International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (22 papers in press)
Microwave assisted synthesis of zeolitic material from agricultural waste bagasse fly ash for the sorption of monocrotophos
by Bhavna Shah, Darshini Pandya, Hiren Patel, Ajay Shah
Abstract: The sorption of monocrotophos (MCP) from aqueous solution by native bagasse fly ash (BFA) and zeolitic material (MZBFA) synthesized by combined conventional and microwave reflux method was studied. These sorbents were characterized by XRF, PXRD, FTIR and SEM and were establish to have improved morphology with new crystalline phases. Batch sorption experiments for the removal of MCP by BFA and MZBFA were carried out to evaluate isotherm capacity and kinetics of sorption processes. The isotherm data proved to fit the Langmuir isotherm than that of Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The highest sorption capacity, calculated through the values of the isotherm constant Kf, was obtained for MZBFA. The kinetics data proved a closer fit to the pseudo-second order model. The kinetics data of intra particle diffusion confirmed that the sorption rate was controlled by film diffusion followed by pore diffusion.
Keywords: Sorption; Bagasse Fly Ash; Monocrotophos; isotherms; kinetics.
Physical and mechanical properties of concrete manufactured using electric arc furnace (eaf) slag as coarse aggregates
by Davatee Maharaj, Javil Parris, Abrahams Mwasha
Abstract: The use of industrial wastes as construction materials represents an attractive alternative to landfill disposal of waste especially in small Caribbean islands where the arable land is very scarce. In this paper the physical and mechanical properties associated with the incorporation of solid waste from Trinidad Arcelor Mittal Electric Arc Furnace slags were used as coarse aggregates for manufacturing high strength was investigated. This investigation also entailed a comparison between concrete manufactured using limestone as course aggregates. A total of five (5) mixes were used, and for each, the fresh and hardened properties were assessed. The different concrete mixes used were achieved by varying the slag to coarse aggregate ratio. These ratios were 0.0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0. The fresh and hardened properties evaluated were workability, fresh density, compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength. In addition, the water absorption, specific gravity and abrasion resistance of the aggregates (limestone and EAF slag) were evaluated. The research revealed a significant improvement in the hardened properties of concrete made with EAF slag, namely the compressive, split and flexural strength of the samples tested. The results indicated that this improvement highly depended on the proportion of EAF slag that was used. It was also found that the physical properties of Arcelor Mittal EAF slag was significantly better that that of the crushed limestone, primarily in its strength/density ratio compressive and tensile strength as well as resistance to abrasion.
Keywords: eaf slags; concrete; limestone; cement; strength.
Regulatory Environment for Private Sector Involvement in Solid Waste Collection in Ghana
by Sampson Oduro-Kwarteng, Meine Pieter Van Dijk
Abstract: Government failures call for private sector involvement in solid waste service provision, which requires government regulation. Surveys of 25 private companies and five local governments were conducted in five cities in Ghana to assess the regulatory practices in solid waste collection. The results showed that there were weak regulatory practices and non-adherence to contractual obligations. Service quality and cost recovery were affected by unsigned contracts, the long period before revision of collection fees and service charges, delayed payment of subsidy (more than a year) and no interest on money delayed. These weak regulatory practices affected investment in new trucks and did not provide incentive for private sector growth and development. But there is now a gradual well-functioning system emerging, with two recent competitive bidding and signing of contracts in two Cities. The solution to the problem of solid waste management hinges on adherence to formal rules, such as competitive bidding, signing of and adhering to contracts, the use of appropriate cost recovery mechanisms for low income groups, and the restructuring of institutional arrangements to enforce legislation.
Keywords: private sector involvement; solid waste; urban management; regulation; policy.
