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International Journal of Environment and Waste Management

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM)

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International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (101 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Innovative Urban Landscape Design of Riverfront Area in Kembang Jepun, Surabaya   Order a copy of this article
    by Bambang Soemardiono, Murni Rachmawati, Defry Agatha Ardianta 
    Abstract: Surabaya is a growing city of Kalimas river. The emergence of the river as the beginning of the development of the city of Surabaya is possible thanks to its function as a means of communication between up and downstream areas. At some points, the area around the river is used as open spaces that serves as a public space, but in the other points are not yet used optimally. One of them is the river area in Kembang Jepun area. This riverside area in north of Surabaya has several potentials especially related to its function of urban landscape elements and also accessibility and open spaces. Urban landscape is described as socio ecological systems where natural and social processes go together with the ecosystems (Andersson, E, 2006) and in respect of how cities developed over time and their relation to nature (Sherwood, R,). The purpose of this research is to develop urban landscape design innovation in riverfront area in Kembang Jepun. The analysis used in this research approach in sustainable development by giving priority to environmental, economy and social aspect in determining the innovative design for riverfront area. The important analysis tool that will be used is also Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and workshop to capture the aspirations of the community as an ideal riverfront public space.
    Keywords: aspirations; Kembang Jepun area; river; urban landscape.

    by Nik Nor Rahimah Nik Ab Rahim, Jamal Othman 
    Abstract: Environmental impacts from poor landfilling practice have been a long-time concern in Kota Bharu, a populated city in Peninsula Malaysia. This requires a sustainable disposal solution, a sanitary landfill, but such a project can turn into a failure without household demand side information. This study investigated the willingness of households to pay for a sanitary landfill by employing a survey-based method known as choice modelling. This is used to obtain the willingness of households to pay towards the environmental benefits of a sanitary landfill described by attributes of controlled leachate discharge, reduced intensity of bad odour, reduced disease vector and promotion of a scenic view. The resulting estimates show positive willingness to pay for each attribute (ranging from RM2.12 to RM12.61) and for the sanitary landfill (ranging from RM7.62 to RM10.41). The gathered information benefits policymakers to make decisions that match the demands of households so as to avoid the likelihood of opposition and project infeasibility.
    Keywords: non-market valuation; choice modelling; sanitary landfill; solid waste disposal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042085
  • An In-depth Literature Review of End-of-Life Vehicle Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Rakesh Shrivastava, Gajanan Badwe, R.P. Mohanty, Gunjan Yadav 
    Abstract: The automotive industry has been a major contributor to the economic growth across the globe. However, the industry has struggled to tackle end-of-life vehicle management issues, which have impacted strongly the sustainability aspects of the products. The purpose of this paper is to classify the research papers, identify the research gaps and discover the future research directions in end-of-life vehicle (ELV) management. The study covers an analysis of recent literature published from 2000 to 2020. A total of 261 articles are analysed and classified into themes; such as ELV management practices, ELV legislation, ELV recovery strategies, automotive shredder residue (ASR), environmental impacts, and ELV economics. The study has utility for the auto manufacturers, auto users, academicians and researchers engaged in the field of ELV management to develop a better understanding of the issues and contribute to sustainable development.
    Keywords: end-of-life vehicle management; recycling; environmental impacts; economics; sustainability; automotive industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042089
  • Profile modelling of solid waste generation of non-household establishments in Butuan City
    by Jan Nino G. Tinio, Breix Michael G. Agua 
    Abstract: This study focused on the solid waste generation of establishments in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte. It aimed to determine some factors affecting the total solid waste daily generation of establishments in the city. Sex of the owner, his/her educational profile, his/her age, civil status, years in the business, type of establishment, and total number of employees were the selected variables considered in this study. It used correlation and Chi square analyses to determine whether or not the variables are related to or associated with the total daily waste generated by the establishments. The results show that the total number of employees and the type of establishment have a significant relationship/association with the generated waste. This study recommends that the local government of Butuan City should specifically develop a policy to address the amount of trash generated by medium-scale and high-scale establishments.
    Keywords: solid waste generation of non-household establishments; commercial solid waste; factors affecting solid waste generation; policy implications.

    by Mehdi Kaghouche, Houria Ariane 
    Abstract: The improvement of citizens standard of living and change of their consumption habits generates a large production of waste in the city, causing several types of pollution, namely visual, olfactory, etc., which, in turn, significantly contribute to the degradation of the urban life, urban image and the environment. This article investigated the concept of urban cleanliness and its evaluation in Coudiat-Aty, one of the well-known, colonial neighbourhoods in the city centre of Constantine. The study used a survey and an observation grid to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the cleanliness of the neighbourhood through the calculation of several soiling indicators. The study findings showed that the Coudiat-Aty neighbourhood is considered unclean and has a mean indicator of soiling 3.02. This result can be explained by the highly busy neighbourhood. Thus by the presence of many administrations and schools which receive a lot of people.
    Keywords: city; environment; neighbourhood; pollution; soiling indicators; urban cleanliness; urban image; waste; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047081
  • Investigation of Methylene Blue Adsorption on Alum Sludge using Full Factorial 2k Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandyanto Adityosulindro, Fairuz Nabila, Annisa Marlin Rus, Djoko Hartono, Setyo Moersidik 
    Abstract: Alum sludge (AS) wasted from water treatment plant (WTP) was prepared by a simple drying method and tested as an adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from water. Laboratory batch experiment was conducted using full factorial 2k experimental design in order to investigate the influence of experimental factors including adsorbent dose (0.51 g/L), dye concentration (0.050.15 g/L), pH (48), and temperature (3060
    Keywords: adsorption; alum sludge; sludge reuse; methylene blue; full factorial design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048053
  • Evaluation of the productive and environmental potential of closed-loop manufaturing process   Order a copy of this article
    by Flavio Numata Junior, Helena V. G. Navas 
    Abstract: Nowadays the energy is considered, and in the future, the main factor for manufacturing. Therefore closed-loop production processes can reusing waste or by-products, but it has high electricity consumption and generates high rates of pollutants. This scenario is contradictory when looking for the eco-efficiency of the production plant. In this sense, this article aims to develop a theoretical model that optimises solutions to raise the productive and environmental performance of manufacturing. The modelling made compatible the improvements of the system through the inventive principles (theory of inventive problem solving TRIZ) with environmental analysis (life cycle assessment LCA) for the generation of systematic innovations in the manufacture. The experimental results present an architectures of results for the use of thermochemical routes and alteration of the composition of the productive resources for generation of clean energy and reduction of the environmental impacts.
    Keywords: process improvement; TRIZ; LCA; environmental impacts; closed-loop production.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048089
    by Jonathan Engelmann, Everton Hansen, Marco Antonio Siqueira Rodrigues, Patrice M. Aquim 
    Abstract: Water is an essential natural resource for the survival of species. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques that reduce water consumption and losses in production processes. Water is the main input used in the manufacture of beer and its use varies from the incorporation in the final product, operations that use water as an auxiliary fluid and cleaning operations. The objective of this study is to analyse the use of water within the production process of a microbrewery and to propose alternatives to optimise the use and reuse of water, aiming at reducing consumption. The methodology proposes a survey of water uses and water losses in the microbrewery, a research of water reuse alternatives and an evaluation of the feasibility of the proposed alternatives. The results showed 80% reduction in the amount of cooling water used in the process.
    Keywords: water reuse; microbrewery; cooling water; wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048094
    by Oluwadare OYEBODE 
    Abstract: Engineering assessment, strategic design and interventions are essential for solid wastes management in most nations of the world. This study assessed solid waste management practices at Karimo area of Abuja, Nigeria. Reconnaissance survey and questionnaires were used in gathering of data; 150 questionnaires were administered. Simple random sampling without replacement was used to explore the heterogeneous population of the study area. Households and shops were selected at random from various streets, crescents and close in the study. Descriptive statistics frequency distribution was used for the analysis of the data. The estimated per capita waste generation is 0.65 kg/day. The volume of recyclable waste, potentially hazardous waste and agricultural waste was estimated to be 62.6 m3, 1.22 m3 and 2.45 m3, respectively. Estimated total waste generated per day is 13,505 kg/day for 17,700 people. Based on this data, a system is setup for sustainable environment and effective solid waste management in the community for sustainable environment.
    Keywords: solid waste management; engineering assessment; sustainable environment; Karimo; design and interventions; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048098
  • Solid waste collection efficiency among South African municipalities   Order a copy of this article
    by Genius Murwirapachena, Nqobile Mpala 
    Abstract: In most developing countries, municipalities are an effective vehicle for local economic development. They are commonly responsible for providing public services to local communities within their jurisdictions. Evidence exists that municipalities are mostly inefficient in providing these services. The worst reality is that municipal efficiency is not commonly measured in developing countries and proper performance benchmarking is rarely done. Using municipal data for the years 2013 and 2014, this study examines efficiency in solid waste collection and its determinants in South Africa. The study uses the stochastic non-parametric envelopment of data method to estimate efficiency. Further, the generated municipal-specific efficiency scores are regressed against selected variables using the pooled ordinary least square and random effect models to establish the determinants of efficiency. Four key findings are reported, and some policy implications deduced. Municipal efficiency in emerging economies like South Africa is important because efficiency gains are useful in transforming communities and living standards.
    Keywords: efficiency; performance benchmarking; solid waste collection; StoNED.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048102
    by Thais G. Carpanez, Jonathas Batista Gonçalves Silva, Mayara De Oliveira Gonçalves, Vanessa R. De Paula, Marcelo Otenio, Samuel R. Castro 
    Abstract: The present study evaluates chemically the soil after an application of treated wastewater originated through anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle wastewater in the cultivar Pennisetum purpureum (BRS Capiaçu). Developed in an experimental field at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa Gado de Leite located in Coronel Pacheco/MG - from November 2017 to July 2018. The applications were performed by applying different doses of treated wastewater in slides of 0, 24, 48, and 72 mm cycle1 . For each experimental plot, soil collections were executed in two different layers (020 and 4060 cm) and their characterisations were made before and after the applications. The use of treated wastewater proved to be efficient for fertigation of capiaçu grass since it provided, in the root zone of the plant, an increase in essential nutrients for its growth. The leaching of the analysed metals was not observed, and the 72 mm cycle1 slide was determined as the best disposal dose of the effluent in the soil since it was able to increase the crops height, dry and green mass.
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion; fertigation; waste; soil; treated wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048104
  • Comparative assessment efficacy of yield maximization of recovered used lubricating oil by Ca(OH)2-Iso-butanol/KOH-1-butanol extractive-flocculative process by Central Composite Design approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sayantan Sarkar, Deepshikha Datta, K.S. Deepak, Bikash Kumar Mondal, Bimal Das 
    Abstract: The waste lubricating oil produced after prolonged use creates a threat to the environment, health, and economy. Proper disposal method and treatment of this waste oil is required for the development of a sustainable environment. The present work emphasises on extraction flocculation process for reclamation of used engine oil. Comparative assessment and optimisation study was done using two different solvents (Iso-butanol,1-butanol) and flocculants (Ca (OH)2 and KOH) by central composite design approach to achieve the maximum percentage recovery of refined oil. The optimise parameters evaluated were extraction time: 30 minutes and 80 minutes, extraction temperature: 60
    Keywords: waste lubricating oil; response surface methodology; central composite design; CCD; extraction-flocculation; yield.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048105
  • Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management : A Case Study of Srinagar Municipal Corporation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasmeena Bashir, Mohammad Younus Bhat, Md. Sarfaraz Equbal 
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to estimate the willingness to pay for solid waste management (SWM) improvement in Srinagar. Further to find the effect of socio-economic determinants on willingness to pay of the residents. The present study is an endeavour to discuss the demand side issues which will be important for policy makers to design appropriate waste management service given the preference of residents. To accomplish the objectives of the present study and for testing the hypotheses a contingent valuation (CV) study was designed and executed by randomly selected households in the study area. The logistic regression model results revealed that 90.6% of the total respondents are willing to pay for better solid waste management service. The mean willingness to pay of the respondents in Srinagar is Rs. 162.72 per month. Willingness to pay is significantly affected by socio-economic variables like income, education, gender, position of the respondent, and households receiving collection service. This information can specifically help in providing better solid waste management services to the residents of Srinagar and in general is also helpful in improving the quality of environment.
    Keywords: solid waste management; SWM; contingent valuation method; CVM; logistic regression model; willingness to pay; WTP; Srinagar Municipal Corporation; SMC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048360
  • Estimate of landfill leachate generation by the water balance method   Order a copy of this article
    by Willian Fernando De Borba, José Luiz Silvério Da Silva, Pedro Daniel Da Cunha Kemerich, Ericklis Edson Boito De Souza, Gabriel D`Ávila Fernandes, Mateus Guimarães Da Silva 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to estimate the generation of leachate in a landfill area without the use of a geomembrane liner. The generation of leachate was estimated by the water balance method from 2007 to 2017. Information on underground water quality was obtained through monitoring of historical series in four monitoring wells. The results indicated an average generation of 0, 31 L.s1. The electrical conductivity of the well water monitored changed during the analysed period, mainly in the wells located in the smallest topographic dimensions. These results found that even with the presence of a low permeability clayey soil, the absence of the waterproofing system in this disposal cell, allows the leachate to percolate to the water level of the non-continuous temporary suspended groundwater. This was evident by changes in groundwater quality parameters. Thus, additional studies are recommended, aiming at on-site monitoring of the leachate flow and quality.
