International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (19 papers in press)
Recycling of Waste derived calcium hydroxide through high temperature solid-state reaction with quartz powders
by Eguakhide Oaikhinan, Chijioke Nwobodo
Abstract: Mixtures of the waste derived calcium hydroxide and quartz powders have been used to demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing varieties of calcium silicates from high temperature solid-state reaction as a means of recycling the waste material. Density measurements were used to monitor the reactions.
Keywords: Recycling; Waste derived calcium hydroxide; quartz; calcium silicates.
Current practice and policy for transforming E-waste into urban mining: Case study in Taiwan
by Wen-Tien Tsai
Abstract: In Taiwan, the recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) started in the late 1990s in response to the increasingly serious municipal solid waste (MSW) management problem. In this regard, the amount of E-waste, mainly generated from the information technology (IT) products, home electrical appliances and lightings, is increasing most rapidly because Taiwan is one of the most important suppliers for electrical and electronic products in the world. As a consequence, Taiwan had the third-highest per capita E-waste generation in Asia. The objective of this overview paper was to study the regulatory promotion of E-waste recycling under the 4-in-1 Program and also update its current status during the period of 2001-2015. Furthermore, this paper also presented a successful case of the waste fluorescent tube processing, which gave a demonstration through its innovative design technology for mercury recovery. Although the annual quantity of E-waste recycling through the implementing agencies seemed to significantly increase from 7,321 tons in 2001 to 74,421 tons in 2015, the recycling market in Taiwan indicated a mature trend in recent years due to the aging population and slow economic growth. To make further progress in urban mining, some prospects were addressed to create the economic value and increase the resource recycling rate of E-waste through green procurement and innovative technologies in Taiwan.
Keywords: E-waste; Electric and electronic equipment; Recycling; Material resources; Regulatory promotion; Mercury recovery.
Study on Regeneration of Spent Hydrochloric Acid in Chemical Coal Leaching Process
by SANTOSH KUMAR SRIRAMOJU, Pratik Swarup Dash
Abstract: Low ash clean coal is suggested for its use in metallurgical and thermal power plants. Since the ash containing minerals in coal are finely distributed inside the organic matter; chemical leaching process has better advantage over the conventional physical cleaning techniques. Coal leaching process is a two stage process where alkali and acid leaching cycles are used for separation of different ash constituents. Techno-economic feasibility of the process depends on the regeneration of spent chemicals and also the disposal of these chemicals is of great concern due to the environmental regulations. After leaching process, most of the ash constituents are present in the spent acid and hence purification spent acid containing of silica, alumina, iron, calcium and magnesium as impurities is of great importance. For separation of the impurities, four different methods namely adsorption process using activated carbon, ion exchange method with strongly anion exchange resin, pyrohydrolysis method and neutralization method are studied. Results with adsorption and ion exchange techniques are poor and a maximum of 50% separation is being observed. Results indicate that, pyrohydrolysis shows better performance with highly pure (> 99% pure) hydrochloric acid as product but the cost is highly energy intensive. Stage-wise neutralization followed by acidification is novel technique, and is promising for purification of dilute acid. Stage wise neutralization process produces 86.7% pure Magnesium oxide product and 93.86% pure calcium salt by acidification. It was also found that, the silica can be separated from the spent acid by digestion technique.
Keywords: Adsorption; Coal; Leaching; Neutralization; Pyrohydrolysis.
