International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (127 papers in press)
Organic waste management: A review of practices from selected Asian countries
by Nisansala Abeysinghe, Sunil Herat
Abstract: Organic solid waste has become a global crisis especially in the developing countries of Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries consisting of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka face very similar problems as with other developing countries in South Asia. If not managed effectively, organic waste leads to disastrous human and environmental health issues. Hence, this study is carried out with objectives of understanding the existing organic waste management methods in the SAARC region and to identify potential improvements for managing organic waste. According to the available literature, recycling, incineration, refuse-derived fuel, anaerobic digestion and land filling are practiced throughout the region. Furthermore, researchers have developed several improved methods to enhance the organic waste management procedures in Asian countries.
Keywords: Asia; organic solid waste; waste management.
Mining Environmental Laws and Regulations: Mexican Experience
by Alberto Jaime-Paredes
Abstract: A discussion is made on how to include the environmental variable in the early stages of planning and design of mine waste storage facilities. The environmental impact assessment must be integrated into the planning process to decide the best alternatives for mining exploitation. In other words, in the planning of the work or activity, the environmental variable should be included with the same importance as the economic and technical variables. It must also be included in the analysis, design and construction of the project and in its decommissioning. In the design of an engineering work, the environmental service limit states are dictated by the rules in the matter. This is precisely the reason for studying environmental regulations. To know for what and with what limits to design a mining storage facility. It covers Mexican Environmental regulations, environmental assessment, the effects of mine waste storage facilities on the environment and some principles of geoenvironmental engineering.
Keywords: Environmental Geotechnical Engineering; Mine Waste; Contamination; Recycling; Environmental Impact; Environmental Legislation.
Removal of rhodamine B cationic dye using activated carbon
by Ana Lucia Denardin Da Rosa, Andre Azevedo Machado, Calina Grazielli Dias Barros, Elvis Carissimi, Dison Stracke Pfingsten Franco, Guilherme Luiz Dotto
Abstract: The optimum conditions for the removal of rhodamine B (RhB) dye present in wastewater was tested using commercial activated carbon (AC). Adsorption tests were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of pH, contact time and temperature; the kinetics of adsorption was studied for dye concentrations ranging from 20 to 500 mg L1 using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips models. Results showed that the AC had the highest adsorption capacity at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 25 °C. The kinetic model that better fit the experimental data was pseudo-second order. The Sips isotherm showed the best performance and the adsorption capacity values were 147.58, 140.01, and 137.27 mg g1 for the temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. Results indicated that adsorption using activated carbon has great potential for rhodamine B removal from effluents generated during stone dyeing processes.
Keywords: Adsorption; Dye removal; Rhodamine B.
PROPORTION OF RAW MATERIAL OPTIMIZATION IN HANDYCRAFT PAPER MAKING MADE OF PINANG FIBER (ARECA CATECHU L.) AND OLD CORRUGATED CARDBOARS (USED CARDBOARD)
by Azimmatul Ihwah, Ika Atsari Dewi
Abstract: Betel nut (Areca catechu L.) fiber is regarded as waste containing of 70.2% cellulose, 10.92% water, and 6.02% ash. In direct utilization of areca nut, certain innovation is required, one of which is to make handycraft paper. Handycraft paper can be utilized further in making products having artistic and economic value as well as reducing waste and if managed properly, it will give financial value as well. In order to get the expected physical quality of good handycraft paper, the manufacture of handycraft paper from areca fiber requires the addition of used paper, such as used cardboard. This research aims to determine the proportion of raw materials which are suitable in the process of handycraft paper making to produce optimal physical quality. The research was conducted by applying the Response Surface Methodology using two factors, which are the proportion of areca nut and used cardboard paper, involving the 13 treatments with responses, such as: gramatur, tensile strength, tear strength, and water absorbency. The optimal results chosen are handycraft paper formula with 55.74% proportion of areca fiber and 50% of used cardboard with desirability value of 0.807 and 240 g / m2 gramatur value, 26.0589 kN / m2 tensile strength, 498,401 gf tear strength, and 28,935% water absorbency. The most desired result of handycraft paper will be utilized as material for greeting cards or invitation cards.
Keywords: Handycraft paper; Optimization of Raw Material Proportion; Betel nut; Response Surface Methodology; Used Cardboard.
Formulating Landfill Gas Emissions Model for Forecasting Methane Generation from Waste under Iranian Scenario
by Somayeh Golbaz, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh, Abbas Norouzian Baghani
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the methane productions potential from municipal solid wastes based on two setups; Firstly, based on waste composition and secondly based on using the landfill gas emissions model(LandGEM). The results showed that based on the first step, the methane generation rate was found in the range from 1687.7 to 2062.6 mega cubic meter/year(Mm3/year) in the whole of studied regions. From developing LandGEM model, the maximum methane production rate in a landfill would be calculated equal to 2803.2 Mm3 in 2025. Also, the results showed that the methane generation rates have been at variance in five regions of Iran(p<0.05). In the northern regions of the country, the methane generation rate was increased due to the availability of sufficient moisture for microorganisms. Based on the theoretical computational quantities, it can be concluded that the volume of methane produced from municipal solid waste, which contains biodegradable materials (73%), was found very high.
Keywords: Waste management; Renewable energy; Methane emission; Greenhouse gases; LandGEM model.
Estimation of Methane and landfill gas emission from an open dump site
by George Ngusale, Michael Oloko, Frankline Otiende, Peter Kabok
Abstract: Globally, an inventory of methane (CH4) emissions from human related activity is needed by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Waste discarded, herein referred to as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), is a major source of anthropogenic emissions. In Kenya, MSW generation in major cities is ever increasing due to rapid urbanization. The MSW mostly disposed in open dumpsites decomposes (aerobically and anaerobically) releasing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The open dumpsites are normally shallow and unmanaged thus posing direct and indirect environmental hazards to surrounding populace. Kisumu city, the third largest city in Kenya, was used as a case study in determining the total methane and landfill gas emission in Kachok open dumpsite from 1998 to 2018. LandGEM model version 3.02 was used to estimate the gas emission with volumetric methane percent of 50%, production potential of 19.099 m3/Mg and methane generation rate of 0.05 year-1. Results show that in the year 2018, 1.164 *106 m3 and 2.329*106 m3 of methane and landfill gas, respectively, were produced. These values are very significant in planning to upgrade the open dumpsite into a landfill for energy production and other related landfill gas applications
Keywords: Methane (CH4); Greenhouse gas (GHG); Open dumpsite; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); Kisumu; Kachok.
Treatment of Petroleum Wastewater Using a Sequential Hybrid System of Electro-Fenton and NZVI Slurry Reactors, Future Prospects for an Emerging Wastewater Treatment Technology
by Mirmehdi Seyyedi, Bita Ayati
Abstract: In this study, treatment of a 750 mL petroleum wastewater sample was evaluated using a hybrid system consisting of Electro-Fenton and Nano Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI) slurry reactors in sequence. In both systems, effective parameters were optimized by One-Factor-at-a-Time (OFAT) method considering energy consumption and treatment efficiency. For the slurry reactor, nanoparticles were first synthesized and then used in the reactor to treat the wastewater. Both systems were first optimized separately and the hybrid complex was designed based on the sub-systems optimum conditions. As for the Electro-Fenton reactor, maximum COD removal efficiency of 92.78% was achieved in 75 minutes once having optimum initial pH and current values of 3 and 0.5 A respectively. In the slurry reactor, COD removal efficiency of 86.94% was achieved in 60 minutes while having 0.1 g/L of NZVI concentration and neutral initial pH as components of optimum parametric condition. Finally, in the hybrid system, a higher COD removal efficiency of 93.46% was achieved in only 47 minutes. Moreover, consumed energy for achieving the mentioned efficiency was 12.672 KJ being 40% less than that of single Electro-Fenton system.
Keywords: Advanced Oxidation; Electro-Fenton; NZVI; Petroleum Wastewater; Hybrid System; Wastewater Treatment.
Assessment of the logistics to handle the solid waste generated by seaports operation: a Brazilian case study
by Thiara Gomes, Rodrigo Rosa, Gisele Chaves, Jessica Prata
Abstract: Based on Brazilian law, the solid waste generated by the maritime terminals must be must be managed appropriately. In this sense, this paper proposes a reverse logistics network structure with three levels, introducing the idea of handling terminals, to allow the seaports to accomplish the law. A mathematical model to plan it is proposed aiming to maximize seaports financial results. A Brazilian case study was realized based on Rio de Janeiro seaports, 15 scenarios were assessed. Results indicates that transport costs represent up to 80% of the total costs and smaller trucks lead to smaller costs. The financial result was positive at all times indicating that selling waste for recycling could be profitable.
Keywords: Recycling waste. Reverse Logistics. Maritime terminals. Brazilian Solid Waste Policy. Facility Location Problem.
Optimisation of Malachite Green Dye Removal on Spent Tea Leaves Bio-char Using Response Surface Methodology
by Mardawani Mohamad, Rizki Wannahari, Nur Ir Imani Ishak, Rosmawani Mohammad
Abstract: Malachite green (MG) is a common dying agent used in various industries although it had brought detrimental effect towards the ecosystem. Thus, removal of malachite green from waste water is crucial to prevent environmental pollution. In this study, spent tea leaves (STL) bio-char was investigated to adsorb of malachite green dye in aqueous solution. The adsorption parameters were optimised by a combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD). Three independent process variables namely adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were selected as input parameters while the percentage of MG removal was considered as response. The most important effect on the bio-sorption performance was found to be the adsorbent dosage followed by the contact time. The effect of initial dye concentration was negligible within the experimental range. Quadratic model was chosen and studied using central composite design (CCD). The correlation coefficient, R2 for the quadratic model of MG removal (%) is 0.9854. The effect of the operating factors was investigated by analysing the 3D response surface graph. The optimum operating conditions for the removal of MG dye using STL bio-char were determined at 0.18 g adsorbent dosage, 46.92 mg/L of initial dye concentration and contact time of 56.16 minutes. At this optimum conditions, the percentage of MG removal up to 98.92 % with desirability of 1.000. The most significant factors affecting on MG removal were adsorbent dosage and contact time. Physical characterizations of MG dye, STL powder and STL bio-char were studied using FTIR analysis and SEM analysis. Thus, it can be concluded that STL bio-char can significantly be an alternative for the removal of MG dye from aqueous solution.
Keywords: Spent tea leaves (STL) bio-char; Adsorption; Malachite green (MG); Respond Surface Methodology (RSM).
Adsorption efficiency of activated carbon produced from waste rubber tyres
by Pratima Jeetah, Karishma Buddynauth
Abstract: Activated carbons were prepared through chemical activation method using waste rubber tyres. Sieved rubber tyres were impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at a ratio of 4. The KOH/tyre slurry was carbonised in an inert atmosphere at 500-800 oC for 0-2 hours. The effect of different chemical activation parameters such as pyrolysis temperature and residence time on the surface area, carbon yield and ash content were investigated along with the methylene blue adsorption onto the activated carbon produced. This method could produce activated carbon with a Methylene Blue surface area and Methylene Blue adsorption efficiency as high as 1787 m2/g and 83% respectively and a lowest ash content of 3.26% at 700 oC and a residence time of 1 hour. Carbon yield decreases while ash content and surface area increases with an increase in carbonisation temperature. Methylene blue adsorption onto the activated carbon produced best fits the Langmuir isotherm.
Keywords: Waste tyre; Chemical activation; Activated carbon; Adsorption Isotherm; Langmuir isotherm;.
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL
by Adilson Moacir Becker Júnior, Adriane Lawisch Rodríguez, Adan William Da Silva Trentin, Ênio Leandro Machado, Pâmela Andréa Mantey Dos Santos, Diosnel Antonio Rodríguez Lopez
Abstract: The present study aimed to develop a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of municipal solid waste management in Vera Cruz, RS, Brazil, to evaluate conventional waste management system, sorting of recyclable materials and composting treatment.; integrated waste management with sorting of recyclable and composting facilities; optimized integrated waste management for recyclable and composting assumptions (80% and 85%, respectively). Results show that in the optimized integrated waste management it is possible to reduce impacts in the global warming and acidification categories by 65% and 52%, respectively, whereas intermediate scenarios are projected to reduce these impacts by lesser amounts. Transportation and the final destination of the waste are among the waste management stages with the greatest environmental impacts. This LCA can quantify the magnitude of potential environmental impacts and may be used in decision-making process to identify the best scenario management.
Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Life Cycle Assessment; Environmental Sustainability; Environmental Impact; Recycling; Composting; Environmental categories; global warming; decision-making; public strategies; Brazil.
Procedure for economic analysis of projects for selective collection of used PET bottles
by Darlene Gomes Baêta, Ricardo César Da Silva Guabiroba
Abstract: Empty PET bottles after consumption, without adequate disposal, have serious negative environmental impacts. Reverse logistics is a sustainable solution, by reinserting the material in the life cycle. This paper reports the development of a procedure for economic analysis to assess whether it is attractive for scavenger cooperatives to participate in a project for selective collection of used PET bottles, in two scenarios: collection with municipal public schools functioning as voluntary delivery points, and as incentivized exchange points (in return for a reward to the schools). The procedure was applied to evaluate a used PET bottle selective collection project in the municipality of Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The results indicate that the project is economically viable and attractive to the cooperative investigated. The project is also beneficial to the citys public schools when functioning as incentivized exchange points, by generating revenue to sponsor educational activities.
Keywords: used PET bottles; economic analysis; collection points; scavenger cooperative; selective collection; recycling; reverse logistics; public schools; Rio de Janeiro State; sustainability.
GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE IN UDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA
by Jomata Igben, Celestina Ihayere, Eghosa Igun
Abstract: This study aimed to examine solid waste generation and disposal as problems of urbanisation in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data utilized in the study were obtained from questionnaire administered on a sample selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. The questionnaire covered the typology of solid waste, disposal methods and community participation in waste management. This was complimented by physical examination of waste dumps and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with 15 selected community leaders. The study revealed that a variety of solid waste comprising of bio-degradable (68.8%) and non-degradable (32.2%) are generated by households and are disposed in unsustainable ways; manifested by the heaps of refuse in public places and natural features such as riverbanks and forests. In addition, there is a very low level of communal participation in waste management. The study recommends the planning and establishment of dumpsites, and education of the teeming population on the hazards of unsustainable disposal of solid waste.
Keywords: Solid waste; Dump sites; Communal participation; Sustainability; Delta State.
A Review on Methods of Assessing Pollution Levels from Landfills in South Africa
by Joan Nyika, Ednah Onyari, Mergersa Dinka, Shivani Mishra
Abstract: As a result of poor MSW management in South Africa, leachate generation has been reported in lined and unlined landfills, which calls for measures to quantify and safely return it to the environment without causing adverse effects on the facilities' vicinity. This paper presents a review of studies on leachate assessment and quantification in South African landfills. The use of pipes is discussed as an intrusive method while lysimetry, WBM, geoelectrical mapping and ICP-OES are discussed as non-intrusive methods. Findings of the review allude to the importance of advanced operations management, rehabilitation and redesigning of landfills for accurate quantification of generated leachate. Additionally, intensive research is necessary in this field to validate findings of existent studies and cover the under-researched areas of the country and sub-Saharan Africa at large. Moving forward, this review recognizes that accurate leachate quantification in landfills is a potential solution to deterring its migration and pollution to the environment.
Keywords: Leachate quantification; Landfill; South Africa; Solid waste management; Pollution.
Management of dental waste in Shahrekord, Iran
by Moayede Taie, Abdolmajid Fadaei
Abstract: Solid dental waste is a major contributor to the spread and development of diseases. This study was performed to determine the quality and quantity of solid dental waste and to evaluate management practices in dental offices of Shahrekord, Iran. Thirty general dental offices out of 49 dental centers in Shahrekord were randomly selected. The study was performed through observation, consultation, and evaluation of policies and regulations. Then, the wastes were classified based on their characteristics and hazard potentials. The findings showed that domestic and infectious waste accounted for the highest percentage of dental waste, while toxic and chemical/pharmaceutical waste was responsible for the lowest percentage in all offices. Domestic, infectious, chemical/pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes accounted for 69.7%, 22.5%, 7.2%, and 0.6% of all dental waste, respectively. Overall, no effective measures were taken in dental offices for waste separation, minimization, or recycling. Based on our findings, recycling/reuse is the optimal waste minimization method. Also, it is suggested to hold educational workshops in order to increase the staffs knowledge in dentistry care centers.
Keywords: Dental waste; Infectious waste; Chemical and pharmaceutical waste; Toxic waste; Shahrekord.
Innovative Urban Landscape Design of Riverfront Area in Kembang Jepun, Surabaya
by Bambang Soemardiono, Murni Rachmawati, Defry Agatha Ardianta
Abstract: Surabaya is a growing city of Kalimas river. The emergence of the river as the beginning of the development of the city of Surabaya is possible thanks to its function as a means of communication between up and downstream areas. At some points, the area around the river is used as open spaces that serves as a public space, but in the other points are not yet used optimally. One of them is the river area in Kembang Jepun area. This riverside area in north of Surabaya has several potentials especially related to its function of urban landscape elements and also accessibility and open spaces. Urban landscape is described as socio ecological systems where natural and social processes go together with the ecosystems (Andersson, E, 2006) and in respect of how cities developed over time and their relation to nature (Sherwood, R,). The purpose of this research is to develop urban landscape design innovation in riverfront area in Kembang Jepun. The analysis used in this research approach in sustainable development by giving priority to environmental, economy and social aspect in determining the innovative design for riverfront area. The important analysis tool that will be used is also Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and workshop to capture the aspirations of the community as an ideal riverfront public space.
