International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (14 papers in press)
Recycling of Waste derived calcium hydroxide through high temperature solid-state reaction with quartz powders
by Eguakhide Oaikhinan, Chijioke Nwobodo
Abstract: Mixtures of the waste derived calcium hydroxide and quartz powders have been used to demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing varieties of calcium silicates from high temperature solid-state reaction as a means of recycling the waste material. Density measurements were used to monitor the reactions.
Keywords: Recycling; Waste derived calcium hydroxide; quartz; calcium silicates.
An examination of the role of arousal and actual behaviour on commitment towards recycling and environmental preservation
by Sandra Loureiro, Francisco Javier Miranda Gonzalez
Abstract: Recycling and environmental preservation have been a topic of growing interest. However, the way individuals engage in a commitment process to the environment and its consequences are not well-known. In order to contribute to fill this gap a model was proposed positing that self-expression through environmentally proactive behaviours combined with a sense of arousal lead to an affective commitment to recycling and environmental preservation. Findings reveal the importance of energetic arousal to reinforce the self-expression in order to increase the commitment to the environmental preservation. Individuals who have an attitude of concern for the environment when making purchasing decisions tend to be more committed. Finally, committed people are more willingness to sacrifice towards the cause and spread the word in favour the cause. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour.
Keywords: recycling and environmental preservation behaviour; self-expression; willingness to sacrifice; arousal.
Comparison of standard methods for evaluating the metal concentrations in bio ash
by Janne Pesonen, Juhani Kaakinen, Ilkka Välimäki, Mirja Illikainen, Toivo Kuokkanen
Abstract: The current growth strategy and environmental legislation of the European Union both aim to increase the amount of renewable energy and to improve the use of waste streams. These policies mean there will be an increasing need to utilise bio ash. Currently Finland and Denmark are the only European countries with specific national legislation concerning bio ash use. Sweden has recommendations concerning the use of bio ash fertilisers. Besides having different limit values for harmful elements and nutrients in ash fertilisers, all these countries have different digestion methods that are allowed for element content determinations. This study compared the results of the five digestion methods (aqua regia, nitric acid, nitric/hydrochloric acids, nitric/hydrochloric/hydrogen fluoride acids, and lithium tetraborate fusion) established by Nordic authorities. Two Finnish peat-wood fly ash samples were studied. Our results indicate that the choice of digestion methods produces a significant difference in the obtained heavy metal or nutrient concentration of bio ash, especially regarding the potassium concentration.
Keywords: bio ash; digestion method; environmental legislation; heavy metals; fertilisers; earth construction; metal concentration.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Index in Urban Areas: Delphi Validated Tool
by Shefali Godura, Arun K. Aggarwal, Prakash Bhatia
Abstract: Due to non-availability of a comprehensive index to assess and score status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) of a given place, a Delphi validated index was developed. Multistage-sampling technique was used at the household, street, bin level observations in two Indian cities namely, Chandigarh and Hyderabad. Final index included total 52 observable items. It was used for household, street, community bin, transportation, processing and disposal level observations. Mean household waste management score was 4.25 (95% C.I., 4.09-4.41) in Chandigarh as compared to 4.09 (95% C.I., 3.95-4.23) at Hyderabad. Street level median score was 1.0 (0.0-3.0) for Chandigarh and 0.5 (0.0-5.0) for Hyderabad. Mean bin level score was 5.27 (95% C.I., 3.93-6.63) for Chandigarh and 4.58 (95% C.I., 3.62-5.54) for Hyderabad. The researcher achieved the objective of first time developing and using a scientific index to quantify the status of MSWM comprehensively of a city and compared it with another city.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste management index; delphi process; collection; transportation; processing; disposal.
Desilication of fly ash and development of lightweight construction blocks from alkaline activated desilicated fly ash
by Thabo Falayi, Felix Okonta, Freeman Ntuli
Abstract: Massive reserves of power plant fly ash dumps in South Africa have necessitated the development of different processes for effective remediation to achieve zero waste utilization. Silica was leached from fly ash at the optimum conditions of a leaching time of 6 h, 3 M KOH, 500 rpm agitation speed, 25 liquid to solid ratio and a leaching temperature of 100˚C. A lightweight construction block (LWCB) was developed from desilicated fly ash (DFA) and KOH. It was found that the optimum synthesis conditions were 10 M KOH, +0.075-0.300 mm DFA and a curing temperature of 40
Keywords: Desilication;Lightweight construction block; Kalsilite; Desilicated fly ash (DFA); durability.