Valorization of a wastewater in the treatment of leachate from municipal solid waste in morocco
by Meriem Abouri, Abdelhakim Elmaguiri, Salah Souabi, M.Abdelaaziz Aboulhassan
Abstract: In most countries, sanitary landfilling is the common way to dispose municipal solid wastes. In general, leachate treatment is a difficult and expensive process. Although; leachate can be treated by biological processes, chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency is usually low due to high ammonium ion content and the presence of toxic compounds such as metal ions. This experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of coagulationflocculation process on the fresh leachate resulting from compacting of solid waste of Mohammedia city. The effects of SIWW (Steel Industry Wastewater) rich in Fe3+ and commercial coagulant ferric chloride of 40 % with various dosages and also coagulation pH on the removal of turbidity, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids were studied. Based on the results of this study, the best coagulant for color and turbidity removal was SIWW. An equivalent of 7080 mg.L-1 of FeCl3 was needed to effectively remove 63% of turbidity. This liquid waste can remove 44.5% of COD at the concentration equal to 1000 mg.L-1 of FeCl3. The physico-chemical process may be used as an effective pretreatment process, especially for fresh leachate, prior to post-treatment (polishing) for partially stabilized leachate.
Keywords: Coagulation flocculation treatment; Fresh leachate; Municipal Solid Waste; Steel Industry Wastewater.
FEASIBILITY OF SAND FILTERS TO WASWATER TREATMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN ALGERIA: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.
by KHEROUF MAZOUZ, BOUTELDJA FATHE, Maoui AMMAR, PIERRE BREUL
Abstract: The treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filters is a very interesting alternative technique to collective sewerage in rural areas. In order to assess the accuracy of this technique in Algeria, a feasibility study based on a statistical survey and an experimental study is carried out. The aim of the statistical survey is to determine the potential for the application of this technique by evaluating the rate of connection to collective sewerage networks and the existence of a sewage treatment system in rural area. The results of this study show economical and technical interest of the use of sand filter. The implementation of filters in this area contributes to the protection of groundwater and public health. The purpose of the experimental study is to assess the suitability of the local sands for this type of process. In this paper the treatment performance over time of two different sands (medium and coarse) are evaluated. The chemical analyses of wastewater and filtered water showed a removal ranges between 57 and 74% for medium sand and between 7 and 49% for coarse sand. During the test period the results obtained indicate a better performance of medium sand comparing to the coarse sand. The use of reeds for coarse sand has improved the treatment performance (reached 74%). This result shows the beneficial effect of the use of reeds to purification of wastewater by coarse sand which showed without reeds a limiting performance. The MVS carried out for medium sand show biological activity in filter necessary for wastewater treatment without showing early clogging.
Keywords: Sand filters; domestic wastewater; rural areas; statistics survey; treatment performance.
A study on the potential uses of Bottom and Fly ash in Mauritius
by Mohammad Emamdee, Sindra Lutchmee Summoogum Utchanah
Abstract: Faced with demographic explosion and fuelled by its endeavours to become developed, Mauritius has seen a hike in its electricity consumption pattern. The bulk of electricity is generated by burning solid fuels which are namely coal and sugarcane bagasse. Consequently, ash is produced as waste product. Till date, both coal and bagasse ashes are being disposed of in a very unsustainable manner. Due to the availability of numerous studies on coal ash, focus has been laid on bagasse ash. This study analyses the possible ways of valorising bagasse bottom ash (BBA) and bagasse fly ash (BFA) better suited for the Mauritian context. A series of laboratory tests namely moisture content (MC), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), loss on ignition (LOI) and monitoring of the leaching behaviour of phosphate and nitrate were carried out. To monitor the leaching behaviour of nitrate and phosphate, a leaching model has been developed. Following the experimental analysis, several potential utilisation are put forward.
Keywords: Bagasse bottom ash; bagasse fly ash; moisture content; loss of ignition; leaching.