USE OF RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMIZATION OF PERFORMANCE OF MAGNETITE NANOADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM WASTEWATER
by Padmavathy KS, G. Madhu, Dipak Kumar Sahoo
Abstract: Adsorption is a cheap and efficient method for removal of Cr (VI) from wastewater. Adsorption experiments for Cr (VI) removal are performed batch wise using the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles according to the conditions given in the design of experiments of Box-Behnken design under response surface methodology and it is observed that adsorption is influenced mostly by the adsorbent concentration and the pH-value. The optimum pH for adsorption is 2. Scanning electron microscopy images of synthesized nanoparticles indicate that the particles are of non uniform size and shape. Thermal stability of synthesized particles has been analyzed using thermogravimetric analyser and it has been found that the nanoparticles are thermally stable up to 200 deg C. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy data show that the synthesized particles contain 80.62 % Fe and remaining fraction is oxygen. X-Ray diffraction pattern of synthesized particles is in good agreement with standard data for magnetite nanoparticles. Regeneration studies have been carried out using sodium hydroxide.
Keywords: Magnetite nanoparticles; adsorption; Cr (VI); wastewater; response surface methodology; Box-Behnken design.
Decision Support Framework for Solid Waste Management Practices in Nigeria: with a case Study of Bayelsa State
by Benefit Onu, Trevor Price, Suresh Surendran
Abstract: This study aims to develop a risk based decision support framework for solid waste management practices in Nigeria: with a case study of Bayelsa State. This study used a mixed method approach in its findings; field trips, surveys and observations were carried out as well as the distribution of semi-structured questionnaires. Huge volumes of uncollected co-mingled municipal solid wastes are present throughout the streets, in drains, lakes, rivers and in the countryside. Waste management infrastructures are not available in the state and the few waste collections vehicles that available are dilapidated. Appropriate policies, frameworks and models should be adopted; enlightenment campaigns should be carried out as well as adequate provision of waste management facilities and infrastructures. The risk part of the decision support framework was developed while the option appraisal part will be developed at the next stage of the research.
Keywords: Waste Management; Waste Management in Bayelsa State; Decision Support Framework; Indiscriminate Waste Disposal Risks.
Recycling of Waste derived calcium hydroxide through high temperature solid-state reaction with quartz powders
by Eguakhide Oaikhinan, Chijioke Nwobodo
Abstract: Mixtures of the waste derived calcium hydroxide and quartz powders have been used to demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing varieties of calcium silicates from high temperature solid-state reaction as a means of recycling the waste material. Density measurements were used to monitor the reactions.
Keywords: Recycling; Waste derived calcium hydroxide; quartz; calcium silicates.
Effects of two species of filamentous algae Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta and Chaetophora elegans, isolated from municipal wastewater, on some of the wastewater parameters
by Zahra Najimi, Rasoul Ghasemi, Saeed Afsharzadeh
Abstract: The researchers are now focusing on microalgae for nutrients removal from wastewater as it is less expensive and results in less sludge production. In this study, two filamentous algae, a blue-green alga (Oscillatoria lutea) and a green alga (Chaetophora elegans) were sampled at different stages of domestic wastewater treatment, purified and identified. Colony formation by each alga was added under different light conditions, high or low light intensities respectively. After proliferation, wastewater samples were inoculated by each alga. Some of parameters were measured at defined intervals and results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The BOD5, COD, nitrate and phosphate were affected significantly by treatment of wastewaters by algae. Oscillatoria lutea was more effective on reducing BOD5, COD, nitrate and phosphate compared to Chaetophora elegans. The highest percentage of pollutants removal was related to raw wastewaters and the lowest onewas obtained from growth of Chaetophora on effluent. This paper revealed that treatment of both raw wastewater and effluent can provide alternative media for growth of microalgae and the native strains could be used efficiently. Long term experiments in all seasons and the combination of different cultures could be examined to enhance the removal of contaminants.
Keywords: BOD5; Chaetophora; COD; Domestic wastewater; nitrate; Oscillatoria; phosphate.
