Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM)

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International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (145 papers in press)

Regular Issues

    by Prashanth S P, Ananthayya M B 
    Abstract: Efforts are made throughout the world to develop an eco-friendly construction material, which will minimize the utility of natural resources and also green house gas emissions. In this regard, Geopolymer plays a vital role. Geopolymer is synthesized by fly ash, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. This report presents the experimental investigations carried out by varying ingredient quantity to study mechanical properties for geopolymer binder and mortar under ambient curing. In this trail mixes, the ratios of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate are taken 1:2, 1:2.25, 1:5, 1:2.75 and 1:3 with the varying ratios of (60%flyash+40% ggbs) percentages of 6,7,8 and 9. Similarly for all the above ratios, the water content is varied by 15%, 16%, 17% and 18% to the total weight of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. The test results show that for geopolymer binder ratios of 1:2.5:8, the maximum compressive strength was obtained.
    Keywords: fly ash; GGBS; sodium silicate; sodium hydroxide.

  • Downstream Market Analysis of Used Oils in Trinidad and Tobago to Inform an Appropriate Waste Management Strategy   Order a copy of this article
    by Donnie Boodlal, David Alexander, Sarim Al Zubaidy, Maurissa Charles 
    Abstract: A Waste Oil Management System can be most effective if it is formulated for Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) based on measured volumes obtained from primary and secondary data. It was found that the annual consumption of base oil in T&T is 15 million litres. The major issues with waste oil management in T&T are the lack of adequate strategies, technologies and collectors, which are addressed in this study. A survey of stakeholders views revealed that most preferred proper recycling and proper disposal and that they are prepared to enter into agreement with collectors to achieve these ends. The eight waste oil dealers in Trinidad collect as well as recycle it, whereas the eight dealers in Tobago only collect the oil. The dealers declare volumes of 72 million litres/pa out of which 4 million litres/pa are exported and the remainder 68 million litres/pa remain in Trinidad. Only one mass disposal site was identified in Guapo, whose capacity is much smaller than the above figure, which suggests one of the following scenarios: the export of waste oil is greater than declared; or there are more dealers than has been uncovered or there is illegal dumping. All three scenarios are possible. Analysis of export data obtained from the Custom and Excise, Ministry of Finance, suggests that the first scenario is most plausible. Export data shows that T&T exports 242 million litres of lubricating oils, which is much higher than the amount of waste oil generated in T&T and also the amount declared by the major waste oil dealers (4 million/pa). The above discrepancy suggests that a more accurate waste oil inventory for T&T is required. Clarification of the gap is confirmed by the Environmental Management Authority (EMA), which cites two cases of illegal export of waste oil in 2014 and 2017. This sophisticated waste oil market remains unregulated. Therefore, market decisions have to be based on the inaccurate volumes declared by the known dealers. Three products are identified with their average global prices: Base Oil (2.90 USD/gal); Fuel Oil (1.2 USD/gal); and Off-specification Diesel (1.80 USD/gal). From data gathered, it is seen that the market volume of Base Oil in T&T is limited to 15 million litres/pa as this is the amount used in the nations sole blending facility. It was also found that the Fuel Oil market is saturated at 2.2 billion litres, which represented exports from Petrotrin in 2016. The market volume for Off-Specification Diesel could not be estimated as the only possible consumers and retailers of this product in T&T is disinterested in this product.
    Keywords: Waste Oil Management; Market Study; Market Survey; Waste Management.

  • An equilibrium and kinetic study for the removal of reactive red M5B using phosphoric acid treated activated carbon   Order a copy of this article
    by Senthamil Selvan Kuppusamy, Meena Sundari Perumalsamy, Madhavakrishnan Sakthivel, Palanivel Muthusamy, Jayakumar Raja 
    Abstract: The objective of the study is to develop an adsorbent which is abundant with economical and environmental friendly characteristics to remove reactive dye from its aqueous solution. The municipal solid waste modified by H3PO4 activated carbon (MSWAC) was prepared and characterized. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was tested towards Reactive Red M5B, a representative of industrial effluent at varied operational conditions by using batch method. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the characteristics of adsorption behavior. Kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The virgin characteristics of MSWAC were studied using BET surface area, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The result indicated that MSWAC as a low cost adsorbent and it can be effectively used for treating textile industry effluent.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Langmuir; Freundlich; Temkin.

