International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (78 papers in press)
Enablers of Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management System in India
by Mohd. Nishat Faisal, Faisal Talib, Mohammed Khurrum Bhutta
Abstract: The present study moves beyond the traditional focus of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) of collection and disposal to sustainable MSWM that takes a systems view and addresses issues related to waste prevention, waste reduction, and waste segregation. The empirical study was conducted in large cities in North India that have a very high rate of solid waste generation. The study was conducted in two stages in the first stage, an empirical study with two major stakeholders, the elected and government officials was conducted. In the second stage, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) was applied to evolve a hierarchy-based relationship among the enablers of sustainable MSWM. According to the results of empirical study, there are disagreements on several issues considered as strategic to implement a sustainable municipal solid waste management. Thus, there is a need to bring all the stakeholders agree on common policy issues of sustainable MSWM. Further, the ISM model shows that there exists a group of variables having a high driving power and low dependence requiring maximum attention and are of strategic importance.
Keywords: Sustainability; Municipal Solid Waste Management; India; Interpretive Structural Modeling.
Heavy metals bio-accumulation and transfer in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) irrigated with industrial wastewater
by Ghasem Rahimi, Zahra Kolahchi, Sajad Bayat
Abstract: Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in crops irrigated with wastewater is threatening the food chain. However, few investigations have dealt with managing risks of industrial waste water application for a medicinal plant. The main purpose of the study was to assess some heavy metals bioaccumulation in lemon balm and assess the risks involved. Pot experiments were conducted on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) irrigated with industrial wastewater. The analysis showed concentrations of heavy metals in soil and organs of the plant. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn in the soil for all treatments were higher than root and aerial parts of the plant. At the highest application of the wastewater, concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn (mg kg -1) in soil were significantly higher than others. In all treatments, Ni, Pb and Zn decreased by soil >> root > stem > leaf > seed. Bioaccumulation factor for Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn were less than transfer factors from root to stem, stem to leaf and stem to seed of the plant, stressing on the high concentration of the metals in the soil compared to organs of the plant. The absence of Cd in the plant leaves indicated that lemon balm was a suitable crop for contaminated soils, especially with Cd, because heavy metals contamination in aerial plant organs was less than the soil and root. The studied wastewater should not comprise more than 25 % of water used for agricultural purposes.
Keywords: Bio-Accumulation; Environment; Heavy Metal; Industrial Wastewater; Lemon Balm; Pollution;
Pot Experiment; Risk Management; Transfer Factor; Uptake.
Increasing Business Value: Combined Heat & Power Systems, the way of future or the way now? Take the initiative and develop a sustainable strategic approach
by Mario Cora, Yung-Tse Hung
Abstract: This article provides an overview of combined heat and power (CHP) systems as a sustainable approach for energy production, its benefits to users (i.e., industries and commercial buildings), and its successful implementation in business organizations. Sound environmental management and compliance can (and should) be linked to financial value, and therefore, point to the planning, implementation, and operation of environmentally sustainable energy production systems to meet the strategic goals of any organization. Increased regulatory pressures and energy costs require better planning and a different strategy to help shape the financial bottom line in any organization. CHP systems have proven to be a suitable technology to better achieve the strategic goals of environmental sustainability. The wise operation of these systems lead to environmental sustainability due to the increase in energy use efficiencies and the emission reduction of criteria pollutants (i.e., CO, NO2, SO2, PM), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), and greenhouse gases (i.e., CO2) to the atmosphere. These benefits are directly linked to a different approach in the life cycle of energy generation projects, which considers not only the design of system configurations that lead to increase thermal heat recovery efficiencies/net reduction in fuel efficiency, but also the potential uses of the produced energy. These systems provide a win-win situation (net benefit) to its users (financial), the environment (planet), and the general public (society).
Keywords: combined heat & power; internal combustion engine; gas turbines; cogeneration; power generation; energy efficiency; air pollution; value creation; and sustainability.
Walnut shells; Food processing waste from western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh as an excellent source for production of activated carbon with highly acidic surface
by RIPU DAMAN KUMAR, Krishna Kadirvelu, G.K. Kannan
Abstract: Activated carbon one of the best adsorbent for various organic and inorganic pollutants can be made from various raw materials and by different methods of processing. The properties of the activated carbon made by the above techniques could be further modified and enhanced by various physical and chemical methods. The activated carbon was produced at different temperature i.e. 3000C, 3500C, 4000C and 5000C respectively. The properties of the activated carbon were further modified and enhanced by treating it with H2SO4, H3PO4 and ZnCl2. As the final temperature of carbonization increases, ash content, sorption activity and carbonizate yield of walnut are found to diverge slightly. Development of porous structure as a consequence of chemical activation is clearly visible from the SEM micrographs of these carbons. Out of three different chemical activation i.e. Sulphuric acid activated walnut shell carbon (SAAWSC), Zinc chloride activated walnut shell carbon (ZCAWSC) and Phosphoric acid activated walnut shell carbon (PAAWSC), the sulphuric acid activated carbon has been found with highest surface area of 745 m2/g. The surface of these activated carbons is highly acidic with a maximum phenolic groups 5.72 meq/g in case of Phosphoric acid activation. The pHzpc ranges between 4-4.5 for these activated carbons from waste walnut shells.
Keywords: : Activated carbon; Walnut shells; Surface area; porosity; chemical activation; Acidic groups.
Municipal solid waste disposal in Brazil: improvements and challenges
by Victor Nascimento, Anahi Sobral, Manfred Fehr, Nazli Yesiller, Pedro Ribeiro Andrade, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud Ometto
Abstract: The proper disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a global challenge, mainly in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to review recent improvements and remaining challenges of municipal solid waste disposal (MSWD) in Brazil focusing on the environmental impacts caused by inappropriate disposal of MSW. Before the implementation of the Brazilian Solid Waste Policy (BSWP), in 2008, 72.3% of all municipalities in Brazil disposed of their MSW in open dumps and uncontrolled landfills. In 2015, after the deadline given by the BSWP to close all open dumps and uncontrolled landfills had expired, 60% of all Brazilian municipalities still dispose their MSW improperly. Therefore, while progress occurred in the management practices for MSWD in Brazil, the improvements have not occurred as fast as expected by the BSWP and several shortcomings remain, which cause significant environmental impacts.
Keywords: municipal solid waste generation; municipal solid waste management; landfill; open dumps; environmental impact; Brazil.
An analysis of the commercial waste characterisation in a tourism city in Vietnam
by Song Toan PHAM PHU
Abstract: This study provided a detailed description of the waste generation, composition, and characterisation of the commercial activities in a tourism city in Vietnam. Whereby, solid waste from 55 restaurants, 110 shops, 27 handcraft facilities and five markets were collected and classified into 17 categories. Then, physical and chemical characterisations of waste were analysed. The results showed that the commercial waste accounted for 35.1% of municipal waste, in which restaurants were the most significant waste source by 74.5%. The composition of commercial waste was 66.8% for biodegradable waste, 20.1% for recycling materials, 11.3% for combustible waste, and 1.8% for the others. Also, the high moisture content and density, and the low heating value were the characteristics of the commercial waste in a tourism city in Vietnam. Solutions of waste minimisation and improvement of waste quality for incineration were suggested toward the sustainable solid waste management practice.
Keywords: characterisation of solid waste; commercial waste; Hoi An city; market waste; restaurant waste; shop waste; solid waste composition; solid waste generation; tourism city; Vietnam.
Waste management: relevance to environmental sustainability
by BEATRICE ABILA, Jussi Kantola
Abstract: Waste generation and its management present universal challenges related to negative impacts on the environment. Municipal solid waste generation in large quantities on daily basis constitutes serious environmental problems. This paper presents a review of extant literature in the management of municipal waste across a range of countries alongside waste management hierarchy that guide legislations and policies for developed and developing countries. This paper assesses the environmental consequences emanating from the influence of either the presence or absence of contaminants based diverse management options for municipal solid waste; thereby facilitating policy makers and waste management companies informed choice(s) for the management of municipal waste sustainably. The outcome from the evaluation of environmental effect reveals that incineration; the most common Waste-to-energy implementation for municipal solid waste is accompanied with the emission of greenhouse gases, Nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulphur dioxide contributing to climate change and air acidification. Environmental concern is a critical indicator for determining the best appropriate waste management option(s). The need to encourage the increasing recycling of municipal solid waste to facilitate a global sustainable environment as well as boosting the circular economy and green cities is recommended.
Keywords: Waste management; municipal solid waste; environmental sustainability; waste management hierarchy; pollution.
Potential benefits and risks of using sewage sludge on soil and plants: A review
by Mohammad Al-Ghouti
Abstract: Fertilizer potential and pollutant risk for the applied sewage sludge in agricultural activities must be specifically evaluated for each sludge due to the fact that there is variation in the characteristics of sludges in which they undergo different treatment levels, in addition to the differences in the pollutant nature that is found in the wastewater. Therefore, it is required to treat the sludge before using it as fertilizer to eliminate and remove any harmful materials that can negatively affect the environment, human health, soil, and crops, in which it can be treated through aerobic, anaerobic digestion and thermal treatment process.
Keywords: Sewage sludge; Soil characteristics; Plants characteristics; Waste management.
The photocatalytic degradation of Bezacryl yellow in a presence of TiO2 Hydrodynamic contribution
by Lamia Khenniche
Abstract: A pilot installation was carried out in the research laboratory containing a photocatalytic reactor. It is intended to eliminate organic pollutants, including a textile dye (Bezacryl yellow) in the presence of two forms of titanium dioxide; the P25 and the PC500. The degradation rates were found to be influenced by both types of TiO2 and the lamps (UVC/UVA). Degussa P25 was found to be more effective compared to P500 and UVA light was more effective compared to UVC light, since the dye degradation was faster in the presence of UVA. The kinetic models of pseudo-first-order and Langmuir-Hinshelwood described accurately the degradation of the dye. The biodegradability of the treated solution was enhanced by photocatalytic treatment.
The performance of the system was reached after completion of the hydrodynamic study of the installation, which made possible to optimize the circulation rate of the solution in the installation. Residence time distribution (RTD) of the phase is measured using a pulse tracer technique. Hydrodynamic modeling was conducted using The Residence Time Distribution program. The parameters derived from the RTD model were compared with those determined experimentally and used to diagnose hydrodynamic conditions. The results showed that the reactor is an arrangement of simple ideal reactors; it is composed of one plug flow reactor followed by one stirred tanks in series.
Keywords: Water treatment; Azo dye; Biological treatment; Titanium dioxide; Photocatalysis; Mineralization.
Behaviour of Environment Friendly Green Concrete Beams using Fly Ash and Furnace Slag under Cyclic Loading
by S. Annamalai, S. Thirugnanasambandam, K. Muthumani
Abstract: This paper investigates an alternative binder to Portland cement binder which is very friendly to environment as Portland cement emits 0.8 to 1.0 ton of greenhouse gas (CO2) during the production of 1.0 ton of cement. To test the suitability of GPC against RCC for structural applications, four beams of size 125mmx250mmx3200mm were cast. Two for reinforced cement concrete (RCC) which act as control beams (CB) and two for GPC. The beams were tested up to failure under monotonic as well as cyclic loading in a reaction frame under displacement control to study the flexural cyclic behaviour
Keywords: Environment; industrial wastes; Greener Concrete (GC); Geo Polymer binder; displacement control.