    Keywords: non-continuous suspended aquifer; contamination; monitoring wells; MW; urban solid waste.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048530
  • Methane production generated by the biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste confined in lysimeters under a tropical climate   Order a copy of this article
    by Gustavo Henrique Tonelli Dutra De Almeida, Renata Lima Moretto, Miriam Gonçalves Miguel 
    Abstract: The generation of methane from municipal solid waste (MSW) confined in sanitary landfills is influenced by several factors, including climatic and operational conditions. This research evaluated the production of methane gas resulting from the anaerobic biodegradation process of MSW, produced in southeastern Brazil, confined in lysimeters for 30 months. The influence of climatic conditions and the effect of the application of saline solution on the MSW anaerobic biodegradation process were considered for methane production. The volumetric concentrations of methane peaks were significant in periods of high temperatures and after high rainfall. Five biodegradation phases were observed, from aerobic to anaerobic methanogenic phases. The methane peaks started in the initial methanogenic phase; however, the highest values were observed in the stable methanogenic phase. The application of the saline solution caused a delay of 100 days in the initial methanogenic phase and an increase of volumetric concentrations of methane over time.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; methane; anaerobic biodegradation; lysimeter; saline solution; sanitary landfill.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048715
  • Prioritization of major industrial wastes using Analytical Hierarchy Process for Micro Small Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Ram Babu Verma, Sanjay Kumar Jha 
    Abstract: The paper deals about the identification of process waste associated with the product manufacturing cycle. Each product has its own production cycle that includes a series of manufacturing operations, starts with the acceptance of the customers order and ends with the delivery of the finished product. Owing to the fact, long-term use of machines and equipments causes wear and tear results process inconsistencies, errors and breakdowns. These Anomalies produce waste in form of man, material, and machine. The manuscript explains about analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for waste identification and prioritisation. The major waste associated with the production process of micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) identified and ranked by using the AHP technique. All of these identified industrial waste categorised under lean seven waste, denoted by acronym TIMWOOD. The waste weightage factor (score) calculated by using the AHP decision matrix revealed that Waiting Time is the most significant waste, contributed 33.2% of total waste. In order to reduce process waste, manufacturing process drastically changed in light of the waste analysis findings.
    Keywords: lean waste; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; MSME; paired analysis; TIMWOOD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048752
  • Evaluation of Dynamic Characteristics and Contemporary Management of Institutional Solid Wastes   Order a copy of this article
    by KULBIR SINGH, Rajesh Lohchab, Anil Nain, Miklesh Kumari 
    Abstract: Unscientific handling of solid waste is not only posing a serious risk to the ecosystem and human health but simultaneously deprives the opportunity of resource recovery. In this study, solid waste collected from the areas of Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar was characterised through personal field investigations, secondary information like population estimation, and using ASTM D5231-92 standard method. The average quantity of solid waste generation was found to be 645.1
    Keywords: composition; generation; university campus; waste management; sustainable.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048924
  • Treatment of latex processing effluent using aerobic granulation technology   Order a copy of this article
    by B.K. Bindhu, MADHU G, HARITHA M 
    Abstract: Latex processing industries consume large volumes of water and the discharge of wastewater may cause serious and prolong consequences to the environment. Various treatment technologies that currently have been used for the latex processing effluent have many advantages and limitations. Aerobic granulation technology was used for the treatment of latex processing wastewater with a high organic loading rate (OLR) (6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 d)) and short settling time (5 min) in a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Towards the end of five weeks of operation, stable granules of average size of 1.3 mm and average specific gravity of 1.007, with a settling velocity of 45 m/h were developed. Very high removal efficiencies were achieved for COD (97%), suspended solids (93.7%), and nitrogen (90.9%). Aerobic granulation technology is proved to be an excellent option for the treatment of effluents from latex processing units.
    Keywords: aerobic granulation; latex processing effluent; sequencing batch reactor; SBR; organic loading rate; chemical oxygen demand; COD; settling time; settling velocity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049807
  • Household disposal practices of unused and expired medicines: a case study of Guwahati City, Assam, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nandini Chakraborty, Mayuri Chabukdhara, Manashjit Gogoi 
    Abstract: Demand for pharmaceuticals to treat as well as prevent diseases will continue to increase. As such, disposal of unused and expired medicines is a growing challenge faced worldwide. This study focuses on evaluation of disposal practices of unused and expired medicines in Guwahati, Assam, one of the fastest growing cities in northeast India. The study also intended to identify the reasons for unused or unwanted medications in households. About 99.5% of the participants disposed of their unused and expired medicines in garbage bins which may pose threat to the environment. Organised take back programs and proper guidelines for careful disposal of unused and expired medicines may help to reduce the risk to the environment as well as human health. Further, behavioural changes such as completion of prescribed medicine courses, reduced self-medication, and wastage may also help in minimising the medicinal waste burden and their potential impact on the environment.
    Keywords: unused and expired medicines; disposal practices; garbage bins; environmental risk; take back programs; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055811
  • Geospatial techniques in identifying suitable waste dumping sites- A case study of the migrated Rohingya community   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahammed Dayem, Aysha Akter 
    Abstract: Migrated Rohingya community in southeast Cox Bazar in Bangladesh is experiencing poor or absence of waste management. An intensive questionnaire survey covered around 0.85 million migrants to observe the existing waste management practices. The selected area comprises of Ukhia, Kutubpalong mega camp, Gundum, Balukhali Bazar and Phalungkhali. The geospatial technique was applied based on three selected criteria, vis., social, economic, and physical. Physical measures include land use, soil type, geomorphology, slope, and drainage datasets from secondary sources. Secondary and primary data sources cover the social and economic criteria, i.e., population and their residence from both the road and drainage networks. The study’s findings suggested that gender biases exist regarding awareness of poor waste management. Finally, to ensure green community, an overlay weightage approach was adopted using the geospatial technique; the study area was classified based on suitable dumping site as very high (0.09%), high (0.05%), medium (0.34%), low (17.96%) and very low (81.55%). This is envisaged that the acquired suitable waste dumping site map would provide relevant information to the adjacent community and the service provider.
    Keywords: waste management; dumping site; overlay weightage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049808
  • Long-term environmental impact of COVID-19 pandemic: Derailed Single-use plastic ban   Order a copy of this article
    by Mitu Mewada, Susy Albert 
    Abstract: The earth’s climate is encountering positive ecological benefits of the pandemic as clean sea shores, improved air quality and decreased environmental noise have been witnessed. On other hand increase in single-use plastics today may leave the drawn out effect on our biological system. This article covers how COVID-19 pandemic is indirectly affecting the earth. The virus has brought plastic into our lives like never before in form of masks, gloves, personal protective equipment (PPE) coveralls and body bags which is without a doubt leading to increase in plastic pollution and hence triggering health concerns. The plastic boycott in India has been generously postponed because of current needs. Everyday whole world is battling against coronavirus. It is at the same time seething the plastic waste issue which unfortunately cannot be fixed by vaccines and lockdowns.
    Keywords: plastic waste; COVID-19 pandemic; environmental issue; plastic waste management; solid waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049809
  • Sustainable Bio-Ethanol Production from Java Citronella-A Lignocellulosic Residual Biomass   Order a copy of this article
    by Vidyadhar Gedam, Anup Chahande, Pranav Pathak, Swapnil Dharaskar 
    Abstract: The present work investigates the potential of Java citronella lignocellulosic residual biomass for efficient bioethanol production. The study focuses on the physicochemical analysis of Java citronella to explore the % of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, calorific value, ash contents, carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulphur (CHNS) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the physicochemical analysis, the samples were subjected to subsequent acid and alkaline pretreatment along with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) test followed by submerged biological fermentation using commercial yeast. The fermented samples were then distilled, and the distillate was examined by gas chromatography (GC), and the percentage of bioethanol was estimated. The result highlights that the collected Java citronella sample has considerable % cellulose content and alkaline pretreatment was more effective than acid treatment. In conclusion, Java citronella residual biomass has a potential for bioethanol production leading to sustainable energy options.
    Keywords: sustainable bio-ethanol; waste management; biomass; pretreatment; lignocellulosic gas chromatography.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049810
    by Shard Shard, Sapna Koul, Devesh Kumar, Hotniar Siringoringo 
    Abstract: Since a long time, the problem of urban solid waste (USW) has been solved by recycling it into energy. However, there is a difficulty with the conversion technique which limits its application. There are many conversion technologies discussed in this study which include incineration, bio methanation, pyrolysis, and gasification. Each technology was evaluated and compared each other. The indicators used in comparison are physical requirement, chemical requirement, and the sustainable use of the technology to convert USW to energy is given specific consideration. The results of the assessment demonstrate that biological technology is most suited to transforming waste into energy with a minimal environmental impact. Other techniques like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are highly effective and gives efficient output but will contaminate the environment with hazardous gaseous pollutants, which would surely increase global warming and greenhouse effects.
    Keywords: urban solid waste; USW; bio methanation; incineration; pyrolysis; gasification; MCDM; energy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049812
    by Vikram Bali, Sonali Mathur 
    Abstract: Managing waste is an important challenge for the municipal corporations from waste collection to waste disposal. Every day we come across dustbins that are unreasonably full and garbage is spilling out. The spilled garbage results in unhygienic conditions and spreading of various diseases. More resources are consumed while collecting garbage from the public places as garbage collection points are very few and it is difficult to find if the dustbin is empty or full. Through this research paper, we present the use of smart dustbin which helps in monitoring the dustbins thereby also saving fuel and work hours by finding shortest distance for garbage collectors to reach and empty the dustbins. Internet of things (IoT) technology will help the garbage collectors in saving fuel, working hours and money. Thus, constantly monitoring the garbage in the dustbins will help in lending a hand towards keeping the environment clean and green.
    Keywords: waste management; IoT; smart city; smart dustbin; real-time data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049956
  • Public-Private Partnership and Urban Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Lagos State, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Oluwaseun Kugbayi, Adeleke Adegbami 
    Abstract: The persistent increase in the volume of solid wastes generated resulting from the steady increase in population, industrialisation, rural-urban drift, and general economic growth have become one of the major challenges confronting Nigeria, like many other developing countries. The successive government in Nigeria have continued to take various measures at managing the generated wastes in other to achieve safe, inclusive, and sustainable cities in line with the United Nations sustainable development goals. Using a mixed research method, the study investigates the extent to which public-private partnership has helped in managing waste in Lagos State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that the privatisation of waste collection services has contributed immensely to effective waste management in Lagos state. The study concluded that challenges faced by the private sector operators notwithstanding, their involvement in waste management have brought about effectiveness in waste collection and management in the state.
    Keywords: privatisation; solid waste; waste management; public-private partnership; urban centre; Lagos.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049998
  • Determination of Waste Collection and Transport Routes with Exact and Heuristic Methods, A Case Study of Kampung Cipare, Tenjo   Order a copy of this article
    by Harummi S. Amarilies, Ezra Denia, M. Aulia Budi Santoso, A.A.N. Perwira Redi 
    Abstract: The people of Kampung Cipare, Tenjo, Indonesia, still practice backyard burning and have no waste management system. To increase awareness of waste management, we conducted research to compute the shortest waste collection and transportation route using exact method and heuristic approach. The shortest route provided by exact method was landfill T1 T3 T6 T8 T9 T10 T7 T5 T4 T2 landfill with total distance of 1.25 km and computation time of 0.015625 minutes. While the shortest route produced by the heuristic method was landfill T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 T9 T10 T7 landfill with total distance of 1.37 km and computation time of 0.000254 minutes. Compared to heuristic approach, exact method provided a shorter route by 120 metres.
    Keywords: exact method; heuristic method; nearest neighbour; waste transport route; optimisation; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049999
  • Taguchi-grey relational based multi response optimization of diesel- Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends fuelled diesel engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Anant Nagpure, Walmik S. Rathod, Supriya B. Chavan 
    Abstract: Experimental investigation was done on a single cylinder, four stroke, VCR diesel engine using diesel and diesel-Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends for performance optimisation. This paper explores the combined effect of three input parameters, viz. compression ratio, blend proportion, and load, in controlling three main response variables, viz. brake power (BP), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The experiments were conducted using the design of experiments proposed by Taguchi. Using signal-to-noise ratio and grey relational analysis, data obtained with the L9 orthogonal array was analysed to find the optimum combination by transforming the multi-response problem into a single response problem using grey relational grade (GRG). By means of experiments, the optimum combination of input parameters was further confirmed. The results of this study revealed that, at a compression ratio of 16, with a blend proportion consisting 10% of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel at 75% load, gives the best possible performance.
