Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Environment and Waste Management


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International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (32 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Recycling of Waste derived calcium hydroxide through high temperature solid-state reaction with quartz powders   Order a copy of this article
    by Eguakhide Oaikhinan, Chijioke Nwobodo 
    Abstract: Mixtures of the waste derived calcium hydroxide and quartz powders have been used to demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing varieties of calcium silicates from high temperature solid-state reaction as a means of recycling the waste material. Density measurements were used to monitor the reactions.
    Keywords: Recycling; Waste derived calcium hydroxide; quartz; calcium silicates.

  • Enrichment of epoxy coating system with modified shell ash   Order a copy of this article
    by Aarti More, Shweta Amurtkar, Shashank Mhaske 
    Abstract: The ash of groundnut shell, cashewnut shell, tamarind shell, rice husk and sugarcane bagasse has been used as modifier for epoxy-amine coating. The ash has been made by calcination process. Then it was surface treated to introduce amine functionality on the periphery. The ash has been added at 1%, 3% and 5% (w/w) of the total binder system. The ash has been characterized by FTIR and XRD analysis for the confirmation of its surface treatment. The coating has been characterized for mechanical performance, chemical resistance and anticorrosive properties. It is seen that with the addition of ash, hardness properties of the coating enhances. In anticorrosive performance it is observed that with the addition of ash, the anticorrosive performance of the virgin coating increased. The ash enriched with inorganic elements SiO2, MgO, ZnO, Al2O3, Fe2O3. These are the key components to enhance the hardness properties and anticorrosive performance of the coating.
    Keywords: Epoxy coating; shell ash; natural resources; waste management; modification of coating.

  • Same material different recycling standards: Comparing the municipal solid waste standards of the European Union, South Korea, and United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Seejeen Park, T.J. Lah 
    Abstract: Extant comparative research in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management has conducted analyses across multiple countries and regions in an attempt to identify successful MSW management practices and increase MSW recycling. Furthermore, international organisations such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) have published annual reports discussing the status quo of MSW management and recycling practices in their member countries. As the characterization of waste and recyclables varies across nations, comparability problems can occur. Nonetheless, extant research has not yet conducted a national-level comparison of MSW characterization and calculation methods across multiple countries. The current study attempts to fill this gap by investigating the variations in MSW definitions and calculation standards in the European Union (EU), South Korea, and the U.S. The findings indicate that recycling performance fluctuates significantly depending on which standard is adopted. South Korea is found to use the most conservative standards, yet its recycling rate is the highest regardless of which standard is applied. Future directions and implications for both research and practice are discussed.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; recycling performance; waste characterization; waste standards.

  • Optimization of anaerobic stabilized leachate treatment using Catalytic ozonation with zirconium tetrachloride   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamidi Abdul Aziz 
    Abstract: The current study aimed to assess the performance of utilize Zirconium reagent duringozonationof anaerobic stabilized leachate. In this study, quadratic models using response surface methodology software was utilized to design the experiments and evaluate the interaction betweenexperimental factors, such as Zirconium Tetrachloride, pH, and reaction time, at constant ozone dosage (27g/m3). The performance of the new ozonation method was evaluated in termsof the removal of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), NH3-N and color. The obtained Quadratic models for Color, NH3-N and COD removal was considered significant(P <0.0001). The optimal removal for of 100%, 90%, and 66% for Color, COD and NH3N, was obtained at 38 min reaction time, ZrCl4 dosage (1/2(COD/ZrCl4 g/g) and pH 4.5, using 27g/m3 ozone dosage, respectively. The results obtained in this study were compared with zirconium only and ozone only, to evaluate its effectiveness. The performance of thenew oxidation method(O3/ZrCl4) better thanother related methods forthe removal of Color, COD and NH3N.
    Keywords: landfill leachate; Zirconium Tetrachloride; ozonation; Advanced oxidation process.