A Conceptual Framework of Internet of Things for Efficient Municipal Solid Waste Management and Waste to Energy Implementation
by Neeraj Bhanot, Vinay Sharma, Aman Parihar, Manik Sharma, Manish Yadav, Harsh Gupta
Abstract: With a population of 1.252 billion, India holds the second position in the world and is one of the fastest developing countries as well. However, like every good thing has to pay a certain cost, the country is now facing an alarming threat of health and environmental problems due to its poor waste management practices. This paper presents a theoretical framework of an integrated approach of solid waste management system in which a waste segregation layout is shown including waste to energy (WtE) application of the refused derived fuel formed in the process. Real-time monitoring of the segregation process and energy extraction process is done using Internet of Things (IoT) application. Segregation of waste before processing gives an efficient way of waste management and with this framework, one can easily monitor and acquire various information obtained during different stages of segregation and energy extraction process.
Keywords: Solid waste management; Internet of Things; Municipal solid waste; Waste segregation; Load sensor; Waste incineration plant; Remote viewing.
LYSIMETER VALIDATION BASED ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LEACHATE FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN A TROPICAL REGION
by Mariana Politti Manzatto, Miriam Gonçalves Miguel
Abstract: Leachates produced by municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, were confinedeither to three lysimeters (models), or to an experimental cell built in the municipal sanitary landfilland analyzed. The leachates were characterized weekly through physicochemical variables. Monitoring time was 520 days. Statistical analyses were performed to validate the models as a means of studying real-scale landfills. Data was obtained from detailed monitoring of the MSWs biodegradation process, enabling the identification of transitional periods. The transition from the acidogenic phase to the methanogenic phase occurred between 100 and 150 days in the experimental cell, and between 120 and 230 days in the models. Use of lysimeters to determine biodegradation phases in tropical regions was validated only for leachates COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and VFA (Volatile Fatty Acids) variables.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Lysimeter; Biodegradation; Leachate; Sanitary Landfill; Physicochemical Analysis; Statistical Analysis.
Spatial and temporal variability of the chemical characteristics of food waste and green waste: influence on their sampling and composting
by Taiana Cestonaro, Raphael Tobias De Vasconcelos Barros, Antonio Teixeira De Matos
Abstract: A novel sampling method for characterization of food and tree pruning wastes was applied. The goal was to identify spatial variability (inside the lot to be sampled) and temporal variability (between lots over time) of the wastes, since these variabilities may influence the sampling process, preparation of the windrows for composting and compost characteristics. The wastes evaluated were those received at the municipal composting facility of Belo Horizonte MG (Brazil). Different levels of spatial variability (which causes measurement uncertainty) associated with each characteristic of the wastes should be considered in order to increase sampling representativeness. A larger number of composite samples are need for characterization of the nutrient contents and organic carbon/nitrogen ratio. Temporal variability in tree prunings influenced the set-up of the windrows for composting and the great heterogeneity in food waste can make it difficult to maintain the uniformity of compost nutrients among the batches produced.
Keywords: municipal solid waste; food waste; tree prunings; composting; compost; sampling methods.
Adsorption of Uranium on Natural and Thermally Activated Zeolitic Tuff: Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Isotherm Studies
by Kamel AL-Zboon, Mohammad Al-Harahsheh
Abstract: The aim of this paper was using natural zeolitic tuff (ZT), available and low cost material, to remove highly hazardous material from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of natural and thermally activated ZT for uranium was investigated under different conditions namely: particle size, contact time, temperature, dosage, initial concentration and pH. The obtained results indicated that the Jordanian ZT has obtained high removal efficiency up to 99% at low U concentration (10 mg/L) and a maximum uptake capacity of 14.22 mg/g at an optimum pH of 5. About 78% removal can be achieved within the first 10 min of contact time. Thermal activation of ZT at temperatures of 100-250
Keywords: Uranium,zeolitic tuff,adsorption,thermal activation,isotherm; kinetic; thermodynamic.
Influence of partial substitution of sand with crumb rubber on the microstructural and mechanical properties of concrete in Pretoria, South Africa
by Adeyemi Adeboje, Williams Kupolati, Emmanuel Sadiku, Julius Ndambuki
Abstract: Utilization of waste materials such as crumb rubber for construction purposes is still in the formative stage in African. Experimental evaluation is required to encourage the use of waste crumb rubber for concrete production. The engineering properties of modified crumb rubber concrete were evaluated by substituting 1, 2, 3 and 4 % sand content with crumb rubber. The concrete samples were investigated with slump, bulk density, compressive and tensile splitting strengths, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests. The results showed that very small quantity of crumb rubber can improve both the microstructural and mechanical properties of concrete, however, utilization of large quantities of crumb rubber can reduce the concrete properties. Implementation of crumb rubber as a substitute for sand in concrete can sanitize and conserve the environment, reduce haphazard disposal of waste tyre rubber and enhance conversion of waste tyre rubber to wealth.
Keywords: Concrete; construction; crumb rubber; environment; mechanical properties; microstructure.
An interdisciplinary living laboratory approach to investigate college food waste co-composting with additional on-site organic waste feedstocks
by Anne Alerding, Jennifer DeHart, David Kniffin, Nattachat Srikongyos, Michael DeBlasio, Jacob Kelliher, James Marsh, Heather Magill, Charles Newhouse, Samuel Allen, Paul Ackerman, Emily Lilly
Abstract: In an effort to curb monetary and environmental costs of food waste disposal, colleges and universities are developing composting programs. Incorporating additional on-site wastes could improve composting efficiency and provide cost savings. A living laboratory team of faculty and students with expertise in biology, engineering, and economics investigated non-food organic wastes as co-compostable supplementary feedstocks with dining hall residues. The interdisciplinary learning environment inspired students to develop a specialized sampling method using nylon mesh bags embedded in large bins to monitor biotic and abiotic composting responses. Bark, leaves, and paper were equally effective as co-compostable wastes. Economic analysis showed that incorporating non-food organic feedstocks into food waste composting could save $17,500 USD per dining hall per year when balanced with waste disposal or recycling costs for these materials. This project shows how a living laboratory approach can address local waste management issues with sustainable economic practices by examining alternative disposal methods of common organic wastes.
Keywords: aerated static pile; bacteria; compost; food waste; living laboratory; waste management.
SURFACTANT BIODEGRADATION IN BATCH REACTORS WITH ASPERGILLUS NIGER AN400
by Gloria Marinho, Reinaldo Fontes, Renata Brasil, Luciana Pereira, Barbara Barbosa, Kelly Rodrigues
Abstract: The wide production and use of the surfactant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) has severe effects on the environment and, consequently on human health. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of the species Aspergillus niger AN 400 on LAS removal, in reactors operated in batch mode. Three reactors were operated for 30 days with the following configuration: a control reactor without A. niger AN 400 (CR) and two reactors with A. niger AN 400, one of each supplemented with 1 mg L-1 of glucose (ANGR) and one without the co-substrate (ANR). LAS was tested in the concentrations of 15 and 30 mg L-1. LAS removal efficiencies 51% in ANR and 76% ANGR, for the initial concentration of LAS of 15 mg L-1, and 55% in ANR and 65% in ANGR, for 30 mg L-1 of LAS.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger; Biodegradation; Glucose; Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate; Surfactants.
Residents Concerns and Attitudes Towards Municipal Solid Waste Management: Opportunities for Improved Management
by Mahad Baawain, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Hamid Omidvarborna, Fatma Al-Mujaini, B.S. Choudri
Abstract: Rapid urbanization, industrial development, and economic growth have caused a tremendous increase in the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in developing countries. Therefore, solid waste management (SWM) has become a serious issue among the developing countries. Aiming to understand residents knowledge, awareness and concerns towards MSW and SWM, this study intended to identify concerns and attitudes towards solid waste generation and management in Muscat, Oman. Therefore, a survey study was carried out on randomly selected residents to solicit the opinion of the residents and to get primary data about solid waste generation and management in Muscat. The generation of MSW was assessed based on different socioeconomic aspects, such as gender, education level, age, and working status. The results confirmed that the residents owned a relatively high environmental awareness; however, the need for environmental education was demanded. The majority of the respondents had positive attitudes towards source reduction, separation and recycling attitudes and practices. The public had the objection to burn solid waste, including incineration (80%) and strong opinion to have proper regulations/legislations towards SWM (88%). The research discoveries highlighted the direct attention to the important role of public concerns and attitudes, transparency in management, information disclosure, and mutual communication to avoid struggles and build social trust. This study can contribute to the limited knowledge and understanding of public towards MSW.
Keywords: Survey; Public Perception; Municipal Solid Waste; Public Attitude; Solid Waste Management.
Study on the utilization of quartzite as replacement for coarse aggregate in concrete
by Ummar Shareef, V.R. Sankar Cheela, SSSV Gopala Raju
Abstract: Concrete is most commonly and widely used material in infrastructure development. Coarse aggregate is major ingredient of concrete which constitutes to about 60 to 70% in terms of volume of concrete. The cost of coarse aggregate is increasing day by day due to its limited availability and large demand. In the present work, Quartzite is used as an alternate material for coarse aggregate in the concrete. Experimental studies were performed on plain cement concrete by replacing coarse aggregate with quartzite up to 100%. The mix design and test methods were in accordance with the Bureau of Indian Standards. Seven and twenty eight day strength tests were performed on concrete cubes. The optimum percentage of quartzite replacement to coarse aggregate is found at 20%. It is observed that compressive strength increased at 20% and 100% replacement was found to be 53.2 N/mm2 and 48.8 N/mm2.
Keywords: Quartzite; Concrete; Coarse Aggregate; Compressive Strength.
The Behaviour and Attitudes of Kempton Park Communities with Reference to Reusing Domestic Waste
by Samantha Lange
Abstract: The reuse of domestic waste is an integral part of the domestic waste minimisation process to remove waste from the waste stream. The main objectives were: to determine whether or not households participate in domestic waste reuse activities and the type of activities involved; where they receive information on waste reuse; the behaviour and attitude towards reuse and recommendations based on the findings of the study.This study adopted a quantitative approach describing suburban communities attitudes and behaviour towards waste reuse. The investigation was non-experimental, cross-sectional and descriptive. Structured questions were used through a simple random sampling method. Results indicated that respondents reused domestic waste. Their domestic reuse information was obtained from the media and internet. Reusing of waste was a positive activity that would help future generations. Formal programmes will assist residents to reuse waste efficiently. Government departments and environmental health practitioners should be better sources of information for reuse.
Keywords: Domestic waste reuse; reuse activities; reuse behaviour; reuse attitude; waste minimisation; waste hierarchy; theory of planned behaviour; litter picking; household reuse.