    Keywords: variable compression ratio; diesel-Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel; diesel engine; Taguchi method; L9 orthogonal array; grey relational analysis; ANOVA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050000
  • Evaluation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus inactivation in a healthcare waste treatment by autoclaving   Order a copy of this article
    by Amanda Oliveira, Valdir Schalch 
    Abstract: Healthcare waste can lead to environmental impacts, even when treated and disposed in landfills, since it may show some hazard indicator. This study aims at optimising the autoclaving process in view of the lack of data on the optimal exposure time, temperature, and steam pressure for microbial inactivation, and analyse possible interferences of the fraction occupied by healthcare waste in the autoclave. Tests were performed at 116
    Keywords: healthcare waste; Geobacillus stearothermophilus; autoclaving; infectious waste; waste treatment; microbial inactivation; inactivation fraction; sterilisation; disinfection; hazardous waste management; solid waste management; endospores.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050002
  • Collection and transport of municipal solid waste in a developing Country: the case of Greater Beirut Area in Lebanon   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbas E.L. Toufaili, Gabriella Pacheco, Luca Toneatti, Dario Pozzetto 
    Abstract: Waste generation has increased globally due to the fast-economic development and urbanisation. In developing countries, many factors are contributing in increasing its generation. In this paper, different methodologies to adopt a better action plan into the solid waste management system in Greater Beirut Area in Lebanon were applied. The main objectives were to: 1) provide a geographical mapping distribution of the solid waste bins in Greater Beirut; 2) select the best solid waste collection route; 3) perform cost calculation of the collection phase; 4) calculate the greenhouse gases emissions. SWOT analysis, QGIS software, Euclidean traveling salesman problem method were employed. For a proper solid waste management system, 7,127 bins are needed to be distributed in Beirut, 52 trucks to collect the waste. Application of Euclidean traveling salesman problem yielded for choosing a shorter solid waste collection route. Circular economy should be adopted in Lebanon to achieve zero waste.
    Keywords: solid waste collection route; municipal solid waste transport; developing countries; Euclidean travelling salesman problem; ETSP; Greater Beirut Area; GBA; quantum geographic information system; QGIS; solid waste management; SWM; solid waste management costs; SWOT analysis; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050057
  • Recent development of metal-organic framework 5 (MOF-5) adsorbents for organic dye removal from aqueous solution   Order a copy of this article
    by Irvan Dahlan, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Yung-Tse Hung 
    Abstract: The development of novel materials is critical for the sustainable improvement of adsorption of organic dye contaminants. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently gained a lot of attention due to their unique features. One of the most representative MOFs is MOF-5 [Zn4O(BDC)3]. This study compiles the recent research on the adsorptive removal of different organic dyes from aqueous solutions using pristine and modified MOF-5. The history and background of MOFs together with synthesis methods and characterization were briefly discussed. The development of MOF-5-based materials and their effectiveness under various process parameters in organic dyes adsorption were briefly highlighted. The discussion related to the characterizations of MOF-5 was also included. This review also outlined several challenges that the scientific community should investigate further to improve MOF-5 applications in organic dye adsorption. This review provides a valuable resource for researchers intending to use MOF-5 to remove organic dye from aqueous solutions.
    Keywords: adsorption; organic dyes; wastewater; metal-organic framework; MOF-5; organic linker; 3D framework; porous materials.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050059
  • Energy Access Gaps, Biomass Power and sub-Saharan Africa: A Remediation Model for Policy Development   Order a copy of this article
    by JUNE LEVI-OGUIKE, Diego Sandoval, Vishwas Vidyaranya 
    Abstract: This paper extends the drivers-pressures-state-impact and response (DPSIR) model to the context of current energy access and waste management challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective is to highlight opportunities for decentralised biopower adoption, while considering the multifaceted environmental and economic challenges exacerbated by the global pandemic. The model is applied to a biopower-related case study and the outcome suggests amongst others, that the presence of requisite infrastructure, environmental legislation, strategic public-private partnerships, policy advocacy, intervention and implementation, all contribute positively to successful waste valorisation and renewable energy-recovery schemes. The DPSIR model is adopted in this context, to advance renewable energy, environmental and specifically solid waste management policy efforts in the region, while promoting the use of biomass resources in electricity generation.
    Keywords: energy access; Africa; sustainability; biomass; DPSIR; policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050119
  • Exploring household recycling participation e-wastes management: An application of TPB and NAM models   Order a copy of this article
    by Idrees Waris, Shahzad Khalil, Malik Dad 
    Abstract: The rapid use of electrical and electronic appliances has endangered the sustainability of the environment. Although the role of households is paramount in the management of e-waste, the studies provide little information regarding the proper disposal and recycling of e-waste in developing countries. This study has used an integrated framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and norm action model to study e-wastes recycling intention in Pakistan. The findings reveal that awareness of consequence, subjective norms, and personal norms are the key predictors of e-wastes recycling intention. Awareness of the consequence was a key predictor of households e-wastes recycling intention. Further, the results depict that attitude, perceived behavioural control and recycling habit have an insignificant influence on e-wastes recycling intention. Further, the study provides useful implications to policymakers and marketing strategists to enhance the awareness of e-waste recycling, and measures to cope with the issues of e-waste in developing countries.
    Keywords: awareness of consequence; personal norms; subjective norms; perceived behavioural control; recycling habits; recycling intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050226
  • Strategies for Promoting Integrated Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Ghana.   Order a copy of this article
    by Emmanuel A. Iyiegbuniwe 
    Abstract: We examined the challenges of Ghanas municipal solid waste (MSW) management which is of significant environmental health importance. The main study objective was to review MSW challenges and recommend proven strategies, policies, and practices for sustainable waste management. Resource limitation, inadequate budgets, and knowledge gaps were key challenges identified as preventing the implementation of sustainable MSW management. Consistent lack of data and inadequate MSW information prevented comparisons across municipalities. Proven strategies and practices for promoting integrated MSW included engineered landfills, recycling, material recovery, and waste-to-energy generation. Stakeholders commitment and sound knowledge of MSW collection and tracking are required for cost-effective management programs. Education and communication are key to promoting sustainable waste management that includes environmental awareness and implementation of culturally-appropriate messages that target perceived barriers, benefits, and threats. Effective and sustainable MSW management must consider environmental impacts, economic and financial benefits, socio-cultural and political factors, sound institutions, and proactive policies.
    Keywords: Ghana; municipal solid waste; MSW; sustainable waste management; waste recycling; engineered landfills; waste-to-energy generation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050261
  • Influence of environmental factors on evapotranspiration in a peatland ecosystem in Central China   Order a copy of this article
    by Ihab Alfadhel, Jiwen Ge, Sakinatu Issaka, Hasanain Alawadi, Yongxi Sinan, Yaoyao Liu 
    Abstract: Environmental factors affect evapotranspiration and usually cause a serious loss of water content from wetland ecosystems. Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration is vital to determine the amount of water necessary to preserve wetlands, particularly peatlands in Central China. The period studied was 24 months. The highest value (0.157 mm/hr) occurred in first growing season, and the lowest value (0.045 mm/hr) occurred in the non-growing season of 2017. Seasonal differences in evapotranspiration occurred in the active growth seasons June through October. The peak value of net radiation was 369 W.m2 in September 2017. There was a clear relationship between evapotranspiration and air temperature but weak correlation with precipitation; annual precipitation was 19 mm. The Bowen ratio showed no correlation with evapotranspiration. The average rate of evapotranspiration throughout the study period was 80%-95%. The eddy covariance technique was used to determine the effect of certain environmental factors on wetland evapotranspiration.
    Keywords: energy flux; eddy covariance; seasonal variation; environmental variable; wetland ecosystem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055812
  • Screening of potential bacteria from soil sample for methylene blue dye degradation: RSM modelling and Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Shalini Prajapati, Yelamarthi PYDI SETTY 
    Abstract: This study aimed to screen the bacteria from the samples collected from textile dye enriched soil. Twenty-one soil bacteria were isolated and examined for their efficacy for methylene blue (MB) decolourisation. Bacillus cereus found to be the potential microorganism for MB decolourisation, characterised using 16S rRNA sequence technique. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimise the three independent variables like dye concentration (mg/L), pH and glucose concentration (g/L) for decolourisation of MB. The experimental run given by central composite design (CCD) with quadratic model was conducted used in this study to optimise the variables and fit the model. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed; R2 = 0.9992 and R2 adj = 0.9985, which confirmed that experimental and predicted response are in good agreement and the model is highly significant. The optimal values of dye concentration (mg/L), pH and glucose concentration (g/L) proposed by RSM were found to be 70, 7.88 and 3.33, respectively.
    Keywords: decolourisation; methylene blue; Bacillus cereus; response surface methodology; RSM; central composite design; CCD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050941
  • A Review of the Green Approach to the Treatment of Solid Waste Leachate   Order a copy of this article
    by Kasun Wijerathna, F. Sumaiya Idroos, M.M. Pathmalal 
    Abstract: Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation related anthropogenic activities result in significant solid waste generation worldwide. Improper solid waste management practices cause the accumulation of landfill leachate in larger quantities, posing a serious hazard to ecosystems. Current physicochemical leachate treatment options have some drawbacks, including high operational costs, lower efficiency and environmental deterioration. Hence, the application of beneficial microbial communities for waste treatment has become a rapid moving, greener approach. Microbial degradation techniques such as membrane bioreactors, activated slug systems, sequencing batch reactors and lagoon systems are successfully applied to leachate treatments achieving more than 90% removal of COD, BOD and N-NH3. Furthermore, novel studies on the applicability of extracellular enzymes rather than crude microbial biomass are considered a more practical approach for bioremediation. The present review summarises the different microbial technologies for leachate treatment and their recent research findings by evaluating the application feasibility of based on current knowledge.
    Keywords: solid waste landfill leachate; biological treatments; bioremediation; microbial community; extracellular enzymes; organic contaminants.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050942
  • Assessment of Health Care Waste Management in Malaysian Hospital Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali B. Mahdia, Zahraa A. M. AL-Ibraheemi, Chandima Gomes, Abeer H. B. Al-Sultan 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the management scenarios of solid healthcare waste (HCW) and the currently used waste management technologies, intending to highlight the weak links to be strengthened. Unannounced visits were made to two governmental general hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia, each several times within one year. Waste generation, segregation, transportation, storage and disposal of the hospitals were comprehensively analysed. The outcomes highlight that HCW management performances need logistic modifications by increasing internal audits and strict regular monitoring by the hospital authorities and state-appointed statutory bodies. In addition, the 27.6 tonnes and 21.8 tonnes of HCW per month generated at both hospitals, need to be reduced and managed appropriately. These findings pave the way to develop better modules for solid HCW management for medical facilities for safer and more efficient waste disposal.
    Keywords: healthcare waste management; infectious waste; internal transportation; central storage; waste treatment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050944
  • Trends and Contribution of Solid Waste Research in Iran and Comparison with the World: A systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Aram Tirgar, Zahra Aghalari, Hans-Uwe Dahms 
    Abstract: This systematic review study was conducted using a bibliometric analysis for a 12 year period on articles published in five specialised Iranian environmental health journals and three international environmental health journals that are among the top 5% and 10% based on SNIP, emphasising the issue of solid waste. A review of 1679 articles in Iranian environmental health journals and 6,200 articles in international environmental health journals revealed that 9.41% and 0.43% of the articles published here were in the field of solid waste. In Iranian and international journals, the highest number of articles were about municipal solid waste 64% and 63%, respectively. The separation of the included articles were based on the six processes characterising solid waste, with the highest number of articles in Iranian journals about waste generation were 53.7% and in international journals about waste disposal were 34.7%.
    Keywords: solid waste; environmental health; articles; Iranian journals; international journals; content analysis; bibliometrics; systematic analysis; review; contribution; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050947
  • Construction and Demolition Waste Management: A Conceptual Framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Reza Esa, Anthony Halog, Lucia Rigamonti 
    Abstract: In Malaysia, there is still a lack of awareness of the impacts of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes to the environment despite the robust growth of the construction industry. This study was conducted to identify the most suitable waste minimisation strategies to be adopted throughout the construction cycles via obtaining views from the expert panels. A three rounds of Delphi technique were conducted; in which the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was incorporated in the second round. Experts opinions of government agencies, developers, consultants and contractors were gathered to carry out this study. The results reveal that there is needs to integrate the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle at each stage of the construction cycles. Furthermore, it was observed that the most fitting waste minimisation strategies that can be used throughout the construction cycle are modern construction modern, improving and tightening regulation and improve site management. Consequently, a conceptual framework of C&D waste management has been developed based on the inputs from the study.
    Keywords: C&D waste management; Delphi method; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; conceptual framework; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050949
  • Statistical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling of Plackett-Burman Screening Design to Improve the Fuel Properties of Oil Palm Fiber by Torrefaction Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Chokchai Mueanmas, Panadda Indum 
    Abstract: In this study, the two-level Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen the significant variables of torrefaction process of oil palm fibre (OPF). The independent parameters such as temperature, time, oxygen feed, heat rate and OPF size were studied. The %mass yield (%MY) and fuel properties including %moisture content (%MC), %volatile content (%VC), %ash content (%AC), %fixed carbon content (%FC) and heating value (HV) were selected as response variable. The results indicated that temperature, time, oxygen feed rate and heat rate performed statistically significant to the response of torrefied OPF. All obtained mathematical models showed a good fit with high coefficient of determination and their reliability was demonstrated by diagnostics plot. At the maximum experimental result, the %FC and HV of torrefied OPF increased by 13,483% and 27.42%, while the value of %MC and %VC decreased by 93.71% and 42.55%, respectively, as compared with the raw OPF. Thus, the torrefaction seems to be a potential process to improve the quality of fuel properties of OPF.