Keywords: aspirations; Kembang Jepun area; river; urban landscape.
The Municipal Solid Waste Disposal of Okhla Landfill in Delhi: Locating Legal Framework and Institutional Responses
by Stellina Jolly, Nafees Ahmad
Abstract: It is estimated that out of the 9,600 tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated by Delhi only 78% of the waste is collected, 9% is treated by composting, and the remaining gets dumped in one of the three (Okhla, Ghazipur, Bhalswa) open landfill sites located at the outskirts of Delhi. The present article stems out of the assessment of the practice of solid waste management at Okhla Landfill site based on the field study, including survey analysis and primary data collection and investigation. The article looks into the legislative framework and judicial interventions to modernize and organize the waste disposal system on scientific lines. The outcomes of the present study demonstrate that decentralization, capacity building, and access to the sharing of waste management knowledge, holds the crucial driver for sustainable waste management.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste Management; Landfill Waste Disposal; Environmental Justice; Waste Management Legal Framework; Central Pollution Control Board.
IoT-enabled Tip and Swap Waste Management Models for Smart Cities
by Theodoros Anagnostopoulos, Arkady Zaslavsky, Klimis Ntalianis, Christos Anagnostopoulos, S. R. Jino Ramson, Parth Jatinkumar, Sara Behdad
Abstract: Current technical advances in sensors, actuators, and wireless networks enable the Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Key features of IoT are the 'smart things, which have significant computational capabilities. In this paper we focus on waste management using dynamic allocation of collection and transfer points with subsequent transporting of waste to processing facilities. Waste management involves a variety of tasks from the collection of the waste in the field to the transport and disposal to the appropriate locations. The proposed waste management system contributes to innovative Smart City (SC) applications with impact in the dynamic allocation management of mobile depots in the SC. We propose a set of models, which advocate for replacing traditional way of tipping waste into larger containers by swapping full waste bins with empty ones. We also propose the concept of mobile depots as intermediate collection and transfer points. Quantitative and qualitative metrics to assess the efficiency of the proposed models are used. We incorporate the CT, TT, L, D and F quantitative metrics and the S qualitative metric. The S metric takes as input the values of the quantitative metrics and gives an output of high or low satisfaction. The models demonstrate their efficiency and potential adoption by SCs.
Keywords: Smart Cities; Internet of Things; Tip Models; Swap Models; Waste Management System.
Smart waste management paradigm in perspective of IoT and forecasting models
by MOHD ANJUM, Sana Shahab, Mohammad Sarosh Umar
Abstract: Municipal solid waste management has evolved as a major component of smart city services that encompasses a variety of tasks from household collection to final disposal/recycling. This paper critically discusses, firstly, mathematical and statistical aspect of solid waste management services in the direction of smart city development. Secondly, it proposes novel and intelligent waste management architecture through adoption of state of the art Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Mathematical and statistical aspect covers the comprehensive information of forecasting models. This paper classifies the models on the basis of influencing factors (socio-economic and demographic), planning period (short, medium and long) and ranking methods in order to foresee the amount of waste generated. Moreover, validation of the model is proposed to identify how well a model and associated data accurately forecasts the amount of waste generated for the actual solid waste management system. Accurate prediction of solid waste amount plays a crucial role in waste collection and disposal system planning and serves as a backbone data for municipal solid waste framework designer. The synergetic categorization of models expedites the decision makers and researchers to identify crucial influencing factors that help in developing the mathematical model.
Recent research indicates that there is a paradigm shift towards the new era of integration of IoT, intelligent software and web technologies. New intelligent software and highly reliable physical sensing smart devices with versatile functionalities are used to create an efficient integrated platform of desired functionalities. This paper emphasizes on adoption of IoT technologies in proposed waste management architecture and a comprehensive and thorough survey of IoT technologies is also presented to explore their characteristics and applications in waste management system. Further, an intelligent waste management architecture is proposed for real-time monitoring of smart bin, collecting vehicle, dynamic scheduling, and route optimization. This new type of monitoring framework is based on static data, real-time wireless sensor network data and optimization algorithm. Primarily, smart bin has inbuilt sensors to sense status, a GPS module, and a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag for location tracking and authentication. The smart bin coordinates with the server to update status in real-time via general packet radio service module when any change occurs. This real-time information, along with bin static parameters and global information system software, can be used to carry out vehicle route optimization and dynamic scheduling.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Smart bin; Smart vehicle; Work Server; Spatial technology; Internet of Things technologies; Dynamic Scheduling and Routing.
Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on sugarcane bagasse to enhance the production of hydrogen and organic acids
by Lais Americo Soares, Camila Abreu Borges Silva Rabelo, Paulo Seleguim Jr, Maria Bernadete Amancio Varesche
Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was characterized as a feedstock to generate value-added products using hydrothermal pretreatments (150-210
Keywords: Bioenergy; Lignocellulosic biomass; Liquid Hot Water.
Environmental, Socio-economic, and Human Health Impact of Illegal Waste Disposal in Katutura Township of Namibia
by Omotayo Awofolu, Immanuel Zeriapi
Abstract: Inappropriate waste management practices such as illegal disposal of wastes can seriously jeopardise the socio-economic dynamics and well-being of people in communities. This study investigated the impact of illegally disposed solid wastes in Katutura, a densely populated township in Windhoek, Namibia. The research was descriptive, using mixed methods that involved qualitative and quantitative analysis. A total of two hundred and thirty-four (234) structured and self-administered questionnaires were received from participants and responses therein were processed and analysed. Results showed that (51.7%) of respondents acknowledged the detrimental impact on illegally disposed wastes on human and environmental health. About (80.1%; 189) further attested to the impact on quality of life and socio-economic activities (119, 53.4%) in the communities. In terms of the attitude of perpetrators of this illegal practice, respondents believed that they simply do not care (38.9%) and that lower educational attainment (49.1%) was also a contributing factor. In order to curtail and discourage the habit of illegal wastes disposal, recommendations include increase in the frequency of waste collection 52 (50.5%), introduction of waste recycling initiatives in communities. Not surprising though, a high number of respondents (172, 73.5%) did not support the privatisation of the solid wastes management process.
Keywords: Environment; solid wastes; illegal; disposal; Unauthorised; human health; Communities; Katutura; Township; Windhoek.
Liquid effluent characterization of laboratory and pharmaceutical industry, a Brazilian study
by Valeria Camila De Lima Soares, Fabiana Cristina Lima Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Moutinho Pataca, Marcos Mol
Abstract: In recent years, concerns about industrial liquid effluents have increasing attention due to the various water crises and depletion of natural resources. Pharmaceutical industry can be highlighted as generating large volumes of liquid effluents with potential for environmental contamination when disposed inadequately. This paper evaluated a total of twenty-seven physical-chemical parameters on liquid effluents generated in a Pharmaceutical Laboratory and Industry located in Brazil. Thirty-six monitoring reports were used covering the period from January 2012 to November 2017 with a bimonthly sampling frequency corresponding to six reports each year. The parameters Surfactants (median 1.93 mg/L, MLA 5 mg/L), Aluminum (median 0.59 mg/L, MLA 3 mg/L), Ammonia (median 17.7 mg/L, MLA 500 mg/L), Sulfide (median 0.1 mg/L, MLA 1.0 mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (median 745 mg/L, MLA 450 mg/L) and Suspended Solids (median 150 mg/L, MLA 300 mg/L) were selected for a detailed analysis, as they presented at least one value above the standards established by the legislation - MLA. In addition to these parameters, biochemical oxygen demand was also studied in detail due to the high values observed (median 362 mg/L). Results suggested a faster management way to control the effluent produced by training employees about procedures of chemical products use, including cleaning equipment and areas with the premises of keep segregation and add barriers in the sinks for solids removal. The continuous monitoring is essential for the management and control.
Keywords: Industrial Liquid Effluent; Pharmaceutical Industry; Physical-chemical Parameters.
Textile Dye Degradation in a Novel Photocatalytic Baffled Reactor Using Immobilized TiO2 Nanoparticles
by Payam Zanganeh Ranjbar, Bita Ayati, Hossein Ganjidoust
Abstract: Herein, a novel photocatalytic baffled reactor (PBR) has been used to degrade the acid orange 52 azo dye. According to the results of the experiments conducted with the aim of maintaining minimum decolourisation time as well as minimising the level of energy consumption, the variables of initial dye concentration (50 mg/L), pH (3), flow rate (14.4 L/h), current length (150 cm), dissolved oxygen (5 mg/L), immobilised TiO2 concentration (20 g/m2), and temperature (25 degrees C) were obtained as the optimum condition in that 50 mg/L of dye at the pH of 3 and 48 W UV-C irradiation became colourless after 9.5 h. The degradation followed satisfactorily the pseudo-first-order kinetic according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and with increasing the initial dye concentration from 5 mg/L to 50 mg/L, the kinetic constant decreased from 1.086 h1 to 0.4 h1. The decolourisation and COD removal of real textile wastewater of 89% and 64% were obtained respectively after UV irradiation for 9.5 h.
Keywords: Azo dyes; acid orange 52; photocatalytic baffled reactor; decolourization; titanium dioxide; wastewater treatment.
Management of Household Hazardous Waste: A Review on Global Scenario
by Nisansala Abeysinghe, Sunil Herat
Abstract: Generation of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) has become a challenging problem due to rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes. Even though the fraction of HHW is very low compared to the main residential waste stream, it has the potential to create severe impacts on environmental and public health. Hence, the proper management of HHW is essential. Currently, most countries in the world do not have proper mechanisms or legislation to manage HHW. A small proportion of HHW is separated and recycled whereas the majority is disposed of together with other municipal waste. Main drawbacks for HHW management are lack of awareness, lack of infrastructure and absence of defined legislation. Studies are carried out throughout the world to find measures such as using new technologies to mitigate the impacts of HHW.
Keywords: Household hazardous waste; waste management.
Household solid waste quantification, characterization and management practices in Mthatha city, South Africa
by Vuyayo Tsheleza, Simbarashe Ndhleve, Hlekani Kabiti, Motebang Nakin
Abstract: Mismanagement of solid waste is a rising environmental malpractice within fast growing cities. This paper provides estimates per capita waste generation and quantity of different waste types generated by inhabitants of formal and informal settlements in Mthatha in order to inform city waste management plan. Data on household waste characteristics, management behavior and practices were gathered through questionnaires and direct waste measurement technique. Waste generated by households was collected and subjected through a waste composition analysis. Collected household waste was physically hand sorted into a number of predetermined categories. Each waste category was then weighed and the results were collated to provide a breakdown of the total composition of waste. Sampled households generated 2.84 kg/capita/week. On average, the rate of solid waste generation per capita was 0.40 kg/day for a person living in informal settlement and 0.56 kg/day person living in formal settlement. Proportion of food waste accounted for the most generated waste at 22.7%, followed by disposable nappies at 17.9%. The study proposed a waste channel flow which can be considered for growing cities. Study findings provide input for designing appropriate waste management strategy and landfill site for Mthatha city.
Keywords: settlement types; growing city; recycling; waste characterisation; waste management flow chart; Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM).
Laccase Mediated Bioremediation of Industrial Dyes by a potent strain of Arthrographis sp.
by Sheena Devasia, A. Jayakumaran Nair, Seema Anand
Abstract: Water pollution is one of the major problems faced by the humanity worldwide. The major route of water pollution is factory effluent, which includes organic and inorganic nutrients, infectious agents and toxic organic and inorganic compounds. Dye processing industry produces effluent which contains color compounds, suspended solids, acids, chlorine dyes, chromium, phenolic substances and comprise high BOD. Around 15% of the dyes originally introduced into the fiber-dyeing bath are discharged into the effluent system and ultimately reaches water bodies. A number of microorganisms are extensively investigated for dye degradation. The present study deals with the biodegradation of coir dyes using Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MTCC 787), Trametes hirsuta (MTCC 136), Arthrographis KSF2 sp (MTCC 8880) and Enterobacter cloaceae KSB4 (MTCC 9145). Arthrographis KSF2 sp was found to be the most efficient organism in dye degradation. The degradation was primarily by adsorption to the biomass and gradual degradation thereafter. The present study confirmed that microbial degradation of dyes could be vital for the success in detoxification of hazardous pollutants of water.
Keywords: BOD; biodegradation; coir dye; detoxification.
Residents participation and perception of environmental sanitation programme in Ogun East Senatorial District, Nigeria: A mixed-method approach
by Ayodeji Ifegbesan, Isaac Rampedi, Taiwo Odumosu
Abstract: This study investigated residents participation and perceptions of the monthly environmental sanitation program in three local government areas, located in Ogun East Senatorial District, Ogun State, Nigeria. The research employed both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Structured and unstructured questionnaire-based interviews and participatory observations were the main methods used. A total of 640 households were selected from 32 wards through a stratified random sampling procedure. The results indicated moderate participation (50%) of residents as well as mixed attitudes and perceptions regarding the success of this government intervention. The activities associated with this program are not well planned and executed as domestic waste is often dumped indiscriminately along streets and open spaces, without any prior sorting and separation at sources. Another major challenge is that such waste is not evacuated timeously by municipal vehicles to sites where it must be finally disposed of, thus reflecting inherent institutional weaknesses at local government level. The study recommends improved adherence and implementation of relevant and applicable policies and laws as well as the introduction of systematic public environmental awareness campaigns designed to help inform and improve current public attitudes and perceptions towards the sanitation program.
Keywords: participation; perception; environmental sanitation; Nigeria.
Farmers Viewpoints about using Wastewater in Farmlands in Iran
by Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi, Jalal Gholipour, Jahangir Abedi-Koupai
Abstract: Iran with an average rainfall of 250 mm per year, is one of the arid and semi-arid the regions of the world. In recent years due to the limitation of exploitable water resources, increasing urbanization in addition to the drought, planning for water has been faced with many challenges. The present study aimed to investigate the views of farmers about using wastewater in agriculture, in Iran. The study was done by a descriptive-surveying method including field and documentary data. The validity of research tool was obtained by the idea of experts and for the reliability of questionnaires a pilot test was conducted. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient of higher than 0.7 showed that research tool was reliable. The result of research showed that farmers believed using of wastewater has created health issues such as: infectious diseases, skin and emissions of bad odor in the region. Results of regression analysis showed that wastewater health awareness by farmers can have a great impact in encouraging them to use wastewater in agriculture. Also the result of factor analysis showed that the 48% of the total variance of the farmers viewpoint of using wastewater were: healthy, ecological and social-economic factor, so that half of it depends on the risk and problem on health issue for using wastewater in this region.
Keywords: wastewater; agriculture; farmers; Iran.
Role of informal sector in dynamics of municipal solid waste compositional change from household to dumpsite
by Meena Deswal, Jitender Singh Laura
Abstract: The study was undertaken to understand the changes occurring in the composition of the municipal solid waste as it moves from the waste generating households to dumpsite via the secondary storage community bins. Waste was sorted into compostable and non compostable fractions (plastics, paper, glass, leather, textile, metal, and inert). At the household level the 48.20% of compostable fraction was higher than components of non compostable fraction, in household of low income group colonies. The reverse was observed for household of high income group colonies. At community bin level a 46.94% decrease in the components of non compostable fractions (except inert) was observed in both low as well as high income group colony bins this trend was repeated in case of the dumpsite, however a drastic change was observed in percentage composition of plastic and inert in the MSW from colony to Dumpsite. Plastic decreased from 36.75% in colony to 4.59% at dumpsite, the changes occurs due to waste segregation and collection by the informal sector. Inert increased from 3.63% in colony to 46.34% at dumpsite this result from deposition of construction waste and non compliance to the Municipal Solid Waste Rule, 2016. The paper highlights the extant of influence of the informal sector in the segregation of recyclable materials from different levels of unsegregated waste storage.
Keywords: Municipal waste; waste composition; informal sector; dumpsite.
Elimination of Hexavalent Chromium from Polluted Water Using
Specific Type of Bentonite Clay as Adsorbent
by Mohammed Ali Rashid Hameed, Mohammed Jaafar Ali Alatabe
Abstract: Specific bentonite clay was studied to remove Cr+6 from polluted waters of different concentrations using adsorption phenomena at different temperatures. Synthetic samples were prepared with Cr+6 concentrations of 5, 15, 30, 50, and 100 mg/L. Samples were divided into two sets; the first was mixed with 0.5 g bentonite per 100 ml, the second with 1 g per 100 ml. Some samples were mixed for 1 hr, and others for 2 hr to reach equilibrium at temperatures of 20, 40, and 60 0C, and pH 7. Then the absorbent was separated, and acetone dissolved 1,5-diphenylcarbohydrazide solution and acid were added to the treated filtered water to determine Cr+6 remaining concentration by light absorption technique using UV-visible spectrophotometer for a light wavelength of 540 nm, and 1 cm. Very high Cr+6 removals were obtained (95.4%). Using bentonite dosage of 0.5 g per 100 ml, the removals ranged from 10 to 93.2% at 20 0C for mixing time of 1 hr. But increased substantially when Cr+6 initial concentrations were increased, as well as when mixing time increased to 2 hr (5295.4%). The temperature rises to 40 0C, improved removals for low Cr+6 initial concentrations (?30 mg/L), but harmed the higher range. Adsorption capacity (Me) ranged from 0.52 to 19.08 mg/g. Using bentonite dosage of 1g per 100 ml, improved removal efficiency substantially than did previous dosage, much for low Cr+6initial concentrations (?30 mg/L) but less for high ones. Freundlich adsorption model was checked if represented the results, good values of statistical correlation coefficients were obtained (R2= 0.88 to 0.988). Bentonite clay was very efficient in removing Cr+6and could be used for pre- or main treatment of industrial waste.