Use of sludge (a waste) as a resource for getting enhanced plant productivity.
by Bhupinder Dhir
Abstract: Experiments were carried out to check the utility of sludge, a waste generated from wastewater treatment as a soil supplement. Sludge collected from wastewater treatment plant was tested for presence of toxicants (if any) and supplemented in soil. Field experiments were conducted with crop plants viz. Brassica juncea var. Pusa Vijay (NPJ-93), Triticum aestivum var. HD-2967, Solanum lycopersicum var. Pusa Hybrid 2 and Vigna unguiculata var. Pusa Komal. Results indicated that morphological growth was positively affected in plants raised in sludge supplemented soil in comparison to control. Plant growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, biomass showed enhancement, whereas biochemical attributes such as chlorophyll, soluble sugars and protein did not depict any significant alteration. Enhanced vegetative growth supported high yield. Present investigations suggested that sludge can be used as a partial substitute for fertilizer and hence can prove to be an effective soil supplement.
Keywords: Crops; Productivity; Soil; Sludge; Supplement.
Management of discarded organic produce from supermarkets and hypermarkets
by Mohamed F. Hamoda
Abstract: This study determined the quantities, characteristics, and composting of spoiled vegetables and fruits discarded daily from supermarkets and hypermarkets in an attempt to manage such wastes for resource recovery. Data from 31 supermarkets and hypermarkets in Kuwait showed that quantities of discarded produce constitute at least 10% of displayed produce daily and are not generally affected by size of store but by attitudes of shoppers. Discarded produce contains high water content (85% ), is more dense (0.65 ton/m3 ), and have high organic content (80% ) than municipal solid waste (MSW). Carbon content of discarded fruits is 42.1 % while for vegetables is 41.5%. Nitrogen content of vegetables is 3.2% and for fruits is 1.9%. Pilot plant experiments on in-vessel aerobic composting of a mixture of MSW and fruit & vegetable waste at a mass ratio of 2:1 proved effective at temperatures from 35 to 65 oC, and optimal at 45 oC, achieving VS reduction up to 40% in 30 days. Organic reduction followed a first-order kinetic model with degradation rates in the range of 0.006 to 0.01 d-1 based on VS reduction. Statistical analysis showed process performance is dependent on operating temperature and type of waste organics.
Keywords: Composting kinetics; elemental analysis; supermarket solid wastes; vegetable and fruit discards.
Co-degradation study of Lindane and Chlorpyrifos by novel bacteria
by Dharmender Kumar, Shivani Jaswal, Sunil Chopra
Abstract: The chlorpyrifos and lindane (γ- Hexachlorocyclohexane, HCH) are organophosphate and organochlorine insecticide extensively used for agricultural pest management. But, due to toxic effect of HCH on living system, the agricultural use of lindane has been banned but chlorpyrifos is still being used in agriculture. In the present study the CP and gamma- HCH bioremediation capability of three isolates were studied and it was observed that Sphingobium japonicum (MTCC-6362) shown higher degradation efficiency than HSR-B4, FWS-4 isolates in mixed culture in shake flask culture based study. The temperature 30̊ C, pH 7, pesticide concentration 80 ppm, inoculums concentration 600
Keywords: Sphingobium japonicum MTCC-6362; lindane; Chlorpyrifos; biodegradation; GC-MS (Gas chromatography – Mass spectroscopy); LD50 (median lethal dose).
Special Issue on: Internet of Things in Environment, Agriculture and Waste Management
BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM INDUSTRY OILY SLUDGE AND ITS APPLICATION IN LAND FARMING: A REVIEW
by Zahida Nasreen, Sehrish Kalsoom
Abstract: One of the foremost solid wastes produced by petrochemical industries is oily sludge. Oily sludge being a mixture of various kinds of hydrocarbons has been characterized as a hazardous waste by Environment Protection Act and Hazardous Wastes Handling Rules which contributes a lot in environmental pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are components of crude oily sludge, represent serious environmental concerns, as most of them are mutagenic, cytotoxic and carcinogenic. Several methods for degradation of oily sludge and other petroleum related contaminants have been discussed in literature. This review paper presents the most efficient process of remediating these contaminants from environment i-e biodegradation by microorganisms. It is attaining significance as an increasingly efficient and potentially inexpensive cleanup strategy. Its potential contribution as a countermeasure biotechnology for decontamination of oil polluted systems could be vast, as it also leads towards mineralization of complex organic compounds to simple compounds enhancing soil organic contents. So it can be concluded that biodegradation strategy of petroleum oily sludge, even with some limitations, have proved to be one of the most cost effective and promising technology with potential application in land farming.
Keywords: Oily sludge Composition; Toxicity; Alkanes; Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Biodegradation; Microorganisms; Biosurfactants and Land farming.