Estimation of municipal solid waste generation based on income rates and population size in Brazilian municipalities
by Gilson Athayde Junior, Mariana Moreira De Oliveira
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop mathematical models that can predict the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated based on socioeconomic variables in Brazilian municipalities. Due to the high level of heterogeneity with regard to Brazilian municipalities, the sample was grouped into certain classes based on population size and income level. MSW generation information was collected from the SNIS (Sistema Nacional de Informa
Keywords: municipal solid waste; socioeconomic factors; mathematical models; income level; population size.
Scope of soil organic carbon sequestration through agro-based industrial wastewater use in different soil types dominated in eastern India
by M. Das
Abstract: Wastewater management is a growing concern for the clean environment. The impact of the agro-based brewery, paper mill, and distillery wastewaters on soil organic carbon (SOC) and its fractions was investigated. Three major soil types of Eastern India were incubated at 100 and 60% of field capacity moisture at room temperature (28 390C) for a period of 12, 25, 42 and 59 days under laboratory condition. Application of wastewaters improved SOC, registered relatively higher response (4 to 6.67 folds) under low SOC (1.9 2.5 gm/kg) than high SOC (>5.0 gm/kg) soil (1 to 3 folds), enhanced the (mean) degree of humification in a range of 3 to 218 folds in different soils. The microbial biomass carbon was also improved without showing any consistent trend with wastewater treatments or soil types. The study reveals that the agro-based industrial wastewaters could be effectively managed for sustaining SOC and its fractions in different soil types.
Keywords: carbon sequestration; wastewater use; soil type; soil organic carbon; degree of humification; microbial biomass carbon.
Soil contamination by heavy metal mobile forms near landfills
by Vitalii Ishchenko
Abstract: The dissemination of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni) near the landfills was analyzed by measuring the concentrations of their mobile forms in soil on different distances from the Stadnytsia landfill (Vinnytsia region, Ukraine). The limit exceeding was not observed for any heavy metal. The highest levels are about 0.5 of limit values for Cr and Pb. A strong correlation between the distance from the landfill and the concentration is observed only for Cd. The dependence is ambiguous for Pb and Cr, perhaps due to the spatial proximity of sampling points and the existing of predominant migration routes of mobile forms of these metals. The landfill influence on the content of Ni mobile forms in nearby soils is most likely minimal. The research also confirms that migration of heavy metals depends on the conditions at landfill and on its compliance with requirements.
Keywords: heavy metals; contamination; landfill; soil; heavy metal mobile forms; Ukraine.
Seasonal variations in moisture content and the distribution of total organic carbon in landfill composites: case of active and closed landfills in Lagos, Nigeria.
by Abdulganiyu Adelopo, Babajide Alo, Parvez Haris, Katherine Huddersman, Richard Jenkins
Abstract: The compositional trend and characteristics of active and closed landfill composites with depth was evaluated, in order to establish possible relationships between seasonal variations in moisture content, distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) and pH stability. A bulk system of composite classification was used. Both landfills had similar waste constituents, but varied widely in relation to the measured parameters. The TOC levels of the landfills were more influenced by the less degraded component than by the depth. Moisture content in both landfills had a positive significant statistical relationship with less degraded weight (P<0.01) and a negative relationship with more degraded weight (P<0.05), but was not significantly related to pH. These data suggest that seasonal variations and the less degraded component of samples are major factors influencing the moisture content and distribution of TOC in active and closed landfills, irrespective of difference in the disposal period of the waste into landfill.
Keywords: landfill; waste; total organic carbon; moisture content; seasonal variation; landfill composites; active landfill; closed landfill; landfill depth; less degraded component.
An examination of the role of arousal and actual behaviour on commitment towards recycling and environmental preservation
by Sandra Loureiro, Francisco Javier Miranda Gonzalez
Abstract: Recycling and environmental preservation have been a topic of growing interest. However, the way individuals engage in a commitment process to the environment and its consequences are not well-known. In order to contribute to fill this gap a model was proposed positing that self-expression through environmentally proactive behaviours combined with a sense of arousal lead to an affective commitment to recycling and environmental preservation. Findings reveal the importance of energetic arousal to reinforce the self-expression in order to increase the commitment to the environmental preservation. Individuals who have an attitude of concern for the environment when making purchasing decisions tend to be more committed. Finally, committed people are more willingness to sacrifice towards the cause and spread the word in favour the cause. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour.