Assessment of municipal solid waste management practices in Karachi city, Pakistan
by Wasi Uz Zaman Khan, Vassillis Inglezakis, Shagufta Ishtiaque, Konstantinos Moustakas
Abstract: The data collected from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Pakistan indicate that collection and disposal of municipal solid waste in the city of Karachi is underdeveloped. The studies conducted in 2012 showed the composition of solid waste is organics 47.2%, paper 15.9%, plastic 11.3%, bread 4.2%, bones 3.8%, metal 2.7%, glass 2.5%, textile 1.9%, wood 0.7%, and miscellaneous 9.8%. The city government collects only 48% of the total waste generated, of which 88% is disposed in dumping sites. The city government is considering installation of advanced technology units in all five districts of Karachi and establish a separation at source system in order to facilitate separation of recyclable material like paper, plastic products, metal, glass etc.. This study aimed to assess the current practices of solid waste management in Karachi and suggests a quantitative approach to decision making facilitated by the use of a decision support software (DSS). The results of the implementation of DSS tool are presented and alternative waste management scenarios are discussed. The application of the DSS tool demonstrated that the landfilling of refuse-derived fuel (RDF)/solid recovered fuel (SRF) can be replaced by waste-to-energy options. The treatment technologies proposed are material recycling facility (MRF) for source separated recyclables, anaerobic digestion for source separated bio-waste, anaerobic (or combined composting-anaerobic digestion), mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) with recyclables separation for residual waste, and waste-to-energy utilization for RDF/SRF. The DSS tool can offer support for decision makers not only for planning process, but also for the assessment of adopted solutions.
Keywords: municipal solid waste; waste management strategy; decision support software; Karachi; Pakistan.
TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 thin films for photocatalytic wastewater treatment
by Adel BenYoussef, Meriem Laamari, Latifa Bousselmi
Abstract: Tungsten trioxide (WO3) influence as a doping agent was studied in order to improve Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalytic efficiency under sunlight. Hydrolysis at low temperature, followed by dialysis and chemical reactive sputtering, has been applied to synthesize thin films. Morphological investigations were performed by X-Ray Diffraction (DRX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Gap energies were determined from transmission spectra (TS), a solar photocatalytic reactor was used to study photodegradation efficiency. The adhesion strength was performed by scratch test.rnDoping TiO2 by WO3 decreases the energy gap of the film; consequently an increase of photocatalytic activity under solar radiation is achieved. The degradation test under sunlight showed an efficiency of 10.37 mg m-2h-1 in the case of the non-doped film. However, the 5 wt% WO3 doped film had a degradation efficiency of 17.87 mg m-2h-1. The scratch test performed to the 5 wt% WO3 doped film has determined a critical load value of 2.6 N.rn
Keywords: Photocatalysis; WO3/TiO2; Wastewater; Sputtering; Scratch Test.
Estimating the lifespan of the expansion of a landfill in Brazil by means of a model equation based on socioeconomic indicators
by Francisco Orlando Holanda Costa Filho, Francisco Humberto De Carvalho Júnior
Abstract: Socioeconomic factors are increasingly being used in the elaboration of model equations that seek to estimate the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). Thus, this study aimed to develop a model equation with the aid of socioeconomic indicators to estimate the amount of MSW to be disposed of in the expansion of the Aterro Sanit
Keywords: Municipal solid waste; lifespan; multiple regression; socioeconomic indicators; landfill.
Assessing Upcoming Touristic Towns Municipal Solid Waste Flows and Characterization: A case of Phetchaburi Province, Thailand
by Chettiyappan Visvanathan, Prakriti Kashyap, Paul Jacob, Wiratchapan Suthapanich
Abstract: Understanding the quantity and characteristics of waste generation in a locality is important for an appropriate estimation of the recyclability potential and overall waste management. Detailed municipal solid waste characterization were conducted in three municipalities in Phetchaburi province, Thailand. Physical composition (% wet basis) indicated the dominance of organic waste with 31.8% of food waste, and 20.04% of yard wastes. The average moisture content was as high as 64.75%. Average carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen content constituted approximately 47.94, 6.90, 0.92, 0.16 and 26.77%, respectively. The gross calorific value (dry basis) was observed to be 4,561.13 kcal/kg. A material flow analysis conducted in the three study sites showed a linear pattern of waste flows, with large quantities of waste generated were being stocked in the landfill sites with minimal waste recovery. The composition and characteristics of waste, however, showed vast potential for waste diversion from landfills through either material recycling or energy recovery.
Keywords: energy recovery; landfilling; material flow analysis; material recycling; municipal solid waste; waste characterization.
AN ECONOMICAL LYSIMETER SETUP FOR FLY ASH LEACHATE STUDIES
by Vaishnavi Dabir, Sukhanand Bhosale
Abstract: Coal combustion in power plants produces a large amount of fly ash which can be later utilized as a construction material. Storage of fly ash until its further use can be done by depositing it in a specialized monofill. For such storage, the amount and quality of leachate generated from it need to be assessed for a better perspective of groundwater pollution. Fly ash being inorganic in nature, its leachate studies can be carried out by constructing a lysimeter setup. Such setup is customized as per the need of application pertaining to principles described in ASTM D 4874. The controlling factors of the concentration of heavy metals in fly ash leachate are the liquid to solid ratio (L/S ratio), pH of the leachant water, and properties of fly ash. Based on standards and literature survey, an economical lysimeter setup for fly ash leachate studies is developed and results are investigated. Results of heavy metal concentrations obtained from the leachate extracted from the setup are complying with results of lab and field analysis concentrations documented in existing literature. Studies performed using the proposed setup would promote accelerated results for trace element concentrations, by which decisions of safe monofilling of fly ash is possible. With reference to problems faced by power plants, the proposed set up would provide an economical alternative to assess leachability and in turn management of fly ash.
Keywords: Fly ash leachate; L/S Ratio; Fly ash monofill; coal ash monofill.
Naturally occurring radioactive materials in metallic mine wastes from northeaster Guanajuato Mexico: a scoping study
by Cruz Daniel Mandujano García, Juan Mantero, Modesto Sosa, Guadalupe De La Rosa, Rene Loredo Portales, Yann Rene Ramos Arroyo, Guillermo Manjon, Rafael Garcia-Tenorio
Abstract: Accumulation of mine wastes with high concentrations of potentially toxic elements has been occurring for centuries in different mining regions of Mexico. In these wastes, few data are available on the activity concentration of natural radionuclides, especially if they are generated in mines that are not associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Radioactive data is necessary to assess the impact of metallic mine wastes from a radiological point of view. In this work, levels of natural radioactivity in a metallic tailings deposit area located in the mining District of Xich
Keywords: environmental radioactivity; NORM; metallic mine wastes; gamma-ray spectrometry; alpha-particle spectrometry.
Physicochemical treatment of industrial wastewater using Moringa. Peregrina as a coagulant for flocculation: A comparative study
by Muhammad Saleem
Abstract: Optimum conditions for applying M. Peregrina as a natural coagulant to treat pharmaceutical wastewater are determined and compared with that of alum coagulation. In both cases, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, was followed by slow sand filtration and activated carbon adsorption treatment. Alum reduced COD, BOD5, TSS and turbidity by 48.6%, 34.8%, 79.6%, and 69.2% respectively. Alum coagulation followed by slow sand filtration reduce the studied parameters by 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. Activated carbon was used to further reduce these parameters to 99.9%, 99.1%, 94.3% and 81.3% respectively. While using M. Peregrina excellent reduction in studied parameters was found as 81.7%, 83.2%, 78.6% and 94.2% respectively. Further physicochemical treatment reduced by 99.8%, 99.7%, 99.1%, and 92.3% respectively after SSF. The performance of M. Peregrina found to be superior to that of alum coagulation and can bring wastewater quality up to the standard allowable limits for reuse.
Keywords: physicochemical treatment; industrial wastewater; M. Peregrina; BOD5; COD; turbidity.
Domestic biowaste drying as a pretreatment method to produce a stabilized biological resource
by Aggelos Sotiropoulos, George Xydis, Mishel Yard, Stergios Vakalis
Abstract: The results of the use of the domestic biowaste drying method for the effective dehydration of the OFHMSW and the production of lignocellulosic biomass from this waste fraction are presented within this article.
It presents the methodology and results produced from the first laboratory operation of a prototype household waste dehydration unit for the drying of household biowaste at source through the effective removal of its water content by using the heated air-drying process. The use of domestic dehydration technique revealed the substantial mass reduction that reached a maximum of 78 %w/w, while the final products carbohydrate content, suggests its further use to produce biobased chemicals and bioenergy. 39.99 %w/w of the target material, more than 40%w/w of the material may be converted into sugars through fermentation and from there to ethanol. Moreover, 36.11 of the already existing sugars have the potential to be directly fermented to ethanol. Finally, considering a cost of 0.071 Euro/kWh which is the mean value cost per kWh for the Greek household and energy consumption of 1001-1200 kWh which is also the average consumption of the Greek household, the maximum monthly cost for a family and a 24h operation was calculated to be 7.2 Euros.
Keywords: biowaste; biobased; drying; bioeconomy; lignocellulosic biomass; resource efficiency; biomass; waste treatment.
Collision of Emotional Intelligence and work centrality on Work-life balance- a supportive work environment for working professionals
by R. Dr. Jothikumar
Abstract: This study examined the differences among working professionals of nurses atrnvaried levels of emotional intelligence and work centrality on work-life balance and itsrndimensions. One way Anova was the statistical tools applied in this research for analysis.rnAnalysis demonstrated that, significant differences were found between workingrnprofessionals of nurses with low, average and high emotional intelligence and work centralityrnon the dimensions of work interference with personal life, personal life interference withrnwork, work personal life enhancement and work life balance.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence; work centrality; work-life balance.
Global Analysis of Electronic Items with Remanufacturing to control E-waste
by Nita Shah, Moksha Satia, Bijal Yeolekar
Abstract: E-waste is electronic items that have become useless or have reached to the end of their life-span. The maximum e-waste is produced by electronic industry in comparison to vendor and customer. E-waste contains many harmful chemicals which can be absorbed by humans and landfills and floats in the environment. The best solution to control e-waste is re-manufacturing. Re-manufacturing preserves natural resources, saves landfills, reduces greenhouse gas emissions and consequently controls pollution. It also consumes less inventory so that it pays less cost. To investigate this e-waste problem and advocating re-manufacturing, we have developed a mathematical model of three compartments viz. manufacturing unit, vendor and customer comprising of remanufacturing at players ends. To examine the stability of e-waste model, the local and global stability is considered. Threshold and numerical simulation is carried out.
Keywords: E-waste remanufacturing; System of non-linear differential equation; Threshold; Local stability; Global stability.
Chemistry of terephthalate Derivatives
by Asmaa Fahim, Ahmad M. Faragb, Galal A. M. Nawwara, El Sayed M.A. Yakouta, Eman A. Ragabb
Abstract: This review presents a systematic and comprehensive survey of the synthesis and reactions of terephthalate derivatives
Keywords: Poly (ethylene terephthalate); terephthalic acid; terephthaloyl dichloride; terephthalic dihydrazide.