Keywords: Hexavalent Chromium; Bentonite Clay; Adsorption; UV-visible; spectrophotometer; Freundlich isotherm model.
Eco-friendly extraction of Mosambi (Citrus limetta) essential oil from waste fruit peels and its potential use as a larvicidal, insecticidal and antimicrobial agent
by Tripti Kumari, Nandana Pal Chowdhury, Ritika Chauhan, Nawin Kumar Tiwary
Abstract: An increase in citrus fruit peel and pulp waste across the world poses severe waste management issues and an approach to reuse these industrial and domestic wastes can resolve many environmental and waste management problems. Here, we report the extraction of essential oils from waste Mosambi (Citrus limetta) fruit rinds and its potential use as a larvicidal, insecticidal and antimicrobial agent. The novelty of the study is the use of a household pressure cooker and the extraction has been facilitated outside of a laboratory, using the rinds of waste Mosambi (Citrus limetta), a raw material that has been seldom used for extraction purposes. We have adopted the steam distillation technique followed by solvent extraction using n-hexane. The reported method of extraction produces zero waste, is energy efficient and gives a good yield. The extracted essential oil was found to have larvicidal and insecticidal properties. It also possesses antibacterial activity against non-pathogenic strains Bacillus subtilis and Rhodococcus equi. Fungal strains, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria carthami were also inhibited by the oil, indicating its antifungal nature.
Keywords: Essential Oils; Steam distillation; Mosambi (Citrus limetta) peels; Limonene; Antimicrobial; Insecticidal.
A REVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF MINING WASTES
by Elizabeth Damoah, Sunil Herat
Abstract: The sustainable management of mining waste continues to be of global concern and a key part of this is the associated environmental and social costs. The paper discusses the issue of mine waste management and what constitutes sustainable management. A comprehensive literature review and synthesis of existing mine-waste management practices was undertaken, and results further discussed and analysed in relation to ecological, social and economic sustainability. The review revealed that sustainable mine-waste management practices are those that apply techniques to reduce and prevent mine waste prior to its generation; reprocess to further extract valuable materials or recover minerals that may have been previously overlooked; downcycle remnant bulk material for a low purpose; and responsibly treat and dispose after all possible uses for the materials have been considered. Poor mine waste management has ecological, social and economic implications with rippling effects on ecological and human systems lingering on for many generations.
Keywords: mining sustainability; mine-waste generation; mine-waste management practices; mine-waste review.
Municipal Solid Waste Management: Analysing the Principles of the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy
by Liana Santana, Seimor Walchhutter, Tiago Slavov, Paschoal Russo
Abstract: Research in municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been conducted in various areas of knowledge to identify good practices considering gaps in our understanding. This study aims to identify the MSW management practices of the 38 largest Brazilian cities (municipalities with a population higher than 500 thousand inhabitants). For this purpose, a quantitative study is proposed based on a statistical treatment of 13 indicators presented in the Brazilian National System of Information on Sanitation for Solid Waste of the period 2010-2015. The result of the analysis suggests low compliance with the principles of the Brazilian National Policy on Solid Waste. The difficulty and opportunities for MSW management discussed. For example, the municipalities that generate large volumes are directly proportional to the consumption of the population. Regarding the practices, we observed a positive effect of the adoption of street sweepers on the total recovered, recycled materials.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Brazilian National Waste Solid Policy; Environmental Management Accounting; PNRS; SNIS-RS.
Biosorption of Divalent Copper from aqueous solution using Mallet Flower Leaves Powder as Adsorbent
by Devarapalli Venkata Padma, Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry
Abstract: The presence of heavy metals like copper, chromium, lead etc. poses a serious problem for the aquatic bodies. Biosorption has been used as an important method for removing heavy metals. In this paper, Mallet Flower Leaves Powder (MFLP) is used as an adsorbent for removal of Copper ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments were conducted in Batch mode using MFLP establishing it as a good adsorbent. The paper explores the effect of agitation time, initial concentration of copper, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature on the removal of Copper ions. Highest metal removal was observed at an agitation time of 40 minutes, adsorbent size of 74
Keywords: Biosorption; Copper; Heavy metals; Mallet Flower Leaves Powder (MFLP); SEM.
Process contributions to life cycle impacts of municipal solid waste management options in Harare, Zimbabwe
by Trust Nhubu, Edison Muzenda, Charles Mbohwa
Abstract: This study is a life cycle based assessment that seeks to determine the process contributions to global warming, terrestrial acidification, eutrophication and human health impact potentials of six developed municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options for urban environments within and surrounding Harare metropolitan province. Identification of the contributions of the various MSW life cycle stages to life cycle impacts could possibly assist in designing corrective MSW management measures as well as identifying alternative MSW life cycle stages that could possibly minimize the impacts. Results show that waste collection contributes to increased acidification, eutrophication and global warming of 0.012, 0.0002 and 0.065 species.yr respectively as well as human health impact potential of 34 DALYs across all the MSWM options. Anaerobic digestion of biodegradable MSW generated in urban areas within and surrounding Harare contributed to increased acidification, eutrophication and global warming impact potentials of 0.053, 0,008 and 0.043 species.yr respectively and 52 DALYs under MSWM options A3 to A6. AD only contributes less potential impact increases than waste collection and transportation with regards to global warming. Overall, incineration is environmentally sustainable compared to landfilling despite it contributing slight increases in acidification and eutrophication impacts. The recovery of 20% of the recoverable materials for reuse and recycle contributes to impacts reductions of -0.05, -0.004 and -0.26 species.yr with regards to acidification, eutrophication and global warming and -156 DALYs under MSWM options A5 and A6. Therefore, strategies earmarked at reducing the positive contributions need to be developed.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste management; life cycle assessment; life cycle impacts; life cycle stages; eutrophication; global warming; human health; acidification; sustainable; Harare; Zimbabwe.
Water treatment waste: Comparison between sedimentation and flotation for sludge thickening at a Brazilian Water Treatment Plant
by Keila Fernanda Soares Hedlund, Manoel Maraschin, Ivo Homrich Schneider, Beatriz Stoll Moraes, Ezequiel Somavilla, Elvis Carissimi
Abstract: Water treatment plants (WTPs) are essential for the production of potable water. However, they produce large amounts of waste that must be treated and disposed of properly. Thickening is the prior step and most important phase for sludge disposal or even reuse. This study evaluated the thickening of the sludge of a WTP by sedimentation and dissolved air flotation (DAF), using anionic, non-ionic, and cationic polymers, with dosages ranging from 0 to 5.5 mg polymer/g TSS. The parameters evaluated after thickening were: turbidity of the clarified water; concentration of solids and filtration resistance, of thickened the sludge. DAF thickening resulted in lesser turbidity in the clarified water (23.3 NTU) when compared to sedimentation (46.3 NTU). The highest solids concentration was found in the sludge thickened by sedimentation (7.10%). Sedimentation thickening resulted in sludge with a smaller filtration resistance (9.0E+12 m.kg-1) than flotation (10.9E+12 m.kg-1). In comparison with thickening, sedimentation proved to be a more promising alternative, showing better results regarding solids concentration and filtration resistance, thus being a good treatment alternative to avoid undue disposal of this residue.
Keywords: polymers; sulfate sludge; thickening by flotation and sedimentation; sludge treatment; sludge disposal.
Extraction of precious metals from Electronic Waste by using Supercritical Fluid Technology
by Seyed Mohammad Fayaz, Dr Mohammad Ali Abduli, Majid Baghdadi, Abdolreza Karbasi
Abstract: Electronic and electrical wastes are types of special wastes that are toxic, pathogenic and stable in the environment, even in the animals body, corrosion and the like. Disposal management of these materials is challenging due to the difficulty of separation and insufficient research into their recycling process. Selection of appropriate collection, separation, processing, and recycling and disposal methods based on scientifically-acceptable principles will help to effectively control. In this study, the development of an innovative method for recovering valuable metals from electronic solid wastes has been studied and the results show that the use of supercritical extraction method in extracting its metals has high efficiency and superiority over the methods. Traditional and conventional extraction is more commercially satisfactory. Benefits such as reduced process time, fluid-like solubility and penetration power such as gases, high selectivity, no environmental problems, reduced solvent utilization in this method, complete and easy solvent recovery.
Keywords: Precious Metals; Electronic Waste; Supercritical Fluid Technology; Environmental Friendly Process.
A Pollution Assessment of Grossly Polluting Industries in India
by Parul Baranwal
Abstract: Due to exponential economic growth, industrialization and urbanization is increasing day by day in the country and simultaneously the number of key environmental problems arising. In order to rationally plan pollution control strategies, adequate knowledge of nature and magnitude of pollution load contributed by different sectors of industries is a pre-requisite. In this paper we quantified the pollution potential and their reduction with and without control device from grossly polluting industries in the country. As the large & medium scale industries have their treatment plants and emission control equipments for control of water pollution and air pollution respectively assuming that these treatment plants or control devices are working to their full capacity, pollution load estimation has been done according to their performance and treatment. The Central Pollution Control Board identified the seventeen grossly polluting industries and their total numbers have been obtained from various states as 6192.These are: (1) Sugar, (2) Distilleries, (3) Caustic Soda, (4) Fertilizer, (5) Oil refinery, (6) Iron and steel, (7) Pulp and paper, (8) Pharmaceuticals, (9) Pesticides, (10) petrochemicals, (11) Thermal power plants, (12) Dye stuffs, (13) Tanneries, (14) Cement, (15) Aluminum Smelter, (16) Copper Smelter, (17) Zinc Smelter. The paper revealed the volume of wastewater and air pollution generated per day and pollution potential (pollution load) in terms of important pollutants were then calculated on the basis of production and their numbers in the country. The total contribution of Biochemical Oxygen Demand load from 17 sectors of industries are estimated as 22974 t/d and overall reduction due to control measures adopted are 20479 t/d and percent reduction is estimated as 89%. The contribution of particulate matter load generated by different categories of industries is estimated as 3,85,588 t/d and reduction due to control strategies adopted is estimated as 1729 t/d, thus their percent reduction is estimated as 99%.
Keywords: Air pollution; Water pollution; Assessment; Industries.
Associated factors of medical waste management practices in developing countries: a review
by Timothy Kurannen Baaki, Mohamad Baharum, Michael Pitt, Samantha Davies
Abstract: The heterogeneous composition of waste from healthcare facilities has historically been a significant challenge with management efforts concentrating primarily on treatment and disposal solutions. This has left a legacy of issues with the management of this type of waste, especially for developing nations. This paper has examined the associated factors of medical waste management (MWM) practices in healthcare facilities in developing nations. Medical waste (MW) definitions have been examined, and factors associated with its management, from regulation and policy formulation to disposal, have been identified through desk research of existing studies. This paper found that in some countries where MWM legislation and policies exist, some are either poorly formulated or are an offshoot of general environmental waste management regulations. More specifically for developing countries, this study found that training, segregation, handling and disposal practices and implementation of MWM programmes were often at a poor standard. Poor regulatory frameworks, poor risk awareness and training, poor financing, influence of social factors such as cultural norms, poor infrastructure and technological advancement were some of the factors identified as key issues. This paper viewed the challenges of MWM practices in developing countries to be much more of a management issue than a technological issue and has identified advanced routine management approaches within an integrated sustainable MWM framework as a tool to drive improvements in MWM programmes.
Keywords: developing countries; healthcare facilities; medical waste; sustainable medical waste management; waste management practices.
The use of artificial neural networks to predict furfural degradation in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation processes
by Yasmen Mustafa, Sinan Mohammed, Ghaidaa Majeed, Raid Omran
Abstract: In this study, the wastewater polluted with furfural was treated by advanced oxidation processes. Both batch and continuous systems were used. Different variables in batch experiments, Fe+2, H2O2, pH, furfural concentration and the relation with the mineralization of furfural were examined. The results indicate that a 30mg/L concentration of Fe+2,a 1300 mg/L concentration of H2O2, a pH of 3, and an irradiation time of 60 min at 30oC, were required to complete the mineralization of 300 mg/L of furfural. In the continuous system, different flow rates were used. The results show that at a furfural concentration of 300mg/L, a flow rate of 20mL/min, and an irradiation time of 60 min, only a 64% mineralization of furfural is achieved. The study examined the implementation of artificial neural networks (ANN) for the prediction of furfural degradation in aqueous solution. A correlation coefficient of 0.97-0.99 was obtained between experimental and predicted output values.
Keywords: Advanced oxidation process; Furfural; Fenton process; photo-Fenton; Artificial neuron network.
Leachate Analysis of Two Waste Dumpsites in Pretoria, South Africa
by Senzeni Nyathi, Joshua Olowoyo
Abstract: Background and Objective: Lack of proper waste management practices may increase the concentration of noxious chemicals found in leachate. This present study analysed the levels of trace metals in leachate collected from two waste dumpsites in Pretoria, South Africa.
Method: An open ended questionnaire was designed in order to obtain information on management options from the two waste dumpsites used for the study. Managers were interviewed on their management options. Leachate samples were collected in triplicates from leachate ponds and stored below 10 degrees Celsius. Trace metal contents were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-7700 (ICP-MS-7700). A student t- test was used to check the significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals from the two waste dump sites.
Results: The result showed that both sites lack leachate collection and treatment systems and there are no official recycling programmes in place. The levels of lead(Pb), manganese(Mn), chromium(Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and nickel(Ni) were all above the recommended limits. There were significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals obtained at the two waste dump sites.
Conclusion: Waste management methods are not up to the required standard. The concentration levels of Pb, Mn, Cr, Hg, As and Ni at both waste dumpsites were found to be higher than values recommended by the World Health Organisation(WHO),and South African National Standards (SANS), there is need for better waste management in order to reduce environmental contamination.
Keywords: Waste management; Dumpsites; Leachate and Trace Metals.
Attitude and cultural level of the health staff on hospital waste management system: a case study of UHC Constantine-Algeria
by Rabeh KHARZI
Abstract: Purpose: This work is an opportunity to trigger a sustainable development strategy in an Algerian hospital. Its purpose is to provide strategic decision support for risk management related to healthcare waste faced by our hospitals all based on knowledge of the attitude and cultural level of health staff regarding the hospital waste management system. Thus, to be able to improve working conditions by technical, organizational and human solutions, which allow preserving the health and improve health and safety at work of employees while engaging in a continuous improvement process. As a case study, we chose Dr. Benbadis University Hospital Center (UHC) of Constantine, to highlight an action plan that meets the sanitary and hygienic requirements of healthcare waste on public health.
Conception / methodology / approach: The study is based on an in situ observation. The methodology consists of developing a questionnaire based on dependent variables and their indicators, which are related to hypotheses and the objectives of our work. It includes open-ended, closed-ended and direct questions to gather information that allows testing hypotheses. This questionnaire aims to verify this statement and point precisely to the difficulties encountered. The participants in our study are made up by the agents of the hospital. The sample size was determined using a sampling technique, which advocates a sample of 1 to 50% of the targeted population recommended by WHO.
Conclusion: Healthcare activities help to preserve health, healing patients and saving lives. Unfortunately, the waste generated by these activities generates crucial economic, sanitary and ecological problems and represent a real threat to public health and to the environment especially of which are the contagious. Henceforth, the proposed approach will allow to analyze the cultural level of the actual safe hygiene in terms of waste management and to put in place effective actions to improve the identified weaknesses. These elements provide ways for prioritizing improvement actions as part of a global program. This approach can be generalized for other care facilities. This management is essential for a sustainable development.
Practical implication: This work is an information, awareness and mobilization tool for a better prevention of contagions in our hospitals. The results of this work will make it possible to impose a discussion and open negotiations on this subject. This work will open a national debate about the hospital waste management file.
Originality: It is first of its kind that this work has been done in our hospitals, as the management of healthcare waste is taking more and more importance in the field of the public health and the environment. All the actions carried out up to now have been proved defective and disparate. Through this contribution, we try to evaluate the cultural security level in order to adapt the most appropriate techniques and measures on the one hand and attract the attention of managers on the other hand.
Keywords: Hospital waste; impacts; management; public health; survey; UHC of Constantine.
Chemical Characteristics of Biochar Derived from Bamboo Waste and Cow Dung for Energy Purpose and Environmental Restoration
by Made Gunamantha, Nyoman Dantes
Abstract: Biochar is a product produced after biomass is converted thermochemically in conditions with limit or no oxygen with characteristics more dependent on its raw materials other than its operating conditions. This study evaluated the characteristics of biochar in the potential of function as solid fuel and soil amendments. Biochar were obtained from carbonization of bamboo waste and cow dung. Composite biochar were prepared with a combination of bamboo waste and cow dung derived biochar in 21 variations. The characteristics were determined based on their proximate and ultimate analysis and their calorific value. Data proximate analysis of biochar obtained in the Mc range from 5.29 to 7.62%, Vm from 11.88 to 19.69%, ash from 20.99 to 66.63%, and fixed carbon from 15.87 to 54.44%. Data ultimate analysis of biochars obtained in the C range from 19.63 to 59.98%, H from 1.97 to 3.50%, O from 10.83 to 16.08%, N from 0.31 to 0.79%, and S from 0.25 to 0.29%. Whereas the HHV of biochar in the range from 6.64 to 21.66 MJ/kg. Ratio of H/C and O/C increase with the increasing of cow dung composition, ratio C/N decreasing with increasing of cow. This study showed that the more proportion of waste bamboo, biochar obtained was increasingly potential as solid fuel and the more proportion of cow dung, biochar was increasingly potential as a soil amendment. In other words, biochar from pure bamboo waste is more potential as solid fuel and from pure cow dung is more potential as soil amendment. This indicate that the potential utilization of biochar is determined by the feedstock
Keywords: Biochar; bamboo; cow dung; fuel; soil amendments.