  • Lean Manufacturing in Pharmaceutical Closed-Loop Supply Chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Anup Kumar, Kampan Mukherjee 
    Abstract: Waste control has become the key focus in the global pharmaceutical supply chain. Waste viewing and control is a skill according to lean ideology. This paper presents a model that could map the pharmacy supply chain and able to project waste. Further waste can be again channelized through remanufacturing or disposed of through the proper process. Several models have been developed in the literature where the aim is mostly to optimize cost or profit and to find the optimal order quantity for integrated production and remanufacturing system. In this study, a lean approach has been adopted to explore the waste using system dynamics as a tool to model an inventory control system for remanufacturing and disposal of the pharmaceutical closed loop supply chain.
    Keywords: System Dynamics; Lean remanufacturing; Inventory control; closed loop supply chain.

  • An eco-friendly novel technique for power generation utilizing municipal waste water and sludge recycling   Order a copy of this article
    by Harendra K. Sharma, Mudit Singh, Gajanan Pandey 
    Abstract: Presently world is in need of more energy and drinking water due to the increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. Conventional sources of energy are limited, nonrenewable, and health hazardous. There are verities of power plants, like thermal, hydro, wind etc, running all around the world, however they cause health hazards, need large infrastructure, create ecological imbalance and waste a lot of energy in form of heat, sound etc. The present work aims to combine various power plants in a single unit system, utilizing the waste energy loss, resulting augmentation in the efficiency of plant. It reduces the energy losses and provides pure drinking water from the municipal waste water. It solves the problem of solid waste treatment, because the domestic solid waste materials have been utilized to generate valuable products like oil, charcoal etc. along with power. It works continuously throughout the year, reduces infrastructures, as well as economical and eco-friendly too. The present work is centered on increasing wind velocity from 21m/s to 50 m/s, which does not fluctuate. Moreover, it works in the absence of sunshine efficiently, and produces power of more than 10,000 GWh/year. The hydro power plant (HPP) can produce energy up-to 367 MW, biogas power plant (BPP) can generate power more than 54750000 KWh/year while solar power plant can generate power according to installation. Hereunder designed solar aero power plant (SAEP) can produce 14.5 times more power than the hydro power plant, utilizing same amount of water.
    Keywords: Sewage Water Treatment; Hydro Power Plant; Solar Power Plant; Biogas Power Plant; Pyrolysis; Solar Aero Power Plant.

  • Eradicating poverty among the waste workers through waste collection? A case study of Dhaka city   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehe Rahman, Chamhuri Siwar, Rawshan Begum 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the factors affecting the waste collection to poverty reduction among the waste workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Particular interest is on the question whether the contribution of some determinants actively plays a role in reducing the possibility of being poor. This issue is particularly significant since it has been argued in various relevant literature. There is potential for the waste picking sector to play an important role in alleviating poverty of the waste workers. This research provides the empirical evidence for answering this question by estimating a logistic regression model using primary data gathered within Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Research results showed that the education of the respondent, number of the dependent in family , training, and collection of recyclable items were significant negative predictors at 5% level of significance. Framing policy to develop skilled waste workers could be an effective strategy towards implementing a sustainable waste management system in Bangladesh. The findings of this study imply that promoting organized and systematic waste management activities, such as intensifying urban industrialization with formal sector, will have a positive impact on efforts to reduce poverty.
    Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Poverty Reduction.

  • Modeling and appraisal of cadmium removal from water by sustainable biowaste of hen egg shells   Order a copy of this article
    by Aliya Fazal, Uzaira Rafique 
    Abstract: Hen egg shells powder is investigated as adsorbent for the removal of cadmium (Cd) from water with and without chemical modification. Batch sorption studies were performed at different biowaste dose, metal ions solution initial concentration, pH, particle size and agitation. Optimal removal efficiency of Cd is noted in 45 minutes, quantifying 86 % removal by 2 g optimized dose at 100 rpm. Maximum adsorption occurred at pH 7. The kinetic data is modeled with the help of reaction based equations; the data is well fitted with pseudo second order model. Hydrolysed and oxidised egg shells revealed enhanced remediation of cadmium possibly due to increased lactonic sites. The use of egg shells as value added adsorbent will be thoughtful endeavor of turning waste into commodity.
    Keywords: adsorption; biowaste; kinetic; modification.

    by Shikha Saxena 
    Abstract: Solid Waste Management is a Challenge both at the global level and the local level. Solid wastes must be properly managed by determining that they are hazardous wastes. Methane is the major Greenhouse Gas, which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHGs from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfill areas in India are not planned. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from the MSW landfill areas of Kota city.
    Keywords: Solid Waste Management;Green house gases;Methane Generation.