Modelling Efficiency of Industrial Waste Utilized for Microsurfacing Using Artificial Neural Networks
by Rajesh Gujar, Gautam Dadhich
Abstract: Disposal of industrial waste materials causes environmental and health problems. Over recent decades, intensive research studies have been carried out to explore all possible reuse methods. Copper slag, rice husk, and fly ash are the significant industrial waste in India and these are materials have great potential to be utilized in road construction and maintenance work due to their pozzolanic nature. Microsurfacing is a road maintenance technique that involves laying a mixture of dense-graded aggregate, asphalt emulsion, water, a polymer additive and mineral fillers to correct or prevent specific deficiencies such as potholes and cracks. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to utilize and assess the efficiency of industrial waste materials such as copper slag, rice husk and fly ash as an alternative of traditional mineral filler (cement) micro surfacing mix. Some laboratory tests assess the efficiency of these waste materials. This involves the preparation of trial mixes with variations in the content of asphalt emulsion, water, mineral filler, and additives as desired to determine the effects of changes on quality of mixing, breaking, and setting characteristics to ensure proper control of the system in the field. These quality characteristics are derived at various proportions of these waste materials form series of laboratory investigation. The determination of optimum proportion mineral filler and additive requires rigorous laboratory testing, which is time-consuming and laborious. There was a need develop a model to determine the optimum proportion of waste materials which ensure the quality of designed micro surfacing mix. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used to create a model for prediction of the optimum proportion of mineral filler and additive due to non-linearity of data. ANN has remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated data and modeling of extremely complex functions. ANNs are particularly useful in prediction where highly nonlinear approaches are required to model the available data. In present study since there are five inputs (dimensions) and two outputs having nonlinear relationship ANN modeling suits to be best for output prediction. The Bayesian regularization algorithm was used to train the network. It helps to reduce the probability of over-fitting. The micro surfacing characteristics are a function of 5 input performance parameters namely mixing time, cohesion (30 min), cohesion (60 min), setting time and wet track abrasion test. The two output parameters are filler proportion and control additive balance. A total of 56 micro-surfacing mix samples were tested in the laboratory for each filler namely copper slag, rice husk and fly. The model tool developed shall ease in determining the mix design parameters, i.e. filler content and additive percentage to achieve the desired effect.
Keywords: ANN; Waste management; Fly ash; Copper slag; Fly ash; Pavement; microsurfacing.
Characterisation and calorific potential of waste generated in Mexico City for energy production
by Pablo Emilio Escamilla-Garcia, Maria Elena Tavera-Cortes, Francisco Perez-Soto
Abstract: This paper highlights the characterization of waste in a major disposal site in Mexico City. The research involves the application of a methodology comprising activities such as delimitation of area for selection according to borough of origin, sorting of materials, weighing of samples, lab tests and determination of calorific potential. The results obtained enabled the determination of physicochemical characteristics of the sub-products. It must be noted that although the quartering method applied is described in national guidelines including: NMX-AA-015-1985, NMX-AA-019-1985, NMX-AA-22-1985 and NMX standards AA-61-1985; accurate data related to specific composition of waste in landfill sites in Mexico City and its calorific potential is unknown. It was determined that only 19.43% of all samples included organic waste and the rest was split into 25 different materials. High-density polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride were identified as the main plastic components within a classification of 19 materials, with 31.30% and 13.91% respectively. Finally the samples of waste per Borough resulted in an average calorific value of 3,192.27 (kcal/kg). Therefore, this research provides a first approach to reliable data about the real status of the municipal solid waste in Mexico City not only by characterizing the waste and obtaining the calorific potential, but also by comparing this values with information from other Cities worldwide in order to determine the potential to produce energy from waste.
Keywords: Waste characterisation; Landfill sites; Calorific value; Plastic waste.
