International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (6 papers in press)
Evaluation of sediment yield (Qs) in Bishezard watershed located southwest of Iran, using PSIAC and MPSIAC models
by Abdol Rassoul Zarei, Marzieh Mokarram, Ali Shabani
Abstract: Soil erosion is one of the most significant forms of land degradation and environmental problems in the world. PSIAC (Pacific South West International Agency Committee) and MPSIAC (Modified Pacific South West International Agency Committee) Models are apparently known as an appropriate method to measure sediment yield and erosion. In this research, these models used to assess annual average sediment yield and annual erosion to Bishezard watershed. Results showed, based on MPSIAC model 92.64 % and 5.88 % of study area were in the slight and moderate sedimentation classes, respectively. Based on PSIAC model 75.11 % and 11.1 % of study area were in the slight and moderate sedimentation classes, respectively. The total sediment yield in the study area based on MPSIAC and PSIAC models 1439.27 and 1434.44(m^3 〖km〗^(-2) 〖year〗^(-1)) were calculated, respectively. According to Sensitivity analysis, topography and runoff erosion factors (with Pearson correlation 0.68 and 0.51) were the most sensitive Factors of MPSIAC model. In PSIAC model land use and land cover factors were the most sensitive factors (with Pearson correlation 0.73 and 0.67).
Keywords: MPSIAC model; PSIAC model; Sediment yield; Erosion; Sediment delivery ratio.
Saving Old Cities: Land Use Regression Model for Traffic Emissions in the Historical Peninsula of Istanbul
by Ferhat Karaca, Tugrul Yanik, Ali Turkyilmaz
Abstract: This study aims to develop a pollution distribution model for estimating traffic related intra-urban concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels. Weekly concentrations of NO2 were measured at 45 different locations in the historical peninsula of Istanbul during spring, summer and winter seasons in 2010. The range of NO2 was 14.2-155
Keywords: Clean Cities; Air pollution; Geographic Information Systems; Spatial Regression; Exposure modeling.
Economic evaluation of massive restoration in Brazil: How to achieve the iNDC-Brazil target
by Andrea Lucchesi, Paula Carvalho Pereda, Maria Alice Moz Christofoletti, Keyi Ando Ussami, Eduardo Gusson, Girlei Costa Da Cunha
Abstract: The Brazilian government has established a target to restore 12 million hectares of the countrys forest area by 2030. We address in this study the economic and financial feasibility of this massive restoration, as well as job creation and government receivables, by applying a traditional valuation method and assumptions from the environmental literature. Conservative scenarios, based on an agricultural producer perspective of this restoration, indicate that the recovery of these areas is economically unviable: the net present value is negative, and though the internal rate of return is positive, it is lower than the cost of capital. However, sensitivity analysis suggests that it may become feasible when the restoration is considered an outsourced business and when a market for forest carbon capture is considered. In terms of public policy, there is still room for creating instruments to improve the feasibility of reforestation, since we have not addressed all other positive externalities related to the restoration activity, and also the sale of non-timber forest products.
Keywords: forest restoration; ecological restoration; economic feasibility; environmental economics; natural resource economics; forest economics; iNDC; intended Nationally Determined Contribution; UNFCCC; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; forest carbon capture; Brazil.
Potential health risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with sediment and sea foods from a Ramsar site
by D.S. Jyethi, P.S. Khillare
Abstract: Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in sediments and edible biota from Chilika, the largest brackish water lagoon in Asia. Mean PAH level in sediments was 13674 ng/g dry weight, higher than reported studies from the region. High molecular weight species dominated total PAH profile indicating pyrolytic origin. Assessment of sediment associated individual PAHs effect on aquatic organisms of the lagoon revealed all therncompounds, except Naphthalene and Anthracene, to be present above the lower range of concentrations related to toxicity. Risk quotient of PAHs revealed that Acenaphthene, Fluorene and Dibenz[a,h]anthracene require priority management concerns. PAH levels in crabs and prawns were 394.4 and 153.0 ng/g d.w., higher than reported studies. BaPeq concentrations were 42.9 and 15.2 ng/g d.w. in crabs and prawns respectively. Carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 33.5% to the total PAHs in edible biota but consumption can be considered safe with respect to lifetime excess cancer risk guidelines.
Keywords: Chilika lagoon; Sediments; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); Mudrncrab; Prawn; Health risk assessment.
SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF WATER QUALITY IN PALLIKARANAI WETLAND, CHENNAI, INDIA
by Sridevi Karpagavalli Manavalan, Ramachandran Andimuthu, Palanivelu Kandasamy
Abstract: This paper analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of surface water quality of the Pallikaranai wetland, located in the region known as Chennai city. An extensive study pertaining to seasonal variations in nutrients, dissolved carbon, dissolved gases and heavy metals in surface water was studied at 16 locations of Pallikaranai wetland during three seasonal cruises from March 2010 to December 2010. GIS and statistical techniques such as interpolation method (IDW), Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to evaluate the spatial pattern and variation in water quality of Pallikaranai wetland and to identify pollution sources. The results revealed that there is a remarkable seasonal variation in the analyzed parameters which are attributed to the natural sources (monsoon) and anthropogenic activities. PCA resulted in three factors explaining 73.8% of the total variance. Factor 1 exhibited a high correlation with environmental parameters, nutrients and organic carbon representing the influence of seasonal runoff. Factor 2 envisaged heavy metal pollution results from anthropogenic activities. Factor 3 explored moderate correlation with SPM and nutrients.
Keywords: Pallikaranai wetland; water quality; interpolation technique; PCA.
Progress and Acts of God in the Age of Climate Change Virility
by Carlos Balsas
Abstract: Notions of progress have changed over the last two centuries; however, attempts at improving living conditions have remained. Since there has been a change toward more urban living, notions of progress have changed from the collective to the individual. What are the implications of various notions of progress, especially when they are at odds with foundational collective articulations of the common good? The purpose of this article is to analyse the evolution of notions of progress and to discuss their most recent iterations in contexts of the Anthropocene. It is hypothesised that progress in the Anthropocene has generated a double awareness of plenty and scarcity. The argument is that professionals are severely burdened by their background, moral and ethical responsibility to think and lead collective transformations, which go beyond self. The key finding includes the identification of implications for professional practice.
Keywords: Progress; Automobility; Epistemology; Knowledge; Climate Change; Anthropocene.