Accelerated leach test for low-level radioactive waste forms in the Hungarian NPP Paks
by Gyorgy Patzay, Otto Zsille, Jozsef Csurgai, Gyula Vass, Ferenc Feil
Abstract: An accelerated leach test method was used for low-level radioactive waste forms in the Hungarian NPP Paks. These experiments were performed using cylinders prepared form Hungarian cement type CEM I 32,5 LH and CEM III/B 32, N-LH/SR. Each cylinder was made using cement or cement plus additive using radioactive waste water. The cemented radioactive material was evaporator bottom residue or sludge as well as evaporator cleaning acid solution, spent ion exchange resin, decontamination solution from NPP Paks, containing 134Cs, 137Cs and 60Co as main radioactive components. Leach tests were performed according to ASTM C 1308-08 standard. A computer program (ILT15) associated with the accelerated leach test was developed based on the ASTM C 1308-08 standard. Literature test and measured leaching data were analyzed to assess whether the model for diffusion from a finite cylinder describes leaching from cement based waste forms. In this paper some of the experimental and modeling work used to validate the test method are presented.
Keywords: radioactive waste; leach test; cement; computer program; diffusion.
Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting Wastewater Parameters of a Common Effluent Treatment Plant
by Monika Vyas, Mukul Kulshrestha
Abstract: This paper employs Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to evolve a framework wherein advance prediction of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) performances can be made using process variables such as BOD, TSS, and pH. To illustrate the efficacy of the framework, ANN models were applied to the case of a CETP having designed treatment-capacity of 900 m3/day. The data was collected over a period of 5-years from the influent and effluent streams for the CETP wherein eight industries discharge their wastewaters. rnIt was observed that multilayer perceptron with online back-propagation algorithm having hyperbolic-tangent function for both hidden and output layers gives excellent results. All ANN models learnt rapidly with training speed as high as 500 iterations/second. Thus, ANN-based models proved efficient and robust modelling tools, giving R values upto 0.98. The evolved models were then used to prepare input importance Tables to delineate contributions of load of individual industries into the CETP for evolving a sustainable financial mechanism to charge industries in accordance with their respective loads. Such forecasting may also be beneficially used to curtail the need of continuous monitoring of the CETP, thereby resulting in significant savings besides reducing perpetual dependence on operator-based real-time monitoring.
Keywords: ANN; CETP; wastewater; modelling; forecasting.
Synthesis and DFT Calculations of Aza-Michael Adducts Obtained from Degradation Poly(methyl methacrylate) Plastic Wastes.
by Asmaa Fahim, Ahmad M. Faragb, Galal A. M. Nawwara, El Sayed M.A. Yakout, Eman A. Ragab
Abstract: Aza-Michael adducts are obtained in excellent yields by the conjugate addition of nucleophilic reagents with α,β-unsaturated substrates such as methyl methacrylate (MMA), which were obtained from degradation poly(methyl methacrylate) plastic wastes using green energy source and were used as usuful precoursors for the synthesis of novel heterocycles, such as pyrazole, isochromene, quinolone, and amino isoxazole. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G level of theory have been carried out to investigate the stability of isochromene and quinolone. Moreover, HOMO and LUMO energy, total energy, and atomic Mulliken charges were calculated. The dipole moment and orientation of the two p-isoelectronic isochromene 15 and quinolone 20d have been also measured and their interactions with aromatic aldehydes to form isochromene 15 and quinolone 20d have been studied.
Keywords: Poly(methyl methacrylate); methyl methacrylate; aza-Michael addition; heterocycles; DFT calculations.
Fuzzy Inference System for deciding the appropriate Feedstock for Waste to Energy and Compost Systems
by Neena Ahuja, Dipali Bansal, Khwaja M. Rafi
Abstract: This paper is a revised and expanded version of the paper entitled Fuzzy computing for feedstock selection in biogas plantpresented at IEEE supported 2015 International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Implementations (ICSCTI), Faridabad, India on 9th October, 2015. A Fuzzy Inference System is proposed here towork as a decision support model for evaluating theappropriateness of the feedstock being introduced into the Waste to Energy anaerobic digester. Methane yielddepends upon the nature of the feedstock and the pH environment within the digester. At the moment the Waste to Energy industry and Compost Facility utilizes years of experience and practice to prepare feedstock within the approved C:N ratio.This poses a challenge to the widespread acceptability of the technology across cities, villages, towns, communities, institutions due to lack of experienced personnel resulting in underutilization of the waste, bulkier systems for the same amount of energy production and variable quality of compost generation. To replicate the experience and knowledge of the human expert softcomputing using Fuzzy Inference system was designed here using elevensamples from a database of 15 kitchen waste items and calculating their theoretical methaneyield with the help of Busswell Equation. Mamdani style Fuzzy Inference Systemwith six linguistic rules and centroid as the defuzzification method was designed to select therange of samples that would yield optimum methane under anaerobic conditions within the C: Nconstraints of the system. The feed to the biogas plant was approved if its theoretical methaneproduction was at least 50% in the produced biogas and its C: N ratio figured in the 22.3-33.7range; else it was disapproved. The Fuzzy Inference system classified the best feedstock in the24-30.5 C: N range with over 62.5% methane producing potential.The concept could well be utilized for selection of feed for compost facility and in future highly user friendly and interactive software modules could revolutionize the waste to energy technology making it simple and hassle free for implementation across all scales.rnrn
Keywords: C: N Ratio; biogas; Fuzzy Inference System; %CH4; feedstock; methane; softcomputing.
Knowledge and Practice of a Water Village Community in Household Waste Management: Appraising Current Problems and Future Recommendations
by Hukil Sino, Maznah Ibrahim, Mohd Hasamizi Mustapa, Zurina Mahadi
Abstract: Unsystematic household waste management in water villages could have adverse effects on the surrounding marine ecosystem. This study is conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practices regarding household waste management in Tanjung Aru Water Village, Sabah, Malaysia. Using a survey approach, data was obtained from the use of a guided questionnaire administered to 62 respondents. The average score of knowledge is 8.35
Keywords: knowledge; practice; household waste; waste collection; water village; recycling.
Watch Dog System for Water Management
by R. Jothikumar, Siva Shammugam G, Susi S
Abstract: Water has been one of the greatest measures in the human kind since the medieval era and will be until the existence of the human, animal and plant lives. But, it is seen that only a small content of water is now available for human use and said that within a few years there will be a vast need for water in different regions of the world. Due to the improper use and many external factors the remained water is being polluted by one or the other way. It is the basic need of people to take utmost care of water for present and future generations. This project is an important step to be taken for prevention of precious natural gift called water. This paper presents a design and development for low cost monitoring of water quality check in IoT (internet of things). To address the issue of water necessity, its dissemination and quality check, a novel drew nearer is proposed which depends on IoT (Internet of Things). The proposed framework comprises distinctive sensors like water flow sensor to measure the water flow, pH sensor to check the pH level of the water, ultra sonic sensor to measure the level of the water and PIC microcontroller as a core controller which coordinates the sensors. A water control valve is controlled through web interface in view of water flow sensor incentive to guarantee equivalent and satisfactory water dissemination to every association. There is an implant pump in the model which is used to get an adequate flow of water through flow sensor. Zigbee high level communication protocol is used to access the sensors and retrieve the data from sensors which are implanted in a river or a lake or even in tanks and pipes. The threshold limits of the sensors are accessed in through pc and can be changed based on the atmosphere of the location with a reasonable cause. The data is stored in the database and the history is recorded for future comparisons whenever needed. The main aim of the project is to provide a accurate check on the water with different parameters and provide the measurements so that people can take proper measures on the water within their area of use for all their external and internal uses of water with this low cost real time water monitoring system.
Keywords: pH sensor; Flow sensor; Ultra-sonic sensor; IoT (Internet of things); Zigbee; PIC microcontroller.
Site Selection Model for Urban Solid Waste Disposal Management Using GIS and Remote Sensing: A Case of Gulu Municipality
by Patrick Okot, Patrick Job Ogao, Jackson Abandu
Abstract: The management of solid waste disposal is an issue that features in urban planning due to population rise and hence build-up of solid wastes. Planners are forced to use suitable disposal means to minimize damages that may occur to ecosystem and population. This study sought to develop a site selection model for urban solid waste disposal management. The aim of the study was attained by assessing the current system of: waste collection; transportation; disposal and monitoring to identify model requirements before its design and validation. A total of 38 respondents based in Gulu Municipality were purposively sampled and managed with the help of questionnaires and interviews. The methods of: GIS and remote sensing; Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation and Analytical Hierarchy processing were used in the study. The determined sites were classified by aggregation based on criteria weights. Possible sites were identified and the best one selected using a sizing procedure.
Keywords: Model; Site Selection; Waste disposal; GIS; Remote sensing; Urban.
Shaping and Delivering Tomorrows Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management System: Proposal for a Structured Data Management Infrastructure
by Macbeda Uche Michael-Agwuoke, Jacqueline Whalley, Love Chile, Philip Sallis
Abstract: The monitoring and collection of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) data have been a daunting task. The development of a digital mapping, data collection, and data reporting system, allows for ease of data management and creation of a standardized system. This study develops a waste mapping and tracking system based on a structured ontological framework for an improved waste management system. The ontology is based on a four-levels data framework in a zoned waste management system within a municipal area, regional or national boundaries. The waste flow system within the zonal boundaries is designed to connect all facilities and activities in the zone and flexible to allow inter-zonal access to facilities that are existing outside a zone. Data tagging and collection strategies are developed to provide the vocabulary and standard for data encoding and recording of all knowledge-based information to help in the decision-making rules.
Keywords: Structured data management; Sustainable municipal solid waste management; Waste management system flows; Waste mapping and tracking system; Ontological framework; Activity nodes; Four-levels data framework; Waste management Zones; Zoned waste management system; Data encoding and recording; Knowledge-based information; Decision-making rules.
Value addition of cotton stalks through enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides
by ASHIS SAMANTA, Jayaram Chikkerur, Sohini Roy, Atul Kolte, Arindam Dhali, Kandalam Giridhar, Manpal Sridhar, Swaraj Senani
Abstract: The present work focuses on the value addition of cotton stalks through xylan extraction and enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS); a pentose based prebiotic. Chemical analysis revealed that cotton stalk contains neutral detergent fibre 87.66 %, acid detergent fibre 72.81 %, hemicellulose 14.85 %, cellulose 53.08 %, and acid detergent lignin 19.73 %. The xylan yield from cotton stalks was ranged from 1.75 to 7.36% when recovered with lithium hydroxide, while it reached up to 14% by using sodium and potassium hydroxides. The maximum recovery of xylan was attained at 4 % NaOH together with steam and 8 % KOH under overnight incubation. Commercial xylanase enzyme was used for enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan to produce XOS. The XOS concentration was ranged from 0.83 to maximum value of 2.19 mg/ml in the hydrolysate at pH 5.0, enzyme dose of 5 U, for 4 h of hydrolysis time. The findings substantiated the potentiality of cotton stalk as a raw material for xylan extraction vis a vis production of XOS.