    Keywords: oil palm fibre; OPF; torrefaction; Plackett-Burman screening design; proximate analysis; heating value.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050952
  • Solid Waste Characterisation and Recycling Potential for a University Campus in a Developing Nation   Order a copy of this article
    by AMIT KUMAR JAGLAN, Hari Bhakta Sharma, Mansi Vinaik, Brajesh Dubey 
    Abstract: The present study aims to estimate the recyclable potential of the solid waste generated from a University Campus in India through detailed characterisation, quantification, and economic analysis. The study found high fraction of organics (36%) followed by plastic (27%) and paper (17%). The overall recycling potential was 78%. With an efficient integrated solid waste management system in place, it was estimated that the net recyclable waste of 216 tons generated from the university campus could generate revenue of 2.6 million INR (USD $36,500) annually. As a part of the waste management framework, plastic, paper, metal, and glass components were found to have immense potential of sale to local scrap dealers. Organic waste can be recycled directly on-site at the campus in the form of compost and/or biogas. The solid waste management framework proposed in this study for university campuses can be simulated for educational campuses, following circular economy (CE) approach.
    Keywords: university campus; waste management; waste characterisation; recycling potential; economic valuation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051175
  • Factors affecting community participation in an e-waste recycling program   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong Thi Thu Nguyen, Chun-Hung Lee, Hang Thi Thu Nguyen, Thi Thanh Thuy Phan, Van Viet Nguyen, Rern-Jay Hung 
    Abstract: In the process of moving towards a sustainable society and circular economy, the recycling of e-waste has been an indispensable target for all nations from the perspectives of environmental protection and resource utilisation. As citizens are considered key implementers in the recycling system, the study aims to grasp factors affecting community participation in the e-waste recycling program in Vietnam. The logistic regression model was used to analyse the data of 600 household members collected via face-to-face interviews. The results suggest that abstract norms and conveniences and incentives are the most important indicators in positively explaining recycling participation. It is also detected that only income has a significant influence on residents decision whether to be involved in e-waste recycling. This study is expected to share necessary information to policy-makers, especially, for some countries whose e-waste regulations are under revision, aiming to ensure environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and circular economy.
    Keywords: community participation; e-waste recycling; abstract norms; conveniences and incentives; circular economy; sustainable development goals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051889
  • Assessing Quality Wastewater for Irrigation in Swaziland (eSwatini) using Multivariate Statistical Analyses: Organics and Nutrients   Order a copy of this article
    by Thabani Mamba, Julius Mosyoka Ndambuki, Williams Kupolati, Ola Olaleye 
    Abstract: Data is sparse on the quality of wastewater (WW) discharged into rivers. The objective was to assess the quality of WW variables (organics and nutrients) using multivariate statistical analyses and compare these with international WW quality standards for irrigation. Samples were collected for 22 months and analyzed in the laboratory. Data were analysed statistically. Results showed WW variables (nutrients) were within the normal standards and guidelines for water quality for irrigated agriculture and aquatic lives. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed four components accounted for about 79.40% of the variations in the properties of the WW effluents. The PC-1 was 31% and associated with coliforms and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results of the cluster analysis showed that the 11 WWTPs can be grouped into four clusters for ease of management. The elevated levels of total coliforms (TC), FC and COD from these treatment plants may pose risks to aquatic lives.
    Keywords: Eswatini; irrigation; multivariate statistics; organics; wastewater treatment; Southern Africa; Swaziland.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10052823
  • Methane generation potential for waste with different landfill ages   Order a copy of this article
    by Tuilly De Fátima Macedo Furtado Guerra, Thiago De Sá De Sá Sena, Francisco Auriberto Ferreira Marques Junior, Marcio Camargo De Melo, William De Paiva 
    Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for methane (CH4) generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) at ages 0, 1, and 2 from the landfill located in Campina Grande, in the State of Paraiba, Brazil. Two projection scenarios for the decay constant value, the CH4 generation rate (k) were analysed: 0.05 and 0.1 year using a first-order kinetic model. Only those estimations did not reflect the current values of the CH4 flow in the landfill, but they indicate, when associated with the MSW physical-chemical analysis results, that the landfill has had a marked biodegradation activity since its first year, decreasing rapidly after that, and that suggests higher k values to better represent the behaviour of gas generation from MSW in the first years of landfilling.
    Keywords: landfill gas; landfilling ages; semi-arid climate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10052983
  • Public awareness, knowledge and practice towards mandatory waste separation to support recycling in greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Ling Chen, Tapan Kumar Nath, Alex.M Lechner 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine different stakeholders awareness, knowledge and practice toward household waste separation and recycling (HWSR) in Greater Kuala Lumpur to address the paucity of research on the effectiveness of the policy and publics attitude concerning HWSR in Malaysia. Data were collected through: 1) a public social survey carried out using face-to-face interviews and online surveys and 2) key-informant interviews with stakeholders associated with solid waste management (SWM. Pearsons correlation, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-squared tests were carried out to find significant differences between selected variables. Results show that the respondents had good knowledge (mean score of 3.2 out of 4), and 38% of the respondents were practising some form of HWSR. Many respondents (65%) were not aware of the current waste separation policies, but 93% of the respondents would be willing to separate waste at source if necessary facilities were provided. Suggestions are made for stricter enforcement of policies and dissemination of information around HWSR through public engagement by all relevant stakeholders.
    Keywords: household waste; waste separation at source; recycling; social survey; public awareness; human behaviour; policy effectiveness; Greater Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10053038
  • Healthcare solid waste management in south Ethiopia: A case study of Wolaita Sodo referral hospital   Order a copy of this article
    by Shetie Gatew, Bereket Lambiso Wecho 
    Abstract: Healthcare facilities generate wastes that contain potentially hazardous wastes to the public and the surrounding environment. The management of these wastes is an important issue in Ethiopia. Wolaita Sodo referral hospital is one of the hospitals in the country which has critical problems in healthcare waste management. Across sectional descriptive study was conducted between March and November 2019 to quantify, characterise, and assess healthcare solid waste management practices in Wolaita Sodo referral hospital, South Ethiopia. Observational checklists, questionnaires, and weighting scales were used to quantify the generated healthcare solid wastes. The mean generation rate of healthcare solid waste was 0.67 kg/patient/day and 0.74 kg/bed/day. Of this 0.41 kg/bed/day (56.7%) was general waste and the rest 0.34 (43.5%) was hazardous waste. The quantity of total healthcare solid waste generated was positively correlated with the number of beds and patients (rs = 0.57, P = 0.02 and rs = 0.73, P = 0.01). Waste segregation and pre-treatment of infectious wastes were not practiced by the hospital. Solid wastes were stored, transported, treated, and disposed of improperly. Hence, waste management practices need to be improved through periodic training and adequate supplies of materials for the waste handler.
    Keywords: hazardous waste; healthcare solid waste; waste characterisation; waste management; waste quantification; Wolaita-Sodo; Ethiopia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2025.10055253
  • Study on Optimum Utilization of Water Treatment Plant Sludge for Treating Domestic Wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Rishi, D. JUSTUS REYMOND 
    Abstract: The water that is treated in the water treatment plant produces sludge that contains silt, debris, and coagulants that are used for the treatment process. The sludge so produced usually are dumped into waterbodies or landfills. When doing so the chemicals percolate into the soil reaching the groundwater and polluting them. This project mainly focuses on using this water treatment plant sludge in treating domestic wastewater. An aeration tank was set up with air pumps, bottles, measuring jars and glass tanks. The sludge was directly added to the sewage water collected from the wastewater treatment plant in varying proportions with a detention time of 5 days. When tested, it was found that the levels of BOD and COD were reduced drastically as compared to the existing methods of treatment. It was found that when 30% of sludge was added to the wastewater a 67% of reduction in BOD and 6.2% of reduction in COD was observed. A combination of 15% of activated sludge and 5% of water treatment plant sludge was observed with a decrease in 68% of COD and a 38% increase in BOD. Also, it was observed that the formation of froth in the aeration tank was reduced.
    Keywords: water treatment plant sludge; coagulant; domestic wastewater; aeration tank; activated sludge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10054290
  • To assess the dynamics of emission effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by using the flux chamber technique at Titardi (capped) and Balicha (uncapped) landfill sites of Udaipur, Rajasthan   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Dwivedi 
    Abstract: To evaluate the efflux of CO2 and CH4 gases by the application of static flux chamber (SFC) method at Balicha landfill site (BLS) and Titardi landfill site (TLS) situated in semiarid region of Rajasthan for a period of 2018 and 2019. The geometric mean flux of CO2 and CH4 fluxes at BLS during the studied period was ranged from 0.522 to 0.787 gm/m2 /day and from 0.175 to 0.252 gm/m2 /day, respectively. Whereas; the geometric mean fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at TLS was straddling from 0.272 to 0.472 gm/m2 /day and 0.087 to 0.134 gm/m2 /day sequentially in the same given period. The carbon footprint generated from the BLS and TLS was approximately 0.156 Gg/yr and 0.0135 of CO2 equivalent. The results, were statistically quantified using the coefficient of variation, demonstrated that the considerable temporal fluctuation in the CO2 and CH4 gas emanation fluxes at BLS and TLS was noticed so, mitigation needed.
    Keywords: static flux chamber; SFC; landfill efflux; greenhouse gas; GHGs; carbon footprints.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055814
  • Determinants of waste generation and segregation behaviour among the educated communities in the Western and the North-Western Provinces of Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by R.N.K. Soysa, Asankha Pallegedara, Ajantha Sisira Kumara, Dissanayake M. Jayasena, M.K.S.M. Samaranayake 
    Abstract: Solid waste, especially municipal solid waste, is a growing problem in Sri Lanka, and this problem has become intensified due to the absence of proper waste management systems in the country. At-source segregation could be practised at the household level as one of the solutions to this problem. The study intends to identify the factors influencing the waste generation and segregation behaviour of households of educated communities who have received tertiary education in Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire through an online survey and responses from 402 respondents were analysed by employing logistic and OLS regression analysis. The study identified that family income level, local governmental authorities involvement in waste collection, age of the household head, and house type significantly affect the waste segregation behaviour of households of educated communities. Further, age of household head, family size, attitude, land area, household ownership, family income and involvement of local governmental authorities in the waste collection significantly affect the household solid waste generation. Implementation of policies and effective strategies in the local government authority levels would be an effective practise to encourage proper waste management practises in Sri Lanka.
    Keywords: waste management; waste segregation at source; waste generation; households; recycling; municipal solid waste; logistic regression; multiple regression; educated community; Sri Lankan; Sri Lanka.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055247
  • In-sight into microbial structure and function of an Eastern Obolo estuarine water using metagenomics   Order a copy of this article
    by Uwem Edet, Ini Bassey, Iniobong Ebenge Andy, Rose U. B. Ebana, Udotong Ime Rufus 
    Abstract: Estuary microbes play several crucial roles that are not fully understood. We utilised metagenomics, a culture-independent technique to evaluate microbial composition and functions in an estuary. Sampling and physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard techniques. Extracted metagenomic DNA was sequenced using next-generation sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform. In addition to taxonomic analysis, functional genes assessment was carried out using several pipelines for a robust analysis. The result of the physicochemical analysis showed anthropogenic influence on the estuarine water. Structural composition revealed two kingdoms (bacteria and archaea), and the dominant phyla to be firmicutes and proteobacteria. All three pipelines combined showed genes associated with energy metabolisms, post-translational modifications, and environmental information processing. Interestingly, these functions were linked to either proteobacteria (alpha and gamma proteobacteria) or firmicutes. The wide array of energy metabolisms and environmental information processing pathways confirm microbial versatility in an estuary. Evaluation of microbial structure and function as done in this study can infer the status of an ecosystem.
    Keywords: metagenomics; bioinformatics; Niger-Delta; estuary; microbial function.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055256
  • Dual step synthesis of chromium removal from tannery industry wastewater with photocatalytic effects of TiO2   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Vinicio Masabanda, Vicente Delgado, E. Rajasekhar, Naga Raju Maddela 
    Abstract: In this paper, results presented were about photocatalytic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the removal of chromium (Cr) from tannery industry wastewater collected in tungurahua province in Ecuador. The primary source of the oxidation process (OP) is the method of photocatalysis. In this investigation, a prototype cylindrical collector (PCC) was designed to treat the wastewater. According to the results, a linear relationship was obtained between the dual step synthesis (DSS) of chromium removal from tannery industry wastewater with photocatalysis and solar energy. Photocatalysis effects showed highest removal of chromium at different concentrations and short periods of reaction time. The low-cost photocatalysts acted as functional capacity for the treatment of wastewater. The method of dual step synthesis of chromium removal from tannery wastewater with photocatalytic effects of TiO2 could be a sustainable and green synthesis approach. Dual step synthesis (DSS) method coupled with photocatalysis is effective in the production and generation of green energy. The degradation of organic pollutants in wastewater treatment is extensively engaged with titanium dioxide. The activation of the catalyst is necessary for solar radiation.