  • Managing Eco-design for Reverse Logistics   Order a copy of this article
    by Kuan Siew Khor, Thursamy Ramayah, Hamid Reza Panjeh Fouladgaran 
    Abstract: Multifaceted design and manufacturing activities play a major part in reducing the volume of e-waste within retired consumer electronics. The green supply chain management framework puts together green practices in support of sustainable production and consumption. This study aimed to explore the structural paths of eco-design, reverse logistics, design for disassembly, and business performance outcomes (environmental outcome and profitability). The variance-based partial least square (PLS) structural equation modelling was applied to empirically test the survey data collected from 89 electrical and electronic (E&E) manufacturing firms which have received IS014001 certification for their environmental management system. Data analyses revealed that design for disassembly influenced eco-design, which in turn influenced the implementation reverse logistics. Further analyses suggested that reverse logistics is positively associated with environmental outcome and profitability while eco-design did not appear to derive similar outcome. The finding of this study clarified the importance of life cycle thinking to improve the recovery of valuable subassemblies, component parts and materials within end-of-use electrical equipment, which would otherwise be classified as e-waste.
    Keywords: Eco-design; Reverse logistics; Environmental outcome; Profitability; Design for disassembly; E&E.

    by Ritielli Berticelli, Adalberto Pandolfo, Geraldo Antonio Reichert, Rodrigo Fernando Dos Santos Salazar, Rosa Maria Kalil 
    Abstract: The Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), which encompasses the Life Cycle Cost Assessment (LCC), the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) and the LCA (with environmental factors), were adopted to change this situation. The aim of the present study is to present the theoretical aspects and practical applications of the LCSA to help better understanding the integrated approach scope (economic, environmental and social) in municipal solid waste (MSW) management studies. The development of sustainable MSW management systems is essential and should be based on a multidimensional approach. Research in this field must substantiate the decision-making processes through systemic processes and justify them through alternatives focused on environmental effectiveness, social acceptance and on economic accessibility.
    Keywords: Sustainable development; Life cycle; Municipal solid waste.

  • Adoption of ICT-Based Education System to Protect Environment and Improve Present Education System   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This study is unique in nature that focuses the waste characterization by the present education system and its effects on the general environment as well as the education system itself. Therefore, to cope up with an issue, the study explores the concept of information and communication technology (ICT) based education system to the protection of the environment as well as improving present education system itself from students perspective. A total of 356 usable responses was gathered from engineering, management, and computer application students of 4 main cities of Madhya Pradesh, India. The AMOS 22.0 and SmartPLS 3.0 statistical programs were used for measurement validation and to test the structural model. The study identified the key constructs within this domain and indicated that all the paths are significant which implies that ICT-based education system significantly contributes to protect the environment and improve the present education system. Therefore, the findings of the study would help policymakers and academicians.
    Keywords: Information and communication technology; protection of the environment; the education system.

  • Risk Assessment due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsites and Geo environmental Measures for Closure   Order a copy of this article
    by Himanshu Yadav, V.P. Singh 
    Abstract: Open dumping of solid waste can cause various environmental and human health issues. Various literatures have reported groundwater contamination, bad smell and surface water contamination etc. due to presence of dumpsites. Planning of rehabilitation and closure of dumpsites will require risk assessment through various routes due to presence of MSW dumpsites. Information about the nearby area and human receptor will play a significant role. Various systems from developed countries do not work in India because site conditions in India are different from developed countries. In present study, some existing systems are modified by including some parameters derived from literature. The improved system is proposed to assess groundwater, surface water and odour risk indices. The study results better efficiency in determining risk index due to groundwater contamination, surface water contamination and air contamination. The system evaluates the scores from 0 1000. Suitable geo environmental measures for closure is determined based on risk index values. The system is applied to two dumpsites of Prayagraj city, based on the values of risk index Phaphamau site is found to be suitable for option II (MSW cover) and Bakshi Band site is found to be suitable for option VI (HW cover with gas recovery and GW extraction).
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Risk Index; Groundwater; Surface water; Odour; Closure; Risk Assessment.