Keywords: Cotton stalk; Enzymatic process; Xylan; Xylooligosaccharides.
An optimal solid waste collection fee based on area characteristics using hedonic pricing approach
by Komwit Siritorn
Abstract: To extract an optimal willingness to pay for a waste collection service from an expected house price was the goal of this paper. The data were collected from households in Songkhla and Hatyai cities representing cultural and commercial characteristic areas, respectively. They were analyzed by hedonic pricing method (HPM) in a form of Box-Cox model framework based on area characteristics. The findings indicated that the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for a waste collection service is about 45 baht/month for Songkhla and is about 55 baht/month for Hatyai. Moreover, an inverse demand for the service showed that people living in commercial area would tend to pay less than those in the cultural area even though they gain more benefits from a higher house price in the commercial area. This could reflect an important role of area characteristics on determining willingness to pay of residents.
Keywords: willingness to pay; pay as you throw; hedonic pricing method; municipal solid waste; waste collection fee.
Oil Removal from Produced Water by Agriculture Waste Adsorbents
by Abdalrahman Alsulaili, Asmaa M. Fahim
Abstract: Petroleum oil extraction produces large quantities of produced water (PW), which contains both dissolved and dispersed oil as well as suspended molecules that adversely affect human health and the environment. The removal of petroleum pollutants from OPW is important to use in industrial application. In this investigation, oil was removed from PW using adsorbents prepared from agri-culture waste (Date pits or Walnut shells) packed in filter beds. Several parameters were deter-mined, such as the contact time, oil content, total suspended solids (TSS), conductivity, total dis-solved solids (TDS), turbidity, and pH. Laboratory experiments showed that both the walnut shell and date pit filters performed well. Furthermore, methylene blue adsorption on the carbonized date pits and crushed walnut shells with different concentrations was investigated. The maximum ad-sorption capacities of oil content for walnut shell or date bits was 87% , 80%; respectively at the optimum conditions. The oil adsorption on both filters was conformed for Three isotherm models: Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson models. The Redlich-Peterson three-parameter equa-tion was more applicable for both date pits and walnut shells rather than the two-parameter equa-tions (Freundlich and Langmuir). Furthermore, the Redlich-Peterson correlation coefficients showed high R2 values at 0.999890 and 0.991701 for the walnut shells. In addition, the Freundlich model was more applicable to the walnut shells than the date pits because its R2 coefficient was 0.950756 for walnut shells.
Keywords: Oil produced water (OPW); Agriculture waste; Langmuir; Freundlich; Redlich-Peterson; Adsorp-tion thermodynamics.
Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of groundwater pollutants in east coastal region from Bamban to Thiruvanmiyur of Tamilnad, India
by Umarani P, Ramu A, Babu Ponnusami A, Dhanasekarapandian M
Abstract: The present investigation is focused on seasonal variation and spatial distribution of the groundwater pollutants in the study area during post monsoon (January), summer (May), pre monsoon (August) and monsoon seasons (November). Geologically, the study area comprises quaternary alluvium made up clay, silt and sandstone deposits. Water quality parameters (WQPs) such as pH, EC, TDS, TA, total hardness, chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, nitrate were chosen. GIS technique was used to find out the spatial distribution of the soluble pollutants. The WQPs were compared with the standard guidelines values as recommended by the WHO for drinking and public health. The abundance of major ions groundwater was found in the following order: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3- > NO3- > SO42- > F- during all seasons. The strong positive correlation between sodium and chloride was observed high, confirming the influence of seawater intrusion into the groundwater aquifer. Sampling location (Kottaipattinam) showed abnormal EC, TDS during summer and pre monsoon seasons. In these places, the groundwater aquifers were found to be contaminated which may be occurred from sewage effluents and excess use of fertilizers and pesticides for agriculture.rn
Keywords: Groundwater; Seasonal variation; GIS; Correlation; Linear regression; East coast.
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of Sorption of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solution by Moringa oleifera Pod Wastes.
by Haleemat Adegoke, Folahan Adekola, Oluwaseun Arowosaiye, Gabreal Olatunji
Abstract: Equilibrium sorption of Pb (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solution by Moringa oleifera pods waste was conducted under batch conditions. Effects of operating variables such as initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature on the sorption of these heavy metals have been studied. The optimum pH for the adsorption was found to be 5.0 and the adsorption process was found to be exothermic for both metal ions. The competitive adsorption characteristics of the combinations of binary mixtures of aqueous metal ion species, Pb2+ (aq) and Cd2+ (aq), on the adsorbent were also investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models were used to analyze the equilibrium data. Kinetics data evaluation showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second order model. A solution of 0.05M HCl has been found to be sufficient for the regeneration of spent adsorbent with up to 90% recovery for the two metal ions.
Keywords: Adsorption; lead and cadmium; Langmuir isotherm; Moringa oleifera Pod Wastes; Aqueous solution.
The Lab-scale and Thermogravimetric Analysis of the Catalytic and Non-catalytic Co-pyrolysis of Oak and Canteen Waste Mixture
by Gábor Nagy, Ágnes Wopera, Tamás Koós
Abstract: Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process used for the production of utilisable materials of various phases solid, liquid and gaseous. The energy efficiency of the canteen waste pyrolysis can be increased with the addition of oak wood, so a 2:1 ratio mixture of oak and canteen waste was pyrolysed. In order to examine the efficiency of catalysts on the co-pyrolysis, the mixture was pyrolysed both with and without catalysts. The used catalysts were some of the most often used catalysts for pyrolysis: calcined dolomite, calcined zeolite and NaCl, in 5 wt%. The process was examined with laboratory experiments and thermogravimetric (TG) method. It can be concluded that the used catalysts increased the base material conversion and the gas yield. There was no significant change in the H2/CO ratio, which is an important factor for chemical industrial use. However, the high heating value of the samples with NaCl and calcined dolomite significantly improved, which is advantageous for energy purposes. The quantity of the residual carbon of the samples with catalysts is decreased, compared to the original mixture. As the TG analysis results implied, the effects of calcined zeolite and NaCl can be observed at relatively low temperatures but the effects of calcined dolomite appear only at 650
Keywords: canteen waste; wood; co-pyrolysis; lab-scale; TGA; catalyst.
The effect of biochar and nutrients on efficiency of anthracene remediation in soil by Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces sp.
by Vahdat Jahed, Farhad Jahed, Sumayyah Najirad, Manoochehr Farjaminezhad
Abstract: Biochar has been found to be effective in the uptake of a variety of organic contaminants including PAHs and pesticides. Bioremediation is affected by different factors. Therefore, the current study investigates the efficiency of biochar for remediation of anthracene in the presence and absence of two microorganisms named Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces sp. A sandy loam soil was taken and mixed with biochar (10% w: w). The lack of nutrients as the food source for the studied bacteria was compensated by the addition of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and ammonium nitrate to the soil. Anthracene extraction from the samples was accomplished using the Soxhlet extraction method, Anthracene degradation was quantified using gas chromatography. A completely randomized design with three replications was used in this study. The analysis of the data showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between treatments with and without biochar and nutrients. The significant difference (p < 0.05) was also observed between the inoculated and non-inoculated treatments. The highest rate of removal was observed for the incubation of Bacillus sabtilis with the addition of biochar and nutrients. Bacillus sabtilis had decreased the soil Anthracene by 92%, and Streptomyces sp. bacteria with the same condition could degrade by 90.71% after 90 days. Moreover, the results of this research showed that the addition of biochar and nutrients could increase the Anthracene bioremediation by 11 and 7 percent respectively.
Keywords: Keywords: Anthracene; Bioremediation; Bacillus subtilis; Streptomyces sp.; Biochar; nutrients; Gas Chromatography.
Use of Wood Ash Waste to Stabilise Soils
by K. Divya Krishnan, P. Kiruthika, Ravichandran P.T
Abstract: The stability of the structure constructed over an expansive soil becomes questionable when it comes in contact with water. The existence of the Montmorillonite clay minerals causes for the expansiveness of the soil and this volume change will leads to the generation of cracks on the structure. Thus the soil may undergo differential settlement which brings the failure in the structural foundation. In order to overcome this failure problems and to improve the strength characteristics of the soils various methods are proved successful. Among the various techniques, stabilization with additives which reacts chemically can contribute more effectives in improving the properties of expansive soil. In this view, this study was carried out with two soil samples of clay exhibiting high expansive nature is treated with Wood Ash of varying percentages of 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11%. The response of the treated soils were studied through the Unconfined compressive strength test at different curing periods of 3,7 and 14 days. Improvement in micro structural behavior of soil with Wood Ash binder is also examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. From the experimental results of the untreated and treated soil samples it was observed that, increasing percentages of Wood Ash content, exhibits an increase in the strength values. Thus the employment of Wood Ash in the fragile soil will leads to the improvement in the soil bearing strength and which in turn suggesting an effective utilization method of this waste.
Keywords: Wood Ash; SEM; Stabilisation.
Sequential methodology for the selection of sanitary landfill sites: a comparison with a traditional method
by Giulia Guillen Mazzuco, Natália Da Costa Souza, Vinícius Gustavo De Oliveira, Caio Augusto Rabello Gobbo, Emerson Ribeiro Moreira, José Augusto De Lollo, Reinaldo Lorandi, Luiz Eduardo Moschini
Abstract: The present work proposes a sequential methodological approach to analyze the attributes involved in selecting sanitary landfill sites. To achieve this goal, spatial data were processed in a GIS platform using multi-criteria decision analysis (Analytic hierarchy process, boolean, fuzzy, and weighted sum). A traditional weighted sum method was compared to the sequential method proposed herein. Using the tradicional weighted sum method, 57.98% is classified as propitious for the implementation of a landfill project, whereas in the sequential method, this value decreases to 8.98%, a remarkable disparity. Strong variation also occurs in the restrictive use areas, which increases from 0.60% to 26.01%. The most significant differences occurred in the neighboring urban areas and areas of high slope with rocky outcropping substrate, situations of strong restriction to the implantation of sanitary landfills. Once traditional method results average classes, it can results the usage of areas with strong restriction for one attribute. In the sequential method, the overlapping of the environmental, legal and operational information yields results more consistent with the assigned intervals, resulting more conservative in the socio-environmental scope, reducing the need of environmental impacts mitigation and decreasing the management risks and general enterprise costs.
Keywords: sanitary landfill; sequential methodological; weighted sum; multi-criteria analysis; analytic hierarchy process; geographic information system; sites selection; method comparison; hydrographic basin; Rio Claro Hydrographic Basin.
