDC; intended Nationally Determined Contribution; UNFCCC; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; forest carbon capture; Brazil.
Comparison of reference evapotranspiration inside and outside the glasshouse
by Mohammad Javad Amiri, Jahangir Abedi-Koupai, Saeid Eslamian
Abstract: In this study daily evaporation rate from class A pan and reduced pan installed inside the glasshouse with a class A pan installed outside were compared. The results showed that the mean weekly ET0 value estimated by the class A pan installed outside and inside the glasshouse were 27.6 mm and 17.6 mm respectively, and 20.3 mm for the reduced pan. The ET0 in the glasshouse was found to be 64% of outdoor ET0. With regard to the comparisons between the weekly ET0 values estimated by the class A pan and reduced pan, both inside the glasshouse, coefficient of correlation was obtained 0.95 for the reduced pan method and with comparing between the weekly ET0 values estimated by the class A pan outside the glasshouse and those estimated by the different methods inside, coefficient of correlation was obtained 0.71 for the class A pan and 0.68 by the reduced pan.
Keywords: evapotranspiration; glasshouse; class A pan; reduced pan.
The evaluation of the usage of the fuzzy algorithms in increasing the accuracy of the extracted land use maps
by Mojtaba Pirnazar, Hafez Hasheminasab, Arash Zand Karimi, Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari, Zahra Ghasemi, Majedeh Haeri-Hamedani, Elham Mohri-Esfahani, Saeid Eslamian
Abstract: Within this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of three methods of classification including: object-oriented algorithms of the satellite images classification without the use of fuzzy algorithms, algorithm based on fuzzy algorithms, and pixel-based algorithms The accuracy of each method obtained by comparing the results with pixel-based algorithm in land use/land cover classification in Maragheh County. To reach this goal, AVNIR2 sensor images that generated from ALOS satellite were used to classify land use. The results obtained from the methods indicated that the classifications which produced by object-oriented classification method were more accurate than that of pixel-based method. The accuracy of fuzzy knowledge-based method was 93.28%. However the accuracy of the object-oriented method without using of the fuzzy algorithms and the pixel-based algorithm method were 88.06% and 83.79% respectively. According to these results, using higher spatial resolution images along with proper algorithms for extracting of features of land use classes is recommended to environmental researches.
Keywords: remote sensing; object-oriented classification methods; pixel base; fuzzy algorithms; land use map.
Global problem-solving and ethics: a theoretical and practical analysis
by Suraj Sood
Abstract: This article focuses on how a more reciprocally-beneficial relation between humans and planetary ecologies can be achieved. Global problems and their potential solutions are considered from the perspectives of research non-profit The Millennium Project, the United Nations, the late cyberneticist Gregory Bateson, and the late psychoanalyst Felix Guattari. These approaches are contextualised within Ken Wilber's 'all quadrants, all levels' (AQAL) epistemological framework with the intent of making the problems discussed more amenable to higher-level analysis and problem-solving methodology. Within and following this latter endeavour is an assessment of practical approaches to global problem-solving, including The Millennium Project's Global Futures Intelligence System (GFIS) and Barrett Brown's Quadrant Dynamics: Thwarting or Supporting (Q-DyTS) algorithm. Lastly, a plural ethical approach is proposed and compared with US psychology, Guattari's ethico-aesthetic paradigm, and The Millennium Project's global challenge #15 (which concerns global ethics).
Keywords: global problem-solving; AQAL; sustainable development goals; The Millennium Project; United Nations; Felix Guattari; Gregory Bateson; Ken Wilber; mind; global environment; plural ethics; psychology; GFIS; Q-DyTS; global solution networks.
The dynamics of governance, tourism and environmental degradation: the world evidence
by Muhammad Haseeb, Sallahuddin Hassan, Muhammad Azam, Tulus Suryanto
Abstract: Efficient utilisation of scarce resources is always the prime aim of every state to ensure social welfare while maintaining a clean and green environment for sustainable development. Therefore, this study is an attempt to empirically investigate the linkages among corruption, democracy, tourism, and CO2 emissions for selected disaggregate and aggregate panel data over the period 1995-2015. The FMOLS results indicate that the corruption and tourism at disaggregate and aggregate levels are substantial contributors of CO2 emissions. These empirical results also reveal that corruption and tourism in low-income countries have a higher impact on CO2 emissions compared to high-income countries. Besides, democracy in all panels except low-income countries has helped to reduce CO2 emissions. Furthermore, tourism is undeniably a source of economic growth, however, it should not be at the cost of environmental degradation. Similarly, high endemic corruption needs to be controlled, and unregulated CO2 emissions must be reduced to ensure sustainable development.
Keywords: governance; tourism; environmental degradation; CO2 emissions; fully modified ordinary least squares; FMOLS.
Impact of bioenergy policy induced land use change on water quality under changing climate in the Northern Great Plains of the USA
by Mengqi Xiong, Zhulu Lin, G. Padmanabhan
Abstract: Lake Ashtabula, located in the Northern Great Plains of the USA, has been listed as a nutrients-impaired water body by the United States Environmental Protection Agency with high priority to develop total maximum daily load (TMDL) reduction plans. The watershed draining into the lake is predominantly of agricultural land uses, which have changed considerably in recent years due to bioenergy policies. The region has also been experiencing a decade-long abnormally wet weather pattern since the early 1990s. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool model for Lake Ashtabula watershed was developed and calibrated to estimate annual sediment and nutrient loads into Lake Ashtabula under different land use and climate scenarios. The model could be used further for developing sediment and nutrient TMDLs for Lake Ashtabula and for identifying contributing areas targeted for watershed management and lake water quality improvement.
Keywords: bioenergy policy; climate change; eutrophication; land use change; Northern Great Plains; nonpoint source pollution; SWAT; total maximum daily load; TMDL; water quality; watershed modelling.