MODELLING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT FOR THE DESIGN OF WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITIES AND REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
by SUMALATHA J., SIVAPULLAIAH P.V., PRABHAKARA R.
Abstract: Remediation of contaminated sites requires the knowledge of contaminant transport processes and their rates which are modelled considering the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) and requires software assistance to be performed using iterative calculations. This paper presents the utilisation of various software tools to solve the equation. These include analytical method and Finite Layer technique which are implemented by using MATLAB and POLLUTEv7 software tools respectively. Different schemes of the Finite Difference method are tested using software tools viz., MATLAB and Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. An excel spreadsheet solution is created for reactive solute using the finite difference method. This paper demonstrates the use of column leaching tests and MATLAB programs for selecting the suitable chemical solution and the quantity required to leach out the contaminants from the contaminated sites. These studies also help in the design of liners for waste containment facilities.
Keywords: column test; dispersion coefficient; distribution coefficient; soil washing; breakthrough curve; elution curve.
A Survey on Solid Waste Generated at a South Indian University Campus
by SANJITH S. ANCHAN, Shiva Prasad H C
Abstract: Due to the rapid growth of population and standard of leaving the Solid waste management has become a worldwide problem. The improper management of Solid waste can cause a hazard to living being and environment. The problem of solid waste management is at the initial stage at South Indian University campus. A detailed survey was done regarding the method of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage and treatment and disposal of solid waste in South Indian University campus. The data were obtained from field visits, interacting with people and questionnaire. The survey data reveals the existing system of solid waste management practices followed in South Indian University campus.
Keywords: solid waste; management; biomass; energy conversion; survey.
Sewage water from a hospital and its impact to microbial profiles: A case study
by Ramabele T. Katleho, Benad Omondi Abong'o, Sissay Mekbib
Abstract: Waste generation and its management present universal challenges related to negative impacts on the environment. Hospital sewage due to its high concentrations of antimicrobials, it exerts pressure on microorganisms that leads to the development of resistant strains. The current study sought to determine microbial diversity and antibiotic profile of isolated strains from St. Joseph's hospital sewage water disposal ponds, Roma, Lesotho. The antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the most commonly applied antibiotics viz. ampicillin amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, norfloxin, streptomycin and vancomycin in the region. Following EUCAST 2012 standard procedure, a total of six dominant bacterial isolates, of which E coli, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Streptococcus spp and Pseudomonas spp were identified. Some isolates were found 100% resistant against ampicillin, amoxycillin and vancomycin, while others were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and norfloxin. The effect of other antibiotics was found to be at intermediate and susceptible percentage fractions against some isolates. The study prevails that the presence of resistant microorganisms in hospital sewage water need stringent waste management policy to study periodically the antibiotic profile of hospital sewage water to avoid the development of potential risks by nosocomial contaminants.
Keywords: antibiotic profile; antibiotic resistance; hospital sewage; microbial diversity; treatment; impact; microbial profile; nosocomial.
Mollusk Shell Waste: Alternatives for Reuse in Construction
by Ariane Da Silva Cardoso, Emilia Rahnemay Kohlman Rabbani, Thayse Dayse Delmiro, Juliana Ferreira Bezerra Mocock, Sergio Peres Ramos Da Silva, Gabriel Filippelli, José Vitor Da Silva Macedo, Eliana C. Barreto Monteiro
Abstract: Waste from the cultivation of bivalve mollusks has become an environmental issue in many parts of the world due to its irregular disposal. In Brazil, according to a diagnosis by the Secretariat for Sustainable Development and Environment, the Ilha de Deus fishing community, located in Recife - Pernambuco, produces about 408 tons of charru mussel shell waste annually. This waste is deposited directly into mangrove areas, producing serious environmental and social impacts. Seeking suitable ways to dispose of this waste, this study proposes possible uses for mollusk shells, identifying benefits, losses, and difficulties in the use of this waste through a systematic review of the literature. A chemical and thermogravimetric analysis of the mussel shell waste was carried out and several possible uses were proposed, mainly as a raw material for civil construction, taking into account local needs. The shells can be used as aggregate for mortar and concrete for various purposes and as filters for the treatment of effluents.
Keywords: bivalve mollusks; construction; recycled aggregates; solid waste; sustainable development.
An Engineered Production Formula for Enhanced Artificial Stone Utilizing Stone Cutting Slurry
by Arine A. Nassereldine, Tasneem Y. Ashhab, Maher Al-Jabari
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the technical feasibility of utilizing some of the local industrial waste (stone cutting wastewater and marble) in manufacturing artificial stone and enhancing its quality, with the addition of a superplasticizer. The paper reviews the previous work and presents new experimental work. Artificial stone samples were casted according to two starting formulas obtained from local production facilities. Later on, an engineered production formula was developed and tested, based on product quality. The investigated experimental parameters included: compressive strength, water absorption, and workability of fresh concrete. The experimental results indicated that high compressive strength and a low water absorption for artificial stone is technically feasible. In term of the compressive strength of artificial stone the marble dust contributed better than limestone wastewater.
Keywords: artificial stone; stone cutting; marble dust; waste; recycling; compressive strength; water absorption.
WILLINGNESS TO PAY AND ITS DETERMINANTS FOR IMPROVED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY
by Mithun Ray, Phiban Khamti Ryngnga, Pompi Chetia
Abstract: Unplanned urban growth and extension of slums due to a desirable industrialization and an undesirable population explosion have produced growing public concern with exponential increase in sanitation and environmental problems in India. Improvement of worsening environmental state is not only necessary for better life quality but also a moral duty to preserve the environment for upcoming generations. This study attempt to find out the probability of willingness to pay for an improved system to manage solid wastes generated in Cooch Behar Municipality, West Bengal, India using the contingent valuation method. A total of 304 respondents were interviewed using stratified random sampling through survey-questionnaire. To determine the socio-economic factors that affect the probability of willingness to pay, binary logistic regression was applied. Most of the residents are willing to pay extra money in form of direct donation or tax to get better waste management facilities and services. Although it is found that year of effective schooling, income, awareness of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and distance of community bin from households have positive and statistically significant effect on residents willingness to pay while gender played a negative and significant role in determining willingness to pay. Age, place of residents and marital status of the respondents also had positive effect, but they do not significantly influence decisions on willingness to pay for improved solid waste management. The findings of this study could contribute to design a more sustainable system for residential waste management in the Cooch Behar Municipality and other areas that have similar conditions.
Keywords: Willingness to pay; improved solid waste management; binary logistic regression; Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
Development of environmentally friendly nanofluidic detergents from TiO2 and palm oil-based primary alkyl sulphate surfactant
by Slamet -, Isnanda Nuriskasari, Miranda Hasanah, Muhammad Ibadurrohman
Abstract: An environmentally friendly nanofluidic detergent from TiO2 and palm oil-based primary alkyl sulphate (palmPAS) surfactant has been developed as a cleaning agent to remove dirt and leftover surfactants. The structural properties of palmPAS were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) while the stability of newly developed nanofluidic detergent was characterised by particle size analyser (PSA) and zeta potential analyser. Detergency test was done by examining various components of the nanofluidic detergent through spectrophotometer using methylene blue (MB) as the model of dirt. The experimental results revealed that the optimum composition of nanofluidic detergent to remove MB is 0.1% TiO20.7% palmPAS, reaching 89% of detergency. In terms of leftover surfactant removal, the nanofluidic detergent can eliminate up to 14% by photodegradation. The output of this study is expected to provide an alternative solution for minimising the use of harmful components from chemical-based cleaning agents.
Keywords: cleaning agent; environmentally friendly detergents; methylene blue; nanofluidic detergent; palmPAS; photodegradation; renewable surfactant; TiO2; waste management; water treatment.
Evaluating Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Shear Strength Parameters to Assess Landfill Slope Stability
by Nader Hataf, Seyedali Mousavinezhad
Abstract: Due to the economic growth, the rapid process of industrialization, and urban population increase, Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management problems are of great concern to the governments, especially in developing countries. Besides the environmental issues, several landfill failures have been reported in recent decades caused irreversible damages for human health and imposed financial burdens on the governments. To avoid such geotechnical failures having a thorough understanding of mechanical characteristics of MSW is crucial. To this end, we conduct standard compaction tests, direct shear tests, and consolidated undrained (CU) triaxial shear tests to obtain the mechanical properties of Shiraz MSW. Besides, using Slide 2D, we perform a back analysis to examine the geotechnical extents of the Shiraz landfill failure that occurred in 2013 during a firefighting operation. It was shown that the back analysis results have a better correlation with the data gathered from direct shear tests. Model results show that MSW water content increase due to the firefighting operation led to MSW shear strength decrease and slope failure. Considering the complex components of MSW, it is necessary to increase case study research on understanding MSW mechanical properties to design landfills more precisely and prevent such potential disasters in the future.
Keywords: municipal solid wastes; shear strength; slope stability; back analysis; Slide 2D.
Use of Municipal Solid Waste in Co-processing in cement kilns in India a review
by Sorabh Singhal
Abstract: Co-processing of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in cement kiln can reduce the use of conventional fuels like coal, oil etc. It would also help in reducing the associated greenhouse gas emissions that emerges due to combustion of the conventional fuels. In a country like India where the amount of waste generated is humongous which can cause both environmental and social issues, co-processing could be a win-win situation for all the stakeholders. This would help in both proper waste disposal and management by the municipal cooperation and reducing the emissions and adoption of alternative fuel by the cement manufacturers. This paper review the possibility of using MSW for co-processing in cement industry and the problem that are being faced while using this method of waste management. Few models are also explained which are currently adopted in different cities of India which further analyse the situation and issues in the country for the use of MSW.
Keywords: Co-processing; Environment; Greenhouse Emission; Health Issues; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); Refused Derived Fuels (RDF); Waste Management; Waste Segregation; Waste Models.
The Optimization of Delignification In the Pulping of Areca Catechu L. : The Study of NaOH Concentration and Cooking Time
by Ika Atsari Dewi, Susinggih Wijana, Elce Velenia Rembet
Abstract: Areca betel plant (Areca catechu L.) is a palm family plant that is wide-spread in Indonesia. One part of the areca betel plant that has not been widely used is its fiber. Thus, it is necessary to do further research, such as using the fiber as material in making pulp for handicraft paper. The pulp is the result of the fiber separation process from fibrous material. In the pulping process, there is a delignification reaction where lignin is degraded by solvent. NaOH concentration and cooking time need to be examined in making pulp since the higher the NaOH concentration and the longer the cooking time, the more hydrolyzed lignin increases automatically. However, higher NaOH concentration and longer cooking time cause cellulose to hydrolyze, resulting a decrease in pulp quality. This research aimed to find out the optimal NaOH concentration and cooking time in making pulp from areca betel fiber in terms of the cellulose and lignin content produced. This research used the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The experiment was designed based on Central Composite Design (CCD) with two types of treatment factors, namely NaOH concentration and cooking time. The first factor used an upper limit of 25% and lower limit of 15%, while the second factor used upper limit of 150 minutes and lower limit of 90 minutes. The responses examined were lignin and cellulose content using Chesson method. The results of the research showed the optimal condition from NaOH concentration was 25% with a cooking time of 90 minutes which resulted in the response of cellulose and lignin contents of 46.6% and 7.6%, respectively. Therefore, the optimal solution was chosen as the best solution and can be used as material for making handicraft paper.
Keywords: Areca Betel Fiber; Cellulose; Lignin; Pulping; RSM.
Factors affecting rice wastage in Mazandaran Province, Iran
by Ebrahim Ebrahimi
Abstract: The objective of the present quantitative-qualitative research was to identify and analyze the main factors influencing rice wastage in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Rice wastage was estimated by a combination of the Delphi technique and interviews. The statistical population was composed of all rice growers in Mazandaran Province in Northern Iran. The sample size was determined as 258 farmers by Cochrans formula. They were selected by multi-stage random sampling. It was the first research ever done in the region on recognizing the main factors influencing rice wastage by the Delphi technique. Nineteen experts were sampled by snowball sampling for the Delphi technique. The main factors affecting the wastage and discriminating the paddy growers were identified by using ordinal logistic regression in STATA Software Package. According to the results, 12 local factors influencing rice wastage (at planting, cultivating, and harvesting stages) were derived among which pests (Chilo suppressalis, Ephydra afghanica Dahl, etc.), accounting for 5% of the wastage, was found to be the most important cause of wastage in the region. The findings of the ordinal logistic regression and marginal effects revealed that among the independent factors, six factors - including age, educational level, farm area, mean crop yield, number of machines owned, and rice waste management knowledge - had significant and positive impact on increasing the wastage and discriminated the paddy growers in four groups, i.e. farmers with low, relatively low, relatively high and high wastage. Finally, most of respondents (59.3%) suffered high wastage at different stages of rice production.
Keywords: Rice wastage; rice growers; Delphi technique; Mazandaran.
Recycling behavior of people in South Africa
by Raymond Oriebe Anyasi
Abstract: In this paper the behaviour of households towards recycling as a sustainable means of waste management was studied. The whole essence was to establish the impact of such behaviour in limiting the success of recycling practises. 400 randomly selected households in the suburb of Claremont in the city of Cape Town, South Africa, were used in the study. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire targeted at the head of each household in the area. Analysis of the results showed that 67.3 % of the sampled households do not recycle waste, meaning that more effort should be geared towards awareness creation for people to understand the benefits of recycling. There was lack of basic recycling education and guidance and inadequacy in infrastructure and services which negatively deter the interest for recycling. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant and positive relationship (r = 0.89, p = 0.003) (significant level at p ? 0.05) between waste management interests and the recycling ability of individual households. SWOT analysis shows increase in environmental awareness as the strength, insufficiently developed recycling collection infrastructure as weakness, development of convenient recycling collection infrastructures and incentives such as tax reduction as opportunities, while threats is that recycling may not be financially rewarding in short run. It was recommended that government should install more convenient recycling depots, as well as raising environmental awareness campaigns.
Keywords: Recycling survey; Household Waste management; Upper Claremont; Peoples behaviour; SWOT analysis.
VARIANCE OF PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN LEACHATE POLLUTANT AND
ASSESSMENT OF LEACHATE POLLUTION INDEX FROM FIVE LANDFILLS IN
by Naveen BP
Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites are potential contamination sources of human and environmental hazards. Leachate generated from MSW landfill sites is heterogeneous and exhibits huge temporal and seasonal variations. Leachate pollution index (LPI) indicates an overall pollution potential of MSW landfill sites. The parameters necessary to estimate LPI from an MSW landfill site are debated in terms of their variations sometimes, and their significance has been highlighted in the context of LPI. The LPI values of five major cities in
India has been calculated in this study. The landfill leachate samples from these sites have been assessed using leachate pollution index to implement appropriate leachate treatment techniques for reducing the adverse effects on the environment. The result shows that the Pallikkaranai landfill site for the Chennai city and Mavallipura landfill site for Bangalore city is highly deteriorating and may increase human health risk for nearby dwellings. It is concluded that LPI value can be used to assess the leachate pollution potential from landfill sites, particularly at places where there is a high risk of leachate migration and pollution of groundwater. This study also aims to serve as a guideline for implementing appropriate leachate treatment techniques for reducing adverse effects on the environment.
Keywords: Environment; Solid Waste; Landfill; Leachate Pollution Index.
Toxicity of Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent on the Bioremediation Activity of Saprophytic and Nitrifying Microorganisms
by Harshit Mahandra, Asim Ahmad
Abstract: In this work, initially, the effluent of pulp and paper industry was subjected to physicochemical characterization and determination of the concentration of heavy metals The effect of varying concentration of effluent on the biological activity of saprophytic and nitrifying bacteria has been studied An optimized concentration of 5 0 mg/L glucose was used as control An increase in percentage inhibition has been observed with the increasing concentration of the effluent in the proposed systems The kinetic parameters i e , rate constant and ultimate biochemical oxygen were used to analyze biological activity of microorganisms with increasing percentage effluent concentration and were determined using Thomas method for different systems Overall study resulted in the high resistivity of nitrifying bacteria than saprophytic bacteria to the pulp and paper industry waste.
Keywords: Pulp and paper industry; Thomas method; Microorganisms; Biochemical oxygen demand; Rate constant; Effluent.
SOLID WASTE POLICY IN BRAZIL: LEARNINGS AND CHALLENGES AFTER A DECADE OF IMPLEMENTATION
by Marcelo Matias, João Alberto Fereira, Lisete Lange, Isabella Pincelli, Armando Castilhos Jr.
Abstract: In 2010 the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP) was established to promote better solid waste management practices. This article evaluates the NSWP influence on generation, collection, sorting and treatment of household solid waste (HSW), health care solid waste and construction & demolition (C&D) solid waste. It was perfomed a segmented regression analysis to historical data series trying to identify a statistically significant influence of NSWP on solid waste management in Brazil. Some results showed a possible positive influence of the policy but the implementation of the NSWP has not shown optimistic advances in recent years. Solid waste management in Brazil still lacks regionally and nationally integrated actions to improve its management.