Willingness to pay for sachet water plastic waste management through deposit-refund system
by Matthew Biniyam Kursah, Anthony Baabereyir
Abstract: Deposit refund system (DRS) combines a tax on product consumption with a refund when the product or its packaging is returned for recycling or for appropriate disposal. The policy is gaining more consideration as it has become difficult to impose a direct tax on disposal, since people may avoid the tax through midnight dumping. However, the willingness to pay (WTP) for DRS has not been explored in Ghana. This study was therefore conducted in order to ascertain whether residents in Accra, Tema and the surrounding communities are willing to pay for plastic waste management using the DRS, how much they are willing to pay as well as their concerns on the implementation of this policy instrument. It also correlated the willingness to pay amount (WTPA) against socio-economic variables such as income, educational level age and neighbourhood type of the residents. Through accidental sampling technique, respondents were randomly approached to participate in the questionnaire administration, and the result coded and analysed in SPSS. The result showed a high level of WTP (64.8%) among participants. The minimum WTPA is 1GHp and the maximum amount is 20GHp, the same amount it costs to purchase the product. The mean WTPA per a sachet is approximately 8GHp (7.75GHp), that is, 40% of the current unit cost of the product (sachet water). The result also showed that lower income earners were willing to pay a higher amount as deposit-refund than the high-income earners. The educational level, age and neighbourhood type correlated positively, while income had an inverse relationship with the WTPA. However, all these socioeconomic variables, with the exception of age, were not statistically significant correlators of WTPA. Also, more than half (51.1%) of the participants thought that DRS was a good policy instrument and did not raise any negative concern about its implementation. However, some concerns such as the nature of the implementation, effectiveness, locational, awareness, incentive and health issues were raised. It is, therefore, recommended that policymakers consider introducing the DRS but in the process address the concerns raised by the study participants.
Keywords: Deposit-refund system; disposal fee; midnight dumping; waste disposal; waste management; willingness to pay.
Competitive Removal of Lead Copper and Cadmium Ions by Sorptive Flotation using Marble Wastes
by Abeer Alwared
Abstract: Marble waste is a by-product worldwide available in large amounts. In this study, the potential of marble waste for the removal of lead, copper and cadmium ions from aqueous solution using sorptive flotation was investigated. The results indicated that maximum adsorption capacity was 24.695, 19.4675 and 7.91 mg/g dry marble within 90 minutes contact time at pH 5-6 and the maximum removal efficiency obtained by sorptive flotation at relatively short time in single system was about 99.95%, 84.58% and 78.697% for Pb+2, Cu+2and Cd+2 ions ,respectively., also results show that the removal efficiency decreased in binary and ternary system compared with single component system. The sequence for metal ions removal in single, binary and ternary systems was Pb > Cu > Cd. Chemical analysis of marble wastes indicated that it consists mainly of calcite (CaCO3) and to some extent of quartz (SiO2) which were responsible for sorption of metal ions. In addition, the experimental data indicated that the sorption of these metal ions fitted well the Langmuir isotherm for single system and extended Langmuir for binary and ternary system. Kinetic studies showed that a pseudo second order model was more suitable than the pseudo first order model.
Keywords: Heavy metals; Marble waste; Adsorptive flotation.
Enablers of Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management System in India
by Mohd. Nishat Faisal, Faisal Talib, Mohammed Khurrum Bhutta
Abstract: The present study moves beyond the traditional focus of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) of collection and disposal to sustainable MSWM that takes a systems view and addresses issues related to waste prevention, waste reduction, and waste segregation. The empirical study was conducted in large cities in North India that have a very high rate of solid waste generation. The study was conducted in two stages in the first stage, an empirical study with two major stakeholders, the elected and government officials was conducted. In the second stage, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) was applied to evolve a hierarchy-based relationship among the enablers of sustainable MSWM. According to the results of empirical study, there are disagreements on several issues considered as strategic to implement a sustainable municipal solid waste management. Thus, there is a need to bring all the stakeholders agree on common policy issues of sustainable MSWM. Further, the ISM model shows that there exists a group of variables having a high driving power and low dependence requiring maximum attention and are of strategic importance.
Keywords: Sustainability; Municipal Solid Waste Management; India; Interpretive Structural Modeling.
Use of zeolite and biogenic silica rich rocks as olive oil mill waste absorbents
by Michael Stamatakis, George Stamatakis, Stefania Stamataki
Abstract: Microporous materials have been tested as absorbent of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) from a 3-phase mill. The aim of the present study is to characterize and test the OOMW absorption capacity of fine-grained rocks. The materials tested were zeolite-rich tuff, clay- and zeolite-rich tuff, opal-A-rich clayey rock and opal-CT- and zeolite-rich clays. The samples were characterized and physico-chemically analysed. The samples exhibit significant differences of their physicochemical properties. Correlations indicated that the OOMW absorption capacity depended mainly on the cumulative volume of pores. Very small pores did not affect considerably the OOMW uptake in contrast to the bigger pores. The opal-CT- and zeolite-rich clayey rock was the most efficient absorbent. It is concluded that the synergistic action of three structurally diverse, randomly ordered microporous components which rarely coexist in rocks naturally, results in high cumulative volume of pores and an increased absorption capacity.