  • Household Characteristics and Waste Generation Paradox; What Influences Solid Waste Generation in Bolgatanga?   Order a copy of this article
    by Pawin Joseph Sachi, Esi Akyere Mensah 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste is recognized as an obnoxious local development challenge in many developing countries. The continuous struggle to ensure sustainable waste management in Ghana is a challenge of inadequate data on waste generation and the factors influencing generation. It is in this light that this paper examines waste generation rate and the influence of household socio-economic characteristics on waste generation in Bolgatanga, an urban city in Northern Ghana. The study utilized a regression technique based on Ordinary Least Squares approach to empirically test the relationship between household variables and waste generation. The findings indicate; education, household size and fuel sources are significant but differently influenced waste generation. For effective waste management, the paper suggests a priority focus be given to education and recommends for future studies further analysis of the influence of income on waste generation.
    Keywords: Keywords; Solid Waste generation; Socio-economic Variables.

    by Adewale Adeniyi, Joshua Ighalo 
    Abstract: Thermochemical process such as pyrolysis is one of the most developed option for energy recovery from lignocellulosic biomass sources. A steady-state simulation model was developed for the energy recovery from biomass via pyrolysis using ASPEN Plus v8.8. The biomass feedstocks were beech, Ailanthus and spruce wood. Beech is a hardwood, Ailanthus is a soft hardwood and spruce is a softwood. The pyrolysis reactor was modelled by a combination of the yield-shift reactor and the Gibbs reactor. The product yield and composition was calculated by the software via the minimisation of Gibbs free energy method. The simulation was run at atmospheric pressure and 5000C temperature. A bio-oil yield of 62.8% for beech wood, 58.3% for Ailanthus and 54.2% for spruce wood was obtained. Model yield and product composition was validated and considered adequate. The simulation model can be considered as truly predictive for the pyrolysis of soft and hardwood samples in the domain of product yield and product composition.
    Keywords: Bio-oil; ASPEN Plus; Wood; Pyrolysis; Beech; Spruce; Ailanthus; Simulation.

  • Removal of colour from hospital wastewater with activated nanobiocarbon derived from the pit of the Olea woodiana (forest olive): kinetics and isotherms study   Order a copy of this article
    by Hanie Ahmadpour Kacho, Hossein Ali Asghar Nia, Pezhman Farhadi 
    Abstract: One of the most effective technologies for the coloured wastewater treatment is the use of biosorbents. The surface adsorption process is preferable to other methods for reasons such as low cost, the ability to perform more easily and insensitivity to toxic substances.Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics, isotherms and parameters affecting the decolorization of hospital wastewater using activated nanobiocarbon derived from the pit of the forest olives. This experimental and in-vitro study evaluated the parameters such as initial color concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, temperature, and isotherm and kinetics analysis in a Batch system and morphology characteristics of the adsorption was investigated using FESEM technique. The results of this study showed the efficiency of removal of 99% color from effluents with adsorbent dose of 0.5 G, pH =7 and temperature of 35
    Keywords: Activated nanobiocarbon; wastewater; colour; adsorption.

  • Financial Feasibility of a Waste to Energy Facility: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditya Atul Malwe, Sunith Hebbar 
    Abstract: The study focuses on analysing the financial feasibility of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plant that has been proposed in the Raipur city of India. The WtE system being highly complex with various subsystem it is critical to understand the interactions among these subsystem for effective decision making. System Dynamics (SD) methodology is one of the modern and comprehensive methodologies adopted for this purpose. In this study a SD model has been developed for the WtE system and simulated for 20 years to check on the financial viability. The influence of tipping fee and electricity selling price on NPV was analysed as scenarios. Also, the capacity analysis was carried for the system. The results revealed that the plant is financially feasible with required return of 12% and 18% (positive NPVs). The capacity shortfall will incur by around 11 years from now. The consideration of dynamic behaviour in the results improves the effectiveness of strategic policies formulated by the decision makers. Appropriate suggestions were made based on these results.
    Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Waste-to-Energy; Financial Feasibility; Net Income; Net Present Value; Capacity Shortfall; System Dynamics.