Keywords: recycling and environmental preservation behaviour; self-expression; willingness to sacrifice; arousal.
Comparison of standard methods for evaluating the metal concentrations in bio ash
by Janne Pesonen, Juhani Kaakinen, Ilkka Välimäki, Mirja Illikainen, Toivo Kuokkanen
Abstract: The current growth strategy and environmental legislation of the European Union both aim to increase the amount of renewable energy and to improve the use of waste streams. These policies mean there will be an increasing need to utilise bio ash. Currently Finland and Denmark are the only European countries with specific national legislation concerning bio ash use. Sweden has recommendations concerning the use of bio ash fertilisers. Besides having different limit values for harmful elements and nutrients in ash fertilisers, all these countries have different digestion methods that are allowed for element content determinations. This study compared the results of the five digestion methods (aqua regia, nitric acid, nitric/hydrochloric acids, nitric/hydrochloric/hydrogen fluoride acids, and lithium tetraborate fusion) established by Nordic authorities. Two Finnish peat-wood fly ash samples were studied. Our results indicate that the choice of digestion methods produces a significant difference in the obtained heavy metal or nutrient concentration of bio ash, especially regarding the potassium concentration.
Keywords: bio ash; digestion method; environmental legislation; heavy metals; fertilisers; earth construction; metal concentration.
Assessment of Fungal Bioaerosol emission in the vicinity of a landfill site in Mumbai, India.
by Neeraj Patil, Umesh Kakde
Abstract: Mumbai is one of the metropolitan cities of India with population of 12.4 million. Local governing authority of Mumbai is facing challenges of solid waste management generated in the city in recent years. Municipal solid waste of the city is disposed in the two open landfill sites which are located in the city. Unhygienic disposal of solid waste is a potential threat to the people living in the vicinity of the dumpsite areas. Present investigation is based on the concentration of fungal bioaerosol around the Deonar landfill site, which is one of the major landfills in Mumbai.
Maximum concentration of fungal bioaerosol was observed in monsoon season (620-1450 cfu/m3) and minimum in winter season (430-740 cfu/m3). During summer fungal bioaerosol concentration was 570-1000 cfu/m3. Environmental factors such as relative humidity and wind speed shows positive correlation with culturable aeromycoflora. Prevalent species registered were Aspergillus, Peniciliium, Alternaria, Curvularia, Trichoderma and Rhizopus.
Keywords: landfill sites; culturable aeromycoflora; bioaerosols; dumping ground; Mumbai; Aspergillus; ANOVA; aerobiology; municipal solid waste management; airborne spores; meteorological factors; airborne fungi; exposure; dispersion; air quality; air monitoring.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Index in Urban Areas: Delphi Validated Tool
by Shefali Godura, Arun K. Aggarwal, Prakash Bhatia
Abstract: Due to non-availability of a comprehensive index to assess and score status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) of a given place, a Delphi validated index was developed. Multistage-sampling technique was used at the household, street, bin level observations in two Indian cities namely, Chandigarh and Hyderabad. Final index included total 52 observable items. It was used for household, street, community bin, transportation, processing and disposal level observations. Mean household waste management score was 4.25 (95% C.I., 4.09-4.41) in Chandigarh as compared to 4.09 (95% C.I., 3.95-4.23) at Hyderabad. Street level median score was 1.0 (0.0-3.0) for Chandigarh and 0.5 (0.0-5.0) for Hyderabad. Mean bin level score was 5.27 (95% C.I., 3.93-6.63) for Chandigarh and 4.58 (95% C.I., 3.62-5.54) for Hyderabad. The researcher achieved the objective of first time developing and using a scientific index to quantify the status of MSWM comprehensively of a city and compared it with another city.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste management index; delphi process; collection; transportation; processing; disposal.