Keywords: Solid Waste Policy; Municipal Solid Waste Management; Household Solid Waste Generation Rate; Segmented Regression; Recyclable Materials; Disposal and Treatment.
A Smarter and Greener Model of Energy Production in Thermal Power Plants
by Abed Inan Chowdhury, M. Nahin Mahmood, Akash Talapatra
Abstract: This paper analyses the efficacy of an environmentally friendly and sustainable energy production model which has the ability to reduce Carbon dioxide emission from thermal power plants. The fundamental cycle of the model consists of five chemical reactions that include Hydrogen Production, Fuel Cell, and Sabatier Reaction in a cycle. In this study, some of the principles of the precedent model has been modified to enhance its performance and a twenty years production forecast has been undertaken to check the applicability of the proposed model. The study reveals that Carbon dioxide emission and Methane consumption can be considerably reduced using this model. On the other hand, the oxygen concentration of air can be increased significantly. The results demonstrate that the model can prevent 15000 Liters of Carbon dioxide emission per Watt capacity in a year at the exchange of only 3% of the production capacity of a typical plant.
Keywords: Air Pollution · Performance Analysis · Power Plant · Sustainable Energy · Emission Control.
Biomedical waste management in Sri Lanka: a scientific and a legal perspective of the legislation and policies
by Ranil Kularatne
Abstract: This article reviews the Sri Lankan legal framework and policies regarding biomedical waste management. All healthcare facilities require an Environmental Protection License and a scheduled waste management license from the Central Environmental Authority (CEA) under the National Legislation. Conditions on radioactive waste management stipulated in the licenses issued by the Sri Lanka Atomic Energy Regulatory Council (SLAERC) of the Sri Lanka Atomic Energy Board (SLAEB) must be fulfilled. The national policy remains in draft since 2001 and has some serious loopholes. There is no clear institutional arrangement for policy formulation and implementation. Therefore, National Policy has to be re-formulated and legitimated as a command and control policy. Compliance monitoring by relevant authorities is essential for proper enforcement of the legislation and policy decisions.
Keywords: Biomedical wastes; healthcare facilities; legislation; policy; radioactive wastes.
Soil contamination with heavy metals release from e-waste management activities in Nigeria
by Jokotade Owoso, Oladele Osibanjo
Abstract: This study assessed the levels of heavy metals contamination of soil of four different e-waste management activity sites in Lagos, Nigeria where open burning, dismantling/disposal, stockpiling and dismantling/stockpiling of e-waste were ongoing. Soil samples were collected seasonally during dry and wet seasons, for two years from each site. The samples were analysed for selected metals using atomic absorption spectrometer after aqua regia digestion. The soil at the open burning site was observed with the highest concentrations of all the metals with mean values (mg/kg) of 24.8 (Cd), 69.3 (Cr), 108 (Ni), 4380 (Zn), 15200 (Pb), 41700 (Cu) for the wet season. The extreme values of contamination factor (>6) obtained for the open burning site indicated very strong contamination by Pb and Cu. Sequential extraction showed higher proportions of Zn, Pb and Cu in the non-residual soil fractions with mobility factors suggestive of high mobility and bioavailability of the metals.
Keywords: soil contamination; heavy metals release; e-waste management activities; Nigeria; open burning; dismantling; stockpiling; contamination factor; sequential extraction; mobility factor; bioavailability.
Effect of rice husk ash on physical properties of soft soil
by Duong Nguyen Thanh
Abstract: Rice husk ash (RHA) is a waste material from burning rice husk which is abundant in Vietnam. The utilization of RHA in soil improvement has been widely investigated. However, the effect of different RHA types on the physical properties of soft soil such as Atterberg limits has not been clarified yet. In this study, two types of RHA obtained from open burning and burning in a furnace will be used to investigate their effects on the physical properties of soft soil such as specific gravity, water content, and the Atterberg limits. The RHA contents from 0 to 15% by the dry weight of soil were used to mix with soft soil. The research results showed that the types of RHA have little effect on the change of water content and the Atterberg limits. Nevertheless, the RHA with low silica content (high carbon content) will result in a higher decrease in specific gravity. Regarding the change in soil particles, the addition of both RHA types can lead to an increase in the silt content of treated soil.
Keywords: rice husk ash; soft soil; burning conditions; specific gravity; water content; liquid limit; plastic limit; plasticity index.
Biosynthesis of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles Using the Residual of Ducrosia Anethifolia
by Reza Abolghasemi, Maryam Haghighi, Mousa Solgi
Abstract: Plant wastes, including the residues of medicinal plants, have recently become one of the significant environmental problems in some countries. Zinc sulphide nanoparticles with crystalline structure were synthesised well with the help of the green synthesis method by using the residues of medicinal plant moshgak (Ducrosia anethifolia). The N-H, C-O, C=O, sulphide (S2), C-H, and phenolic groups existing in Moshgak are responsible and involve in the stabilisation of Zn2+ and the formation of Zn-S bond. XRD patterns and SEM images verified the cubic structure of ZnS nanoparticles. The FTIR studies confirmed that C-O, C-N, C-H, N-H, N-S and S-O groups of Moshgak could bind to ZnS nanoparticles. The results of this work demonstrated the synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles by using the wastes of Moshgak can be a good alternative for chemical synthesis methods.
Keywords: Green synthesis; Moshgak; Nanoparticles; Medicinal plant; Ducrosia Anethifolia; Zinc sulfide.
Production of Nesquehonite, a Magnesia Precursor, by Carbonation of Synthetic Mine Waste Water
by Tamsyn Grewar, Bongo Mabusela, Dheepak Maharajh
Abstract: Nesquehonite is considered a valuable product since it is the preferred precursor to the high value product magnesia. Magnesia is used extensively in the mining industry for the hydrometallurgical recovery of metals. The mining industry produces large volumes of mine-impacted water that could be used as a low-cost resource for producing the magnesia precursor. This work aimed to optimize the first phase of a low cost magnesia production process, by carbonation of a synthetic solution simulating a liquid mine-waste. A three-factor (pH, Mg and CO2 concentration), two-response (product yield and NaOH consumption), Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM) design was used to determine the optima for the process. The optimal factor settings were: pH 9.5, [Mg] 1.5 g/L and [CO2] 20 %. Tests established that the target product, nesquehonite, was preferentially formed in the majority of the experiments.
Keywords: Mine impacted water; beneficiation; water treatment; carbonation; nesquehonite; MgO; response surface methodology.
Physicochemistry and microbial diversity of a municipal solid waste dumpsite leachate revealed by metagenomics
by Uwem Edet, Ini Bassey, Iniobong Ebenge
Abstract: In this study, the description of microbial diversity of dumpsite leachate was done using metagenomics in addition to physicochemistry. Sampling of leachate, physicochemical analysis, metagenomics DNA extraction and NGS were all done using standard techniques. Results of physicochemical analysis showed that heavy metals (lead, cadmium and zinc) were higher than levels permissible in potable water by WHO. In decreasing abundance, the kingdoms classified were, protozoa, bacteria, archaea, unknown. Phyla analysis showed 14 microbial phyla of which, the top 5 were Unknown, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Ciliophora, and Proteobacteria. Class analysis revealed 18 classes A total of 34, 59 and 126 orders, families and species were classified, respectively. Amongst the classified species, medically importance ones were Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium sp, Propionibacterium acnes and Shigella sonnei. Furthermore, novel and industrially important species namely Ignatzschineria indica and Bacillus licheniformis, were also identified.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Leachate; Metagenomics; Dumpsite; Microbial community.
Fabrication and Characterization of Functionalized Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes / Polysulfone Nanocomposite Membranes for Fouling Mitigation
by Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed, Amer N. Al-Naemi, Mustafa Al-Furaiji, Inmar N. Ghazi
Abstract: Nanocomposite membranes were developed from mixed oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (OMWCNTs) / polysulfone (PSU) using a phase inversion method. A dope solution containing polysulfone PSU (17 wt %) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; 5 wt. %) of the solution was modified with different concentrations of added carbon nanotubes (1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 wt% relative to the weight of PSU). The results indicated that MWCNTs have been successfully oxidized and that their presence in the mixing membrane has been an important factor affecting membrane morphology and membrane permeability properties and making the membrane surface more capable of binding with water molecules (hydrophilic), thus reducing the fouling of membranes. Enhanced nanocomposite membranes showed that the freshwater flux was maximum when the OMWCNTs / PSU blend membranes were (2.5 wt. %). For the rest of the modified membranes, the flux gradually decreased but was better than the bare membrane.
Keywords: Polysulfone; Carbon Nanotubes; Water Flux; Ultrafiltration; Nanocomposite Membranes; Fouling.
Physico-chemical characterization and quantification of municipal solid waste in high-altitude Srinagar city of North-Western Himalayas.
by Jasir Mushtaq, Abdul Qayoom Dar, Naved Ahsan
Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) management in low-lying cities has been extensively studied, but in high-altitude regions, it lacks behind due to many constraints. The present study was conducted in the high-altitude Srinagar city, Kashmir, during (2018-2019) for physicochemical characterization and quantification of MSW. A total of 2000 kg of MSW samples were analysed for two seasons (winter and summer) with 40 samples (n=5) for each category. The average generation of MSW was assumed (0.48 kg capita-1 day-1), it was estimated that 868 Mt day-1 of MSW generated with a population of 1.81 million during 2019. The findings of MSW characterization of all the socio-economic groups showed a high bulk density in winter (490.42 kg m-3) and summer (463.75 kg m-3), respectively. Further, results revealed organic waste 54.30%, followed by 23.75% of inert content, and recyclable waste 16.65%.
Keywords: High-altitude; Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); Calorific value; Greenhouse gas (GHG); Compositing.
Recycling of plastic waste as coarse aggregate in concrete for sustainable development
by Ramakrishna Bag, Subham Agarwal, Subham Subhasish Baral, Aman Kuamr Singhal, Kishor Biswas
Abstract: This paper presents a detailed experimental investigation to use plastic waste in concrete. Construction work uses a wide range of raw materials, most of which eventually ends up as landfill. That makes the construction industry one of the largest contributors to landfill waste and greenhouse emission like CO2 worldwide. Experimental investigations were carried out to determine strength characteristics of concrete by replacing coarse aggregate with 10, 15 and 20% processed plastic waste. Tests were conducted on concrete specimens to understand its behavior under tensile, compressive and flexural loading conditions. It was noted from the experimental results that the optimum strength at 10% replacement of coarse aggregate by plastic waste. The concrete mix prepared using plastic waste can be used for mass concreting and low load-bearing structures.
Keywords: sustainable development; solid waste; non- biodegradable; plastic waste; concrete.
Diclofenac Removal by bimetallic Benjamina nZVIron/Copper Particles from Aqueous Solutions
by Hossam Mohammed Abdel-Aziz
Abstract: Bimetallic zero-valent Iron/Copper NPs were successfully prepared by Green synthesis approach using Ficus Benjamina leaves extract (FB-nZVFe/Cu). Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM], Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy [FT-IR], and Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy [EDAX] indicating the synthesizing of bimetallic Ficus-ZVFe/Cu nanoparticles. The removal efficiency of Diclofenac Sodium (50 mg L-1) reached 95 % under the condition [0.5 g L-1, 45 min, and pH 4]. The adsorption data are more appropriate by the Langmuir model [R2 = 0.9983] with qmax = 155.6 mg g -1. Results of adsorption kinetics indicate that DFS uptake on FB-Fe\Cu nanoparticles is following the pseudo-second-order. Overall, FB-Fe/Cu nanoparticles are a committed green substance to remove DFS. Operating parameters effect was investigated using Linear regression analysis SPSS, they were found to account for more than 98 % of the variables that affect on the removal process.
Keywords: Diclofenac; Bimetallic; nZVFe/Cu; Ficus Benjamina; Green Synthesized.
Impact of oil spillage on the levels of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in millipede and soil from Ikot Ada Udo, Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria.
by Akaninyene Joseph, Udeme Udofia
Abstract: The impact of oil spillage on heavy metals and hydrocarbons levels was studied. Millipede (Sprostreptus assiniensis) samples were hand-picked, while soil samples were collected using hand auger, and then analysed for heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) using a spectrophotometer. Levels of heavy metals, TPH in millipede, soil samples were higher in the study site compared to control. Mean metals concentration in soil were 0.748 (Pb), 0.754 (Cd), 1.577 (Ni), 0.274 (Cr), 4.749 (Fe), 0.020 (V), 0.103 (Co), 0.181 (As), 5.544 (Mn) and 5.187 mg/kg (TPH); while that of millipede were 1.290 (Pb), 0.524 (Cd), 0.683 (Ni), 1.278 (Cr), 2.283 (Fe), BDL (V), 0.023 (Co), 0.001 (As), 3.016 (Mn) and 3.011 mg/kg (TPH). Mean Ni, Cr, Mn (in millipede); Cd, Cr, Fe, V, As (in soil) were above WHO limits. Thorough clean-up is recommended for the total restoration of the environment.
Keywords: impact; crude oil; oil spillage; heavy metals; hydrocarbons; millipede; soil; Ikot Ada Udo; Akwa Ibom State; Nigeria.
Perceptions of residents toward e-waste reuse and recycling in selected villages in Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, and China
by Li Liang
Abstract: The perceptions of residents toward e-waste management systems were studied by questionnaire surveys in two villages selected in each of Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, and China. Analysis of the responses from the villages with and without practicing e-waste management systems showed that the villagers in China were most optimistic toward the conditions of their environment as opposed to those in Thailand. The villagers in Japan, however, were most knowledgeable about e-waste containing precious metals. Also, a comparison of the responses from villages with practicing e-waste management systems showed that a higher number of the villagers of Hong Ren Old Village (China) demonstrated more positive perceptions than Village #3 (Thailand) and Kamikatsu (Japan) toward the concern over their respective environmental conditions, the relationship between the increased use of electrical and electronic equipment and its effects on the environment, and the knowledge about e-waste laws and rules adopted.
Keywords: Perception; e-waste; reuse; recycling; questionnaire survey.
Degradation of azo dye in ozonation by noble metal supported mesoporous catalyst
by Santosh Ghuge, Anil Saroha
Abstract: The mesoporous catalyst was prepared by impregnating Ru metal on SBA-15 material and its performance was studied in catalytic ozonation reaction for degradation of reactive orange 4 (RO4) azo dye solution. The operational variables such as Ru (%) loadings on SBA-15, initial pH and ozone concentration are optimized to get maximum degradation efficiency. The reaction mechanism for catalytic ozonation was analyzed by introducing t-butanol as radical scavenger. The colour of RO4 azo dye solution was completely removed after 21 min of catalytic ozonation reaction. The COD removal of 61 1 % was achieved at optimized conditions of Ru loading of 0 25 % on SBA-15, initial pH 9 0 and ozone concentration of 5 g/m3. The addition of radical scavenger t-butanol in catalytic ozonation reaction indicated that the decolourization was mainly occurred through direct ozone molecular mechanism whereas degradation of non-colourful groups and intermediates were occurred through hydroxyl radical mechanism.
Keywords: Catalytic ozonation; Ru/SBA-15; RO4 azo dye; Hydroxyl radical.
The potential use of waste glass powder in slag based geopolymer concrete-An environmental friendly material
by Manikandan P., Vasugi V
Abstract: This paper mainly focused on the potential use of waste glass powder in a slag based geopolymer concrete. Waste glass powder is used as a source material and slag replacement in geopolymer concrete at a replacement percentage from 20% to 80 %. In total, sixteen geopolymer concrete mixes were prepared by varying the proportions of waste glass powder and Molarities (M) of NaOH solution. Experimental analysis based on mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete and prediction of properties with the application of Artificial Intelligence through Neural Network was done. The experimental outcomes indicated that the mechanical (Compressive, Split-Tensile and Flexural) properties of geopolymer concrete yield better results from Alkaline to Binder (A/B) ratio of 0.55 and a proportion of 80% of slag: 20% glass powder with 12M from the sixteen mix proportions. The predicted mechanical property of geopolymer concrete with the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was observed to agree with the experimental strength values.
Keywords: Geopolymer concrete; Waste Glass powder; Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS); Alkali Activated Solutions (AAS); Artificial Neural Network (ANN).
Photocatalytic degradation of organic dye using FexOy -TiO2 and powered by solar cells
by Rokia Youcef, Amel Benhadji, Haithem Bel Hadjltaief, Sameh Ben Ameur, Mania Terki, Mourad Benzina, Mourad Taleb Ahmed
Abstract: The main objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of novel semiconductor FexOy-TiO2 under visible lamp and the use of the photovoltaic panel as a direct energy source. The results showed that 91.81 % occurred by using lamp of 20 W under the condition of [FexOy-TiO2] =0.5g/L, [BBF] =20 mg/L, [H2SO4]=0.1M, pH=3.8, P=18 W and 3 hours of reaction. It was also found that the presence of PO43- and S2O82- (3g/L) increase the rate of degradation to 97.72 % in about 1.5 h. The second part of this work was dedicated to choose a lamp with the best intensity of irradiation. The maximum of current intensity generated by solar cells reaching the values of 3400 mA at 11.08 h and 2260 mA at 13.83h by using lamps of 20 W and 75W respectively.
Keywords: Solar cells; FexOy; FexOy-TiO2; photocatalysis treatment; illumination intensity; Brilliant Blue FCF.