  • End-of-Life-Vehicle Recycling in Germany: Alternative for the reduction of CO2 emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Celine Kuhn, Kátia Nunes 
    Abstract: The recycling of End-of-Life-Vehicles (ELVs) involves different processes generally in several locations, connecting different companies. In 2015 a new EU legislation introduced for End-of-Life-Vehicles (ELVs) recycling and recovery rates of 85% and 95%, respectively. In the same year Germany presented for ELVs a recycling rate of 87,7% and a recovery rate of 95,8%. Nevertheless, significant information about ELV recycling are aggregated. Regional differences, logistics among recycling facilities and potentials for improvement are not disclosed. The recycling of ELV can minimize environmental impacts through waste reduction and savings with virgin materials. Within a context of reducing global warming, the objectives of this research are (a) verifying the current situation of waste management system for ELVs in a region, consisting of two districts located in an economically strong region in Germany (Frankfurt/ Rhine-Main region), and (b) proposing alternatives for the reduction of CO2 emissions in the current situation. The results show significant CO2 emission savings can be achieved with the optimization of logistics. This research can support local authorities, ELV recycling companies and environmental organizations to look for possibilities of reducing environmental impacts with ELVs in their regions.
    Keywords: End-of-Life-Vehicle; ELV; Recycling; CO2 Emissions; Circular Economy.

  • Effect of Ni coating on iron electrode for COD removal of Textile dye waste water   Order a copy of this article
    by Jay Trivedi, Paresh Rana, Lakha Chopda 
    Abstract: The textile dye-based intermediate industries generate colossal amount of effluent which is a blasphemy to the environment and to the residing areas where it get disposed of without commensurate treatment. These contagious and malefic effluents are peculiarizing by high values of COD, BOD, Color, pH and other parameters. In environmental chemistry, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) is the quantity of specified oxidant that reacts with sample under controlled conditions. This study focuses on electrochemical treatment, abating COD to much lesser permissible value. The various parameters that affect the process are thoroughly studied. The process was carried out with Ni plated iron/ pure iron and pure iron/ pure iron cathode and anode combinations with H2O2 addition. The removal efficiency is higher up to 90% is achieved using H2O2, with different plating concentration of Nickel over Iron plate efficiency up to 82% is achieved and with only Iron plates efficiency up to 55% is achieved.
    Keywords: Waste water; Chemical oxygen demand; electrochemical treatment; Effect of parameters; removal efficiency; Fenton’s reagents species and Green chemistry.

    by Ngoc Bao Dung Thi, Duong Tam Anh Nguyen, Huynh Huy Long Nguyen, Duc Trung Le 
    Abstract: Because of having typically polluted properties, the rubber latex processing wastewater (RLPWW) has not considered as a nutrient source for the bioconversion. Most previous works have only focused on the technologies applied for RLPWW treatment. In this study, RLPWW was used as a substrate to produce biohydrogen gas by five anaerobic microbial mixtures isolated from sewage sludge. The results showed that the microbial mixtures can well grow in this wastewater. First step, RLPWW was pretreated by Al2(SO4)3 with dosage of 300 mg/l and pH 7 to reach suitable conditions of COD, BOD and TSS which are respectively 184, 110 and 125 mg/l. Second step, the microbial mixtures were added in pretreated RLPWW to ferment biohydrogen in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria of the mixtures determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method were Clostridium, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter. After 28 hours, BPM mixture conducted a maximum cumulative hydrogen content of 221.35 ml H2/l and COD, BOD, TSS, N, P removals of 64.38, 71.43, 65.96, 54.12, and 79.86%, respectively. The application of the studied microbial mixtures was obviously effective method to combine the biohydrogen production and the RLPWW treatment.
    Keywords: Rubber latex processing wastewater; Anaerobic fermentation; Biohydrogen; Wastewater treatment.