WhaleRank: An optimization based ranking approach for Software Requirements Prioritization
by Vijayanand Rajasekaran, Dinakaran M
Abstract: Requirement prioritization is one of the major areas in the software product development process. Ranking methods employed for prioritizing orders the requirements based on their importance. Ranking the requirements contributes in enhancing the quality of the product using additional features and to attain the customer satisfaction. However, effectiveness is the growing concern in requirement prioritization. This paper proposes a ranking method WhaleRank to rank the requirement and the effectiveness of ranking gets enhanced using the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA). The WhaleRank method uses four ranking functions based on dictionary words, similarity measure, perception of the manager, and the newly updated requirements that are combined to form a linear rank using the ranking constants. WOA determines the optimal weights of the ranking constants that promote to determine the optimal rank for the requirements. Experimentation with the methods like CBRank, average rank, WhaleRank, and GA provide a comparative performance analysis that proves that the proposed WhaleRank outperforms all methods in terms of accuracy and Disagreement measure (NDA) and the values of accuracy and NDA is 83.33% and 16.24% respectively.
Keywords: WhaleRank; Whale Rank Optimization (WOA); Similarity matrix; Requirement updates; weighed ranking constants.
Detecting Spams in Social Networks using ML Algorithms A Review
by Senthil Murugan N, Usha Devi G
Abstract: The Social network, by the name which has popularized in todays world and growing rapidly at all times and controlling over mankind. The social networks like Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn etc., have become a regular and daily usage of many people. It becomes a good mediator for the people who would like to share some posts, are some of their own videos, or some messages. But there has been major issues that the particular user of the social networks like Twitter and Facebook have the problem of indiscipline actions which we call as spam, by the third person who is knowingly doing this to spoil their intention and good opinion upon each other. Also, these Spams help to steal information about the people who using social networks. In this paper, we study and analyze about the spam in social networks and Machine learning algorithms to detect such kind of Spams. This paper also focuses on the ML algorithms detection rate and false positive rate over different datasets.
Keywords: Social network; Spam; Machine Learning; Twitter; Facebook; Detection rate.
Special Issue on: Sustainable Computing for Waste Management and Systems
NOVEL CHITOSAN BLENDED POLYMERS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ROSEBENGAL DYE: ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS, KINETICS AND MECHANISM
by ANITHA THULASISINGH
Abstract: Rose Bengal (RB), a synthetic dye, discharges into the environment and is harmful to the land as well as to the aquatic water bodies; therefore it is important to safeguard the environment. For the adsorption of Rose Bengal dye, chitosan being a good biosorbent is blended with two different polymers namely Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The morphology and the functional groups attached herewith the biosorbents before and after adsorption were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The adsorption isotherms for the two different biosorbent systems were studied in association with Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich adsorption isotherms using MATLAB software. The monolayer adsorption capacities of RB dye onto chitosan/ PVA and chitosan/ PAN were found to be 44.39 and 42.4 mg/g respectively. The adsorbed dye molecules were desorbed from chitosan/ PVA and chitosan/PAN using HCl solution; thereby regenerating the biosorbents for furthermore adsorption.
Keywords: Chitosan; FTIR; PAN; PVA; Rosebengal dye; SEM.
Assessment of food waste management in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: current status and perspective
by Ngoc Bao Dung Thi
Abstract: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is one of the largest cities in Vietnam. It is also a pioneer in the country in terms of economic growth. When the faster economy grows, the more production activities take place. That will cause the more waste discharged into the environment, causing adverse effects on both environmental quality and conditions of human life. The waste management system of HCMC is still weak and lack of specific management framework for many sources of waste such municipal wastewater, municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial hazardous waste, and food waste (FW). Due to the lack of specific waste management system of FW in HCMC which cause the lost of a tremendous energy potential from FW and also cause many serious environmental issues in HCMC. Therefore, this paper reviews the current scenario and also proposes suggestion to enhance FW segregation and management of HCMC.
Keywords: Food waste segregation; Waste-to-energy; Food waste management
Data reliability of solid waste analysis in Asia’s newly industrialized countries
by Christopher Speier, Moni Mondal, Dirk Weichgrebe
Abstract: Urban municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Asia’s newly industrialized countries remains inefficient with severe effects on human health. For developing sustainable MSW systems, detailed data on urban MSW characteristics are required. This article analyses the data quality and reliability of MSW characteristics by investigating existing data sets and the followed methodologies of data collection from urban areas. The applied methodologies are evaluated in the context of international standards for solid waste analysis. Focusing on MSW data sets from India, it is observed that MSW data vary stronger with decreasing city sizes. Most of the analysed studies did not follow the recommended statistical methods for solid waste analysis. In conclusion, the MSW data sets and the methodologies followed show great variations with limited informative value. For most cities, a MSW analysis in further detail and extend is required before developing a sustainable waste management system.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Solid Waste Characterisation; Waste Analysis; Waste Management; Data Quality