    Keywords: chromium; photocatalysis; solar radiation; titanium dioxide; wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055732
  • Effective organic fertiliser through a novel approach of biocatalyst activated from biochar   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadun S. Gunasekara, Renuka T.K. Ariyawansha, B.F.A. Basnayake 
    Abstract: Instead of simply mixing biochar into compost, it was decided to activate the biochar. Aqueous biocatalysts were produced in the aerobic reactor (AR) and anaerobic reactor (ANR), containing water, shredded market waste, and rock phosphate (RP) by adding biochar intermittently to reach neutral pH. AR surpassed pH 7 to reach 9.07 but the ANR could only attain 5.92 on 44th day. In AR, available P content increased from 55.24 mg/L to 2,196 mg/L and ANR from 113.86 mg/L to 2,183 mg/L. Aerobic and anaerobic biocatalysts were mixed separately into two piles of shredded garden wastes of 1 kg each with the third as the control. Total P contents of aerobic, anaerobic, and control compost were 2.45 mg/g, 1.93 mg/g, and 0.78 mg/g. respectively. Slightly less total N in biocatalysts but converted to organic acids while increased available K compared to control. Aerobic biocatalyst is the best because enzyme kinetics reveal competitive inhibition existed in ANR in forming the catalyst and noncompetitive inhibition manifested when aerobic catalyst was added to garden wastes.
    Keywords: aerobic; anaerobic; biochar; biocatalyst; composting; market waste; organic fertiliser; solubility of rock phosphate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055734
  • Investigation of the effect of water treatment plant effluent on river quality: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahram Moradi, Narges Raeisi, Darshan Mehta, Saeid Eslamian 
    Abstract: The influx of human sewage and effluent from most industries causes numerous pollutions in rivers, and the consequences of these pollutions may endanger human health and river ecosystems. In order to determine the effect of effluent on Karoun water quality, five sampling stations were considered. The first, third, and fifth stations were determined on the river, i.e., from Sheyban (upstream) to the Daghagheleh (downstream) treatment plant, on the other hand, the second and fourth stations were specified at the entrance of the treatment plant effluent to the river. Sampling was done monthly in four seasons from January 2020 to December 2020. Based on the values measured at the stations, the seasonal and annual quality index was calculated for each station, and then the different stations were classified based on the water quality index (WQI) system. According to the results, the annual quality index in different stations ranged from 524.79 to 648.93 (fourth group). On the other hand, comparing the results between the stations located on the river also shows that the water quality from the first to the fifth station is almost declining.
    Keywords: water treatment plants effluent; quality index; Karoun River; urban uses.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056374
  • Reverse logistics systems for post-consumer packaging in Brazil: obstacles and current panorama   Order a copy of this article
    by Ana Ghislane Henriques Pereira Van Elk, Leticia Figueiredo Da Silva, Marcelo Obraczka 
    Abstract: This article describes the current panorama of reverse logistics applied to post-consumption packaging at the federal level in Brazil, the current reverse logistics systems and the main obstacles and gaps that hinder their implementation are discussed. The study was limited to paper packaging (including boxboard and cardboard), glass, plastic, and metal. The span of the research was from 2010 (when the Brazilian Federal Law that established the National Solid Waste Policy was introduced) up to 2020. The results showed that paper is the material with the highest amount marketed by waste pickers organisations (52%), followed by plastic (22%), glass (17%), other metals (8%), and aluminum (1%). However, when considering the sales of materials, plastic has a greater representation than paper and other metals. Since the responsibility is shared, the RLSs works in a confusing manner, and there are conflicting interests, especially in the case of post-consumer packaging.
    Keywords: solid waste; waste management; post consumption packaging; reverse logistics; shared responsibility.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056768
  • Treatment of textile industry effluents by Fenton processes using galvanising industry residues   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Rollin Hilsendeger, Dayane Gonzaga Domingos, Beatriz Lima Santos Klienchen Dalari, Amanda Dalalibera, Maria Eliza Nagel-Hassemer 
    Abstract: Effluents from the textile industry pose a significant environmental threat due to their high concentration of toxic synthetic dyes and recalcitrant compounds. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are a promising treatment option, but their high cost limits their practical application. This study used a liquid residue from the pickling stage of the galvanising industry as the acid and iron source to trigger Fentons reactions for textile wastewater treatment. A Box-Behnken design with two independent variables (2 to 4 mL L1 pickling liquid residue and 70 to 210 mg L-1 hydrogen peroxide) was used to conduct the experiments. The treatment resulted in 97% color and 96% turbidity removal, as well as 60% toxicity reduction verified by the germination rate of Lactuca sativa seeds. The treatment also reduced Cr by 54%, Zn by 7%, and eliminated Fe from the final effluent. This method offers a cost-effective and efficient approach for treating textile wastewater.
    Keywords: Fenton process; galvanising residue; textile wastewater; toxicity; advanced oxidation processes; AOPs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056942
  • Comparison of the performance of intra and interspecific earthworm species in vermicomposting coral vine (Antigonon leptopus)   Order a copy of this article
    by S. G. Antony Godson, S. Gajalakshmi 
    Abstract: Three epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus were utilised to understand the intra and interspecific competition for food and space by comparing the process efficiency of vermicomposting coral vine. Coral vine was subjected to vermicomposting directly without any supplementation of animal manure or any pre-processing. Over a period of 150-day pulse-fed operation, all the reactors fed with coral vine were sustainably vermicomposted with the increase in earthworm zoomass, and offspring generated. The most efficient production of vermicompost was achieved by E. eugeniae followed by other two species. There was no significant difference, statistically, in the reactor performance when two or three of the species were used together. Overall, it is affirmed that the interspecific population of earthworms has no perceptible advantage over intraspecific population in the vermicomposting of coral vine.
    Keywords: intra and interspecific population; coral vine; Eudrilus eugeniae; Eisenia fetida.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056984
  • Willingness to pay for waste management in Khulna City of Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Ziaul Haider, Nusrat Jahan, Sk. Faijan Bin Halim 
    Abstract: This study attempts to reveal/unveil the waste management problem, thereby estimates households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved waste management services. A total of 200 sample households’ are randomly selected from Khulna City, Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire has been used to seek households’ WTP and willingness to accept (WTA) behaviour, accordingly, analyse its determinants using different econometric models. The most significant factors influence WTP include age, sex, education, profession, location, awareness of river pollution, and household earning member; whereas, sex, availability of vendors, selling of plastic bottle, and reuse option have significantly influenced households’ WTA behaviour. Estimation infers that Eastside households are willing to pay US$ 0.49 more for improved waste management than the Westside households. This study recommends that dustbin provision, initiate waste collection service, and fair price of the plastic bottle might help to solve the ongoing problem of waste management in the study area.
    Keywords: household; waste; disposal behaviour; Rupsha River; willingness to pay; WTP; willingness to accept; WTA; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10057094
  • Seasonal variation in composition and characteristics of solid waste and its potential environmental hazard: a study in Silchar, Assam, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Mausam Kumar Paul, Mithra Dey 
    Abstract: The waste management practices in India are in very poor condition. Several studies on the waste management scenario of the country depict the improper and unsatisfactory waste management practices in cities and towns. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to observe seasonal variation in physicochemical characteristics of solid waste along with the possible environmental hazard from the open dump yard. The paper presents that organic fraction is the major burden of the dump yard in all seasons. The PI was recorded in the range of 0.28-0.81. Igeo value of Pb (9.28 ± 1.59), Cu (10.36 ± 0.12), Mn (17.31 ± 0.33), and Ni (10.60 ± 0.42) was recorded a high potentiality of accumulation in the surrounding environment. However, the Igeo value of As (-2.66 ± 0.24) and Cd (-1.82 ± 0.63) was evaluated negatively.
    Keywords: open dumping; organic waste; pollution indices; contamination; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10057424
  • Awareness, disposal behaviours, willingness, and inflow of electronic waste in Faisalabad, Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Arslan Aslam, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sheharyaar Farid, Safeerul Islam Hashmi 
    Abstract: This study examines electronic waste awareness, disposal behaviours, and willingness to manage e-waste in Pakistan. Surveys, field visits, and questionnaires were used to collect data from consumers and businesses from February 2022 to April 2022. Findings show that 75.2% of participants were unaware of electronic waste, with 82% lacking knowledge of its hazardous effects. Around 45% sold their waste to informal recycling sectors. However, 91% expressed willingness to engage in e-waste management schemes. The research emphasizes the urgent need for an awareness campaign in Pakistan to educate the public about the risks associated with e-waste. Implementing legislation to prevent e-waste inflow is crucial. To tackle these challenges, the government should establish and enforce policies for proper disposal and recycling, support the growth of formal recycling industries, conduct public awareness campaigns for sustainable e-waste management.
    Keywords: waste electric and electronic equipment; WEEE; e-waste; awareness; behaviours; inflow; recycling; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10057512
  • Benchmarking of integrated sustainable waste management in medium-sized Brazilian cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Valdir Eduardo Olivo, Eduardo Pavan Korf, Pedro Domingos Marques Prietto 
    Abstract: Integrated and sustainable solid waste management (ISWM) is a key factor in ensuring environmental protection and the quality of services provided by municipalities. This study aimed to establish a set of benchmark indicators for evaluating the ISWM in medium-sized Brazilian cities, through the analysis of five municipalities that stood out in management practices. The research method was based on the use of twenty-three indicators, which contemplate the sociocultural, environmental, and economic dimensions of waste management. The selected cities showed a higher level of engagement in both social and environmental areas. Some improvement opportunities have been identified since only two cities present economic sustainability and none has an information system for local waste management. Practices focusing on reducing waste and, also on governance were highlighted and used as a reference for replication in other municipalities and to establish the exchange of experiences among different cities.
    Keywords: sustainability; indicators; best practices; governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10058246
  • Moderating role of environmental awareness on the relationship between greening practices and environmental performance of Nigerian public university   Order a copy of this article
    by Olaoluwa Paul Aasa, Olalekan Aquila Jesuleye, Adeyemi Oluwaseun Adepoju 
    Abstract: The functional areas of the university system - training, research, campus operations, and community service - make them centres of excellence for environmental management decisions. This study analysed the moderating role of environmental awareness on the relationship between greening practices and environmental performance in Nigerian public universities. The study used Participatory Action Research, with a sample of 386 respondents comprising staff, students, and commercial service providers selected through a purposive technique. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire, and the environmental awareness index, relative effectiveness index, relative performance index, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were used to achieve the study’s objectives. The results indicated that greening practices contribute positively, and significantly to environmental performance, and awareness improves the influence of greening practices on environmental performance. The study suggests that universities should have an appropriate mechanism for improving knowledge and skills for environmental management.
    Keywords: environmental awareness; environmental performance; environmental management; greening practices; hierarchical multiple regression; HMR; public university.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10058320
  • Facemask usage and disposal challenges: a survey on safe and user friendly mask for regular practices   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijayaraghavan Gopal, Sivamani Sivalingam, Keerthana Sureshkumar, Vinod Kumar Gangadharan 
    Abstract: The present study focus on extensive use of facemask (FM) and survey on eco-friendly material. The various types of masks including cloth mask, surgical masks, and respirators (class N, P, R) with their leakage, filtration, and penetration characteristics were analysed. This study helps the users to identify the specific applications of different types of mask and their safe disposal. Hence, a survey was conducted as masks preferred, how frequently they were changed, and the challenges faced while wearing the mask-like difficulty in breathing, fogging of lens, etc. The survey was conducted through a quantitative method with a set of questionnaires. It is observed that the majority (40.5%) of the population considers the N95 mask to be relatively safe and effective. The improper disposal of FM causes of diseases, forbids free aeration, clogs the waterways, severe sewage problems. Therefore, a proper disposal method needs to be followed to reduce environmental pollution.
    Keywords: N95 facemasks; COVID-19 pandemic; waste disposal; surveys.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10058992
  • Hotspots of illegal dumping of solid waste along the Mthatha River   Order a copy of this article
    by Lazola Bangani, Hlekani M. Kabiti, Oseni Amoo, Motebang D.V. Nakin, Zendy Magayiyana, Simbarashe Ndhleve 
    Abstract: Solid waste illegal dumping is becoming a major problem as there are numerous illegal dumpsites observable along the Mthatha waterbodies. This paper aimed at mapping the hotspots of illegal dumpsites along the middle-course of Mthatha River, to suggest proper waste management strategies that can be applied. To achieve this, several field surveys along the river were conducted to identify and classify the illegal dumpsites. GPS coordinates were recorded to identify the locations of the dumpsites, which were later coded to QGIS for visual presentation. This study revealed seven hotspots of illegal dumping along the middle-course of the Mthatha River. Varied domestic waste compositions which included organic, and inorganic waste were identified as major pollutants from the informal and formal settlements. The study recommends the establishment of monitoring systems around hotspots, watercourse protection measures, frequent waste collection, environmental mass education, and law enforcement as an immediate remedy to curb the problem.
    Keywords: illegal dumping; Mthatha River; solid waste; management strategies; water pollution; waste dumping; waste mapping; waste management; waste hotspots.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059110
  • Implementation of smart dustbin - a CNN-based intelligent waste management   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Yuvashri, S.K. Varsha, M. Vijayalakshmi 
    Abstract: Waste generation across the globe is adversely increasing and the classification of waste has become tedious affecting the process of recycling and increasing the environmental risks so we devised a simple way to classify waste as biodegradable and non-biodegradable economically using an Arduino-embedded smart dustbin. Our automatic waste sensing smart dustbin is introduced as a revolutionary marvel of technology! Meticulously designed to revolutionise waste management, this innovative smart dustbin incorporates cutting-edge programming. With this advanced technology, our dustbin ensures that its lid is exclusively opened by biodegradable waste, delivering a seamless and eco-friendly dumping experience for our users. The classification is done using our CNN-based residual network model and the accuracy of our metrics turned out to be 95.6% for a random sample batch of 32 images.