  • Simultaneous application arsenic oxidizing bacteria and biochar for the reclamation of arsenic contaminated soil   Order a copy of this article
    by Santosh Kumar Karn, Xiangliang Pan 
    Abstract: Current research focused transformation of arsenic, As (III) to As (V) in soil by an efficient bacterial strain (Bacillus sp. XS9) and successfully transformed 95.4% of As (III) in the soil contaminated with 50 mg/kg and significantly reduced the bioavailable As (Left only left 0.81 mg/kg). After bacterial transformation, we applied different types of biochar, produced at two different temperatures, biochar at 350˚C and 650˚C (black and yellow biochar respectively shown in figure 2) at the rate of 2.5, 5 and 10% in the soil, for sorption or stabilization of As (V). We observed that a concentration of 2.5% and 5% biochar efficiently stabilizes the As content as compared to control. Additional, leaching of the treated soil sample was done into the soil column, we found that soil leachate collected at the different time interval (from 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) does not have any soluble/available As. Further, arsenite oxidase (aioA-gene) was also identified in this species (XS9), and bacteria were identified using 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Since it suggests that a simultaneous process of efficient microbial transformation, including sorption by biochar may be a better way for the treatment of As-contaminated soil in nature as compared to other methods.
    Keywords: Arsenic; Arsenic oxidation: Biochar; Soil amendment; Environments.

Special Issue on: Sustainable Computing for Waste Management and Systems

  • Assessment of food waste management in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: current status and perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Bao Dung Thi 
    Abstract: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is one of the largest cities in Vietnam. It is also a pioneer in the country in terms of economic growth. When the faster economy grows, the more production activities take place. That will cause the more waste discharged into the environment, causing adverse effects on both environmental quality and conditions of human life. The waste management system of HCMC is still weak and lack of specific management framework for many sources of waste such municipal wastewater, municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial hazardous waste, and food waste (FW). Due to the lack of specific waste management system of FW in HCMC which cause the lost of a tremendous energy potential from FW and also cause many serious environmental issues in HCMC. Therefore, this paper reviews the current scenario and also proposes suggestion to enhance FW segregation and management of HCMC.
    Keywords: Food waste segregation; Waste-to-energy; Food waste management.

  • Evaluation of the potential application of the precepts of solid waste reverse logistics to the civil construction sector in Curitiba, Paran   Order a copy of this article
    by Annelise Schamne, André Nagalli 
    Abstract: Despite the significant representativeness of the Civil Construction Sector in the economy, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) management is still a challenge in most Brazilian municipalities. In this context, the main objective of this work is to evaluate the potential application of Reverse Logistics (RL) principles in CDW management in the Civil Construction Sector in the Brazilian city of Curitiba and to propose a conceptual model to help in the CDW management. In the first stage of the research, Civil Construction Sector professionals pondered relevant criteria to make up the RL system by application of the Delphi method questionnaire and by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the second stage, a conceptual model was developed, highlighting the potential of applying RL precepts among agents in the Civil Construction Sector production chain in Curitiba. The model proposed assists in understanding the flow of materials in the RL system and each service providers responsibilities in carrying out construction related activities, including CDW management, in addition to compliance with legislation and minimization of environmental impacts.
    Keywords: construction and demolition waste; reverse logistics system; analytic hierarchy process.

  • CO2 capture by adsorption and hydrate based separation: A technological review   Order a copy of this article
    by Thilagan Jagannathan 
    Abstract: The rising concern over global climate change has geared up a desire for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, a systematic review of the literature work done so far on the application of adsorption and hydrate based gas separation for the capture of CO2 from both fuel gas and flue gas mixtures has been carried out. Each experimental work has been scrutinised independently and compared finally. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of adsorption process and hydrate based gas separation process have been pointed out.
    Keywords: CO2 capture; adsorption; physical adsorbents; chemical adsorbents; gas hydrates; promoters.

  • Oily-wastewater treatment using external electric field method   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Hajimohammadi, Morteza Hosseini 
    Abstract: AbstractrnSome oily waste waters are like oil-in-water emulsion which causes a milky turbidity. For reduction this turbidity, the emulsion should be break. In this study the electrical d-emulsification of oil in water emulsion in AC electric fields under various conditions was studied. External electric field or di-electrophoresis (DEP) was used to remove oil (oil of sunflower) from oil in water (o/w) emulsion. Turbidity was carried out by Spectrophotometers in laboratory conditions. From obtained results it was found that Optimum voltage, temperature was about150 V/mm and 38 0C respectively by applying of constant frequency of 50 Hz. Nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) decreased from1180 to 292 approximately. The mean droplet size of oils droplet after separation process, reached to 200 - 400 microns. Maximum separation efficiency was about 75% at optimum condition. Therefore d-emulsification of oily waste water using external electric field was proposed for petrochemical and oil industries wastewater treatment. rn
    Keywords: Di-electrophoresis; Electric field; Oil-in-water emulsion; Oily waste water.