Desilication of fly ash and development of lightweight construction blocks from alkaline activated desilicated fly ash
by Thabo Falayi, Felix Okonta, Freeman Ntuli
Abstract: Massive reserves of power plant fly ash dumps in South Africa have necessitated the development of different processes for effective remediation to achieve zero waste utilization. Silica was leached from fly ash at the optimum conditions of a leaching time of 6 h, 3 M KOH, 500 rpm agitation speed, 25 liquid to solid ratio and a leaching temperature of 100˚C. A lightweight construction block (LWCB) was developed from desilicated fly ash (DFA) and KOH. It was found that the optimum synthesis conditions were 10 M KOH, +0.075-0.300 mm DFA and a curing temperature of 40
Keywords: Desilication;Lightweight construction block; Kalsilite; Desilicated fly ash (DFA); durability.
Use of sludge (a waste) as a resource for getting enhanced plant productivity.
by Bhupinder Dhir
Abstract: Experiments were carried out to check the utility of sludge, a waste generated from wastewater treatment as a soil supplement. Sludge collected from wastewater treatment plant was tested for presence of toxicants (if any) and supplemented in soil. Field experiments were conducted with crop plants viz. Brassica juncea var. Pusa Vijay (NPJ-93), Triticum aestivum var. HD-2967, Solanum lycopersicum var. Pusa Hybrid 2 and Vigna unguiculata var. Pusa Komal. Results indicated that morphological growth was positively affected in plants raised in sludge supplemented soil in comparison to control. Plant growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, biomass showed enhancement, whereas biochemical attributes such as chlorophyll, soluble sugars and protein did not depict any significant alteration. Enhanced vegetative growth supported high yield. Present investigations suggested that sludge can be used as a partial substitute for fertilizer and hence can prove to be an effective soil supplement.
Keywords: Crops; Productivity; Soil; Sludge; Supplement.
Management of discarded organic produce from supermarkets and hypermarkets
by Mohamed F. Hamoda
Abstract: This study determined the quantities, characteristics, and composting of spoiled vegetables and fruits discarded daily from supermarkets and hypermarkets in an attempt to manage such wastes for resource recovery. Data from 31 supermarkets and hypermarkets in Kuwait showed that quantities of discarded produce constitute at least 10% of displayed produce daily and are not generally affected by size of store but by attitudes of shoppers. Discarded produce contains high water content (85% ), is more dense (0.65 ton/m3 ), and have high organic content (80% ) than municipal solid waste (MSW). Carbon content of discarded fruits is 42.1 % while for vegetables is 41.5%. Nitrogen content of vegetables is 3.2% and for fruits is 1.9%. Pilot plant experiments on in-vessel aerobic composting of a mixture of MSW and fruit & vegetable waste at a mass ratio of 2:1 proved effective at temperatures from 35 to 65 oC, and optimal at 45 oC, achieving VS reduction up to 40% in 30 days. Organic reduction followed a first-order kinetic model with degradation rates in the range of 0.006 to 0.01 d-1 based on VS reduction. Statistical analysis showed process performance is dependent on operating temperature and type of waste organics.
Keywords: Composting kinetics; elemental analysis; supermarket solid wastes; vegetable and fruit discards.
Co-degradation study of Lindane and Chlorpyrifos by novel bacteria
by Dharmender Kumar, Shivani Jaswal, Sunil Chopra
Abstract: The chlorpyrifos and lindane (γ- Hexachlorocyclohexane, HCH) are organophosphate and organochlorine insecticide extensively used for agricultural pest management. But, due to toxic effect of HCH on living system, the agricultural use of lindane has been banned but chlorpyrifos is still being used in agriculture. In the present study the CP and gamma- HCH bioremediation capability of three isolates were studied and it was observed that Sphingobium japonicum (MTCC-6362) shown higher degradation efficiency than HSR-B4, FWS-4 isolates in mixed culture in shake flask culture based study. The temperature 30̊ C, pH 7, pesticide concentration 80 ppm, inoculums concentration 600
Keywords: Sphingobium japonicum MTCC-6362; lindane; Chlorpyrifos; biodegradation; GC-MS (Gas chromatography – Mass spectroscopy); LD50 (median lethal dose).
