International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (15 papers in press)
Recycling of Waste derived calcium hydroxide through high temperature solid-state reaction with quartz powders
by Eguakhide Oaikhinan, Chijioke Nwobodo
Abstract: Mixtures of the waste derived calcium hydroxide and quartz powders have been used to demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing varieties of calcium silicates from high temperature solid-state reaction as a means of recycling the waste material. Density measurements were used to monitor the reactions.
Keywords: Recycling; Waste derived calcium hydroxide; quartz; calcium silicates.
Co-degradation study of Lindane and Chlorpyrifos by novel bacteria
by Dharmender Kumar, Shivani Jaswal, Sunil Chopra
Abstract: The chlorpyrifos and lindane (γ- Hexachlorocyclohexane, HCH) are organophosphate and organochlorine insecticide extensively used for agricultural pest management. But, due to toxic effect of HCH on living system, the agricultural use of lindane has been banned but chlorpyrifos is still being used in agriculture. In the present study the CP and gamma- HCH bioremediation capability of three isolates were studied and it was observed that Sphingobium japonicum (MTCC-6362) shown higher degradation efficiency than HSR-B4, FWS-4 isolates in mixed culture in shake flask culture based study. The temperature 30̊ C, pH 7, pesticide concentration 80 ppm, inoculums concentration 600
Keywords: Sphingobium japonicum MTCC-6362; lindane; Chlorpyrifos; biodegradation; GC-MS (Gas chromatography – Mass spectroscopy); LD50 (median lethal dose).
Enrichment of epoxy coating system with modified shell ash
by Aarti More, Shweta Amurtkar, Shashank Mhaske
Abstract: The ash of groundnut shell, cashewnut shell, tamarind shell, rice husk and sugarcane bagasse has been used as modifier for epoxy-amine coating. The ash has been made by calcination process. Then it was surface treated to introduce amine functionality on the periphery. The ash has been added at 1%, 3% and 5% (w/w) of the total binder system. The ash has been characterized by FTIR and XRD analysis for the confirmation of its surface treatment. The coating has been characterized for mechanical performance, chemical resistance and anticorrosive properties. It is seen that with the addition of ash, hardness properties of the coating enhances. In anticorrosive performance it is observed that with the addition of ash, the anticorrosive performance of the virgin coating increased. The ash enriched with inorganic elements SiO2, MgO, ZnO, Al2O3, Fe2O3. These are the key components to enhance the hardness properties and anticorrosive performance of the coating.
Keywords: Epoxy coating; shell ash; natural resources; waste management; modification of coating.
An ecological study of diarrhoeagenic E.coli associated with indiscriminate waste dumps and under-5 diarrhoea in six informal settlements in Durban, eThekwini Municipality, South Africa
by Preshod Sewnand Ramlal, Emily Joy Kistnasamy, Ademola Olaniran
Abstract: Indiscriminate waste dumps represent an ecological source of diarrhoeagenic E.coli (DEC) in urban informal settlements of Durban, eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. The recovery of four DEC pathotypes including enterohaemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) (15.08%), enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) (1.54%), enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) (1.85%) and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC) (21.23%) suggest that its persistence in waste-dump soil has the ability to cause under-five diarrhoea. Additionally, a significant relationship (P = 0.0011) between the pathotypes identified and location of the six settlements, implied that irrespective of where these children resided, they were at potential risk of exposure to EHEC, EPEC, ETEC and EAEC when they played among these waste dump sites. Therefore, it is imperative that local government authorities take a collective leading role in combatting the spread of indiscriminate dumping to prevent waste-dump exposure, specifically as ecological reservoirs of DEC pathogens in urban informal settlements.
Keywords: Indiscriminate dumping in informal settlements
diarrhoeagenic E.coli pathotypes
ecological reservoirs of DEC pathogens.
Special Issue on: Sustainable Computing for Waste Management and Systems
Assessment of food waste management in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: current status and perspective
by Ngoc Bao Dung Thi
Abstract: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is one of the largest cities in Vietnam. It is also a pioneer in the country in terms of economic growth. When the faster economy grows, the more production activities take place. That will cause the more waste discharged into the environment, causing adverse effects on both environmental quality and conditions of human life. The waste management system of HCMC is still weak and lack of specific management framework for many sources of waste such municipal wastewater, municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial hazardous waste, and food waste (FW). Due to the lack of specific waste management system of FW in HCMC which cause the lost of a tremendous energy potential from FW and also cause many serious environmental issues in HCMC. Therefore, this paper reviews the current scenario and also proposes suggestion to enhance FW segregation and management of HCMC.
Keywords: Food waste segregation; Waste-to-energy; Food waste management.