Lead removal by a spiral-wound woven wire mesh rotating cylinder electrode: optimization using Taguchi Design Method
by Ali Abbar, Angham Hamzah, Hind Kadhim
Abstract: Lead removal from a simulated wastewater was achieved using a spiral-wound woven wire mesh rotating cylinder electrode. The operating parameters for the cathodic deposition of lead were optimized by Taguchi approach. Three operating parameters were considered as control variables. These are: initial lead concentration (25-125ppm), rotation speed (200-1000rpm), and current (0.1-0.5A). Removal efficiency was considered as a response for the optimization process. The results indicate that the current has the most significant influence on the removal efficiency than the other parameters. The optimum operating parameters were a current of 0.5A, rotation speed of 600 rpm, and Pb (II) initial concentration of 100 ppm, in which the initial lead concentration was deceased from 100ppm to less than 5ppm resulting in a removal efficiency of 95.65% within 30 min of electrolysis while a complete removal was achieved at 50 min. Taguchi methodology was proved to be successful for optimizing lead removal process.
Keywords: lead removal; three-dimensional electrodes; rotating cylinder electrode; woven wire mesh; Taguchi method.
Process optimization for saccharification and fermentation of wheat straw for the production of single cell protein
by Neha Mishra, Vikas Kumar, Jaspreet Kaur, Yogesh Gat, Ashwani Kumar, Basista Rabina Sharma, Garima Yadav
Abstract: Saccharification of wheat straw is required to convert lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars for its further utilization in SCP (single cell protein) production. Present study demonstrates the application of acidic and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw to get high yield of fermentable sugars and its utilization for the production of SCP. Wheat straw was washed, dried and ground to powder form, which was used as raw material for the production of hydrolysates. Different concentrations of sulphuric acid (0-1.25%) was used at different temperatures (1000C for 2 hours, 1210C for 15 min and 1210C for 30 min) to obtain high yield of fermentable sugars. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the different variables i.e., crude enzyme concentration (2.5-7.5%), pH (4.5-5.5), temperature (45-550C) and time (4-12 hours) for the enzymatic saccharification of the hydrolysates produced using acid saccharification. The isolated fermentable sugars were used as fermentation media for production of SCP using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the process of fermentation was optimized using different starter culture concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) and incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours). Among the acid saccharification, 0.75% sulphuric acid at 1210C for 30 min resulted in highest amount of fermentable sugars whereas; among the enzymatic saccharification, 3.78% crude enzyme concentration, 4.59 pH, 450C temperature and 6.93 hours incubation time resulted in highest yield of fermentable sugars. Highest concentration of biomass (SCP) 22.3x107 cells/ml was observed using 2.5% starter culture concentration for 20 hours incubation. The developed conditions for the saccharification and SCP production can be efficiently utilized for SCP production at pilot scale.
Keywords: Wheat straw; acid saccharification; enzymatic saccharification; single cell protein.
Small scale bioreactor studies for sustainable municipal solid waste landfilling management in developing countries
by Tamru Tesseme, Sumedha Chakma
Abstract: In this study, an investigation was undertaken to solve reliable data simulation problems in the real landfill. Testing reactors were designed in prismoidal shape and loaded waste in different lifts. A control reactor was designed in circular shape and loaded with only fresh waste. All reactors were operated under the typical circumstance of the developing countries about 9 months and monitored leachate quality, the gas production and surface settlement. The results showed in the early stage of waste degradation, leachate quality and gas production were found significantly varied based on the waste pretreatment and pattern of placement. The settlement was also found seems to depend mainly on shape and scale of reactors. Therefore, the small-scale bioreactors should be designed in a prismoidal shape with appropriate scaling and run 250300 days for a rough simulation of the waste degradation pattern and mechanisms of the real landfills in the developing nations where the concept is still new.
Keywords: Small-scale bioreactors; prismoids shape; real landfills; developing countries; waste degradation mechanisms; solid waste management.
Remediation of Expansive Soils using Mango Kernel Ash and Calcium Carbide Residue
by Varaprasad B J S, Joga Jayapraksh Reddy, Joga SuryaPrakash Reddy
Abstract: To improve the Geotechnical Engineering properties of expansive soil, investigations were made by studying the suitability of Mango Kernel Ash (MKA) as an industrial waste as it is a cheap and satisfactory stabilizing agent for sub-base and base course. Although its performance can be improved by combining it with other bonding materials such as Calcium Carbide Residue (CCR). In the present study, a series of experimental tests on Atterbergs limits, compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Free Swell Index (FSI) and consolidation were conducted on the untreated and treated soil samples with MKA (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) and CCR by 4% in the Geotechnical Engineering laboratory. The soil properties were changed significantly, by adding MKA and CCR, as a result of reducing plasticity, increasing UCS value and improving soaked strength to make the soil more workable. It was observed that at 15% of MKA alone the UCS value was increased by 70%. Also at 4% of CCR with 15% MKA as optimum values, the UCS value was increased up to 95%. CBR value got improved by 85% compared to virgin samples. The FSI value also got reduced from an initial value of 140% to 35%.It is observed that all mixes show a decrement in their percentage volume change as compared with virgin soil. Thus, the addition of MKA and CCR to soils has proved to be cost-effective and an eco-friendly alternative to conventional materials to reduce the construction cost of the road, particularly in the rural areas of the country.
Keywords: Mango Kernel Ash; Calcium Carbide Residue; California bearing ratio; Standard Proctor; Unconfined compressive strength; Expansive soil; Stabilization agent.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF USSD-BASED SYSTEM FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
by Faiza Babakano
Abstract: As the world population grows so are the wastes that are produced. Most of these wastes are hazardous and are poses health challenges to the environment. Proper waste management is key towards ensuring that the human environment is preserved for the good health and well being of its inhabitants. Unfortunately, municipal solid waste disposal practices in most Nigerian cities fall short of the minimum standard expected. This research therefore, designed a novel ICT-based framework for waste management and consequently developed a simulation of USSD-Based communication and payment processes between the different stakeholders involved in waste management. Based on the performance of the simulated system, it is obvious that waste management can be made easier, transparent, more organized and sustainable.
Keywords: Solid Waste; Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD); Smart Systems; Charge As a Service (CAAS); Mobile Operations; Waste management; Framework; Simulation.
ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA WASTEWATER FOR VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS (VFA) PRODUCTION
by Mirian Niz, Edineia Formagini, Marc Boncz, Paula Paulo
Abstract: The acidogenic fermentation (AF) of cassava wastewater was investigated with adapted and unadapted inoculum sludge with and without methanogenic inhibition techniques to enhance accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in batch tests. Subsequently, the possibility of VFA chain elongation for the production of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) by means of addition of ethanol to the fermentation broth was evaluated. The unadapted sludge lead to 84.1% and 66.1% acidification for thermally inhibited and non-inhibited conditions respectively. These results are 10% and 45% higher than the degrees of acidification obtained under the same conditions with adapted sludge. Results show that neither sludge adaptation nor heat treatment were relevant to enhance VFA production. The pH of the fermentation broth seems to be the most important parameter for acidification. The optimum pH range for VFA production was 5.5 to 6, and the main product formed was butyric acid (87% of total acid produced). The addition of ethanol to the fermentation broth promoted MCFA formation.
Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; acidogenic fermentation; cassava wastewater; volatile fatty acids production; VFA; acidification degree; methanogenesis inhibition; heat shock; acidification; chain elongation; medium chain fatty acids; MCFA; ethanol.
Waste Management Perceptions of Aegean Islands Residents: A footprint due to Refugee Inflows
by Aristea Kounani, Constantina Skanavis, Kalliopi Marini, Valentina Plaka
Abstract: One of the greatest todays challenges, the planet is being confronted with, is that of mass refugee movements. Since March 2011, when the Syrian uprising turned into civil war, the extreme exodus of civilians made its strong appearance in the Aegean Sea. The present questionnaire-based research was conducted during the spring and summer of 2017 at the Greek Aegean islands, Lesvos and Skyros. The aim of the research was to reveal the locals general environmental awareness, their attitudes towards waste management, recycling and management of special wastes. As special wastes are considered the lifejackets and the inflatable boats, which could lead to calamitous situations when they are not managed in a sustainable manner. This study sought to answer mainly the following research questions; a) whether there were statistically significant differences between residents of the two Aegean Islands with regard to their views, and b) whether there were statistically significant correlations between the attitude towards waste management, the attitude towards recycling, the attitude towards the management of special wastes and their environmental awareness. This research was designed and implemented having the motivation to create an environmental awareness raising campaign for Greek residents concerning the great issue of waste management Greece is dealing with due to mass refugees arrivals.
Keywords: Waste Management; Migration; Environmental Awareness; Syrian Refugee Crisis; Greece.
A high-alkaline protease from Bacillus pseudofirmus SVB1: potential tool for green tannery
by Shampa Sen, Veeranki Venkata Dasu, Diptesh Mahajan
Abstract: Tannery industries at present widely employ conventional processes which generate a huge amount of pollutants. Despite recent advances in development of commercial enzymes capable of being used as substitute for physico-chemical production methods, various obstacles hinder their popularity in industries. Hence, pursuit of greener production processes as well as efficient ways to remediate the pollutants produced is still on-going. The objective of this study was to develop an eco-friendly alternative to the traditional physico-chemical processes carried out in tannery industries, by using alkaline protease isolated from Bacillus pseudofirmus SVB1 in tannery industries. The isolated protease was used for dehairing goatskin and its efficiency was compared with that of other commercially used alkaline proteases. SEM studies of de-haired goatskin revealed that the epidermis was completely removed and the uprooted hair left empty follicles in the skin. Mechanical properties of the dehaired skin also established the superiority of this method. A parallel attempt was made using this enzyme as a tool to facilitate bioremediation. The tannery effluents were treated using both crude and partially purified form of this protease. A significant drop in the levels of TS, COD and BOD was observed in comparison to other commercially used alkaline proteases.
Keywords: Alkaline protease; Skin dehairing; Tannery effluent; Bioremediation; BOD.
Current State of E-waste Management in India
by Pankaj Kaushik, Sunil Herat
Abstract: Electronic Waste, or E-Waste in common parlance, is increasingly becoming a cause of concern in developing countries like India, due to environmental and human health hazards associated with it. Ironically, constituents of e-waste can be valuable, at the same time being toxic. The practices involved in managing and treating the electronic waste in India have limitations that need to be identified and resolved. The waste management can be properly executed if there are proper collection and disposing methods adopted. This can be possible only if there is proper awareness related to the ill-effects of e-waste among common people. This paper highlights the status of e-waste in India and the various techniques used for recycling and their limitations. The indicators assessing e-waste can be utilized as basic parameters for analysis in any nation. The valuable constituents present in e-waste can be used in creating business opportunities if properly treated and recycled.
Keywords: e-waste; management; recycling; business opportunities.
ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONS OF A CAPITAL CITY DUMPSITE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRY: CURRENT PRACTICE, MANAGEMENT AND EFFECTS
by Folahan Ayodele, Benjamin Alo
Abstract: This research paper evaluated the current standing of Igbatoro dumpsite- the most active and largest state-managed dumpsite in Akure, Nigeria, its effects on the people and groundwater quality. In this study, questionnaires were administered to obtain responses from dwellers around the dumpsite. Some index property test were conducted on the underlying soil of the dumpsite. Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Dissolved Solids of leachate were determined. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses were conducted on three samples collected from three wells adjoining the dumpsite. It was found that the underlying soil are predominantly silty-sand and cannot prevent leachate migration. The water samples are contaminated with microbes. The views of dwellers within the dumpsite vicinity are that the dumpsite is of great concern to them and that the management of the dumpsite is poor. The results indicated the need for clear departure from unsafe open dumping to engineered landfill.