Changes in physical, chemical and biological variables of the leachate generated from municipal solid waste subjected to saline solution application
by Miriam Gonçalves Miguel, Rafael Lourenço Thomaz Favery
Abstract: The main characteristic of Brazilian municipal solid waste (MSW) is the high organic matter content that can accelerate the biodegradation process. This study aims to analyze the physical, chemical and biological variables of the leachate generate from a Brazilian MSW confined in five lysimeters over 1022 days. In three of the lysimeters the MSW was subjected to application of saline solution to evaluate its effect on the leachate characterisation. As a result, the anaerobic biodegradation process of the MSW subjected to saline solution remained in the anaerobic acid phase for almost the entire monitoring period, delaying the methanogenic phase in 350 days; however not completely inhibiting the biodegradation process. Moreover, the application of saline solution resulted in a decrease of the nitrogen ammonia concentrations in the leachate, nonetheless, it increased the values of electrical conductivity and total solids, and provided the slowest and gradual decrease in chemical oxygen demand.
Keywords: anaerobic biodegradation; lysimeter; municipal solid waste; saline solution; leachate; nitrogen ammonia.
Trash to Cash Through Permaculture for Sustainable Island Tourism: The Case of Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia
by May Ling Siow, Sridar Ramachandran, Kamarul Ariffin Maizan
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to employ an evidence-based intervention through permaculture practices on island tourism in Mabul, Semporna Sabah. Through the trash to cash initiative conducted over a span of two years in Mabul, this paper aims to identify the best practices and limitations of permaculture practice on an island, as well as to uncover lessons for future pursuits. This intervention was conducted in the Borneo Jungle River Island Tours Sdn. Bhd company for two years to identify usable permaculture methods for island-based lodges. A case study design was chosen for this purpose as it allows numbers of small in-depth cases conducted throughout the course of two years. These cases were studied in a real-life context, applying permaculture principles while observing how they influence and are influenced 2 M.L. Siow et al. by users. Using permaculture principles, a total of ten different initiatives were coined and tested on-site. Top initiatives included: 1) collection of air-conditioner water; 2) composting; 3) environmental education. The major managerial challenges found were: 1) receptiveness of the initiative by workers; 2) change of mindset; 3) top-down initiatives. Borneo Jungle successfully reduced its costs and waste through this initiative.
Keywords: up-cycle; circular economy; backpackers lodge; ecotourism; sustainability.
Removal of Mineral Scaling Precursors from Electrodialysis Concentrate by Alkaline Precipitation
by Emily M. A. Becheleni, Edward M. Peters, Ricardo P. Borba, Sônia Denise Ferreira Rocha
Abstract: Evaporative crystallization has been used to recover water for industrial reuse but it presents serious problems related to incrustation. In this perspective, alkaline precipitation is studied, in the present work, aiming to remove scale-forming salts prior to evaporative crystallization of a reverse electrodialysis concentrate (EDC). The concentration of inorganic species in the feed and filtrate streams were determined by ICP-OES. The total organic carbon and inorganic carbon were analysed by thermo-catalytic oxidation with high temperature to assess the removal of organic compounds from EDC. The software PHREEQC was used to model the systems and a comparison with experimental results confirmed the credibility of the experiments. The technique proved to be a favourable method for removal of almost 100 % of Ca and Mg by adding 0.04 wt.% of caustic soda. Furthermore, this would improve the downstream evaporative crystallization efficiency due to reduced incrustation potential.
Keywords: PHREEQC; desalination; calcium carbonate; magnesium hydroxide; reverse electrodialysis; scaling; hydrogeochemical model; precipitation; water reuse; demineralization process.
Do Human Resource Management Practices Influence Environmental Management in the Ready-Made Garment Industry? An Empirical Analysis
by Mahi Uddin
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices on environmental management (EM) of ready-made garment organizations in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 185 respondents (i.e., 52 human resource managers, 29 chief executive officers, and 104 general employees). The study employed partial-least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) for robust inferences. Findings reveal that organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE) and strategic human resource management (SHRM) practices have a significant positive relationship with EM. In contrast, internal environmental operations do not have any significant association with EM in Bangladesh's context. The results suggest that OCBE and strategic HRM are significant predictors of better EM. There are limited empirical studies presented in the literature linking HRM practices and EM, and this research might help policymakers and researchers to get insights about the significance of HRM practices in improving EM of the ready-made garments (RMG) sector. Besides, this study also discussed the limitations of this study, directions for further studies, and implications for theory and practice.
Keywords: HRM Practices; Environmental Management; Ready-made Garments Sector; Bangladesh.
Economic Feasibility of Refuse Derived Fuel Production from Agricultural Biomass Waste in Durban, South Africa
by Ismail Babatunde Adefeso, Yusuf M. Isa
Abstract: The study explores cost implications of alternate use of some agricultural wastes for energy use through refuse derived fuel (RDF) from solid agricultural wastes. The economic feasibility of RDF from agricultural wastes in Durban was carried out. The analysis was performed by determining some economic indices. The total capital cost obtained was $5.70 million while the total revenue from the system was $13.49 million for the entire project life of 13 years (360000 Kg of ASW). The quantitative economic indices obtained were NR = $0.12 million, rate of return on investment = 17.1%, PBP = 3.4yrs, and NPV = $3.53. The total capital cost of $5.70 million is within the budgetary amount allocated for agriculture ($70 million) in the region. The results showed that cost of processing dominated the cost of production but the availability of affordable solid agricultural waste for RDF production minimised the cost of RDF production.
Keywords: biomass; agricultural solid waste; South Africa; refuse derived fuel; economic analysis; net present value.
Mechanism and Kinetic Model of the Oxidative Degradation of Rhodamine B Dye in Aqueous Solution by Ultrasound-assisted Fentons Process
by Sampa Chakrabarti, Mahjabeen Akram
Abstract: A plausible mechanism for sono-Fenton reaction has been proposed and a kinetic model was developed with verification by experimental data. Degradation of Rhodamine B dye using sono-Fenton process has been investigated. Effects of initial pH, initial dye concentration, dosage of FeSO4, H2O2 and ultrasonic power density were studied. Optimum values were: pH = 3, H2O2 = 2.74
Keywords: Kinetics; Mechanism; Sono-Fentons Process;Rhodamine B dye ; Wastewater; Ultrasonic cavitation; Decolourisation; COD removal.
Knowledge management approach for sustainable waste management: evolving a conceptual framework.
by Beatrice Abila, Nelson Abila, Jussi Kantola
Abstract: Attaining sustainable management of various waste streams requires applying both technical and non-technical approaches, including the deployment of knowledge management systems. Knowledge management in relation to waste management (WM) implies optimising the application of a broad range of knowledge in WM towards attaining defined goals the know-why, know-who, know-how, and know-what of WM sustainability. The problem of waste and its management is not peculiar to only certain countries or continents; it is a global challenge that requires the management of vital knowledge in the WM chain for ensuring that sustainable waste management (SWM) goals are attained. Global collaboration should be established to focus on knowledge gaps across the WM chain. The application of the knowledge management approach in waste management is new. This paper reviewed existing literature on waste management and synthesised existing knowledge to come up with conceptual frameworks for waste management and waste knowledge management. The paper also presents an array of action points and recommendations based on the conceptual frameworks towards attaining the diverse goals of sustainable management of waste.
Keywords: Waste; waste management; Knowledge management; sustainable waste management; conceptual framework.
Estimation of Energy Generation from Municipal Solid Waste in the Jabodetabek Metropolitan Area, Indonesia
by Kudang Boro Seminar, Moh. Hadianto Ismangoen, Muhammad Achirul Nanda, Leopold Oscar Nelwan, I. Wayan Budiastra
Abstract: Energy generation from municipal solid waste plays a significant role in reducing the negative impacts on environmental sustainability. The objective of this study is to estimate energy generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the Jabodetabek (covering Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi) metropolitan areas, Indonesia. In this study, historical data on municipal waste is obtained from the Regional Environmental Agency and Ministry of Environment and Forestry. This study uses the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) model to estimate energy generation from MSW for the years 2020-2030. Based on the IPCC analysis, the Jabodetabek metropolitan area can potentially provide energy from MSW of 820.90 GWh of electricity in 2020 and 1,054.92 GWh of electricity by the year 2030. These results represent valuable information to improve the establishment of an integrated waste management system through policy and technology interventions in the Jabodetabek metropolitan area.
Keywords: energy generation; municipal solid waste; IPCC.
Food dye adsorption by using ultrasound treated chitosan/bentonite composite film.
by Dr. Mei Ching Tan, Chin Hong Geow
Abstract: Sunset Yellow food dye was removed from aqueous solution by using ultrasound treated chitosan/bentonite composite. The effects of ultrasound power, dye solution pH, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were studied. The percentage of dye removal was 92.56% at optimum conditions of composite developed with 40% of ultrasound power treatment, 5 mg/L of initial dye concentration solution at pH 4.09 and 40.9 mg of adsorbent dosage. The kinetic and equilibrium data of the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 43.01, 61.92 and 51.32 mg/g respectively for 40, 60 and 80% ultrasound power treated composite at original dye pH. The composite could be reused for two adsorption-desorption cycles.
Keywords: Ultrasound; Adsorption; Chitosan; Bentonite; Food dye.
Physicochemical properties of chemically activated empty fruit bunch biochars and their sorption capacities for pentachlorophenol as compared to a commercial activated carbon
by Wahid Samsuri, Mohd. Izuan Halmi, Nalaya Puvaneswaree
Abstract: Chemical modification has been used to produce biochar composites with enhanced surface properties to adsorb organic contaminants efficiently. In the present study, the effectiveness of an empty fruit bunch biochar (EFBB) activated with hydrochloric acid (A-EFBB), sodium hydroxide (B-EFBB) and iron (III) chloride (Fe-EFBB) in adsorbing pentachlorophenol (PCP) as compared to the nonmodified EFBB and a commercial activated carbon (AC) was investigated. The physicochemical properties of all the adsorbents were analyzed and compared. The adsorption isotherm of PCP by all the adsorbents were fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The maximum PCP adsorption capacity (Qmax) onto the adsorbents followed the ascending order of EFBB < Fe-EFBB < A-EFBB < B-EFBB < AC. These findings indicated that the NaOH activated EFBB had the potential for an alternative adsorbent of PCP removal from wastewater considering the high cost of AC.
Keywords: adsorption; sorption isotherm; pentachlorophenol; biochar; activated carbon; chemical activation.
Factors of Solid Waste Management Systems in Dhaka City, Bangladesh and Wuhan City, P.R. China
by Roksana Bannya
Abstract: Using structural equation modelling, this study aims to identify various factors of household solid waste that could influence the level of solid waste management systems (SWMS) The study finds that solid waste generation, human resources, technology, public awareness, and legal framework have a significant (p<0 05) influence on solid waste collection, solid waste recycling, and solid waste disposal where notably, these three factors are found significant (p<0 05) and have direct effects on improving solid waste management systems (SWMS) in both sample cities Unfortunately, the impact of human resources on solid waste disposal, the impact of technology on solid waste recycling, and the impact of legislation on solid waste recycle are found insignificant After considering two cities independently in Logistic Regression models, the practice of SWMS has been influenced heterogeneously by the various factors As a benchmark study, it also provides a number of policy implications at the end.
Keywords: Factors; Households Waste; Solid Waste Management Systems; Structural Equation Modeling; Logistic Regression.
A modern waste management strategy for reducing urban air pollution in Taif, Saudi Arabia
by Abdullah Alsaluli
Abstract: Urban air pollution is a global problem and poor air quality has a negative impact on health. Existing waste management practices in Taif, Saudi Arabia, significantly contribute to increasing levels of air pollutants and steps must be taken to reduce air pollution levels. The purpose of this study was to develop effective modern waste management strategies to reduce air pollution in Taif based on a circular economy of prevention, reuse and recycling. The citys current waste collection, sorting and recycling practices relative to population density and pollution exposure were evaluated and found to be inadequate. The study used correlational hospital studies and community time series analysis to highlight the relationship between respiratory diseases and air pollutants. To achieve better air quality in Taif, solid waste collection in densely populated areas must be improved by increasing the number and use of on-street recycling containers and specific waste collection sites.
Keywords: Air pollution; circular economy; respiratory diseases; Saudi Arabia; Taif; waste management.
Investigating the relationship of the psychological factor related to inner conflict feeling on littering practice phenomenon using PLS-SEM approach: A survey from Palestine
by Yasmin G. K. Jaaron, Maram Sayed Ahmad
Abstract: One of the most crucial worldwide problems is littering. The severe consequences on the environment insist on finding proactive effective solutions. This study has employed empirical research to investigate the driving factors of littering practice. A sample of 680 cases has been analyzed to test the effect of the inferred variables on littering (i.e. inner conflict, smoking, awareness level, and supervision availability), using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Accordingly, this research recommends that policies can be more effective when proactively control littering attitude; by considering the influence of individuals psychology. Hence, raising awareness and reinforcing internal beliefs, as well as employing supervision and rules, would together cut off this phenomenon. This study will contribute to the theory and policies related to waste management, and to the research methodology of similar concepts using the PLS-SEM approach. Further research is recommended for investigating other psychological factors that can affect littering practice.
Keywords: littering practice; environment; inner conflict; psychology; smoking practice.
Multiobjective Wasteload Allocation: Application to Delhi stretch of the river Yamuna, India
by Dipteek Parmar, Ashok Keshari
Abstract: ABSTRACTrnWasteload allocation models (WLA) are developed as multiobjective models with conflicting objectives in terms of cost, equity and assimilative capacity. A total of four models consisting of one single and three multi-objective wasteload allocation models are formulated. These are: (a) Least Cost Model (LCM), (b) Cost-Equity Model (CEM), (c) Cost-Assimilative capacity Model (CAM), and (d) Cost-Equity-Assimilative capacity Model (CEAM). The performance of these models is demonstrated on the 22 km long Delhi stretch of the river Yamuna, India. Optimal solutions of the models are obtained using the web-based interactive NIMBUS software. The cost functions in the optimization models is developed as power functions of BOD removal using the regression module of the SPSS10 (1999) software. The response of wasteloads on the water quality is quantified in terms of transfer coefficient calculated using the QUAL2E water quality simulation model. The results reveal that amongst all the models, LCM achieves the best practical solutions. In fact LCM and CAM yields more or less similar results. The CEM does not yield very practical and optimal solution. rnrn
Keywords: Key words: Wasteload allocation; multiobjective; equity; assimilative capacity; effluent; decision maker.
The state and management of hazardous waste discarded by beauty salons of the central business district of Musina, Limpopo Province, South Africa
by Happy A. Nematshavhawe, Marubini R. Ramudzuli, Martin J. Potgieter
Abstract: Beauty salons treatments use products that are hazardous, and if not properly discarded, can cause environmental and human health problem. The study examined the state and management of hazardous waste (HW) discarded by all eight salons located in the central business district of the town of Musina in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Nail varnish bottles were the most discarded HW product per week by all salons. Shop managers make use of municipal refuse bag for temporary storage, which are then transported to the municipal landfill site for final disposal. None of the participants separate waste, main reasons being a lack of awareness of separation management. Shop owners and employees attitude towards HW management was neutral, while their level of knowledge on the impact of HW on the environment and human health was rated as low. Seventy five percent of respondents were unaware that the products they discard constitute HW.
Keywords: Keywords: Beauty salon; Central Business District; Hazardous waste; Musina.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Models: a review study to evaluate the conceptual framework for developing nations
by Anupama Singh
Abstract: A lot of analysis and models have been developed on municipal solid waste management (MSWM) with time. Current research tries to conceptualise on the basis of the drawback of MSWM models. Majority of studied models related to MSWM belong to decision making. Hence to conceptualise their drawbacks, models have been chronologically arranged on the basis of different time period. It has led to understand the dynamism of models. In these models, different methodologies have been used such as life cycle assessment, multicriteria decision making, etc. The study finds out that several solid waste management models attempt to consider the sustainability using triple bottom line, i.e., environmental, economic and social aspects, but none of the models have been able to achieve all the three aspects completely. Another drawback is that the models keep upgrading the methodology used for the MSWM analysis, whereas primary focus should be on the decision making procedure.
Keywords: models; municipal solid waste management; MSWM; solid waste management models; sustainability.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MAKKAH: CASE STUDY
by Sami GÖREN, Abdulrahman Yahya Almahdawi, Jaber Amen Alqamawi, Ahmad Moubark Alqormati
Abstract: This paper describes the solid waste management system in Makkah city by providing data on the population and the amount of waste generated currently and in previous years. Makkah is chosen as a study area due to the reason that, it has the most complicated mass movement of the people. Approximately two million citizens live in Makkah city; however, more than five times of this population, visitors come to this city every year. During the pilgrimage season, six million people come together at the same time on certain days. This cause a great challenge for the Makkah municipality in maintaining clean and healthy conditions. There is one active landfill area for Makkah city that is maintained by discharging the leachate and removing landfill gas for the safety of the site. The months when the most garbage was collected were explained. Environmental assessment of the current landfill site is also included.
Keywords: solid waste management; waste quantities; waste characterisation; Makkah; landfill gas.