Evaluation of the potential application of the precepts of solid waste reverse logistics to the civil construction sector in Curitiba, Paran
by Annelise Schamne, André Nagalli
Abstract: Despite the significant representativeness of the Civil Construction Sector in the economy, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) management is still a challenge in most Brazilian municipalities. In this context, the main objective of this work is to evaluate the potential application of Reverse Logistics (RL) principles in CDW management in the Civil Construction Sector in the Brazilian city of Curitiba and to propose a conceptual model to help in the CDW management. In the first stage of the research, Civil Construction Sector professionals pondered relevant criteria to make up the RL system by application of the Delphi method questionnaire and by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the second stage, a conceptual model was developed, highlighting the potential of applying RL precepts among agents in the Civil Construction Sector production chain in Curitiba. The model proposed assists in understanding the flow of materials in the RL system and each service providers responsibilities in carrying out construction related activities, including CDW management, in addition to compliance with legislation and minimization of environmental impacts.
Keywords: construction and demolition waste; reverse logistics system; analytic hierarchy process.
CO2 capture by adsorption and hydrate based separation: A technological review
by Thilagan Jagannathan
Abstract: The rising concern over global climate change has geared up a desire for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, a systematic review of the literature work done so far on the application of adsorption and hydrate based gas separation for the capture of CO2 from both fuel gas and flue gas mixtures has been carried out. Each experimental work has been scrutinised independently and compared finally. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of adsorption process and hydrate based gas separation process have been pointed out.
Keywords: CO2 capture; adsorption; physical adsorbents; chemical adsorbents; gas hydrates; promoters.
Oily-wastewater treatment using external electric field method
by Reza Hajimohammadi, Morteza Hosseini
Abstract: AbstractrnSome oily waste waters are like oil-in-water emulsion which causes a milky turbidity. For reduction this turbidity, the emulsion should be break. In this study the electrical d-emulsification of oil in water emulsion in AC electric fields under various conditions was studied. External electric field or di-electrophoresis (DEP) was used to remove oil (oil of sunflower) from oil in water (o/w) emulsion. Turbidity was carried out by Spectrophotometers in laboratory conditions. From obtained results it was found that Optimum voltage, temperature was about150 V/mm and 38 0C respectively by applying of constant frequency of 50 Hz. Nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) decreased from1180 to 292 approximately. The mean droplet size of oils droplet after separation process, reached to 200 - 400 microns. Maximum separation efficiency was about 75% at optimum condition. Therefore d-emulsification of oily waste water using external electric field was proposed for petrochemical and oil industries wastewater treatment. rn
Keywords: Di-electrophoresis; Electric field; Oil-in-water emulsion; Oily waste water.
Air Quality Index Forecasting using Artificial Neural Networks A case study of Delhi.
by Sankar Ganesh, Arulmozhivarman Pachiyappan
Abstract: Air is the most vital constituent for the sustenance of life on earth. Air pollution is the major problem we have been facing. It is important to address this issue to lead a healthy life. Forecasting of air quality will contribute to a healthy society. In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) predictors trained with conjugate gradient descent have been implemented to forecast Air Quality Index (AQI) in a particular area of interest. Several neural network models such as multilayer perceptron (MLP), Elman, radial basis function and NARX were applied. In these neural network models, four major pollutant concentrations including NO2, CO, O3 and PM10 for the year 2014 to 2016 in Delhi (India) were used to train each predictor. It can be concluded that, among all these models, radial basis function exhibited more accuracy in terms of measures of quality with mean absolute error (MAE) = 7.33, mean absolute percent error (MAPE) = 4.05%, correlation coefficient (R) = 0.993, root mean square error (RMSE) = 9.69 and index of agreement (IA) = 0.99.
Keywords: Air Quality Index; artificial neural networks; conjugate gradient descent; forecasting; radial basis function.
Mathematical programming approach for optimal allocation in the wastewater management
by M. Jayalakshmi, G. Vijayaraghavan, A. Suresh, Yung- Tse Hung
Abstract: Water is a valuable natural resource with very high importance, specifically in areas with water shortage. During the previous years the limitations in water availability in various areas make the solution of water problems actually crucial and significant. The objective and the aims of the present work are: i. to make a short review of the operations research methods that are used to solve water resources management problems, ii. proposed a new mathematical approach for solving allocation problem iii. to examine the basic ideas and proposed solution with the help of the real life problem in the water resource management. More exactly, the basic idea of the project is the development and implementation of an optimization model that selects the quantities of water to be supplied from various sources and the quantities of water to be allocated to various users with the condition that each water capacity allocated to each user, in order to optimize the total water availability, taking into account priorities in the demand and use of the resource, as well as sustainability considerations.
Keywords: Key words: rnOperations research methods and tools; water resources management; water supply; assignment problem.