  • Environmental Literacy of Market Sellers and Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of the Wenchi Old-Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Kwabena Agyarko Sarpong, Frimpong Obeng, James Neequaye, Peter Kaba 
    Abstract: The trajectory of efficiently managing generated solid waste in Ghana and most developing countries has necessitated the demand for holistic ways in management services: achieving this has been a nebulous task due to the incongruity between soaring population growth, increased waste generation and poor management from major waste management stake holders. The Wenchi municipal assembly (WMA) with emphasis on the Wenchi old-market is no exemption to this problem.The aim of this study is to establish the literacy level of market sellers in relation to solid waste disposal and management at the marketplace. This work does so by looking into the concept of environmental education and its four determinants (knowledge, awareness, attitude, and action).The study establishes that despite the high status of awareness and knowledge expressed by market sellers, there is varying attitude in how they go about disposing solid waste.
    Keywords: Knowledge; Awareness; Attitude; Environment; Solid waste management; Market sellers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10025977
  • Estimating Seasonal Variations in Incinerability of Municipal Solid Waste using Incinerability Index   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Estimation of incinerability of municipal solid waste (MSW) is crucial, with the emergence of incineration as an integral element of sustainable solid waste management. The composition of MSW tends to vary seasonally, affected by local weather, festivals etc. subsequently affecting its incinerability. This study aims to demonstrate an easy assessment of the seasonal variations in incinerability of MSW in cities falling in different economies, namely Lahore, Kochi, Raipur, Jalandhar and New York using incinerability index or i- Index. It is observed that MSW generated in summer season exhibited relatively high incinerability, and reduced marginally during winter. The high moisture content during monsoon season significantly affected the incinerability of MSW in the study areas, reducing i- Index by almost 25% in Kochi, a city with relatively high average annual rainfall of 1570 mm. In areas with low rainfall like New York and Jalandhar, substantial seasonal variations are not observed.
    Keywords: Incinerability; municipal solid waste; waste to energy; composite indicator; seasonal variations.

  • Characterizing the conversion of Transesterification reaction by modelling of Glycerol-rich phase   Order a copy of this article
    by Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry, Kamireddi Venkateswara Rao 
    Abstract: The preparation of Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) involves different phase changes which are not yet characterized. The reaction media in its initial and final stages form two phases; top phase being FAME/unreacted oil and bottom phase being glycerol/methanol. The exact point when the bottom phase starts forming is not well-defined. Experimental data of the reaction media composition gives an understanding of the formation of the glycerol phase. A model built for its theoretical concurrence showed good agreement with experimental data. From experimentation, the density of the bottom glycerol/methanol phase showed to be a good and simple indicator of the reaction conversion.
    Keywords: Fatty acid methyl esters; Glycerol; Phase change; Transesterification.

  • Ecological Modelling Using Artificial Neural Network for Macroinvertebrate Prediction in a Tropical Rainforest River   Order a copy of this article
    by Joyce ODIGIE, John OLOMUKORO 
    Abstract: In this study, Artificial Neural Network was applied to predict the benthic macroinvertebrates fauna of Obueniyomo River using 75% of the dataset for model testing and 25% for training, scaled between 0 and 1 and implemented using R statistical. Thirty-nine predictors (physical and chemical variables) served as the inputs from which twenty-five output parameters successfully predicted the presence or absence of macroinvertebrates fauna in the study stations in the visualized neural network model. Sensitivity analysis, an essential test was applied to ascertain the influence of the output parameters in the prediction of the macroinvertebrates fauna and to outline which variables significantly determined the model output. The model showed that depth, flow rate, transparency and pH, appeared uniformly segregated than other selected input parameters, which served as a good predictor. We conclude that ANN constitute a practical model for predicting macroinvertebrates fauna of freshwater ecosystems under alliance with some environmental conditions.
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Benthic Macroinvertebrates; Ecological Modeling; Freshwater Ecosystem and Sensitivity Analysis.

  • Hospital waste: effects on public health and environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahcène AKNI, Rachid CHAIB 
    Abstract: Purpose: In this work we are interested in the study of the identification of the origin and impact of waste treatment activities on public health. This study can provide specific lightings, knowledge and new reflections on health impacts. Design/Methodology/Approach: With the spectacular demographic surge in most developing countries today and the opening of the economic market, Algerias case, accompanied by a rapid increase in both public and private health care facilities. These facilities generate significant amounts of miscellaneous wastes containing infectious, pathological, radioactive and toxic elements that are particularly dangerous to public health and the environment. Moreover, their impact is all greater than as the area of activity is important, which is the case of large cities, objective of our study. Now, as the collection of this waste is developed a random manner in different health sectors of cities covered by the study in insufficient institutional and legal framework, special attention is required. Consequently, an actual emergency is needed to understand and learn the nature of this waste for better management. Practical implications: The study concerns the treatment of waste at the facility level two Algerian towns Jijel and Mila respectively. Findings: The study is based on site observation. A difference was found in the quantities of waste generated in each health sector and person. The collection and management of these are badly mastered: results subsequently an environmental imbalance in the environment (air, water and soil). Originality/value: Through this contribution, we try to provide specific insights, knowledge and new reflections on health impacts with the aim of mobilizing public and private services in terms of information, awareness and mobilization for better prevention of risks related to hospital waste within our health facilities. The interested in this work is threefold: to better understand the impact of waste on public health and the environment, identify improvements and practical paths to the concerned to ensure now better prevention. Through this research work we want to open up a national debate on the harmfulness of these wastes.
    Keywords: Waste care activities; Public health; Management and treatment; municipal solid waste; Environment.