  • Air Quality Index Forecasting using Artificial Neural Networks A case study of Delhi.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sankar Ganesh, Arulmozhivarman Pachiyappan 
    Abstract: Air is the most vital constituent for the sustenance of life on earth. Air pollution is the major problem we have been facing. It is important to address this issue to lead a healthy life. Forecasting of air quality will contribute to a healthy society. In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) predictors trained with conjugate gradient descent have been implemented to forecast Air Quality Index (AQI) in a particular area of interest. Several neural network models such as multilayer perceptron (MLP), Elman, radial basis function and NARX were applied. In these neural network models, four major pollutant concentrations including NO2, CO, O3 and PM10 for the year 2014 to 2016 in Delhi (India) were used to train each predictor. It can be concluded that, among all these models, radial basis function exhibited more accuracy in terms of measures of quality with mean absolute error (MAE) = 7.33, mean absolute percent error (MAPE) = 4.05%, correlation coefficient (R) = 0.993, root mean square error (RMSE) = 9.69 and index of agreement (IA) = 0.99.
    Keywords: Air Quality Index; artificial neural networks; conjugate gradient descent; forecasting; radial basis function.

  • Mathematical programming approach for optimal allocation in the wastewater management   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Jayalakshmi, G. Vijayaraghavan, A. Suresh, Yung- Tse Hung 
    Abstract: Water is a valuable natural resource with very high importance, specifically in areas with water shortage. During the previous years the limitations in water availability in various areas make the solution of water problems actually crucial and significant. The objective and the aims of the present work are: i. to make a short review of the operations research methods that are used to solve water resources management problems, ii. proposed a new mathematical approach for solving allocation problem iii. to examine the basic ideas and proposed solution with the help of the real life problem in the water resource management. More exactly, the basic idea of the project is the development and implementation of an optimization model that selects the quantities of water to be supplied from various sources and the quantities of water to be allocated to various users with the condition that each water capacity allocated to each user, in order to optimize the total water availability, taking into account priorities in the demand and use of the resource, as well as sustainability considerations.
    Keywords: Key words: rnOperations research methods and tools; water resources management; water supply; assignment problem.

  • Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by Annona Squamosa biomass using biosorption   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Babu, G. Manikandan, G. Vijayaraghavan, Yung -Tse Hung 
    Abstract: Biosorption of Copper II ions using Annona Squamosa biomaterial was investigated in this study. This work examined the efficiency of Annona Squamosa seeds and shell powder for the biosorption of Copper II ions from aqueous solution in a batch mode. Biosorption is affected by various parameters namely Initial metal concentration (100 mg/L 500 mg/L), temperature (25˚C - 40˚C), Biosorbent loading (1.0 g 5.0 g), at controlled pH 5.3. The obtained results showed that the Annona squamosa shell Powder is good adsorbing medium and had high adsorption yields for the removal of copper II ions. At high initial copper ion concentrations, a maximum specific uptake of copper was obtained with lesser percentage removal of copper. A maximum percentage removal of 97% was obtained with 100 mg/L of initial copper ion concentrations and a maximum specific uptake of 20.75 mg/g was obtained with 500 mg/L initial metal ion concentrations for Copper respectively. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were used for the mathematical description of copper; equilibrium data were analyzed and fitted very well to both the models. The kinetic data obtained at different initial metal concentration indicated that biosorption rate was fast and most of the process completed within 120 min. followed by attainment of equilibrium. The suitability of the first -order Lagergren kinetic model for the sorption of copper by Annona squamosa Shell Powder (ASSP) fitted the data well with very high correlation coefficient (>0.99). The results suggest that the ASSP can be used as an effective, low cost, and Eco-friendly green adsorbent for the removal of copper II ions from aqueous solution.
    Keywords: Biosorption; copper ions; Annona squamosa shell; Isotherms; kinetics.