NOVEL CHITOSAN BLENDED POLYMERS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ROSEBENGAL DYE: ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS, KINETICS AND MECHANISM
by ANITHA THULASISINGH
Abstract: Rose Bengal (RB), a synthetic dye, discharges into the environment and is harmful to the land as well as to the aquatic water bodies; therefore it is important to safeguard the environment. For the adsorption of Rose Bengal dye, chitosan being a good biosorbent is blended with two different polymers namely Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The morphology and the functional groups attached herewith the biosorbents before and after adsorption were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The adsorption isotherms for the two different biosorbent systems were studied in association with Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich adsorption isotherms using MATLAB software. The monolayer adsorption capacities of RB dye onto chitosan/ PVA and chitosan/ PAN were found to be 44.39 and 42.4 mg/g respectively. The adsorbed dye molecules were desorbed from chitosan/ PVA and chitosan/PAN using HCl solution; thereby regenerating the biosorbents for furthermore adsorption.
Keywords: Chitosan; FTIR; PAN; PVA; Rosebengal dye; SEM.
Data reliability of solid waste analysis in Asias newly industrialized countries
by Christopher Speier, Moni Mondal, Dirk Weichgrebe
Abstract: Urban municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Asias newly industrialized countries remains inefficient with severe effects on human health. For developing sustainable MSW systems, detailed data on urban MSW characteristics are required. This article analyses the data quality and reliability of MSW characteristics by investigating existing data sets and the followed methodologies of data collection from urban areas. The applied methodologies are evaluated in the context of international standards for solid waste analysis. Focusing on MSW data sets from India, it is observed that MSW data vary stronger with decreasing city sizes. Most of the analysed studies did not follow the recommended statistical methods for solid waste analysis. In conclusion, the MSW data sets and the methodologies followed show great variations with limited informative value. For most cities, a MSW analysis in further detail and extend is required before developing a sustainable waste management system.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Solid Waste Characterisation; Waste Analysis; Waste Management; Data Quality.
Special Issue on: Internet of Things in Environment, Agriculture and Waste Management
WhaleRank: An optimization based ranking approach for Software Requirements Prioritization
by Vijayanand Rajasekaran, Dinakaran M
Abstract: Requirement prioritization is one of the major areas in the software product development process. Ranking methods employed for prioritizing orders the requirements based on their importance. Ranking the requirements contributes in enhancing the quality of the product using additional features and to attain the customer satisfaction. However, effectiveness is the growing concern in requirement prioritization. This paper proposes a ranking method WhaleRank to rank the requirement and the effectiveness of ranking gets enhanced using the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA). The WhaleRank method uses four ranking functions based on dictionary words, similarity measure, perception of the manager, and the newly updated requirements that are combined to form a linear rank using the ranking constants. WOA determines the optimal weights of the ranking constants that promote to determine the optimal rank for the requirements. Experimentation with the methods like CBRank, average rank, WhaleRank, and GA provide a comparative performance analysis that proves that the proposed WhaleRank outperforms all methods in terms of accuracy and Disagreement measure (NDA) and the values of accuracy and NDA is 83.33% and 16.24% respectively.
Keywords: WhaleRank; Whale Rank Optimization (WOA); Similarity matrix; Requirement updates; weighed ranking constants.
Detecting Spams in Social Networks using ML Algorithms A Review
by Senthil Murugan N, Usha Devi G
Abstract: The Social network, by the name which has popularized in todays world and growing rapidly at all times and controlling over mankind. The social networks like Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn etc., have become a regular and daily usage of many people. It becomes a good mediator for the people who would like to share some posts, are some of their own videos, or some messages. But there has been major issues that the particular user of the social networks like Twitter and Facebook have the problem of indiscipline actions which we call as spam, by the third person who is knowingly doing this to spoil their intention and good opinion upon each other. Also, these Spams help to steal information about the people who using social networks. In this paper, we study and analyze about the spam in social networks and Machine learning algorithms to detect such kind of Spams. This paper also focuses on the ML algorithms detection rate and false positive rate over different datasets.
Keywords: Social network; Spam; Machine Learning; Twitter; Facebook; Detection rate.
BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM INDUSTRY OILY SLUDGE AND ITS APPLICATION IN LAND FARMING: A REVIEW
by Zahida Nasreen, Sehrish Kalsoom
Abstract: One of the foremost solid wastes produced by petrochemical industries is oily sludge. Oily sludge being a mixture of various kinds of hydrocarbons has been characterized as a hazardous waste by Environment Protection Act and Hazardous Wastes Handling Rules which contributes a lot in environmental pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are components of crude oily sludge, represent serious environmental concerns, as most of them are mutagenic, cytotoxic and carcinogenic. Several methods for degradation of oily sludge and other petroleum related contaminants have been discussed in literature. This review paper presents the most efficient process of remediating these contaminants from environment i-e biodegradation by microorganisms. It is attaining significance as an increasingly efficient and potentially inexpensive cleanup strategy. Its potential contribution as a countermeasure biotechnology for decontamination of oil polluted systems could be vast, as it also leads towards mineralization of complex organic compounds to simple compounds enhancing soil organic contents. So it can be concluded that biodegradation strategy of petroleum oily sludge, even with some limitations, have proved to be one of the most cost effective and promising technology with potential application in land farming.
Keywords: Oily sludge Composition; Toxicity; Alkanes; Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Biodegradation; Microorganisms; Biosurfactants and Land farming.