  • Use of periwinkle shell by-products in Portland cement-based materials: An overview   Order a copy of this article
    by Uchechi Eziefula, Gregory Obiechefu, Martha Charles 
    Abstract: Periwinkle shellfishes are widely distributed in the wetlands of the Niger Delta. Periwinkle shells are often heaped in open fields and landfills which cause environmental problems such as pollution and breeding of disease-carrying organisms. In order to manage periwinkle shell by-products, preserve natural resources and save construction costs, attempts have been made to use periwinkle shell aggregate (PSAGG) and periwinkle shell ash (PSASH) as recycled materials in cement-based products. This paper reviews the influence of PSAGG and PSASH on the properties of Portland cement-based materials. Periwinkle shell has similar calcium carbonate content with limestone aggregate. Using PSAGG as a partial coarse aggregate at up to 50% replacement level can produce normal-weight concrete which possesses over 60% of the control strength. Utilising PSASH as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) will have beneficial functions in cement-based construction where low heat of evolution is needed and early strength is not a major consideration. Further investigations are required including in-depth research on the cost analysis and durability of cement-based products containing periwinkle shell by-products.
    Keywords: aggregates; cement based materials; concrete; Niger Delta; periwinkle shells; Portland cement; recycled materials; supplementary cementitious materials; SCM; waste management.

  • Perspectives of Electrochemical Oxidation Parameters in PRW Treatment   Order a copy of this article
    by Alaa Ghanim 
    Abstract: Electrochemical oxidation as an efficient route of advanced electrochemical oxidation process AEOP had been successfully applied for the treatment of real petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW). The electrochemical oxidation was performed using batch electrochemical reactor with carbon felt anode to be compared with β-PbO2 anode. However, these anodic materials have higher oxygen evolution overpotential and poor electrocatalysts for parasitic reactions with low cost. The experimental work considers a scope of operative and design parameters that influence the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of wastewater of a real national oil refinery effluent. Accordingly, a well-designed reactor accomplished to treat wastewater samples of 500-510 mg/L initial COD to study the effect of anode material, current density, and temperature on COD removal and oxidation kinetic. The results showed that the COD removal efficiency exhibits an exponential behavior with the applied current density of more than 10 mA cm-2 indicating first-order reaction kinetics, and the reaction rate constant accurately estimated. Moreover, the impacts of pH and agitation speed on reaction rate constant were also studied.
    Keywords: AEOP; PRW; COD; Hydroxyl radical; Electrodes.

    by Gladis Cecilia Villegas Arias, Mariluz Betancur Vélez, Ruth Marina Agudelo Cadavid, Alejandra Hoyos López 
    Abstract: Medell
    Keywords: hazardous hospital waste; HHW; tertiary hospitals; interdisciplinary analysis; hospital waste management; hospital waste administration; hospital infrastructure; hospital waste logistics; hospital waste control; hospital waste model.rn rn.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10028023
  • Land scarcity as a site selection challenge for the management of municipal solid wastes in Accra, Ghana.   Order a copy of this article
    by Francis Atta Kuranchie, Francis Attiogbe, Joseph Tettey Quarshie, Richard Agbo Kwabena Ntibrey 
    Abstract: Some of the major contributing factors of poor solid waste management and disposal in developing countries are proximity of available land for waste disposal and attitudinal factors. This research used Accra, Ghana as a case study which has a land size estimated to be 3,245 km2 and a population growth rate of 3.1%. The outcome of the research projects that with Accra population of 4,010,054 and waste generation rate of approximately 0.5 Kg/ person / day, land proximity for waste disposal will no more be available by the year 2040. This will worsen the current waste management menace in the municipality if the situation remains unchanged. This research also recommends the contingent valuation method for the determination of adequate compensation for the associated communities to release land for efficient waste management and disposal in the Region.
    Keywords: Land scarcity; Municipal solid wastes management; Land valuation; Landfill.