Effect of Design Parameters of Magnetic Separator on Recovery of Metal Values from Slag Waste
by BARUN HARICHANDAN, R. Venugopal
Abstract: Slag generated during the metallurgical processing of iron and steel making is principally a mixture of metallic oxide along with silica and other compounds. Although slag is an end waste generated during iron and crude steel production, it comprises a significant amount of metal values. The prime objective of this study is to recover the valuable metals present in the slag waste to minimise the waste generation as well as the adverse impact of disposal on the environment. This study focused on the recovery of magnetic material from steel slag by a magnetic separator based on its mineralogical characteristics and chemical composition. A full factorial experiment was designed for this investigation, and the obtained results were analysed by a mathematical model to validate the effect of process parameters on metal recovery. The optimum conditions were identified, and a confirmation test was also performed at that condition. Recovery of magnetic metal values over 93% was obtained, and the linear regression analysis indicated that the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Keywords: steel slag; magnetic separator; waste minimisation; recovery; metal values; optimisation; mineral processing.
Municipal Solid Waste Characteristics and Segregation Efficiency of In-House Direct Sampling in Kuwait
by Mohammad Alolayan, Abdullah H. Al-Sanad, Latifa I. Al-Jallal, Abdirashid Elmi
Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) composition, generation rate, and segregation efficiency were estimated using direct sampling of houses in Kuwait. Additionally, public willingness toward in-house waste segregation was investigated through one-on-one interviews. The study randomly selected 61 houses and 293 respondents. The sampling was conducted for three consecutive weeks. The recyclables were manually sorted into 17 subcategories. The estimated generation rate is 0.77 kg/person/day, of which 13% were recyclables. Paper, plastic, glass, and metal respectively contributed 6%, 3.7%, 2.3%, and 0.9% to the generation rate. The interview results showed that 82% of the respondents were willing to segregate their waste into recyclables and non-recyclables in-house if a recycling bin were placed in front of their house. Half of them were willing to pay a fee of more than 3 KWD/month (~ 10 USD). An additional 10% agreed to segregate if the proceeds would go to charity.
Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; recyclables; segregation; willingness; waste; sorting; Kuwait.
APPLICATION OF GAUSSIAN DISPERSION MODEL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF AIR POLLUTANTS FROM STEEL PLANT IN THE CITY OF BOKARO, JHARKHAND, INDIA
by Sampatrao Manjare, Kavita Vithal Patil
Abstract: To protect human health and environment from increased air pollution, it is essential to forecast the air pollution in populated areas, which helps in the identification and implementation of preventive as well as reactive control techniques. Air dispersion models predict the concentration profile of pollutants from sources to receptors. This paper presents a case study on the dispersion of air pollutants emitted from multiple sources (stacks) in the Bokaro Steel Plant, Bokaro Steel City, Jharkhand, India to quantify the contribution of various pollution sources to the local air pollution from the said steel plant. In this study, the pollutant concentration profiles at (x, y, z) due to emissions from three major sources in the Bokaro Steel Plant were predicted using emissions data obtained from the Gas Utility Department, Bokaro Steel Limited. The effect of wind velocity and stability class on the concentration profiles of major air pollutants viz., particulates, NOx, and SOx for the single source as well as multiple sources were studied. From the results, it is revealed that both wind velocity and stability class have a significant impact on the dispersion of air pollutants.
Keywords: atmospheric dispersion; contaminant transport; plume; Gaussian dispersion model; meteorological condition; particulates; India.
ANALYSIS AND FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF MSW MANAGEMENT IN BELO HORIZONTE (BRAZIL)
by Bruno Alzamora, Raphael T. V. Barros
Abstract: In a Brazilian context of poor municipal solid waste (MSW) management and lack of information, this paper intends to study the MSW management in Belo Horizonte (Brazil) through the analysis of the 15 diagnosis of the management of urban solid waste, from 2002 to 2016, as well as interviews with professionals who work in the provision of municipal services. As a result, it was observed that since 2002 there has been a real gradual increase in per capita expenditure and income of 58% and 68%, respectively. The financial self-sufficiency showed variations, however, with an increase of 3 percentage points, while there was a decrease of 2 percentage points in the incidence of MSW expenses in the city. Furthermore, Brazilian legal limitations impedes total financial self-sufficiency with public cleansing, so the municipality must seek alternatives to improve its management of MSW, such as a more elaborate charging system.
Keywords: municipal waste charges; municipal solid waste; MSW; public finances; solid waste management; pay as you throw; PAYT; Brazil.
Synthesis of Guar Gum -g-Coconut husk (SnO2-SiO2) Nanocomposite For Removal of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) From Waste Water
by Shivangi Omer, Ajay Singh
Abstract: A new sorbent material namely guar gum-g-coconut husk (SnO2-SiO2) [GG-g-CH(SnO2-SiO2)] nanocomposite was synthesised by preparation of coconut husk metal oxide nanoparticles and grafted into acrylamide modified guar gum (GG) base with the help of crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde. Its adsorption capacity was evaluated for the adsorption of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) metal ions from waste water and factors affecting variables such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and concentration were extensively investigated. It was found from the study that the maximum percent removal achieved was 99% for Cu (II) and 92.74% Cr (VI) at a pH of 8.3 and 7.2 respectively with an optimum adsorbent dose of 250 mg/l in 120 mins. The sorption data obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but Freundlich isotherm was better mathematical fit than Langmuir model. The Langmuir sorption capacity (qmax) was found to be 105.26 and 98.03 mg/g for Cu (II) and Cr (VI) respectively. Freundlich constants, KF values obtained for Cu (II) was 1.135 and for Cr (VI) was 1.11 while 1/n values obtained for Cu (II) was 0.647 and for Cr (VI) was 0.656, respectively.
Keywords: guar gum; coconut husk; silica; tin; copper; chromium; adsorption; nanocomposite.
Recycling of Mobile Phones in India: Challenges and Barrier for the Industries
by Prakashkumar Limbachiya, Fenil Tamakuwala, Rishabh Yadav, Dileep Kumar Gupta
Abstract: There are many industries, and third parties, along with the government policies involved in encouraging mobile phone recycling, however, the rate of recycling is still very low as compared to the use of mobile phones. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse the reason, drivers, and barriers while recycling a mobile phone, as a customers point of view. A detailed analysis based on primary data collected from the field survey of different user groups in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, and, the secondary data available in various mobile recycling portals has been carried out. The drivers and barriers in the recycling of mobile phones, the users attitude, and their behaviour towards the recycling process have been identified. Further, the suggestions have been given to improve the mobile recycling process.
Keywords: mobile recycling; e-waste; m-waste; India.
Improving Performance of Independent Smallholders towards the Principles of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) Certification in Riau Province: Prospective Scenario Approach
by Novia Dewi, Syaiful Hadi, Rosnita Rosnita, Yeni Kusumawaty
Abstract: Certification is increasingly important to ensure sustainability. However, certification is a challenge for palm oil farmers. This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the application of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) standards by independent smallholders; 2) analyse the lever attributes; 3) formulate strategies for successful ISPO implementation. This research applied survey method towards 270 independent farmers and key respondents. Data analysis was performed descriptively and by prospective analysis. The results showed that the application of ISPO indicators by independent smallholders is still low and there are many indicators that have not been applied. The critical determinants of the implementation of ISPO are the benefits of ISPO, guidance, documentation, financial assistance, partnerships, stakeholder roles, human resources, and legal certainty. The best strategy to implement the ISPO standard is through synergy between the government and stakeholders in terms of government policies that support the enhancement of human resource capabilities, capital capabilities, farm management capabilities and marketing capabilities.
Keywords: independent smallholders; determinant attributes; strategies; prospective; Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil; ISPO.
Calculation of combustion air, flue gases composition and heating values from burning process of biomass, wastes and composts
by Metodi Kirilov Mladenov
Abstract: The possible solutions to the problems related to the generated waste are to raise the prices of all goods so that they can offset the cost of treating the generated waste. Energy is one of the key elements in the idea of achieving sustainable development, especially when it comes from clean and easily accessible alternative sources, and waste can also be considered as such. The result from done survey show, a clear relationship is established between the carbon content of the initial material and the amount of oxygen and dry air required for combustion. Such connection was also confirmed in the sulphur dioxide content in the generated gases and the sulphur content of the initial material. Calculations show that the energy generated by burning 20,000 tons of material per year would result in energy savings from conventional sources needed to meet the needs of between 50,000 and 60,000 households.
Keywords: waste to energy; combustion; heating value; compost; RDF.
Review of influence of the animal breeding complexes activity on the ecological status of the territory
by Inna O. Rozhkova-Timina, Victor M. Kuznetsov
Abstract: Nowadays, the Earth's population is growing and an increase in food production becomes necessary. This is achieved, among other ways, through the development of livestock and poultry farming. The entire production cycle is accompanied by emissions, wastewater disposal and waste generation. The main types of waste include animals and birds faeces and feathers. Faeces contain organic and inorganic substances, bacteria and microorganisms, traces of medications, which can affect soil and vegetation. Bird feathers hardly decompose in the environment; feather meal production or artificial decomposition is possible. Emissions of various substances into the air exist at all stages of the production and consumption process. When exceeding the threshold limit value, they are dangerous to human health. Wastewater disposal contains elevated concentrations of biogenic elements, organic and inorganic substances, pathogens, viruses. All the stated negative aspects must be taken into account when planning waste management of the animal breeding complexes.
Keywords: animal breeding; poultry; waste; faeces; feather; emission; wastewater; ecology.
COMPOSTING OF FOOD WASTES BY USING BLACK SOLDIER FLY LARVAE
by Irfana Kabir Ahmad, Nurul Ain Abdul Jalil, Jamilah Ahmad, Nur Aimie Nadiah Mazlan, Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri, Mohd Reza Azmi
Abstract: Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), Hermetia illucens, were used in this research as a decomposing agent to treat food wastes. All food wastes were collected from the cafeteria and were segregate into three groups, namely T1 (mixed cooked waste), T2 (cooked vegetable waste), and T3 (uncooked food wastes). The mass and length of the BSFL are recorded, and the protein content of the larvae from each treatment was analysed; results showed that the protein content of BSFL in T1, T2, and T3 are 43.56%, 42.58% and 43.26%, respectively. The waste reduction (WR) index for T1, T2, and T3 are 5.21, 4.23 and 3.15, respectively. WR index is based on substrate concentration, and higher substrate consumption resulted in the higher WR index value. From the WR index results, treatment T1 is the highest substrate concentration followed by T2 and T3. The BSFL in T1 has the highest growth rate, followed by T2 and T3.
Keywords: composting; black soldier fly larvae; BSFL; food waste; protein analysis; growth rate.
Geo-Environmental and Human Health Impact of Spent Lithium-ion Battery Waste and its Recycling: A Critical Review
by Sayali Apte, Preeti Mishra
Abstract: The world is witnessing an exponential growth in electric vehicle stock and registration and there will be millions of electric vehicles on road by 2030. This increase in electric vehicles (EVs) would lead to increase the bulk of e-waste generated through the end-of-life (EoL) lithium ion batteries. This paper covers various aspect related to EV battery waste related to the present status of research in form of bibliometric survey, increase in EV numbers statistics, effect of EV battery waste on soil, ground water and effect of recycling Li-ion batteries on environment and human health. The study indicates that there is a need for the development of sustainable battery chemistry from an environmental perspective. The systematic review indicates a need for research in the area of developing sustainable waste management and recycling technique for EoL lithium-ion batteries from the perspective of soil, groundwater contamination, and human health impact.
Keywords: electric vehicles; lithium-ion batteries; waste flows; landfills; end-of-life; EoL; recycling techniques.
Monitoring and Modelling of Water Quality Parameters Using Artificial Intelligence (AI)
by Dayang P. M. A. Omar, Gasim Hayder Ahmed Salih, Yung-Tse Hung
Abstract: Rapid population growth leads to an increase in demand for water and spikes levels of water pollution. In this study, a low cost and innovative internet of things (IoT) device was used in the monitoring of water quality parameters. The monitoring system implemented used consists of maker-UNO as the core controller, SIM7600-GSM module as the Wi-Fi module and the water quality parameters sensors (total dissolved solids (TDS), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), temperature and turbidity). This study applied five different artificial intelligence (AI) techniques models to predict the water quality parameters. The data were collected from phytoremediation treatment system and modelled by using artificial neural network (ANN), regression trees, support vector machine (SVM), ensemble trees and the Gaussian process regression (GPR). A satisfying prediction models were achieved indicating that early prevention of contamination in the treatment system can be achieved through the application of monitoring and artificial intelligence modelling tools.
Keywords: monitoring; water quality; prediction model; artificial intelligence.
Profile Modeling of Solid Waste Generation of Non-household Establishments in Butuan City
by Jan Nino Tinio, Breix Michael Agua
Abstract: This study focused on the solid waste generation of establishments in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte. It aimed to determine some factors affecting the total solid waste daily generation of establishments in the city. Sex of the owner, his/her educational profile, his/her age, civil status, years in the business, type of establishment, and total number of employees were the selected variables considered in this study. It used correlation and Chi-square analyses to determine whether or not the variables are related to or associated with the total daily waste generated by the establishments. The results show that the total number of employees and the type of establishment have a significant relationship/association with the generated waste. This study recommends that the local government of Butuan City should specifically develop a policy to address the amount of trash generated by medium-scale and high-scale establishments.
Keywords: solid waste generation of non-household establishments; commercial solid waste; factors affecting solid waste generation; policy implications.
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Treatment
by Vimal Shrivastava, Sayak Adhikari, Sayanti Das, Shaba Khan, Shilpi Shaw, Sneha Jyoti
Abstract: The entire water treatment and management process is a challenging and time consuming process. Traditional methods, if continued to use for the next ten years it might never lead to improvement in the water scenarios. Therefore, a smart water quality measurement and its treatment is utmost important. The proposed model suggests the use of latest and advanced technological equipment to detect the abnormalities at a faster rate and carry out the treatment with equal efficiency and speed. The main aim of the proposed system is to determine the physical parameters of impure water such as temperature and turbidity and treat these parameters to its standard values to make the waste water suitable for reuse. The encouraging results obtained using proposed system demonstrate that it is able to measure the temperature and turbidity of impure water and bring the values of these parameters to its desired level in real time.
Keywords: water quality monitoring; treatment; temperature; turbidity; IoT; sensors; microcontroller; cloud computing.
Experimental investigation of lab scaled sink & float based segregation process for mixed municipal solid waste
by Prashant Shukla, Pankaj Sharma, Shyam Pandey
Abstract: Segregation of municipal solid waste at source lies at the heart of good waste management. Source segregation improves collection and processing efficiency of municipal solid waste management system. But ensuring segregation at source requires better infrastructure and strict compliance systems. That is why most of the urban local bodies of the different developing countries are struggling to manage their solid waste. Such scenario project a need to intervene a segregation approach which can minimise the dependency over source segregation practice. Hence, for inspecting an economical approach for MSW segregation, an experimental investigation has been done to analyse the effect of sink and float separation process on varied sample quantity of mixed MSW. This paper presents the experimental observations and the performance analysis of the segregation process, which will help to check the feasibility of approach and bring out the optimised working model of the lab scaled setup.
Keywords: segregation of municipal solid waste; sink and float-based segregation; solid waste management.
Use of advanced oxidative processes (O3/H2O2) for the treatment of wastewater coming from an anaerobic process
by Vicente Elicio Porfiro Sales Da Silva, Adriana Guimarães Costa, Hugo Leonardo De Brito Buarque
Abstract: The work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of disinfection using ozone with hydrogen peroxide. Firstly, the affluent was characterised. Next, the behaviour of each constituent of peroxone was compared to the peroxone itself. Finally, was defined the optimal operating conditions of oxygen flow, ozone dosage and H2O2/O3 ratio. It was observed that the disinfectant efficiency of the peroxone is greater than the efficiency of its constituents individually. In addition, there are significant removals of 76% turbidity, 50% ammonia, and 70% COD and SST. After the completion of the three experimental plans, it was found that the optimal ozone dosage is 9.8 mg/L and the optimal H2O2/O3 ratio is 2.2 mol/mol. Thus, it is observed that the real time application of use of ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide is promising in the treatment of effluents, especially those treated anaerobically.
Keywords: experimental plans; faecal indicators; peroxone; sewage disinfection.
Human Resource Factor in Waste Management Practices in Construction Industry for Sustainability
by KAVULURU VENUGOPAL, Abhilasha Ambatipudi
Abstract: This paper intends to emphasise the existing problems of construction material waste and its management that occurs in the process of construction. The study deals with how human resource development interventions manage waste with its tools of reduce, reuse recycle and recover (4Rs). The reason for on-site waste is mishandling of material by unskilled work-force at ground level; result of ineffective regulation of the concerned managers. Failure of beforehand estimation of material requirement, methods and motivations is a reason for waste. Apt inventory of building material management and advanced pro-environmental construction designs adaptation that minimises loss of material and time prevail in traditional construction methods are the function of effective human resource factor. A thorough assimilation is drawn from literature reviews to consolidate the necessity of human resource factor. Hence environmental sustainability depends on 4Rs with human interventions. The study is purely conceptual one at managerial level.
Keywords: construction industry; environmental sustainability; four R’s; human resources; managers; methods and motivations; waste-management practices; work-force.
The Significant Variables Of Effluent Constructed Wetlands Treated Domestic Wastewater By A Subset Regression Model
by Amjad Hussein, Ali Sadig
Abstract: Domestic wastewater with/without petroleum was treated by vertical flow constructed wetlands under different set-up designs and operation conditions. These conditions include different aggregate diameters, contact time, resting time, and chemical oxygen demand. The physical and chemical measurements of effluents were obtained. These measurements are total petroleum hydrocarbons; chemical oxygen demand; biochemical oxygen demand; ammonia-nitrogen; nitrate-nitrogen; ortho-phosphate-phosphorous; suspended solids; turbidity and pH. This research aims to find out which measures are significantly effective by using the subset selected regression model. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand; biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen have significantly effective (P < 0.05), and they have a direct effect on selection, which filter is the best choice.