  • Environmental sustainability of green marketing strategy: Empirical evidence from e-tail consumers in Tamil Nadu   Order a copy of this article
    by Suresh Annamalai, Kumar K R, Jothikumar R, Yung-Tse Hung Hung 
    Abstract: Green marketing is one of such strategies used by marketers for reaching sustainable development. Companies need to know consumers' attitude and to adapt new marketing solutions with the focus on determining the expectations and satisfying their needs. In this paper we will attempt to examine the attitude of Tamil Nadu e-tail consumers toward eco-friendly products. The aim of the survey is to gather information from a consumer standpoint. Time has witnessed the different phases of marketing strategy. Out of which, sustainability is the key issue which has emerged in marketing strategy over the time. In earlier phase of 1970s, ecological issues have emerged as a new paradigm in marketing strategy. Reassessment of the issues resulted in evolution of green or environmental issues in marketing strategy and now the sustainability in marketing strategy has become the focus of attention of the researchers.
    Keywords: Green Lable; Green Packing; Green Advertising; Brand Image; Product Value.

  • Sustainable Solid Waste Management Through 3R Strategy in Gazipur City   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Asif Hasan Anik, Abdullah Rumi Shishir, Promi Islam, Syeda Nishat Naila, Ijaj Mahmud Chowdhury 
    Abstract: Generation of a huge amount of solid waste and its mismanagement has become one of the major concerned social and environmental issues in both urban and rural areas. Although municipal authorities are concerned about the importance of solid waste collection, disposal and recycling, it is difficult to deal effectively with the growing amount of solid waste generated with the increase of population. This research determines the waste generation rate (per capita per day) to determine the waste composition in houses, secondary dumping site and final dumping site with the amount of the waste that can be reduced and the possible amount of economic benefits that can be achieved through adopting 3R policy. The results suggest that it will be economically benefitting if 3R policy in Gazipur City is adopted. Finally this study, based on the findings, give suggestions for a way leading to a sustainable waste management system for a city.
    Keywords: Economic Benefit; Solid Waste; Sustainable Management; 3R Strategy; Recycling.

  • Preparation of activated carbon from mixed peels of fruits with Chemical activation (K2CO3) - Application in adsorptive removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimalkumar Adichakkaravarthy 
    Abstract: This work explores the feasibility of mixed peels of fruits as a precursor for the preparation of activated carbon by carbonisation process with chemical activation by K2CO3. The process variables of carbonisation such as carbonisation temperature, time and chemical impregnation ratio on the carbon yield and adsorption capacity were optimised. The morphological structure and textural characteristics of produced activated carbon were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of activated carbon were as follows: At carbonisation temperature of 525
    Keywords: Key words: Mixed peels of fruits; Carbonisation; Chemical activation; activated carbon; Adsorption.

    by NagamalleswaraRao K, Babu Ponnusami A 
    Abstract: This work deals with the safety of high-pressure vessels by Blowdown analysis in oil and gas industry using Aspen HYSYS simulation tool. During the design of high pressure vessel API 521 standards are implemented. The required parameters governing the depressurization technique and the selection of thermodynamics property package, heat transfer model selection are explained. All physically significant effects of the process which governs the safety of the high-pressure vessel are predicted. These findings are highly useful in the safe design of high-pressure vessels in oil and gas industry. The predicted results are also useful in the selection of the material of construction and reduce the cost and reduce the risk of failure of the equipment. This work guarantees the life of people working in the industry and reduces the process equipment cost and environmental problems. This work is useful to process design engineers and safety engineers in mitigating the chemical disasters in oil and gas industries.
    Keywords: API 521; BLOWDOWN; Heat transfer model; High-pressure vessel; Chemical Disasters; Oil and gas industry.

  • Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal based Thermal Power Plant near Udupi Power Corporation Limited in Karnataka - India   Order a copy of this article
    by Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues, Shiva Prasad H C, James Joseph, Sriram K V 
    Abstract: The Udupi district in Karnataka, located at the southern part of India is an eco-sensitive region. This region is known for its copious rain fall, greenery and rare species of flora and fauna. Commissioning of a coal based thermal power plant this locality is likely to have an adverse effect on environment viz. increase in air, water, noise pollution and land degradation. The purpose of this study is to the identify and assess the environmental impact on the villages surrounding the Thermal Power Plant commissioned by Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL) at Nandikur Udupi District, Karnataka, India. This study leads to the conclusion that this thermal power plant is causing serious issues to the environment and social life of people. The study noticed pollution in water and air affecting the quality of life, causing health issues. The social life of the people is also being affected and people have started to resist the further industrial developments and capacity expansion as it affects their lives and also destroys the environment that includes the flora and fauna. The results drawn through this study are an important source of information for the regulatory bodies to initiate measures that promote sustainable development. This study is a visible indicator of social ethics and serves as a warning signal to the management of UPCL Thermal Power Plant to make their operations more environment friendly.
    Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment; Thermal power plant; Sustainable development; Environmental degradation; Power generation; Social Impact;.

  • Small-Scale Steam Turbine & Electric Generation From Municipal Solid Waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Luis Barrera Payan, Daniel Cauich-López 
    Abstract: This is a comprehensive study of electric generation through municipal solid waste on Providencia island, Colombia. It focuses on the benefits that waste-to-energy facilities bring to small communities and even large ones. The importance of the refuse classification and its separation in obtaining the suitable power is considered in the paper. Afterwards the data, such as pressure, mass flow rate and temperature outlet, is used to design and set the basic parameters in the steam turbine, which leads in the election of the best electric generation for this sort of application. The results of this study will show some brief quantification benefits of this way of electric generation in small and probably large populations based on electric demand covered, CO2 emissions, landfilling and money savings with the use of less diesel for electric generation. The study comes to the conclusion that the electric generation through municipal solid waste can cover from 7 up to 15 percent of the electric demand of the population, which gives valuable information on the way that we generate electricity nowadays.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Waste to Energy; Power Plant; Electric Generation.

  • Modeling the chemical compositions of Municipal Solid Waste in Ghaziabad City, Uttar Pradesh (India)   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Ghaziabad is one of the fastest growing, highly urbanized and industrialized Metropolitan city of National Capital Region (India). The waste disposal facilities for Ghazibad need to be revamped for which proper strategies have to be developed and adopted by the Municipal Corporation of Ghaziabad. Waste-to-energy and compost formation are sustainable solutions for waste disposal practices. In the current study, the chemical characteristics of Municipal Solid waste of 36 samples from 7 different sources in Ghaziabad City have been analyzed. The study proposes five predictive regression models based on proximate analysis alongwith seven regression models based on ultimate analysis in order to reduce cost, time and effort of experimental work. The results indicate that compost formation from waste can be a better option for Ghaziabad City to manage its waste.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; proximate analysis; ultimate analysis; regression analysis.

  • A Review on Solid Waste Management Process and Environmental Impact Due to Solid Waste in Sylhet City Corporation (SCC), Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Shimul Hossain, M. G. Muntasir Shehab, Mir Raisul Islam, Md. Shaheen Shah, Simanto Kumar Pal 
    Abstract: Solid waste generation has been a great concern for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is increasing in the mega cities in Bangladesh due to rapid urbanization and population growth. This study has been conducted in Sylhet City Corporation (SCC), Bangladesh. In this study, data and information including amount of generated waste and supporting facilities for waste management in SCC were collected from SCC authority and different scientific literatures. The objectives of this study were to make a clear sketch of the solid waste management process including waste generation, collection and disposal of that waste at dumpsite. Impact of this municipal solid waste on environment and different types of living species like human beings, animals and plants were also a part of this study. After analysis, it is clear that this municipal waste has a great negative impact on environment and living species. For that reason, some actions were suggested to be taken to minimize the effect of this solid waste on environment and living species.
    Keywords: Solid Waste; Solid Waste Management; Sylhet City; Sylhet City Corporation.

  • Evaluation of biodiesel potential of a sewage sludge   Order a copy of this article
    by Joshua Obisanya, John Oyekunle, Aderemi Ogunfowokan, Olalekan Fatoki 
    Abstract: The energy storing potential of sewage sludge of a waste water treatment facility called Sewage Treatment Oxidation Pond (STOP) was explored in this study with a view to assessing its potential in biodiesel development. Lipids of dried sewage sludge were leached out using a soxhlet extraction technique and the extracted lipids were converted into biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) via acid catalysis transesterification. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed for the identification and quantification of resulting FAME while Biodiesel Analyzer
    Keywords: waste water; energy; oxidation pond; sewage sludge; lipids; biodiesel feedstock.