Keywords: Developing Countries; Dumpsite; Effects; Engineered landfill; Environment; Groundwater quality; Open dumpsites; Solid waste management; People; Waste Management.
MEASURING IMPACT OF INDIAN PORTS ON ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF REMEDIAL MEASURES TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
by Eliza Sharma, Subhankar Das
Abstract: As the Indian port sector flourishes through a boom in external trade, it becomes crucial to look into the environmental impact it creates on the coastal seas. Research aims to determine the environmental consequences of a rising port sector in India and checks the effectiveness of measures taken to curb growing pollution caused by port operations. Researchers have offered a comparative perspective of the green performance of major ports vis-
Keywords: Ports; Pollution; Environment; Major ports; Minor ports; India.
REDUCING THE AMMONIA CONTENT OF HOSPITAL LIQUID WASTE BY ACTIVE CARBON PLASTIC ORE ADSORPTION
by Tati Ruhmawati, Teguh Budiansyah, Elanda FIkri
Abstract: Considerable visits from patients increases the content of ammonia within the liquid waste of the hospital which, in turn, results in water pollution. Adsorption of active carbon is an alternative technology in reducing the ammonia level of liquid waste. This research aims at revealing the contact time of active carbon plastic ore towards the degression of ammonia level of liquid waste. This research was an experiment designed by Pretest-Postest design with control. The population of the research was all the liquid waste taken from the influent of RSUD Al Ihsan Bandung, while the sample of the research was taken from the population by time combining collection technique. The collected data was then analyzed using anova. The results of the research show that the average of the degression percentage for contact time of sixty minutes is 1840%, 90 minutes 35.07%, dand 12o minutes 48.77%. The value of t acquired from anova testing is 0.001, smaller than 0.05 (α 5%). There is significant influence of the variations of contact time of active carbon plastic ore on the degression of ammonia level of liquid waste. The results of the research could be utilized by the hospital to manage its liquid waste.
Keywords: Ammonia; Liquid Waste; Adsorption; Active Carbon; Plastic Ores.
Site selection of a waste incineration plant using integrated Fuzzy-ANP and Weighted Sum-ANP in Qazvin Province, Iran
by Naghmeh Mobarghaee Dinan, Mostafa Keshtkar, Zahra Mokhtari
Abstract: An incineration plant is one of the most efficient method to cope with municipal solid waste and simultaneously to convert the waste into energy. Undertaking site selection process is highly demanding to reach the utmost adaptability with the environment. Primarily, the authors of this paper faced three main tasks: identifying the criteria in site selection, weighting the importance of the criteria, and choosing an appropriate multi-criteria model which fitted in with the study. After identifying multiple criteria, an integrated Fuzzy Logic and Analytic Network Process are used to select a suitable place for incineration plant in Qazvin province. Calculating weight of the layers, then the weights was implemented in ANP method. Further, overlaying multiple layers, Weighted Sum and Fuzzy overlay were applied. The results of this research revealed that Fuzzy-ANP method provides more definite area in comparison with Weighted Sum-ANP. It was concluded that Fuzzy-NAP technique may be an applicable model in incineration plant siting procedure.
Keywords: Incineration plant; Site Selection; Analytical Network Process; Fuzzy Logic; Weighted Sum; Fuzzy-ANP; Municipal Solid Waste Management; Environmental management; Multi-criteria Decision Makingrnrn.
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION POTENTIAL COMPARISON OF SUCROSE AND CRUDE GLYCEROL USING DIFFERENT INOCULUMS SOURCES
by Maria Cristina De Almeida Silva, Luiz Olinto Monteggia
Abstract: The hydrogen production potential from crude glycerol was evaluated using a batch test, at four different food microrganisms ratios (F/M) and the results were compared with sucrose, a substrate considered a degradation model. It was used two different inoculums, one generated by natural fermentation of the used substrates and the other by direct inoculum, using pretreated anaerobic sludge. The obtained results indicated low hydrogen potential production using natural inoculum, mainly when sucrose was used as substrate. The predominant volatile fatty acids (VFA) were acetic and butyric acids, reaching acidification degree of up to 50%. The volumetric productivities were close to and even higher than those obtained with sucrose, with direct inoculum. It is believed that high concentrations of glycerol may have an inhibitory effect on hydrogen production, possibly due to the presence of impurities contained in this substrate.
Keywords: Hydrogen; Volatile fatty acids; Crude glycerol; Sucrose; Natural and direct inoculation.
Biodegradation of Purified Terephthalic Acid Manufacturing Effluent from a Petrochemical Industry
by Josephine Antonette Sophia Amalorpavanathan, Yamini Shah, Chandraprakash Gocher, Sunil Soni, Kalpana Gopalakrishnan, Rakshvir Jasra
Abstract: Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) is the raw material for polyester fibers, plastics, coating and adhesives. Its manufacture generates large volume of effluent with high concentration of Terephthalic acid (500-600 ppm), a critical pollutant. In this study a mixed culture made up of five types of bacteria, derived from the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) sludge was used to aerobically treat the PTA effluent, removing all the benzoates [4-Carboxybenzyl alcohol, Isophthalic acid, Terephthalic acid ,4-Carboxy Benzaldehyde (4-CBA), Benzoic acid, p-Toluic acid and Trimellitic acid] which contribute to its Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The study included optimization of pH (6-9), pH neutralizers and biomass concentration (≥2000 ppm Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids) for achieving 94-95% COD removal in 72-96 h, the results being supported by HPLC analysis. Metals (Co, Mn & Mg) reduced significantly (88%, ~100% & 83%, respectively), being utilized for growth or getting sequestered in the biomass. Characterization of the five pure cultures was carried out.
Keywords: Purified Terephthalic acid; wastewater; biodegradation; ETP sludge; COD; HPLC; pH neutralizer.
Hydraulic and Volume Change Characteristics of Compacted Clay Liner Blended with Exfoliated Vermiculite
by MUTHUKUMAR MAYAKRISHNAN, Sanjay Kumar Shukla
Abstract: Clays are used for the construction of waste containment barriers, because of its low hydraulic conductivity. Due to the difficulty in obtaining the natural clay satisfying the essential requirement as a liner material; commercially available bentonites are being used for the construction of clay liners. Bentonite undergoes large volume changes upon saturation. Various physical and chemical stabilization techniques are in practice to stabilize the bentonite. Previous studies reported that contaminants with high concentrations attack clay minerals leading to increase in their permeability. Exfoliated vermiculite, finds several applications in construction industry, also found to be good absorbent material. Hence, this study has been carried out to find the optimal percentage of vermiculite that can be added to the bentonite so that it satisfies the essential requirements of clay liners and absorb the heavy metals from contaminants. Several index properties and engineering properties tests on bentonite-vermiculite mixtures were performed. From the studies, it was found that 30% of vermiculite can be added to bentonite, so that the essential requirements of liner can be maintained.
Keywords: clay liner; exfoliated vermiculite; stabilization; sand-bentonite mixtures; waste containment system.
Estimation of Fate of Sulfamethoxazole in Soil by Adsorption Test and Diffusion Cell Test A Comparative Analysis
by Remya Neelancherry
Abstract: The present study investigated adsorption of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), one of the antibiotics of sulfonamide group, in three soils by adsorption and diffusion cell test. The removal efficiency of SMX by adsorption in soil-1, -2 and -3 were 80.16%, 23.39% and 15.51% when the organic matter (OM) content was 6.05%, 9.22% and 11.10% respectively. The respective maximum adsorption capacity estimated by adsorption test in the three soils were 3.31, 3.13 and 2.47 mg/g. On the other hand, the corresponding adsorption capacity obtained by the diffusion cell test was 0.016, 0.010, 0.008 mg/g, which showed 15 to 30 times decrease compared to the estimated values by adsorption test. The adsorption results showed a weak interaction and negative correlation of SMX with OM. The retardation factor of SMX in the three soils -1, -2, and -3 were respectively 181.32, 47.26 and 34.04. At SMX concentration greater than 10 mg/L, leaching of SMX increased with increase in pH due to increased hydrophilicity resulted by speciation of SMX.
Keywords: Sulfamethoxazole; soil; adsorption isotherm; adsorption capacity; central composite design; response surface methodology; diffusion coefficients; organic matter; pH; retardation factor.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF IMPACTS DUE TO IRREGULAR OCCUPATIONS AT THE MARGINS OF THE CAPIBARIBE RIVER, CITY OF S
by Maria Julia Holanda, Diogo Paz, Kalinny Lafayette, Marcia Silva, Tiana Ximenes
Abstract: Disorganized urban occupation in the surrounding river regions has had many negative impacts on natural systems and human populations. The Capibaribe river in the city of S
Keywords: irregular occupation; environmental impacts; permanent preservation areas.
Assessment of Heavy Metals in Simulated Leachates and Ashes of End-of-life Tyres
by Adebola Adeyi, Peter Oladoye
Abstract: Tyres are rubber-based materials with a complex structure. The chemical raw materials used in the manufacturing of tyres make recovery and disposal very difficult. During use, storage and disposal of end-of-life tyres, it constitutes a source of environmental pollution with potential threat to humans and the entire ecosystem. This study assesses the levels of heavy metals in simulated leachate of end-of-life tyres and its ashes. Two passenger car and motorbike tyres each and the ash generated when burnt were subjected to Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedures (TCLP), Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedures (SPLP) and DIN Batch test to simulate their environmental impacts when co-disposed with municipal solid wastes. Heavy metals in the simulated leachates were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion of the samples. Heavy metals concentrations varied with the types and quality of the tyres. Zinc concentrations were the highest among the heavy metals determined in the simulated leachates and ashes of all the tyres when the three leaching procedures were used. The concentrations of heavy metals in the TCLP leachates of end-of-life tyres ranged from 0.02-0.06 mg/L Cu, 3.13-5.86 mg/L Zn, 0.004-0.03 mg/L Cd, Not detected (ND)-0.04 mg/L Cr, and 0.08-0.13 mg/L Pb while it was 0.02-0.08 mg/L Cu, 153-262 mg/L Zn, 0.01-0.02 mg/L Cd, ND-0.86 mg/L Cr, and 0.13-0.29 mg/L Pb in the ashes. The highest concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb obtained in the SPLP leachates of end-of-life tyres were 0.06 mg/L, 3.05 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L and 0.08 mg/L, respectively. This showed that end-of-life tyres are potential source of heavy metals loading in the environment with the tendency to contaminate soil, surface water and groundwater. Thus, the need for their appropriate management is imperative.
Keywords: End-of-life tyres; environmental pollution; leachate; heavy metals; waste management.