Keywords: olive oil mill waste; absorbents; zeolites; biogenic silica; diatomite; opal; montmorillonite.
Investigating Composting Progress of Kitchen Wastes Using Rate of Change and Cross-correlation Approaches
by Reza Ebrahimzadeh, Ahmad Ghazanfari Moghaddam, Hamid Mortezapour
Abstract: Due to the compact structure and high moisture of kitchen wastes, proper composting of these wastes requires addition of some bulking agent. In this study, mixtures of kitchen and pruning of elm trees were composted in a 30-day period. Randomized complete design consisting of three treatments of natural, low and high aeration rates was used as the experimental design. The process was monitored by measuring temperature, emitted ammonia and carbon monoxide every two hours, and the pH and volatile organic matter, every two days. Two-day average data were plotted versus time and analyzed to justify the reasons and the exact occurrence day of the changes. The results indicated with increase in the aeration rate the temperatures of the treatments increased. The pH values of the treatments decreased initially to a minimum of 5.0 and then it increased continuously. The emitted ammonia and CO initially rose but then continually decreased. For further assessing the details of these changes, the rates of change of each factor were calculated and plotted versus time. The rate of change graphs showed two distinct phases of 1) active and 2) constant rate for all measured factors. A correlation analysis approach was used to investigate the inter-relationship between the changes in the five considered factors. This analysis indicated that reduction in volatile organic matter and emitted CO and ammonia were highly negatively correlated with the pH (r ̅ =-0.72) but their correlations with temperature were low.
Keywords: Kitchen waste. Bulking agent. Aeration rate. Ammonia emission. Rate of change. Correlation matrix.
Heavy metals bio-accumulation and transfer in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) irrigated with industrial wastewater
by Ghasem Rahimi, Zahra Kolahchi, Sajad Bayat
Abstract: Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in crops irrigated with wastewater is threatening the food chain. However, few investigations have dealt with managing risks of industrial waste water application for a medicinal plant. The main purpose of the study was to assess some heavy metals bioaccumulation in lemon balm and assess the risks involved. Pot experiments were conducted on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) irrigated with industrial wastewater. The analysis showed concentrations of heavy metals in soil and organs of the plant. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn in the soil for all treatments were higher than root and aerial parts of the plant. At the highest application of the wastewater, concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn (mg kg -1) in soil were significantly higher than others. In all treatments, Ni, Pb and Zn decreased by soil >> root > stem > leaf > seed. Bioaccumulation factor for Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn were less than transfer factors from root to stem, stem to leaf and stem to seed of the plant, stressing on the high concentration of the metals in the soil compared to organs of the plant. The absence of Cd in the plant leaves indicated that lemon balm was a suitable crop for contaminated soils, especially with Cd, because heavy metals contamination in aerial plant organs was less than the soil and root. The studied wastewater should not comprise more than 25 % of water used for agricultural purposes.
Keywords: Bio-Accumulation; Environment; Heavy Metal; Industrial Wastewater; Lemon Balm; Pollution;
Pot Experiment; Risk Management; Transfer Factor; Uptake.