    by Patrick Aaniamenga Bowan, Sam Kayaga, Julie Fisher 
    Abstract: The baseline scenarios of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) activities that will expose the specific challenges militating against sustainable waste management in many developing countries, are not properly documented or not understood. This paper established a baseline scenario of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Ghana, through material flow analysis and understanding of MSW handling practices, using the Wa Municipality as a case study. The study was theoretically based on empirical observation and an exploratory design. The findings showed that sustainable waste management has remained elusive because MSWM in the case study area and Ghana in general, consist of some waste collection, transportation and open dumping, where the entire amount of waste is open dumped without pre-treatment. The sorting of waste at the generation sources, and the provision of adequate MSWM infrastructure, through an integrated solid waste management system can ensure sustainable waste management in the country.
    Keywords: Baseline scenario; Municipal solid waste; Sustainable waste management; Open dumping; Integrated solid waste management; Wa Municipality; Ghana.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10025834
  • Energy-saving Technology Contributions for Emission Reduction under the Current Climate Change Prospects, Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Solomon Addisu, Ashebir Alemie 
    Abstract: Abstract The heavy reliance on biomass energy has become a major cause of land resources degradation and greenhouse gases emissions which lead to the local, regional and global climate change. This research was conducted in Zegie aiming to assess the contribution of energy-saving technology for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Data have been collected using systematic random sampling technique and quantified by using descriptive statistical techniques and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change carbon emission quantifying procedures. Accordingly, although all of the respondents have used different energy saving stoves for baking enjera (local food), 38.6% of them have used both mirt midija(efficient wood burning stove) and biogas stove. However, the majority of the respondents have not perceived the contribution of efficient energy-saving technology for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The technology has been used due to its conformability to use and its fuelwood demand reduction. In the study area the total carbon emitted from cow dung (5051.87 tons), fuel wood (1327.10 tons) and charcoal (10,041.89 tons) could potentially be minimized by energy-saving technologies. Standard fuel-saving stoves could potentially reduce fuel wood consumption by 50%; while mirt stove is up to 23% energy efficient, has 50% fuelwood saving potential and 663.52 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent could be reduced. To conclude, using efficient energy-saving technologies in a household has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cow dung, fuelwood and charcoal production and consumption. Distributing efficient and environmentally sound energy-saving technology is the cross-cutting issue of the governments giving priority. The study suggested to improving the efficiency of biomass energy; accelerating off-grid energy access and implementing potential strategies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate change mitigation.
    Keywords: Key Words: Greenhouse gas emission; energy-saving technology; fuel-efficient stoves; biogas; Solar lanterns; Climate change; and variability.

  • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Waste Management Literature from 2000 to 2015   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeid Jafarzadeh Ghoushchi, Shadi Dorosti, Shabnam Hamidi Moghaddam 
    Abstract: Waste management is one of the significant environmental issues. Its adverse for the human, environment, and health is avoidable. It's notable to say that nowadays investigation in all countries growing dramatically. In this study, the scientific production of waste management (from 2000 to 2015) is assessed in all the journals with all the subjects related to the Science Citation Index which are provided by ISI in Philadelphia USA. The keyword was used in order to search the title is waste management. As the output analysis showed, the revolution of this subject was increased over the last 15 years and the annual paper production in 2013 was about three times 2006-paper production. The number of papers considered in this research is 3557 which have been published from 2000 to 2015. Considerably, there is a distinction among author keywords used in publications. The five high-publish countries in waste management studies are the USA, China, England, India and Italy. In order to evaluate this work, quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were used to consider the development of global scientific production in this specific research field. The analytical results eventually provide several key findings and consider the overview of waste management.
    Keywords: Waste management; Environmental; Health; literature review; Bibliometrics.

  • Kinetic study of oily sludge biodegradation under shaking condition   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatemeh Bahmani, Bizhan Honarvar, Zahra Estakhr, Mohammad Ali Mikaili Kherameh 
    Abstract: In this research, the biodegrade ability of oily sludge was investigated. Two bacterial strains isolated from the oil storage tank were identified as Aneurinibacillus migulanus and Bacillus toyonensis and submitted in the gene bank database National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Three bacterial treatments consisting of identified isolates with the initial concentration of 2 g/L of the sludge were used to find the best treatment in the utilization of the oily sludge under a shaking condition. The results of the oily sludge biodegradation with initial concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 g/L during 150 days showed 72.4, 53, and 43.9% hydrocarbon utilization, respectively. The results of GC chromatograph showed that all hydrocarbon fractions were utilized in nearly the same range. Additionally, Kinetic studies revealed that Contois model can accurately predict the oily sludge biodegradation. Monte Carlo method was used to fit the kinetic parameters of the model to experimental data.
    Keywords: Oily sludge; Biodegradation; Concentration; Contois kinetic model; Optimization.