Keywords: environment; wastewater; constructed wetlands; subset regression; chemical oxygen demand; COD.
Landfill site selection using GIS and multi-criteria decision-making. Case study of a region in Morocco
by Abdellah OUIGMANE, Otmane Boudouch, Aziz Hasib, Reda Elkacmi, Omar Ouhsine, Mohamed Berkani
Abstract: In Morocco, landfilling is the most common method of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. The first step in a controlled landfill project is a site selection in order to minimise the impact on the environment and health. Almost all of the waste generated in the Agadir Ida Outanae and Inezgane-Ait Melloul prefectures is buried in the Tamelest landfill, which has several problems as under-sizing of leachate storage ponds and olfactory nuisance. It becomes necessary to find a new site to implement a new controlled landfill. In this study, the selection of the new site of sanitary landfill is obtained thanks to development of a geographic information systems (GIS), assessment of free surfaces and a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). A field visit confirmed the results of the study; the site is located in the municipality of Amsekroud, which is part of the Agadir Ida Outanane prefecture. The results of the multi-criteria analysis were confirmed by the VIROK method.
Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; site selection; geographical information system; GIS; multi-criteria decision-making; MCDM; landfill; Morocco.
Solar photoreactor: application in the recalcitrance and toxicity reduction of old leachate by photo-Fenton
by Mariana Medeiros Batista, Arthur Marinho Cahino, Elisangela Maria Rodrigues Rocha, Elson Santos Da Silva, Romildo Henriques Dos Anjos Júnior, Cláudia De Oliveira Cunha
Abstract: This research evaluated the applicability of a solar photoreator using the photo-Fenton process to reduce the old leachate recalcitrance from the biological treatment system of the Metropolitan Sanitary Landfill of Jo
Keywords: sanitary landfill leachate; pilot-scale photoreactor; advanced oxidation; photo-Fenton; solar radiation; Lactuca sativa.
Waste Management and Private Sector Participation- Operational and Behavioural Perspectives
by Rajiv Shah, Samapti Guha
Abstract: Municipal bodies in developing countries are largely occupied with management of solid waste. These municipal bodies are unable to deal effectively with the waste and are unable to recover maximum energy from the waste. In India, the participation of private sector in solid waste management (SWM) has not been widespread. This study tries to explore the perceived reasons for this lack of participation. Using the case study method, four cases of SWM firms in two different cities in India, Ahmedabad and Bangalore are studied and analysed. Six semi-structured and in-depth interviews of key persons in these firms are conducted using open ended questions and themes are generated from this data. Three major reasons for reduced private participation in the waste management activities as perceived by these respondents are: 1) lack of awareness of the value of waste; 2) absence of segregating behaviour; 3) low prioritisation by governing bodies.
Keywords: waste management; solid waste management; environmental policy; urban local bodies; ULBs; waste segregation; private sector participation.
Current status of municipal solid waste in medium-sized Brazilian cities through integrated management
by Valdir Eduardo Olivo, Pedro D.M. Prietto, Eduardo P. Korf
Abstract: Impacts related to inadequate waste management have been extensively studied and it is important to know the current situation of municipalities regarding the execution of public waste management services. In this context, this work aimed to present an overview of integrated solid waste management in Brazilian medium-sized cities. A total of 176 municipalities with a population of 100,000 to 250,000 inhabitants were evaluated, and eight indicators were considered to assess the integrated sustainable waste management. The average generation of municipal solid waste in medium-sized municipalities was 0.91 kg/person/day. The waste collection covers 95% of the urban population and 70% of the cities destine their waste to landfills. The rate of recovery of recyclables was 2.56%. In conclusion, municipalities need to develop an integrated waste management plan to address local difficulties, the plan must consider the social, environmental, economic and political aspects.
Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; waste management; current status; medium-sized cities; Brazil.
A Study of Barriers in Healthcare Waste Management Sector
by Abhishek Raj, Cherian Samuel
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) identified healthcare waste as highly infectious and a threat to the environment and human health. Indias current healthcare waste management system has certain limitations, which lead to ineffective waste handling practices. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to: first, identify the critical barriers that hinder Indias healthcare waste management (HCWM) systems. Secondly, define all barriers into four quadrants depending upon their driving and dependence power and at last classified them as cause and effect. HCWM system barriers were identified through the literature, field surveys, and brainstorming sessions. The hierarchal and contextual relationships among the barriers were analysed using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). Using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), barriers are classified as cause and effect. In total, 15 HCWM system barriers were identified and placed in seven different ISM model hierarchy levels, and eight barriers are found as the cause. The model will help hospital managers and pollution control boards to make policies and find out the mutual relationship and interlinking among the barriers.
Keywords: barriers; DEMATEL; healthcare; waste management; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; MICMAC analysis.
REMOVAL OF PHOSPHATE FROM SIMULATED DOMESTIC WASTE WATER USING SORBENTS UNDER CONSTRUCTED WETLAND
by Felicia Danso, Eric Kwesi Nartey, Gabriel Nii Noi Dowuona, Daniel Amoako Darko, Thomas Aquinas Adjadeh, Kofi Budu Laryea
Abstract: As an affordable method of removing phosphorus from wastewater, a vertical flow wetland was constructed in pots using a kaolinitic rich Rhodic Kandiustalf as a basal soil and rice variety, KRC Baika, as the wetland plant to remove P from a 300 mg P/L laboratory prepared waste water. Charcoal, corncob and bagasse were added as sorbents to improve the wetlands phosphorus removal ability. The effluents were analysed weekly for phosphorus and pH. The capacity of the wetland in phosphorus removal was on the average improved by about 6%, 25% and 27%, respectively, when charcoal, bagasse and corncob were added. The P removal abilities of the components of the wetland were in the order of rice plant > substrate-sorbent > basal soil. The bagasse amended wetland is the preferred choice as in addition to significantly reducing the concentration of P in simulated waste water, effluents pH after treatment were within acceptable standards for discharge into natural water bodies.
Keywords: bagasse; charcoal; corncob; phosphate; sorbents; wetland.
Estimation of Primary and secondary waste field capacity in an arid and semi-arid region: A case study of Aradkouh, Tehran
by Mahdi Ghasemi, Hossein Ghiasinejad, Majid Hosseinzadeh
Abstract: In this study, a developed model is established to estimate the landfill leachate quantity in arid and semi-arid regions. Based on a similar model that has been developed in Germany, a new model is proposed with regards to the weather conditions and waste characteristics in Iran. The calculated values were compared with real data that is obtained by the construction of two anaerobic test cells (32
Keywords: Aradlouh landfill; leachate recirculation; arid and semi-arid regions; waste field capacity.
Compliance of E-Waste (Management) Rules in the Government of Assam Offices at Dibrugarh, India
by Himadri Barman, Debjani Deb
Abstract: Like the rest of the world, e-waste is growing at a fast pace in India. Unfortunately, e-waste in India is largely handled by the unorganised sector which adopts crude practices to dispose and recycle the e-wastes. The result is damage to the environment as well as health hazards for the people handling them. Taking cognisance of the situation, the Government of India notified the E-waste (Management) Rules, 2016 for scientific and environmentally responsible management of e-wastes in India. These rules were amended further in 2018 to be called the E-waste (Management) Amendment Rules, 2018. Government establishments are expected to comply with the Rules. This study attempts to understand the compliance of the Rules in the Government of Assam Offices at Dibrugarh, India. The study reveals that the compliance of the E-waste (Management) Rules in the Government of Assam offices at Dibrugarh is nothing to write about and much needs to be done.
Keywords: Assam; bulk consumer; compliance; Dibrugarh; electric and electronic equipment; environment hazard; e-waste; government; India; rules.
Assessing the disposal practices and urban mining potential of e-waste among the ranked engineering institutions in India to achieve sustainable developments
by Kiran M, S. Prasanna Venkatesan, Sahil Pramod Jagdhane, K. NALINI
Abstract: Engineering institutions in India contribute significantly to the rapidly growing e-waste. E-waste management within higher education institutions enables to achieve the goal of becoming a sustainable organisation. The objective of this research is to assess the disposal practices, in-use, and hibernating stocks of mobile phones and information technology (IT) equipment among the students of National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) ranked engineering institutions in India. An online survey was conducted among the students, and the number of devices (million units) in hibernation and the materials (metric tons) presented in them are estimated. From the results, it is found that nearly 0.37 million devices are in hibernation, of which mobile phones account for 38%. The quantity of common metals, precious metals, and plastics present in the hibernating stocks is estimated to be 385, 3.2, and 203 metric tons, respectively. Suggestions to exploit urban mining in engineering institutions to promote sustainability are also provided.
Keywords: e-waste; in-use and hibernating stocks; mobile phones; information technology equipment disposal; awareness; sustainable waste management; national institutional framework; NIRF; ranking.
Multi-headed CNN-GRU Model for Particulate Matter(PM2.5) Prediction in Smart Cities
by Shilpa Sonawani, Kailas Patil, Prawit Chumchu
Abstract: Air pollution is becoming a major concern these days considering the increased number of vehicles on roads and industrialisation. This is creating a higher impact on human health. To deal with pollution levels and control it in smart city environment, predicting pollution level at a higher accuracy is very important. This will help monitor air quality and take measures to prevent pollution occurrence and avoid its effect. The objective of this work is to propose a novel multi-headed CNN-GRU model which has a higher accuracy. This model is comprising of multiple convolutional neural network (CNN) models for capturing the features of multiple variables of air pollutant concentration data. Information is then concatenated and transferred to the gated recurrent unit (GRU) layers and then to dense layer for single output as a next hour pollution concentration prediction. The model gives best performance when compared to other deep learning models.
Keywords: air pollution; air quality; multi-headed CNN-GRU; deep learning; PM2.5; particulate matter; time series forecasting.
Application of Arachis Hypogaea as Natural Coagulant for Turbidity Removal
by Abdallah Bader Roshdy Owaidhah, Gasim Hayder Ahmed Salih, Yung-Tse Hung
Abstract: Natural water systems are contaminated by various point and non-point sources because of industrialisation, urbanisation and other developmental activities. Pollutants that enter the water changes the water physical, chemical and biological properties. In addition, most of the materials used in the water treatment during coagulation are chemicals. However, the long and short-term effect of chemical encouraged researchers to look into other options for natural coagulants. In this study, Arachis hypogaea was used to remove turbidity from synthetic wastewater. During lab experiment, synthetic wastewater was adjusted to different initial turbidity of 5.02, 50.4 and 150 NTU, and jar test was used to define the optimum type of stock solution. The results obtained from the study shows that the Arachis hypogaea decreased the turbidity from 150 to 5.87 NTU. This implies that Arachis hypogaea can be used as a natural coagulant in replacement of chemical coagulants to improve water quality.
Keywords: natural coagulants; pH; colour; jar test; water treatment.
Study of Issues of ELV management in India: a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach
by SIMA KUNDU, ANKITA RAY, BIVASH MALLICK
Abstract: In todays developing world most of the industry is lagging due to scarcity of materials and facing challenges in meeting that demand. The demand for resources increased in the automobile industry also. The end-of-life vehicle (ELV) can meet the demand by renewing and recycling the material. Previous researchers identified the issues related to ELV recovery in India. In this paper, we analyse the issues for an automobile company that focuses on product recovery activities. In this study, we used the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process method to prioritise the issues based on the experts opinion. The findings of this paper help to take necessary steps to remove the boundaries of ELV recovery management of automobile sector in India.
Keywords: ELV management; fuzzy AHP; automobile industry; product recovery.
GIS-Based tools for optimizing municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes
by Samra Fatima, Zulfa Hanan Ashaari, Firuz Muhammad Ramli, Amir Hamzah Sharaai, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry
Abstract: The selection of optimal routes can save time and cost in handling the waste. Thus, the current study was designed to optimise the waste disposal routes with the possible shortest travel time using geographic information system (GIS). The collected data were analysed through statistical tools, including Pearsons correlation and regression analysis, using SPSS, version 20. The explanation from the linear regression analysis indicated that 67.4% of the variables selected for the regression gave reasonable indications for the analysis of waste transportation time in the study area. In addition, the other independent variables such as population and number of stops also have a positive and significant impact on the travel time. The resulted predictive model showed the best suitability that could be implemented to resolve the basic solid waste problems in other cities of Pakistan. Furthermore, it can be used to capture data from different fields to resolve transport problems.
Keywords: waste management; geographic information system; GIS; network analysis; regression analysis; shortest routes.
Analysing the Circular Economy Implementation in the European Countries
by Rohit Panchal, Anju Singh
Abstract: This is a comprehensive study on registered good practices, strategies, extent of commitments of European circular economy stakeholder platform, and circular economy implementation in European countries. Good practices, strategies and commitments are mapped against circular economy principles and indicators. Further, the study gives a detailed analysis of European countries, key areas, scope, and stakeholders involved in implementing circular economy. Furthermore, in terms of the stakeholders involvement in implementing circular economy initiatives, the focus has primarily been on European cities that are in turn primarily governed by businesses. Notably, based on our analysis, we note that the most resourceful country is the Netherlands; and its dominant area of the circular economy includes waste management. Herein, the main principle is recycling, followed by reuse, repair, and remanufacturing. The study would be helpful for European countries in implementing circular economy principles.
Keywords: circular economy; assessment; indicator; review; Europe; circular economy stakeholder platform.
PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE REGARDING RECYCLING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE AND WILLINGNESS TO BE INVOLVED IN WASTE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF FAISALABAD
by Samra Razaq, Muhammad Khalid Bashir, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Hassan Mahboob, Asad Afzal Humayon, Mustafa KAN
Abstract: The objectives of this study were assessment of information level of households regarding waste management, perception regarding recycling benefits, and assessment of willingness of households to participate in waste management. Data were collected through a well-prepared questionnaire from eight areas of Faisalabad. A stratified random sampling technique was used for this purpose. A sample of 240 respondents was selected and 30 respondents from each area. Descriptive statistics were applied to assess information level and perception about recycling benefits. Moreover, they were well aware of its use in recycling. Path analysis was applied to assess the willingness to participate in waste management. Results showed that space and price had a significant and positive impact on waste separation at a 5% significance level. The government needs to make new laws regarding waste management and public participation must be focused during making these laws.
Keywords: waste; recycling; environment; WTP; Faisalabad.
E-waste related statutes in Bangladesh and the negative impacts of e-waste on the environment and human health: An Analysis
by Kudrat-E Khuda
Abstract: Technology has made the life of Bangladeshi people very flexible with new inventions. Here the people depend on technological devices. These devices, along with various facilities, have also invited a series of problems mostly due to the lack of proper management. The Bangladeshi citizens often leave electronic devices that went bad or became unusable, in landfills, rivers, canals, and open spaces. As these devices possess a variety of toxic substances, dumping huge amounts of electronic waste can pollute the environment and threaten human health. As a result, it is important to take the required measures to prevent potential e-waste-related problems. In spite of the alarming levels of e-pollution in Bangladesh, the concerned authorities are yet to take any effective step or formulate any legislation to prevent the existing e pollution. Moreover, the prevailing environmental laws are not adequate to address the issue and its application is still largely absent.
Keywords: approach; Bangladesh; e-waste; environment; policy.
Management and Disposal of Sanitary Solid Waste: An Obscured Menace in India
by Saikat Dutta, R.S.S. Alekhya, B. Chakradhar, Sasi Jyothsna Tadinada
Abstract: India is one of the most populous and vast countries of the world with around 1.39 billion people (January 2021) contributing around 17.7% ofthe total world population. Of this, female population is around 662.90 million making up to 48.03% of the total population covering with different age groups. The most significant age group which contributes largest quantities of sanitary solid waste falls between 1147 years, which is approximately around 359 million Indian women, contributing around 9,000 tonnes of sanitary wastes. For a society it is important to have healthy girl child and women hence maintaining a proper menstrual hygiene is interlinked. Sanitary waste disposal is a worldwide problem due to the complexity of material used in the products and their improper ways of disposal causing threat to health, hygiene and the environment. This paper focuses on creating awareness on generation and handling of sanitary waste in India and the latest technologies available for handling such wastes.
Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; sanitary waste; feminine products; landfill; Swachh Bharat Mission.
Distribution, Human and Ecological Risks of Microplastics in African Environment
by Ababo Workineh Tadesse
Abstract: The presence of microplastics in the environment is progressively increasing and becoming an environmental concern in Africa. Despite the production and use of plastics, there is dearth of information and knowledge about negative impacts of these new emerging pollutants. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation activities increase the rate of various pollutants in the environment. The main objective of this review was to summarise and discuss the current status of microplastics pollution in African environment. In addition, this review highlights the knowledge gaps that exist on microplastics pollution in African countries. To assess and discuss some information about microplastics in the environment, the published articles, reviews and other online materials were revised. Different papers were critically reviewed and provide an overview of the current, distribution, knowledge gap and abundance of microplastics in African environment. The obtained data indicated that microplastics are highly found in African environment. Few studies were carried out in aquatic environment and there is lack of research on the presence of microplastics in African terrestrial environment. Therefore, this review recommend, more studies on the presence of microplastics in African environment.
Keywords: microplastics; risks; emerging pollutants; human health; Africa.