Increasing Business Value: Combined Heat & Power Systems, the way of future or the way now? Take the initiative and develop a sustainable strategic approach
by Mario Cora, Yung-Tse Hung
Abstract: This article provides an overview of combined heat and power (CHP) systems as a sustainable approach for energy production, its benefits to users (i.e., industries and commercial buildings), and its successful implementation in business organizations. Sound environmental management and compliance can (and should) be linked to financial value, and therefore, point to the planning, implementation, and operation of environmentally sustainable energy production systems to meet the strategic goals of any organization. Increased regulatory pressures and energy costs require better planning and a different strategy to help shape the financial bottom line in any organization. CHP systems have proven to be a suitable technology to better achieve the strategic goals of environmental sustainability. The wise operation of these systems lead to environmental sustainability due to the increase in energy use efficiencies and the emission reduction of criteria pollutants (i.e., CO, NO2, SO2, PM), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), and greenhouse gases (i.e., CO2) to the atmosphere. These benefits are directly linked to a different approach in the life cycle of energy generation projects, which considers not only the design of system configurations that lead to increase thermal heat recovery efficiencies/net reduction in fuel efficiency, but also the potential uses of the produced energy. These systems provide a win-win situation (net benefit) to its users (financial), the environment (planet), and the general public (society).
Keywords: combined heat & power; internal combustion engine; gas turbines; cogeneration; power generation; energy efficiency; air pollution; value creation; and sustainability.
Walnut shells; Food processing waste from western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh as an excellent source for production of activated carbon with highly acidic surface
by RIPU DAMAN KUMAR, Krishna Kadirvelu, G.K. Kannan
Abstract: Activated carbon one of the best adsorbent for various organic and inorganic pollutants can be made from various raw materials and by different methods of processing. The properties of the activated carbon made by the above techniques could be further modified and enhanced by various physical and chemical methods. The activated carbon was produced at different temperature i.e. 3000C, 3500C, 4000C and 5000C respectively. The properties of the activated carbon were further modified and enhanced by treating it with H2SO4, H3PO4 and ZnCl2. As the final temperature of carbonization increases, ash content, sorption activity and carbonizate yield of walnut are found to diverge slightly. Development of porous structure as a consequence of chemical activation is clearly visible from the SEM micrographs of these carbons. Out of three different chemical activation i.e. Sulphuric acid activated walnut shell carbon (SAAWSC), Zinc chloride activated walnut shell carbon (ZCAWSC) and Phosphoric acid activated walnut shell carbon (PAAWSC), the sulphuric acid activated carbon has been found with highest surface area of 745 m2/g. The surface of these activated carbons is highly acidic with a maximum phenolic groups 5.72 meq/g in case of Phosphoric acid activation. The pHzpc ranges between 4-4.5 for these activated carbons from waste walnut shells.
Keywords: : Activated carbon; Walnut shells; Surface area; porosity; chemical activation; Acidic groups.
Municipal solid waste disposal in Brazil: improvements and challenges
by Victor Nascimento, Anahi Sobral, Manfred Fehr, Nazli Yesiller, Pedro Ribeiro Andrade, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud Ometto
Abstract: The proper disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a global challenge, mainly in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to review recent improvements and remaining challenges of municipal solid waste disposal (MSWD) in Brazil focusing on the environmental impacts caused by inappropriate disposal of MSW. Before the implementation of the Brazilian Solid Waste Policy (BSWP), in 2008, 72.3% of all municipalities in Brazil disposed of their MSW in open dumps and uncontrolled landfills. In 2015, after the deadline given by the BSWP to close all open dumps and uncontrolled landfills had expired, 60% of all Brazilian municipalities still dispose their MSW improperly. Therefore, while progress occurred in the management practices for MSWD in Brazil, the improvements have not occurred as fast as expected by the BSWP and several shortcomings remain, which cause significant environmental impacts.
Keywords: municipal solid waste generation; municipal solid waste management; landfill; open dumps; environmental impact; Brazil.