    Keywords: waste management; smart dustbin; garbage classification; machine learning; object recognition; image processing; CNN model; computer vision; internet of things; IoT; ResNet model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059451
  • Water loss in agriculture and loss of social welfare: evidence from pistachio production in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Alireza Alipour, Ali Yousefi 
    Abstract: This study aims to use a partial equilibrium model simulation for welfare analysis in the Iranian pistachio market. For this purpose, the pistachio supply and demand sides and their welfare surplus were evaluated. Based on the results, the unadjusted social welfare in the pistachio market is estimated at around 6,143,539 US dollars. Considering the economic value of water loss, it was found that $884,670, equivalent to about 14.4% of social welfare, is caused as an adverse side effect of pistachio production in Iran. The interpretation of the last figure is that every 10% reduction in water loss in pistachio production in Iran leads to an increase of about 3% in social welfare. Government investments to modernise the components of Iran’s agricultural irrigation system as a strategy with long-term effects and provide low-cost facilities to farmers for better water management are discussed as the most operational recommendations.
    Keywords: agricultural water loss; social welfare; partial equilibrium model; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059938
  • Indiscriminate disposal of waste challenges and implication for urban flooding and property values in emerging cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Peres Ofori 
    Abstract: The study examined the indiscriminate disposal of waste in Ghana relative to the flooding and devaluation of properties in urban Kumasi and Tamale. Adopting the waste management theory coupled with survey design, the study investigated the types of waste produced in these cities. Using SPSS, the regression was utilised to analyse the relationship between proximity to flooding and flood prone areas and residential rental values. In both Kumasi and Tamale no tenant was willing to pay higher rent for a house located at a flooding or flood prone area irrespective of the architectural designs. An R of 0.54 and a P value 0.0000 at 0.5 significant levels indicating a fairly strong relationship between the two variables tested. The study found it dangerous for an emerging city like Ghana to have higher percentage (82%) of households practicing open dumping as the favourite method of waste disposal and treatment.
    Keywords: approach; disaster; flooding; rent; reuse; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059993
  • Researching factors affecting consumers’ behaviour to reduce plastic bag use in Danang: applying expanded theory of planned behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Tinh Luong, Minh Duc Tran, Huu Nguyen Xuan Nguyen, Hoang Hien Nguyen, Hoang Manh Trung Vu 
    Abstract: This research applies the expanded theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to explain consumer behaviour to reduce the use of plastic bags in Danang. The statistics were collected between the 20th of June and July 15th, 2021. The analysis result shows that perceived risks of the environment and health, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norms (SBJ), moral norms (MON), intention, consumption habits, and perception of convenience all influence consumers’ behaviour to reduce the use of plastic bags. Two new observations of perceived benefits and convenience (PBEC) factors, including ‘I find that the quality of plastic bags is increasingly getting better’ and ‘I find plastic bags to be cheaper than other bags’, and an observation of consumption habits (CPH) factor ‘the plastic bags are always available in shops in markets or supermarkets that are very convenient for consumers’, are also statistically significant. Based on these discoveries, this paper suggests some implications for regulators and consumers.
    Keywords: theory of planned behaviour; TPB; behaviour; plastic bag; consumer; Danang; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060204
  • Biostimulation of oily sludge - contaminated soil using organic and inorganic additives   Order a copy of this article
    by Amina Benchouk, Kahina Ighilahriz, Meryem Khellouf, Mohamed Khodja 
    Abstract: In this work, five microcosms containing polluted soil and the organics and inorganics stimulants were set up and undergone during five months. The sample was originated from an oil refinery located in the south of Algeria with 77. 15 ± 0.1 g/kg of TPHs. We have evaluated the performance of the biostimulation by: residual TPHs, composition of hydrocarbon residues by GC, microbial growth and eco-toxicity using Hordeum vulgare. Three bacterial were isolated from contaminated soil and characterised by MALDI-TOF. At the end of the experimental, we obtained a reduction of TPHs to 30.66 ± 1.15 g/kg. The results from GC showed the disappearance of major hydrocarbons pics within the treated microcosm. In the uncontaminated medium, the germination rate was higher than in the contaminated soil. A remarkable increase in the rate was observed in the seeds put in the treated medium to reach a percentage higher than 80%.
    Keywords: oily sludge; biostimulation; camel dung; solanum tuberosum peels; eggshells; bentonite.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060205
  • Sentiment analysis and word cloud analysis on e-waste news headlines using Python   Order a copy of this article
    by Shalini Wadhwa, Ananya Shukla 
    Abstract: E-waste or electronic waste is described as the waste electronic goods such as computers, smartphones, TVs, etc. Due to rapid technological advancement, e-waste or electronic waste has been increasing on a much faster rate. Electrical and electronic waste in India is increasing at an alarming rate of almost 3 million tons annually, out of which only 17.4% was recycled sustainably. India ranked third in producing e-waste globally after China and the USA. The ever-growing market of electronic equipment has also generated an ever-growing problem of e-waste. E-waste has become one of the issues for both the environment and human health. Therefore, it has become important to analyse the effect of e-waste on living beings especially in India. This report analyses the sentiment analysis and word cloud analysis on the e-waste news headlines generated by Indian news media.
    Keywords: e-waste; sentiment analysis; wordcloud; opinion analysis; electronic waste; environment; sustainability; business; consumer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060266
  • Review study of e-waste management and resource recovery system for controlling environmental pollution   Order a copy of this article
    by Santosh Walke, Manoj Mandake, Makarand Naniwadekar 
    Abstract: This study investigates the escalating challenges of electronic waste (e-waste) disposal, highlighting its environmental and public health implications. It underscores the need for sustainable e-waste management by exploring diverse resource recovery methods and analysing environmental risk assessment and pollution control strategies. Methodologically, the research reviews a decade of literature, revealing e-waste generation trends, regulations, and laws. Emphasising issues with the informal recycling sector and limited environmental awareness among stakeholders, it offers a comprehensive overview of e-waste treatment technologies, advocating for resource-efficient practices. The article highlights challenges in organised e-waste management, considering unorganised recycling and environmental unawareness. An essential discovery underscores the immediate need for a strong recycling framework that adheres to ethics and laws. This framework would tackle the environmental and health risks associated with unregulated e-waste disposal. The study stresses the importance of accessible policies and collaborative efforts to combat e-waste proliferation, contributing to the discourse on sustainable resource management.
    Keywords: environmental pollution; e-waste management; recycling; waste treatment; resource recovery; risk assessment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060267
  • Examining environmental health risks of indiscriminate solid waste disposal in Kosovo informal settlement, Cape Town   Order a copy of this article
    by Yamkela Jakeni, Thabang Maphanga, Benett Siyabonga Madonsela, Karabo Concelia Malakane 
    Abstract: The indiscriminate disposal of solid waste is detrimental to the environment and health. Given that, whilst the environmental health risks of indiscriminate solid waste disposal are well documented; the contributing factors are mostly overlooked especially within the informal settlement found in metropolitan cities. The study sought to examine factors associated with indiscriminate solid waste disposal that pose environmental health risks in Kosovo’s informal settlement, Cape Town. The current study used qualitative and quantitative research tools in the form of questionnaires and interviews. Collected data were analysed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0 software. The study discovered that 93.85% of households have no access to disposal bins. The results show that 75.4% claim that the alternative municipal waste container is insufficient as it gets locked on weekends. This is an indication that there is not enough information provided by the municipality responsible for Kosovo’s informal settlement about solid waste management.
    Keywords: indiscriminate disposal; informal settlement; illegal dumping; waste management; waste collection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060300
  • Utilising selvedge waste of polyester fabric: weaver’s approach for sustainable fabric development and analysis of basic properties   Order a copy of this article
    by Ambar Shah, Hafsa Jamshaid, Muhammad Shahbaz 
    Abstract: A lot of textile material is wasted at the weaving mill due to the cutting of the selvedge. The aim of present research is to use the leno selvedge without doing any extra process. The selvedge waste of polyester fabric was collected from the weaving mill. This waste was then dyed. Afterwards, samples of plain, 3/2 twill, and 5 end satin weaves were developed. It was revealed that the fabrics made from coarser yarn had greater areal density, greater thickness, greater strength, smaller water absorbency, smaller softness, smoothness, better drape, and greater resilience. Increasing interlacement, in weave, results in an increase in areal density, thickness, tensile strength, drape, and resilience. But it leads to lowering softness, smoothness, and absorbency. The fabric produced from the waste has applications in many kinds of home furnishing like rugs, matts, table runners, bottle covers, laptop covers, etc. The present work is an example of upcycling which leads to conserving the environment.
    Keywords: upcycling; selvedge waste; polyester fibre; home furnishings; recycling; polyester waste; leno selvedge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060481
  • An assessment of literature on construction and demolition waste management barriers in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons and implications for sustainability in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngonidzashe Mangoro, Nzalalemba Serge Kubanza, Mulala Danny Simatele 
    Abstract: This paper discusses the challenges associated with the management of construction and demolition waste and its implications on environmental wellbeing and sustainability. Using existing and anecdotal literature, evidence suggests an increase in the demand for infrastructure for domestic and commercial purposes, and this in turn is exerting massive pressure on the construction industry to absorb and meet increased levels demand. This development has however, been accompanied by the generation of excessive quantities of waste, making it extremely difficult for urban managers in Sub-Saharan African cities to effectively and comprehensively manage construction and demolition waste. A major challenge being that this type of waste exists in forms that require extensive injection of resources for systematic separation far beyond the budgetary positions of many of these cities. In view of this, this paper is an attempt to systematically review and synthesise existing knowledge with a view of creating an inventory of the challenges associated to construction and demolition waste management and suggest possible solutions and approach for transforming this waste into a resource.
    Keywords: construction and demolition waste; urban managers; sustainability; barriers; environment; circularity; challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060718
  • Investigation the monthly effect of the pumping schedule on the groundwater resources in Al-Najaf City, Iraq   Order a copy of this article
    by Hayder H. Kareem 
    Abstract: Groundwater serves as a crucial resource, especially in regions like the Middle East, where water scarcity prevails, particularly in arid areas. Uncertainty in groundwater systems arises due to aquifer parameters, climate change effects on recharge, and pumping rates. This study, utilising the MODFLOW computer model, examines the 2014 groundwater status near Al-Najaf City in Iraq, focusing on recharge, pumping rates, and Euphrates River levels monthly. The model integrates geological data, digital elevation models, and field measurements. Calibration reveals good agreement with field data, while sensitivity analysis highlights the significance of recharge and hydraulic conductivity. Validation displays a west-to-east flow pattern. Results indicate excessive pumping creates dry zones in the city, impacting both top and bottom layers. The Euphrates River consistently loses water due to pumping. This research offers valuable insights for sustainable management of the Euphrates River-groundwater system in Al-Najaf City, crucial for effective planning and resource management.
    Keywords: Al-Najaf City; conceptual modelling; Euphrates River-groundwater system connection; MODFLOW; Iraq.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060855
  • Identifying and analysing critical factors in construction resource waste management - Indian perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by H.A. Nishaant, J. Sudhakumar 
    Abstract: Construction resources and waste management are inevitable in any construction project worldwide to achieve a better outcome. Though considerable research exists to explain the importance of construction wastes and management techniques, this study comprises a detailed questionnaire survey to analyse and identify the critical factors of causes and sources of figure (CW), major wastes in construction, and the remedial measures to execute a wastes free construction project. Four hundred thirteen valid responses were collected from civil engineering experts from different parts of India. Findings were analysed based on importance indices ranking and factor extraction analysis. SPSS software was used for the data analysis. Experts’ recommendations were addressed, which can be used to control CW in projects. Its novel research and the research’s insights will help construction professionals understand the construction waste problems in India and direct their efforts toward proper construction waste management and resource utilisation.
    Keywords: construction resources; waste management; construction wastes; statistical package for social sciences; SPSS; resource utilisation; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061418
  • A critical review on manufacturing of bricks by replacing natural soil with landfill waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Chetan S. Dhanjode, Swati Ambadkar, Leeladhar Pammar 
    Abstract: Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation of Indian cities have envisaged the demand for enormous infrastructural growth. More and more population is flowing from rural part to urban area for their livelihood. This has led to the construction of dwellings on a large scale. Bricks, being one of the vital building components, need to be manufactured at a mass level that utilises in-situ clay, energy and water as the resources. The exploitation of such resources at such a pace not only creates an environmental imbalance but also raises a question on sustainability of the growth. This paper discusses the work that is being carried out by various researchers in utilising waste in the manufacturing of bricks and the review concludes with suggestions that how MSW can be used.
    Keywords: landfill; natural soil; municipal solid waste; MSW; decomposed soil; brick.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061419
  • A case study on challenges, opportunities and sustainable development of waste management in India   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Baranidharan, Julie Sunil 
    Abstract: Waste management solutions for a country as large and densely populated as India with several infrastructure bottlenecks required a thorough understanding of the local context, waste generation patterns, and available infrastructure. Waste Ventures India invested in research and development to develop innovative waste management solutions to address challenges faced in India. By collecting and analyzing data on waste generation patterns and available infrastructure, the company was able to design waste management systems that were tailored to Indian system. This case study highlights the importance of using evidence to inform policies and practices in waste management. Companies and governments can use data to design waste management systems that are effective, sustainable, and tailored to the needs of specific communities. This case guides analysis on how to ensure value for the stakeholders; how to identify benefits on a global and local front; and was the business scalable to ensure sustained impact.