Special Issue on: Internet of Things in Environment, Agriculture and Waste Management
BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM INDUSTRY OILY SLUDGE AND ITS APPLICATION IN LAND FARMING: A REVIEW
by Zahida Nasreen, Sehrish Kalsoom
Abstract: One of the foremost solid wastes produced by petrochemical industries is oily sludge. Oily sludge being a mixture of various kinds of hydrocarbons has been characterized as a hazardous waste by Environment Protection Act and Hazardous Wastes Handling Rules which contributes a lot in environmental pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are components of crude oily sludge, represent serious environmental concerns, as most of them are mutagenic, cytotoxic and carcinogenic. Several methods for degradation of oily sludge and other petroleum related contaminants have been discussed in literature. This review paper presents the most efficient process of remediating these contaminants from environment i-e biodegradation by microorganisms. It is attaining significance as an increasingly efficient and potentially inexpensive cleanup strategy. Its potential contribution as a countermeasure biotechnology for decontamination of oil polluted systems could be vast, as it also leads towards mineralization of complex organic compounds to simple compounds enhancing soil organic contents. So it can be concluded that biodegradation strategy of petroleum oily sludge, even with some limitations, have proved to be one of the most cost effective and promising technology with potential application in land farming.
Keywords: Oily sludge Composition; Toxicity; Alkanes; Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Biodegradation; Microorganisms; Biosurfactants and Land farming.
WhaleRank: An optimization based ranking approach for Software Requirements Prioritization
by Vijayanand Rajasekaran, Dinakaran M
Abstract: Requirement prioritization is one of the major areas in the software product development process. Ranking methods employed for prioritizing orders the requirements based on their importance. Ranking the requirements contributes in enhancing the quality of the product using additional features and to attain the customer satisfaction. However, effectiveness is the growing concern in requirement prioritization. This paper proposes a ranking method WhaleRank to rank the requirement and the effectiveness of ranking gets enhanced using the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA). The WhaleRank method uses four ranking functions based on dictionary words, similarity measure, perception of the manager, and the newly updated requirements that are combined to form a linear rank using the ranking constants. WOA determines the optimal weights of the ranking constants that promote to determine the optimal rank for the requirements. Experimentation with the methods like CBRank, average rank, WhaleRank, and GA provide a comparative performance analysis that proves that the proposed WhaleRank outperforms all methods in terms of accuracy and Disagreement measure (NDA) and the values of accuracy and NDA is 83.33% and 16.24% respectively.
Keywords: WhaleRank; Whale Rank Optimization (WOA); Similarity matrix; Requirement updates; weighed ranking constants.
Detecting Spams in Social Networks using ML Algorithms A Review
by Senthil Murugan N, Usha Devi G
Abstract: The Social network, by the name which has popularized in todays world and growing rapidly at all times and controlling over mankind. The social networks like Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn etc., have become a regular and daily usage of many people. It becomes a good mediator for the people who would like to share some posts, are some of their own videos, or some messages. But there has been major issues that the particular user of the social networks like Twitter and Facebook have the problem of indiscipline actions which we call as spam, by the third person who is knowingly doing this to spoil their intention and good opinion upon each other. Also, these Spams help to steal information about the people who using social networks. In this paper, we study and analyze about the spam in social networks and Machine learning algorithms to detect such kind of Spams. This paper also focuses on the ML algorithms detection rate and false positive rate over different datasets.
Keywords: Social network; Spam; Machine Learning; Twitter; Facebook; Detection rate.