  • A Multi-echelon logistics and disposal optimization model for municipal solid waste management in Beijing   Order a copy of this article
    by Annabelle Schreiber, Jianhua Yang 
    Abstract: In recent years, the municipal solid waste management in Beijing has been improved due to government involvement in environmental matter. However, some researches are still required to optimize Beijing waste management. The purpose of this study is to model the citys solid waste management system and work out the solution to implement the Beijing waste management system to reduce total cost and develop sustainable consumption and production mode. Municipal solid waste management system was analyzed from waste collection to different waste disposal plants in Beijing. A cost optimization of the reverse logistics model is calculated by building a linear programming model for municipal solid waste management system. The most adequate solution is proposed after analysis of multiple scenarios to collect and process waste. Five available scenarios and results analysis are put forward which lead to the conclusion and perspectives based on those scenarios.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Cost optimization; Reverse Logistics; Multi echelon logistics; Disposal optimization; Model; Beijing; Urban waste; Waste Management; Landfill; Composting; Linear programming.

  • Fabrication and Study of Mechanical Properties of Ecofriendly Banana fiber-natural Rubber latex Composites   Order a copy of this article
    by Gopakumar R Nair, R. Rajesh 
    Abstract: The necessity for the development and use of naturally occurring materials as a replacement for synthetic and environment hazardous materials has become a requirement of the time. The rapid depletion of petroleum products from which most synthetic polymers are developed also adds to the situation. In this context an elastomer composite using natural materials like natural rubber latex and 40% v/v natural banana stem fiber (long, continuous, unidirectional) is developed for both longitudinal (0
    Keywords: Rubber Latex; Banana fibres; Rubber Composites; Tensile Strength; Tear Strength; Environment friendly; Natural fibers; Hardness; Interfacial Adhesion.

    Abstract: Rose Bengal (RB), a synthetic dye, discharges into the environment and is harmful to the land as well as to the aquatic water bodies; therefore it is important to safeguard the environment. For the adsorption of Rose Bengal dye, chitosan being a good biosorbent is blended with two different polymers namely Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The morphology and the functional groups attached herewith the biosorbents before and after adsorption were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The adsorption isotherms for the two different biosorbent systems were studied in association with Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich adsorption isotherms using MATLAB software. The monolayer adsorption capacities of RB dye onto chitosan/ PVA and chitosan/ PAN were found to be 44.39 and 42.4 mg/g respectively. The adsorbed dye molecules were desorbed from chitosan/ PVA and chitosan/PAN using HCl solution; thereby regenerating the biosorbents for furthermore adsorption.
    Keywords: Chitosan; FTIR; PAN; PVA; Rosebengal dye; SEM.

  • Data reliability of solid waste analysis in Asias newly industrialized countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Christopher Speier, Moni Mondal, Dirk Weichgrebe 
    Abstract: Urban municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Asias newly industrialized countries remains inefficient with severe effects on human health. For developing sustainable MSW systems, detailed data on urban MSW characteristics are required. This article analyses the data quality and reliability of MSW characteristics by investigating existing data sets and the followed methodologies of data collection from urban areas. The applied methodologies are evaluated in the context of international standards for solid waste analysis. Focusing on MSW data sets from India, it is observed that MSW data vary stronger with decreasing city sizes. Most of the analysed studies did not follow the recommended statistical methods for solid waste analysis. In conclusion, the MSW data sets and the methodologies followed show great variations with limited informative value. For most cities, a MSW analysis in further detail and extend is required before developing a sustainable waste management system.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Solid Waste Characterisation; Waste Analysis; Waste Management; Data Quality.