    Keywords: waste management; social enterprise; environmental pollution; employment opportunities; sustainability and innovation; integrating policies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061433
  • Impact of final consumption on CO2 emissions in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Huu Nguyen Xuan Nguyen, Nguyen Quynh Anh Tran 
    Abstract: As a country vulnerable to climate change impacts, the rapid increase in CO2 emissions in Vietnam recently poses a risk to achieve sustainable growth targets. In this study, the changes in Vietnam’s greenhouse gas emissions during two periods, 2007-2012 and 2012-2016, were examined through 60 selected paths in each period using the environmental input-output (EIO) model and the structural path decomposition (SPD) method. The results showed that final consumption activities played a more important role in CO2 emissions than emission intensity and input-output structure did. Moreover, the study also revealed that while the direct impact of final consumption demand on economic sectors led to a more significant increase in emissions, the indirect impact, in contrast, showed significant potential for reducing emissions as the supply chain expands amidst the country’s industrialisation and modernisation. Based on the study results, some key policy implications have been proposed.
    Keywords: structural path decomposition; SPD; CO2 emissions; Vietnam; environmental input-output model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061435
  • Analysis of the performance of urban solid waste management system in Brazilian municipalities through data envelopment analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Isabel Das Mercês Costa, Marta Ferreira Dias, Margarita Matias Robaina 
    Abstract: Despite the regulation of the waste sector in Brazil having taken place more than ten years ago through the National Waste Policy, data related to the performance of municipalities at the national level are unknown. In this sense, this study aims to analyse the efficiency of urban solid waste management in 940 Brazilian municipalities and as specific objectives: to measure the efficiency scores of USWM the municipalities; analyse the performance of USWM considering the population factor, the efficiency factor, the type of management, the region and the federative unit of the municipality and present/compare the profile of the efficient and inefficient municipalities considering the socioeconomic and environmental variables and aspects related to the achievement of efficiency. The technique used was data envelopment analysis, involving three inputs: number of employees, number of vehicles and expense and two outputs: volume collected and population served. The results revealed efficiency in only 4.36% of the municipalities and an average performance equivalent to 0.32. The highest percentages of efficiency were identified in municipalities whose waste is managed by the mixed economy society, in those located in the North and Northeast regions and in those with populations above 500,000 inhabitants.
    Keywords: urban solid waste management; efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; Brazil; municipalities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061437
  • Examining consumers’ response to plastic bag free shopping in an emerging market: a stimulus-organism-behaviour perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Asphat Muposhi 
    Abstract: This study examines South African grocery shoppers’ response to the practice of plastic bag free shopping using the stimulus-organism-behaviour model. A structured questionnaire was used to collect cross sectional data from 529 grocery shoppers. Structural equation modelling was used to conduct path analysis. Media influence and green advertising were found to be less effective in providing the stimuli necessary to encourage shoppers to embrace the concept of plastic bag free shopping. The results also showed that the promising strategy to promote plastic bag free shopping is through social norms when they are internalised as personal norms or assimilated in the form of green self-identity. The findings of this study underscore the importance of developing credible and informative green advertising messages to de-activate entrenched habits of using single-use plastic shopping bags. This study accentuates the importance of promoting normative self-regulated behaviour as a sustainable strategy for managing plastic shopping bag litter.
    Keywords: plastic bag free shopping; stimulus-organism-response model; plastic bag free retail outlets; South Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061674
  • Awareness and perceptions of sustainability and circular strategies among SME fashion producers in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Akosua Mawuse Amankwah, Edward Appiah, Benjamin Kwablah Asinyo, Charles Frimpong 
    Abstract: The circular economy practice requires that businesses transform their current models. Awareness of the tenets of sustainability in the wake of the advocacy for circular strategies (CS) cannot be overemphasised. For Ghanaian fashion SMEs to imbibe sustainability in their practice requires knowledge of the concept. This research sought to inquire about the level of awareness and perceptions that could sustainably trigger the adoption and practice of CS. An in-depth qualitative case study was adopted to engage 9 owner-designers of SMEs in the two major cites of Ghana through interviews and observations. A purposive sampling strategy was adopted employing snowball technique. Data was cleaned, coded and analysed using thematic analysis in iterative manner. The major challenge was that, most of the ownerdesigners of fashion SMEs in Ghana have relatively low knowledge of sustainability and CS. The general lack of awareness makes it necessary to institute awareness-creation mechanisms to propagate the need for the industry to contribute towards achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 12: responsible consumption and production. The direct customer engagement of SMEs could potentially promote understanding of sustainability issues among practitioners and consumers, while adopting circular strategies that are mutually profitable.
    Keywords: sustainability; circular strategies; CS; awareness; perceptions; SME.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061762
  • Critical review of groundwater quality analysis techniques using multivariate statistical and soft computing approaches   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashay Devidas Shende, Mrunmayee Manjari Sahoo 
    Abstract: The continuous monitoring and assessment of water quality is an important aspect of the management of groundwater resources, substantially affected by the exponentially increasing demand for water to meet irrigation and industrial requirements. Various researchers have studied the variation in groundwater quality and applied different techniques to quantify, evaluate, predict and model the flux in groundwater quality parameters. The multivariate statistical analysis techniques including cluster analysis, factorial method and principal component analysis considerably used for the identification of spatio-temporal variation in groundwater characteristics. Several groundwater quality indices (GWQI) have been used to quantify the level of pollution and give an in-depth to improve the quality. In addition to the above approaches, various machine learning techniques have been developed increasingly due to their accuracy. The applications of traditional and present methods such as multivariate statistical models, groundwater quality indices and machine learning techniques through programming languages, probability and uncertainty analysis are analysed in this proposed study.
    Keywords: groundwater quality; multivariate statistical techniques; water quality index; ANN; ANFIS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061967
  • Prospects of pernicious water hyacinth as eco-friendly and cost-effective usage in rural economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Abdul Halim, Afsana Akter, Roksana Bannya 
    Abstract: This paper aims to introduce people to cost-effective and easy uses or to use the method of water hyacinth, which has been known as a notorious and detrimental weed species for a long time. People do not have the consent that this noxious weed can be used in many ways, and it can help socio-economic development in an area that is mainly affected by this species all year round or places near water bodies like beels, canals, rivers, etc. This study provides cost-effective and environment-friendly ways like using water hyacinth as biogas, biofertiliser, poultry, fish and animal feed, handicrafts, wastewater treatments, mulching material, floating seedbeds, etc. It will help people living nearby the water hyacinth-affected area to control this waste plant and create income-generating opportunities by providing economic solvency to rural poor people.
    Keywords: water hyacinth; potential applications of hyacinth; sustainable uses of water hyacinth; wastewater treatment; biogas; hyacinth management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10061972
  • Residents’ perceptions of the environmental risks of Al Qusais landfill, the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Hana Alrahmani, Nicole R. Sierer, Abdullah A. Alkaabi, Mohammed A. Al Taher, Paria I. Karimi, Chike Chiedo, Sahar T. Issa, Aseel A. Takshe 
    Abstract: Living near landfills has been often associated with environmental risks. The aim of this study is to explore the residents’ perceptions of the environmental risks associated with the Al Qusais Landfill in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates (UAE). 24 residents living close (0 m to 1 Km), fairly close (1 to 2 Km), and far (more than 2 Km) from the landfill were interviewed and asked about their perceptions of the environmental risks associated with the landfill. The findings showed that the most common environmental risk perceived by the participants is the unpleasant odour. Other issues included dust, social quality, visual pollution, noise, and traffic. Future studies could take into consideration larger home-landfill distances and quantitatively assess the environmental and health risks of landfills.
    Keywords: landfill; environmental risks; public perception; waste disposal; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10062284
  • Comparison of high-performance TiO2 coated al electrode (TiO2/Al) and conventional electrodes in removal of dyes using electrocoagulation reactor   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Vinodha, P. Jegathambal, R. Vidhya, A. Sivakami 
    Abstract: The process of electro-coagulation is quite complex in nature and an understanding about the process and the effect of primary operating parameters is a prerequisite for larger scale and field application. This work aims at studying the performance of electro coagulation reactor in a batch scale system for the treatment of textile dyeing waste water using iron and aluminium electrodes. The influence of the essential operating parameters like the initial dye concentration, applied current, pH, reaction time and the electrolyte concentration in removal of dye were premeditated. Also, the impact of these parameters on the economic parameters such as electrode and energy consumption which are directly proportional to the operation cost was also analysed. TiO2 /Al electrode showed maximum colour removal efficiency of nearly 100% with 60 mA of current whereas, Fe and Al electrodes showed maximum efficiency of 98% and 75% at 120 mA respectively.
    Keywords: electro coagulation; dye effluent; decolourisation; new TiO2 /Al electrode; sludge characterisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10062286
  • Polyphenols and other phytochemicals from medicinal plants as eco-benign sources of therapeutics   Order a copy of this article
    by Adamu Mamman, Preeti Jain 
    Abstract: In view of reducing the burden of chemicals on the environment, various green chemistry approaches are being used nowadays for synthesising new molecules for applications in the biomedical field. Plant-derived phytochemicals are widely used as commodities in both traditional and modern industrial impact due to their vast range of pharmacological properties. Natural remedies for anticancer, anti-diabetic, anti-covid, antiradical, and other forms of diseases in clinical settings have attracted a lot of attention in the modern world medicinal plants and their biochemical constituents have become more significant in the fields of health and medicine due to their biocompatibility. It is ascertained that polyphenols and other phytochemicals derived from plants are excellent substitutes for conventional medications used in healthcare settings. By using the suggested natural sources of polyphenols and other chemical substances of botanical origin, a variety of physiological abnormalities can be controlled, treated, and cured, including cancer cell proliferation, cardiovascular diseases.
    Keywords: anticancer; cardiovascular; medicinal plants; polyphenols; phytochemicals; natural remedies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10062287
  • Sugarcane bagasse ash as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete to enhance the compressive strength and reduce the permeability and corrosion   Order a copy of this article
    by Alka Aniruddha Avasthi, Kanchan C. Khare, Sayali D. Apte 
    Abstract: In the present study, binary mixes of different proportions ranging from 5% to 30% replacement of cement by sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) which is an agricultural byproduct is investigated for compressive strength, economy, weight and permeability of the mix. It is observed that 15% replacement of SCBA is optimum considering the compressive strength, permeability, weight and economics of the mix. It further reduces the use of cement which is one of the major sources of pollution in the environment (Andrew, 2018). The test results indicate that using sugarcane bagasse ash, the permeability of the mix has reduced to ‘very low’ as compared to the normal concrete mix M15, reducing the moisture ingress in concrete and corrosion. It further helps in reduction of CO2 emission, and the cause of corrosion also solving the problem of disposal of the agricultural waste generated which has no standard method of disposal (Maraveas, 2020).
    Keywords: sugarcane bagasse ash; SCBA; partial replacement; supplementary; cementitious; scanning electron microscopy; SEM; energy dispersive X-ray analysis; EDS; permeability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10062288
  • An innovative food waste management with enabled IoT and AI technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Aman Tripathi, Kumari Subrata Bhanu, Bekkam Krishna, V. Karthikeyan 
    Abstract: Food scarcity has become an international topic, and the wastage of food has a global impact on ethical and environmental costs. The bulk of the food is usually wasted in restaurants, hospitals, hostel mess, etc., where a massive amount of food is prepared. Such things are happening due to improper management. This paper proposes implementing an innovative food management system in the hostel mess to resolve food wastage. The proposed method works based on image processing, AI techniques with imposed IoT concepts. The work aims to minimise food wastage by monitoring the quantity of food dumped into the bin. Furthermore, based on food wastage, penalties apply to a particular identified individual. In addition, the proposed system assesses the quality and quantity of food based on wastage on a daily/weekly basis and is notified to the concerned authority. Moreover, it helps in monitoring the individual’s attendance effectively. Hence, this method will eventually reduce the food waste that is dumped into the dustbin. Finally, to test the feasibility of the proposed idea, the experimental setup was developed, and measured results were observed and verified under various case studies.
    Keywords: food waste; management; IoT; image processing; AI techniques.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10062289
  • Why Municipal Solid Waste Management through Private Sector Participation are Uniquely Challenging? An Exploratory Study in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Tharun Dolla, Boeing Laishram 
    Abstract: Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have been affected by a myriad of challenges, if not failures. This study examines the necessity of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) infrastructure and the ingress of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) as a preferred mode of its procurement in India. This is done by reviewing the anecdotal evidence from the projects to extract the state of practice and then identify the contestations, gaps, and lessons for future research relating to MSW PPP project delivery. Apart from the challenges reported in the past literature on MSW PPPs, this paper argues four new situations which are prevalent only in the MSW sector: private sector provision is not preceded by public sector provision, each segment of the supply chain will need a unique set of assets and services needing exclusive focus; amongst such focus, technologies are diverse, and their maturities are diverse increasing the chances of failure because of bundling of various segments. The key to this sector's success hangs on the extent to which the sectorial challenges are incorporated into the institutional mechanisms developed for the MSW sector without any a priori assumptions from other sectors of implementation. This paper suggests further research, specifically on the challenges posed by bundling various segments.