Study of Characteristics of Leachate and its Influence on Groundwater Quality near Improper Landfill Site in Jammu City, India
by Yawar Mushtaq Raina, Pervez Alam, Mohd Iqbal Raina
Abstract: Increase in groundwater contamination day by day have demonstrated the need for analysis on leach-ate and groundwater samples due to disposal of solid waste near an improper landfill site at Jammu city. Leach-ate samples were analyzed for all the physicochemical parameters whereas pH, electrical conductivity, total dis-solved solids (TDS), BOD, COD, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, iron and Coliform organisms were studied for groundwater samples at different locations near the landfill site using the methods recom-mended by APHA-AWWA-WPCF. Presence of heavy metals in leachate samples revealed that almost every type of waste is dumped at this landfill site. The most affected sampling location as a result of mixing of leach-ate with groundwater was the one which was nearest to the landfill site and least affected was the farthest among all. As the distance from the landfill site was increasing, contamination level of groundwater was de-creasing. Ground water locations especially to the north and east of landfill site were having parameters like pH, TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride, Sulphate and Iron on higher side then the desirable limit of BIS and hence water was found to be unfit for drinking and other domestic purposes.
Keywords: leachate; landfill; solid waste; groundwater; Jammu; environment; pollution; population; physico-chemical parameters; sampling.
Special Issue on: Internet of Things in Environment, Agriculture and Waste Management
Economic Utilization of Rice Straw -An Effort for Preventing Social Hazard
by Pardeep Aggarwal
Abstract: Plumes of smoke arising from the fields is a very common sight in Punjab and Haryana during rice harvesting season. This is mainly because of the excessive indulgence of rice straw burning which emits trace toxic gases adversely affecting human health as well as the environment. Every year about 12 million tons of rice straw, out of total production of 20 Million tonnes of Rice straw is burnt in the State of Punjab, India only. Biomass burning is a major source of many air born particles and trace gases. It is recognized as a significant global source of emissions, contributing as much as 40% of gross CO2, 32% of Carbon monoxide (CO), 20% of particulate matter (PM) and 50% of polycyclic aromatic hydro carbons (PAHs) released in to environment around the globe
(CEC-2014, Burning Agriculture waste; a source of dioxins, Montreal, Canada)There are primarily two types of rice residues such as rice straw and rice husk. Technology for rice husk is well established and husk procurement is available easily from rice mills on continuous basis. However, rice straw technology for power generation is rarely used because of many challenges involved with the same. The collection and storage of rice straw is one of the major challenge which is very laborious.
About 90% of rice production is from Asian countries, and among them East Asian countries contribute the highest share of rice production. In 2013, as per Food and Agriculture Organisation, the production of rice straw in China reached 254 million tones and in India 199 million tonnes.
Thus there is an indispensable need to promote effective utilization of Rice straw for pollution abatement, economic well-being of farmers, and acceleration of resource-saving and environmental-protected society constructions. Rice straw can be used for power generation and ethanol production.
One of the main reason that we have not witnessed any upscale of 100% rice straw based biomass power plants in India is mainly attributed to the challenges that come with it like straw collection, storage, protection, transportation, cutting, jamming in the fuel feeding system, etc. To overcome all these problems there is a need to experiment for a successful and sustainable tried and tested fuel supply chain management of rice straw for power generation.
In an attempt to curb the same, the Government of Punjab, India installed a 10 MW plant in Jalkheri, Punjab but could not be operated successfully. Thereafter, lot of tenders were issued for setting up Rice straw plants but nobody has shown interest in the same because of challenges in maintaining and operating the power plant throughout the year and biggest challenge is Supply chain management of rice straw.
Presently there is only one 100% rice straw based power plant in India i.e. 12 MW project located in District Patiala, India which is being operated by M/s Punjab Biomass Power Limited.
The plant requires around 120000 MT of rice straw annually for its operation at 70% plant load factor . The collection and storage of fuel supply for continuous operation of the plant is a very challenging task. The fuel logistics has to be planned in a proper way to ensure operation of the plant round the year. Given these dire conditions the plant has however developed a mechanized logistics system for handling such a volume of rice straw for its successful operation. This paper undertakes a detailed study on the working and operational aspects in the supply chain management of this 100% rice straw based power plant. The detailed and extensive literature review has been carried out on this subject.
Keywords: Rice Straw usage; Stubble burning; Field burning; and Pollution Haze due to agriculture waste burning; 100% rice straw based Biomass power plants. Logistic issues with rice straw; cost analysis of rice straw.