Decolourization of malachite green dye by potassium carbonate-treated kernel shell adsorbent
by Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini
Abstract: The present study attempts to utilize potassium carbonate-treated kernel shell adsorbent for the decolourization of malachite green solution. The adsorbent was characterized using FESEM, surface area analyzer and FTIR. The bottle-point-technique was used to evaluate the adsorptive characteristics of kernel shell adsorbent. Results show that the equilibrium data are better represented by the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum malachite green removal of 15 mg/g. The pseudo-first-order model fitted well to the kinetics data, suggesting the diffusion-type adsorption of malachite green onto the kernel shell adsorbent. The chemically-treated kernel shell adsorbent is a potential candidate for the decolourization of cationic dye in water.
Keywords: Adsorbent; chemical treatment; decolourization; malachite green; palm kernel shell.
A comparative study of grey water generated from commercial and residential building
by Shamim Khan, Shifana Kaafil
Abstract: A comprehensive study is undertaken to compare the characteristics of grey water (GW) samples collected from the kitchen line of a commercial and residential building located in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The various characteristics of the samples analyzed in this paper are pH, conductivity, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness, temporary hardness, permanent hardness, chloride and biological oxygen demand (BOD). This study is useful to determine the type of treatment process for kitchen line GW because it depends largely on its characteristics in terms of the pollutant strength.
Keywords: Grey water; Pollutant strength; Commercial and Residential building.
Analysis of volumetric variation and specific deformation of municipal solid waste in experimental lysimeters
by Romulo De Medeiros Caribe, Libania Da Silva Ribeiro, Claudio Luis Araujo Neto, Raul Batista Araujo De Sousa, Breno Moura De Araujo Nobrega, Marcio Camargo De Melo, William De Paiva, Veruschka Escarião Dessoles Monteiro
Abstract: Problems involving operations, stability and deformability are common in landfills. In most cases, they occur due to high content of organic matter present in the waste mass. The objective of this research was to study the volumetric and specific deformation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using experimental lysimeters at different scales, with high and low concentrations of organic waste. The MSW sample was obtained from the city of Campina Grande-PB. Three experimental lysimeters were manufactured: two bench-scale lysimeters and one pilot-scale lysimeter. The monitoring of settlements was carried out by in situ measurements. The top layer of the pilot lysimeter showed the greatest loss of volume (0.45m3) over the period of 91 days. The bench lysimeter BL-OW provided massive volumetric deformation over time insofar as it had high concentrations of organic waste. Through this study, it could be inferred that small scale lysimeters can improve degradation.
Keywords: vertical deformation; gravimetric composition; volumetric composition; MSW.
STUDY OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER COMPOSITE
by Prashanth S P, Ananthayya M B
Abstract: Efforts are made throughout the world to develop an eco-friendly construction material, which will minimize the utility of natural resources and also green house gas emissions. In this regard, Geopolymer plays a vital role. Geopolymer is synthesized by fly ash, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. This report presents the experimental investigations carried out by varying ingredient quantity to study mechanical properties for geopolymer binder and mortar under ambient curing. In this trail mixes, the ratios of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate are taken 1:2, 1:2.25, 1:5, 1:2.75 and 1:3 with the varying ratios of (60%flyash+40% ggbs) percentages of 6,7,8 and 9. Similarly for all the above ratios, the water content is varied by 15%, 16%, 17% and 18% to the total weight of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. The test results show that for geopolymer binder ratios of 1:2.5:8, the maximum compressive strength was obtained.
Keywords: fly ash; GGBS; sodium silicate; sodium hydroxide.
Downstream Market Analysis of Used Oils in Trinidad and Tobago to Inform an Appropriate Waste Management Strategy
by Donnie Boodlal, David Alexander, Sarim Al Zubaidy, Maurissa Charles
Abstract: A Waste Oil Management System can be most effective if it is formulated for Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) based on measured volumes obtained from primary and secondary data. It was found that the annual consumption of base oil in T&T is 15 million litres.
The major issues with waste oil management in T&T are the lack of adequate strategies, technologies and collectors, which are addressed in this study. A survey of stakeholders views revealed that most preferred proper recycling and proper disposal and that they are prepared to enter into agreement with collectors to achieve these ends. The eight waste oil dealers in Trinidad collect as well as recycle it, whereas the eight dealers in Tobago only collect the oil. The dealers declare volumes of 72 million litres/pa out of which 4 million litres/pa are exported and the remainder 68 million litres/pa remain in Trinidad. Only one mass disposal site was identified in Guapo, whose capacity is much smaller than the above figure, which suggests one of the following scenarios: the export of waste oil is greater than declared; or there are more dealers than has been uncovered or there is illegal dumping. All three scenarios are possible. Analysis of export data obtained from the Custom and Excise, Ministry of Finance, suggests that the first scenario is most plausible.
Export data shows that T&T exports 242 million litres of lubricating oils, which is much higher than the amount of waste oil generated in T&T and also the amount declared by the major waste oil dealers (4 million/pa). The above discrepancy suggests that a more accurate waste oil inventory for T&T is required. Clarification of the gap is confirmed by the Environmental Management Authority (EMA), which cites two cases of illegal export of waste oil in 2014 and 2017.
This sophisticated waste oil market remains unregulated. Therefore, market decisions have to be based on the inaccurate volumes declared by the known dealers. Three products are identified with their average global prices: Base Oil (2.90 USD/gal); Fuel Oil (1.2 USD/gal); and Off-specification Diesel (1.80 USD/gal).
From data gathered, it is seen that the market volume of Base Oil in T&T is limited to 15 million litres/pa as this is the amount used in the nations sole blending facility. It was also found that the Fuel Oil market is saturated at 2.2 billion litres, which represented exports from Petrotrin in 2016. The market volume for Off-Specification Diesel could not be estimated as the only possible consumers and retailers of this product in T&T is disinterested in this product.
Keywords: Waste Oil Management; Market Study; Market Survey; Waste Management.
An equilibrium and kinetic study for the removal of reactive red M5B using phosphoric acid treated activated carbon
by Senthamil Selvan Kuppusamy, Meena Sundari Perumalsamy, Madhavakrishnan Sakthivel, Palanivel Muthusamy, Jayakumar Raja
Abstract: The objective of the study is to develop an adsorbent which is abundant with economical and environmental friendly characteristics to remove reactive dye from its aqueous solution. The municipal solid waste modified by H3PO4 activated carbon (MSWAC) was prepared and characterized. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was tested towards Reactive Red M5B, a representative of industrial effluent at varied operational conditions by using batch method. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the characteristics of adsorption behavior. Kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The virgin characteristics of MSWAC were studied using BET surface area, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The result indicated that MSWAC as a low cost adsorbent and it can be effectively used for treating textile industry effluent.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Langmuir; Freundlich; Temkin.
Lean Manufacturing in Pharmaceutical Closed-Loop Supply Chain
by Anup Kumar, Kampan Mukherjee
Abstract: Waste control has become the key focus in the global pharmaceutical supply chain. Waste viewing and control is a skill according to lean ideology. This paper presents a model that could map the pharmacy supply chain and able to project waste. Further waste can be again channelized through remanufacturing or disposed of through the proper process. Several models have been developed in the literature where the aim is mostly to optimize cost or profit and to find the optimal order quantity for integrated production and remanufacturing system. In this study, a lean approach has been adopted to explore the waste using system dynamics as a tool to model an inventory control system for remanufacturing and disposal of the pharmaceutical closed loop supply chain.
Keywords: System Dynamics; Lean remanufacturing; Inventory control; closed loop supply chain.
An eco-friendly novel technique for power generation utilizing municipal waste water and sludge recycling
by Harendra K. Sharma, Mudit Singh, Gajanan Pandey
Abstract: Presently world is in need of more energy and drinking water due to the increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. Conventional sources of energy are limited, nonrenewable, and health hazardous. There are verities of power plants, like thermal, hydro, wind etc, running all around the world, however they cause health hazards, need large infrastructure, create ecological imbalance and waste a lot of energy in form of heat, sound etc. The present work aims to combine various power plants in a single unit system, utilizing the waste energy loss, resulting augmentation in the efficiency of plant. It reduces the energy losses and provides pure drinking water from the municipal waste water. It solves the problem of solid waste treatment, because the domestic solid waste materials have been utilized to generate valuable products like oil, charcoal etc. along with power. It works continuously throughout the year, reduces infrastructures, as well as economical and eco-friendly too. The present work is centered on increasing wind velocity from 21m/s to 50 m/s, which does not fluctuate. Moreover, it works in the absence of sunshine efficiently, and produces power of more than 10,000 GWh/year. The hydro power plant (HPP) can produce energy up-to 367 MW, biogas power plant (BPP) can generate power more than 54750000 KWh/year while solar power plant can generate power according to installation. Hereunder designed solar aero power plant (SAEP) can produce 14.5 times more power than the hydro power plant, utilizing same amount of water.
Keywords: Sewage Water Treatment; Hydro Power Plant; Solar Power Plant; Biogas Power Plant; Pyrolysis; Solar Aero Power Plant.
Eradicating poverty among the waste workers through waste collection? A case study of Dhaka city
by Mehe Rahman, Chamhuri Siwar, Rawshan Begum
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the factors affecting the waste collection to poverty reduction among the waste workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Particular interest is on the question whether the contribution of some determinants actively plays a role in reducing the possibility of being poor. This issue is particularly significant since it has been argued in various relevant literature. There is potential for the waste picking sector to play an important role in alleviating poverty of the waste workers. This research provides the empirical evidence for answering this question by estimating a logistic regression model using primary data gathered within Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Research results showed that the education of the respondent, number of the dependent in family , training, and collection of recyclable items were significant negative predictors at 5% level of significance. Framing policy to develop skilled waste workers could be an effective strategy towards implementing a sustainable waste management system in Bangladesh. The findings of this study imply that promoting organized and systematic waste management activities, such as intensifying urban industrialization with formal sector, will have a positive impact on efforts to reduce poverty.
Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Poverty Reduction.
Modeling and appraisal of cadmium removal from water by sustainable biowaste of hen egg shells
by Aliya Fazal, Uzaira Rafique
Abstract: Hen egg shells powder is investigated as adsorbent for the removal of cadmium (Cd) from water with and without chemical modification. Batch sorption studies were performed at different biowaste dose, metal ions solution initial concentration, pH, particle size and agitation. Optimal removal efficiency of Cd is noted in 45 minutes, quantifying 86 % removal by 2 g optimized dose at 100 rpm. Maximum adsorption occurred at pH 7. The kinetic data is modeled with the help of reaction based equations; the data is well fitted with pseudo second order model. Hydrolysed and oxidised egg shells revealed enhanced remediation of cadmium possibly due to increased lactonic sites. The use of egg shells as value added adsorbent will be thoughtful endeavor of turning waste into commodity.
Keywords: adsorption; biowaste; kinetic; modification.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND METAHNE GENERATION IN KOTA CITY
by Shikha Saxena
Abstract: Solid Waste Management is a Challenge both at the global level and the local level. Solid wastes must be properly managed by determining that they are hazardous wastes. Methane is the major Greenhouse Gas, which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHGs from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfill areas in India are not planned. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from the MSW landfill areas of Kota city.
Keywords: Solid Waste Management;Green house gases;Methane Generation.