    Keywords: public-private partnerships; municipal solid waste management; performance; private sector participation; India;.

  • Utilisation of South African spent foundry sand in paving blocks manufacturing   Order a copy of this article
    by Takalani Madzivhandila 
    Abstract: An increasing amount of waste is produced by industrial activities, human consumption behaviour, and linear process systems. Due to environmental legislation and the high cost of dumping, these materials are now used in other industries and products. The study is focused on utilising waste foundry sand in the manufacturing of bricks. It was found that foundry greensand waste is very suitable for the manufacturing of paving blocks. We attained the class 25 SANS 1058: 2006 standards which were based on a compressive strength rating of 25 MPa which is now recognised as Class 30/2.0. It can be concluded that waste foundry sand can be reused as a partial replacement for virgin sand. This will result in a reduced cost of production. Foundry greensand waste can also be used for the setting of pavers. Partial replacement of river sand with waste foundry sand will be an advantage to brick makers and it will reduce costs.
    Keywords: waste foundry; waste management; waste disposal; leachable concentration threshold limits.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10062490
  • Research on measuring synergistic degrees of governance on urban environmental pollution based on the model of orderly degree in subsystem   Order a copy of this article
    by Tao Sun, Dengyue Xu 
    Abstract: Based on a situation analysis and a literature review, this paper selects 25 measurement indicators from five perspectives, and creates the indicator system and the model of orderly degree in subsystem for measuring synergistic degrees of governance on urban environmental pollution. This paper selects the city of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, as the object of case research, and measures the synergistic degrees of governance on urban environmental pollution in the 11 districts of this city from 2013 to 2021. The measurement results show that the synergistic degrees in all districts had been on a steady rise to about 0.9 by the end of 2021. By contrast, the synergistic degrees in different districts had shown no significant difference in the same year during this period. Furthermore, it can also be concluded that a result of grading a synergistic degree depends not only on a grading standard but also on a valuing method.
    Keywords: the indicator system; expert surveys; synergistic degrees; synergistic governance; urban environmental pollution; the method of entropy weight; the model of orderly degree in subsystem; grade standards.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10063147
  • Public perspectives and strategies in implementing waste separation in developing countries: a case study in Yogyakarta, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Laurentius Kevin Hendinata, Tantri Ardiwinata 
    Abstract: Effective waste management includes waste separation to minimise landfill usage and recover valuable resources. Nonetheless, the success of waste separation initiatives relies heavily on public engagement. This study investigates the challenges and prospects of implementing waste separation programs in a developing country, focusing on public perception. Specifically, the research examines Yogyakarta, Indonesia, and its residents’ perspective toward waste separation. A survey of 775 households conducted using stratified random sampling method was used in this study for three months to collect the data. The questions were multiple choices with Likert scale to quantify it. The data was analysed thoroughly with 95% confidence levels and Pearson correlation heatmap was used to round up the results. From this research, while residents recognise the benefits of waste separation, barriers such as deficient infrastructure and limited education persist. The study emphasises the importance of addressing these challenges to garner public support for sustainable waste management.
    Keywords: waste separation; public perception; waste management; developing country; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10063478
  • Effect of combustion temperature on the performance of sewage sludge ash based cement mortar   Order a copy of this article
    by Piyush Tripathi, Debolina Basu, Priyaranjan Pal 
    Abstract: The paper explores the potential of reusing sewage sludge as a sustainable construction material, despite its higher organic content, as it presents a significant challenge in future management. In this study, the sewage sludge incinerated at different temperatures is partially substituted with cement to prepare the waste-replaced cementitious mortar cubes. The performance of the cubes prepared with suitable replacements of sewage sludge ash was analyzed on the basis of properties. The XRF results showed an increase in the silica content by 71.7% post incineration at high temperatures (up to 800ºC). The results indicated that the optimum sintering temperature for SSA cementitious application was 800ºC. The 10% replacement of cement with SSA obtained after calcinations of sewage at 800ºC produced the best cement mortar properties compared to the other replacements. The results concluded that SSA alone cannot be used as cementitious material. It may be used with some other admixtures.
    Keywords: chemical composition; compressive strength; high temperature; optimal condition; sewage sludge; waste recycling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10063479
  • Comparative analysis of machine learning algorithms efficacy in water resources management   Order a copy of this article
    by Danijela Voza, Goran Babic, Milovan Vukovic, Ivana Mladenović Ranisavljević 
    Abstract: One of the most reliable indicators of surface water quality is dissolved oxygen (DO). This study aims to propose a single model and the optimal number of variables for reliable DO prediction. In this regard, a comparative analysis of the efficiency of representative machine learning models in DO prediction was conducted. The initial parameters for examining the possibility of predicting the DO concentration were pH, temperature (T), electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphates (PO4). Four input combinations of these water quality parameters were created based on the variable importance analysis, and machine learning techniques were applied to each subset. The obtained values indicated that all the predictive models perform best when four water quality variables - T, pH, PO4, and EC are used as input. Also, according to the results, the best-fitted model on the created dataset is support vector machine, and the deep learning model slightly lags behind it.
    Keywords: dissolved oxygen; prediction; machine learning algorithms; water quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10063773
  • Utilising participatory approaches to enhance social acceptance in the design of urban recycling systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Mugerwa, Jianxin Chen, Shaohua Han 
    Abstract: This research investigates how participatory methodologies influence social acceptance in urban recycling system development, focusing on Kampala, Uganda. The central question is whether participatory approaches enhance social acceptance in this context, drawing from participatory design and innovation diffusion theories. A mixed-method system was employed, including literature reviews, case studies, and surveys, to assess the impact of participatory methods in recycling initiatives. It finds that participatory methodologies significantly influence waste management behaviours and introduces the ‘community recycling hubs’ concept as catalysts for community-driven recycling. The study recognises limitations regarding the long-term sustainability and scalability of community recycling hubs, the need for a deeper exploration of cultural factors in acceptance, potential survey bias, and the study’s specific focus on Kampala. Scientifically and managerially, this research advocates integrating participatory design into recycling systems to create socially embraced, environmentally responsible urban environments, offering valuable insights for advancing waste management and sustainability practices.
    Keywords: recycling systems; participatory approaches; social acceptance; sustainable urban development; waste management; community engagement; behavioural change; community recycling hubs; environmental sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10063774
  • Are the local communities safe? Assessing the slag management practices in the ferro-chromium smelting industry and the risk of chromium (VI) in the reuse applications in Zimbabwe   Order a copy of this article
    by Kusena Winmore, Mitchell Faith Muwairi, Melanie D. Nicolau 
    Abstract: Ferro-chromium smelting has contributed to the accumulation of vast amounts of slag in developing countries. The current study examines the slag management measures at Zimbabwe Alloys Chrome (ZAC) and determined possible chromium (VI) leaching into different environments. The research incorporated both the qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The leading solid waste management practice was disposal to landfill, which is the least preferred option on the solid waste management hierarchy. All the sampled water sources around ZAC showed traces of chromium (VI) above acceptable standards. Chromium six levels also exceeded the environmental management act (EMA) regulations of 0.05 mg/l, the EPA standards of 0.01 mg/l, and OSHA limits of 0.01 mg/l under neutral, alkaline, and acidic laboratory environments. The findings imply a lack of sustainable waste management practices at ZAC that expose communities to chromium (VI). The study highlighted an urgent need for ZAC landfill remediation to protect the water bodies and communities exposed to the slag reuse applications.
    Keywords: ferro-chromium; chromium (VI); waste management practices; Zimbabwe alloys chrome; slag; leachability; smelting industries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10063951
  • The potential uses of red mud in building industries: mechanical properties and durability of red mud-based cement mortars in different curing conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahra Jamshidzadeh, Hamid Saghahazrati, Mohammad Amin Ghafouri 
    Abstract: Red mud (RM) is a hazardous waste and its disposal causes environmental challenges for soil, air, and groundwater. This research deals with the impacts of using RM on the compressive strength and durability of cement mortars subjected to a sulphuric acid solution. Nine mortar mixes having RM in the range of 0 to 20% by weight of cement were tested. Unheated RM and heated RM were tested for compressive strength, and water absorption at different curing ages. The weight loss was measured after 28 and 60 days of exposure in a sulphuric acid solution. Results indicated that samples with 5% RM had relatively high strength compared to control samples. The heated RM exhibited better results compared to unheated RM due to the loss of organic impurities, the release of absorbed water, and a part of chemically bound water from heated RM. Results revealed that RM reuse improves cement mortar durability.
    Keywords: red mud; RM; hazardous waste; cement mortar; compressive strength; water absorption; weight loss.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10064162
  • Household disposal methods for various waste streams in the Bluff area, South Durban Basin, South Africa: what does adopting a comprehensive approach reveal?   Order a copy of this article
    by Amanda Gumede, Suveshnee Munien, Urmilla Bob 
    Abstract: Waste management has predominantly included unsustainable methods such as burying, dumping and burning. Therefore, waste generators need to shift waste management practices from generating and disposing to more sustainable practices. The study assesses the disposal methods for various waste streams adopted within households. Specifically, the research aimed to undertake a comprehensive examination of household disposal methods for different waste streams in the Bluff area, South Durban Basin, South Africa. The study was guided by a multi-conceptual theoretical framework and adopted a mixed methodological approach. In total, 400 household quantitative surveys and six key informant interviews were administered. Households predominantly disposed of almost all waste streams generated in dustbins, a significant proportion also repurposed reusable materials, recycled and separated different waste streams. Age, sex, employment status, household decision-making and monthly income were significantly associated with the main household waste disposal methods for various types of waste generated.
    Keywords: waste streams; waste management; waste generation; households; sustainable consideration; comprehensive approach; Bluff; South Durban Basin; SDB; South Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10064697
  • Governance practices of the grassroots initiatives involved in solid waste management: does collaboration with local government matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Goodluck Charles, Mesia Ilomo 
    Abstract: Despite the increasing support for more participation of grassroots initiatives in the formal solid waste management (SWM) system, little is known about their governance approach, especially in developing countries. Accordingly, this study investigated the governance practices of grassroots organisations involved in collecting solid waste and the extent to which their collaboration with municipal councils influenced their governance approach. The study entailed in-depth interviews with 10 municipal and ward officers, and 21 leaders of grassroots organisations in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The findings reveal that, in order to apply for and execute municipal waste collection contracts, grassroots organisations were compelled to formalise, institute governance structures to ensure accountability, transparency and financial control and the participation of the community in managing waste. This was facilitated by grassroots organisations adopting a controlled system of collecting fees, opening a bank account and reconciling municipal reports with their records, being supported to access resources and ensuring the engagement of the community. In view of this, the study demonstrates how cross-sector collaboration of the public sector and non-state actors ensures that waste is collected and managed effectively.
    Keywords: grassroots initiatives; solid waste management; SWM; local government; cross-sector collaboration; municipal councils; collaborative governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10064698
  • Hospital waste management after the outbreak of coronavirus in Shariati Hospital of Mashhad City   Order a copy of this article
    by Moslem Razavinejad, Fahimeh Moghaddam, Hosein Alidadi, Behnam Barikbin, Aliakbar Dehghan 
    Abstract: Ensuring proper medical waste management in hospitals and health centres during health emergencies such as the crisis of COVID-19 disease is one of the most critical obstacles in preventing diseases. We aimed to explore hospital waste management at Shariati Hospital of Mashhad during the outbreak of COVID-19 disease in a period of 4 months from March to June 2021. The average weight of infectious waste increased by 134% and general waste decreased by 87% compared to before the outbreak. Also, 90% of the total waste produced during the hospitalisation of COVID-19 patients is infectious waste, while plastics have the highest percentage. In the decontamination of infectious wastes, the results of 95.9% of the tests were in good condition. Also, according to the hospital waste management checklist, the score obtained in all stages of waste management in the hospital was 82%.
    Keywords: Mashhad Shariati Hospital; hospital waste management; COVID-19 disease; outbreak; infectious waste; checklist.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10064699
  • A review on experimental study of oxyhydrogen HHO blends with gasoline, diesel and biofuels in IC engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Shrikant Bhardwaj, Arvind Jayant 
    Abstract: This review paper presents a comprehensive study on performance and emission characteristics of I.C Engines fuelled with blends of gasoline, diesel, bio-diesel and HHO/H2 gas. In S.I Engine reduction in SFC, CO and HC obtained around 15%20%, 19.19% and 19.12% whereas enhancement in BTE, ITE around 9% and 9.84% while decrement in NOx nearly 6.80% with lean mixture blends of Gasoline with HHO/H2 in S.I engine. In CI engine reduction in SFC, CO and HC were around 8.55%, 16.64% and 24.39% whereas enhancement in BTE nearly 4.29% while increment in NOx around 5.08% when blends of diesel and bio-diesel with HHO/H2 incorporated. Blended fuels with HHO/H2 supply ≤ 0.3 lpm at a reduction in NOx obtained but with HHO/H2 supply 0.3-3 lpm increase in NOx formation observed. SFC for different blending mixtures of fuels with HHO/H2 gas decreases except contradictory results at 3 lpm in four-cylinder engine.
    Keywords: IC engine; oxyhydrogen gas; emission; performance parameters; efficiency; HHO; fuel; review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10065030