  • Sun Degradation and Synthesis of New antimicrobial and antioxidant utilizing Poly (ethylene terephthalate) Waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Asmaa M. Fahim, Ahmad M. Farag, El Sayed M.A. Yakout, Galal A. M. Nawwar, Eman Ragab 
    Abstract: Green environmentally energy source used for degradation of Poly (ethylene terephthalate), which used as versatile intermediate for the synthesis of a form of heterocyclic compounds. Triazoles 5, 6 a, b, 7 , 9 and 22 oxadiazol 11, thiazolidin 11, pyrazole 18 and 20 derivatives; All the structures of the newly compounds were established by the spectroscopic data such as IR, Ms and 1H& 13C NMR. The new heterocyclic exhibited high antimicrobial and antioxidant action.
    Keywords: Sun energy; Poly (ethylene terephthalate); oxadiazole; triazole; pyrazole; thiazolidine; antimicrobial; antioxidant.

Special Issue on: Internet of Things in Environment, Agriculture and Waste Management

  • WhaleRank: An optimization based ranking approach for Software Requirements Prioritization   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijayanand Rajasekaran, Dinakaran M 
    Abstract: Requirement prioritization is one of the major areas in the software product development process. Ranking methods employed for prioritizing orders the requirements based on their importance. Ranking the requirements contributes in enhancing the quality of the product using additional features and to attain the customer satisfaction. However, effectiveness is the growing concern in requirement prioritization. This paper proposes a ranking method WhaleRank to rank the requirement and the effectiveness of ranking gets enhanced using the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA). The WhaleRank method uses four ranking functions based on dictionary words, similarity measure, perception of the manager, and the newly updated requirements that are combined to form a linear rank using the ranking constants. WOA determines the optimal weights of the ranking constants that promote to determine the optimal rank for the requirements. Experimentation with the methods like CBRank, average rank, WhaleRank, and GA provide a comparative performance analysis that proves that the proposed WhaleRank outperforms all methods in terms of accuracy and Disagreement measure (NDA) and the values of accuracy and NDA is 83.33% and 16.24% respectively.
    Keywords: WhaleRank; Whale Rank Optimization (WOA); Similarity matrix; Requirement updates; weighed ranking constants.

  • Detecting Spams in Social Networks using ML Algorithms A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Senthil Murugan N, Usha Devi G 
    Abstract: The Social network, by the name which has popularized in todays world and growing rapidly at all times and controlling over mankind. The social networks like Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn etc., have become a regular and daily usage of many people. It becomes a good mediator for the people who would like to share some posts, are some of their own videos, or some messages. But there has been major issues that the particular user of the social networks like Twitter and Facebook have the problem of indiscipline actions which we call as spam, by the third person who is knowingly doing this to spoil their intention and good opinion upon each other. Also, these Spams help to steal information about the people who using social networks. In this paper, we study and analyze about the spam in social networks and Machine learning algorithms to detect such kind of Spams. This paper also focuses on the ML algorithms detection rate and false positive rate over different datasets.
    Keywords: Social network; Spam; Machine Learning; Twitter; Facebook; Detection rate.

    by Zahida Nasreen, Sehrish Kalsoom 
    Abstract: One of the foremost solid wastes produced by petrochemical industries is oily sludge. Oily sludge being a mixture of various kinds of hydrocarbons has been characterized as a hazardous waste by Environment Protection Act and Hazardous Wastes Handling Rules which contributes a lot in environmental pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are components of crude oily sludge, represent serious environmental concerns, as most of them are mutagenic, cytotoxic and carcinogenic. Several methods for degradation of oily sludge and other petroleum related contaminants have been discussed in literature. This review paper presents the most efficient process of remediating these contaminants from environment i-e biodegradation by microorganisms. It is attaining significance as an increasingly efficient and potentially inexpensive cleanup strategy. Its potential contribution as a countermeasure biotechnology for decontamination of oil polluted systems could be vast, as it also leads towards mineralization of complex organic compounds to simple compounds enhancing soil organic contents. So it can be concluded that biodegradation strategy of petroleum oily sludge, even with some limitations, have proved to be one of the most cost effective and promising technology with potential application in land farming.
    Keywords: Oily sludge Composition; Toxicity; Alkanes; Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Biodegradation; Microorganisms; Biosurfactants and Land farming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2018.10008679