  • Utilization of Jarosite in Cement Concrete - A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanvi Gupta, S.N. Sachdeva 
    Abstract: With increased industrialization, production of industrial by-products has increased significantly. Numerous types of waste materials are generated from manufacturing processes. Jarosite is one of the by-products generated from zinc manufacturing industry and its disposal is of major concern because of its hazardous nature. The construction industry needs to be transformed into sustainable and environmental friendly from being consumption based. Therefore, jarosite is very useful in design and development of cement concrete and other composites. This paper presents a detailed and comprehensive review about physical, chemical and geotechnical properties of jarosite waste. It also covers properties of fresh concrete containing jarosite, its compressive and exural strength, leachate characteristics, chloride resistance and water absorption of cement concrete mixed with jarosite.
    Keywords: Jarosite; Concrete; Compressive strength; Leachate characteristics.

  • Estimating Methane Gas Generation Rate from Kerman City Landfill Using LandGEM Software   Order a copy of this article
    by Najmeh Amirmahani, Shahram Sadeghi, Ghazal Yazdanpanah, Aida Tayebiyan, Alireza Nasiri, Mohammad Malakootian 
    Abstract: Methane gas is one of the important greenhouse gases, which has the highest effect on global warming. One of the main methane emissions sources is landfills. Predicting the amount of methane gas collection from the closed landfills can justify the merits of installing required facilities for this purpose. Potential methane gas production from Kerman, Iran wastes was measured by using LandGEM software. The results showed that methane gas in this landfill in 2015, 2021, 2027 and 2033 will produce roughly 72, 2540, 3914, and 5015 m3 h-1, respectively. Therefore, the amount of methane gas production in the Kerman landfill with the capacity waste production between 355200 to 622845 tons annually will be 72 to 5015 m3 h-1.The results of this study could be used for the design and estimation of the methane gas systems and as a plan for the control management of methane emissions in Iran's landfills.
    Keywords: Greenhouse effect; LandGEM model; Methane; Municipal landfill; Waste products; Demography.

  • Utilization of agro waste in the development of fired clay bricks- A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Arti Sorte, Ajay Burile, Archana Chaudhari, Animeshchandra Haldar 
    Abstract: Bricks are one of the most basic building materials used in construction field. To overcome the environmental issues related to pollution and energy problems, it is necessary to find out alternative material to replace clay in brick development. it is also required to reuse and recycle the products at the end of their lives. Use of agricultural waste as an alternative raw material in the manufacturing of fired clay bricks is attracting attention due to sustainability issues. This paper reviews the investigations carried out by various researchers on the use of agricultural residue as a partial replacement in the manufacturing of fired clay bricks. This study also emphasizes on the economical value of utilization of agricultural waste into useful products. The basic aim of this study is to review the various possibilities of utilization of waste materials for the production of fired clay bricks in particular.
    Keywords: Agro bricks; agricultural waste; clay bricks; compressive strength; ecofriendly; fired bricks; oat husk; rice husk; sustainable; sugarcane bagasse ash.

  • Total Ammonia and N2O Emission Characteristics from Alcaligenes sp. LS2T Cultures and Its Application on Laying Hen Manure Associated with Different pH Condition   Order a copy of this article
    by Aldyon Restu Azkarahman, Yuny Erwanto, Lies Mira Yusiati, Widodo , Nanung Agus Fitriyanto 
    Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate the Alcaligenes sp. LS2T characteristics in total ammonia and N2O emission under different carbon sources and C/N ratios in the synthetic media. Observation of the strain application potential to suppress ammonia emission was also performed on laying hen manure with different initial pH conditions. The total ammonia emission was observed by Nesslers reagent photometry method followed by Lide and Frederikse equation, while the N2O emission was measured by gas chromatography. The result showed that the least emitted total ammonia was seen in acetate medium C/N 28, emitted 12.77
    Keywords: Alcaligenes sp. LS2T; aerobic denitrification; total ammonia; N2O emission; pH condition; laying hen manure.

  • Statistical Analysis for the Removal of Crystal Violet using Bacterial Cellulose Powder via Response Surface Methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Khairul Azly Zahan, Nur Sofiah Zamri, Norhani Jusoh, Mahfuzah Mustapha, Suzana Wahidin 
    Abstract: Statistical analysis for the removal of crystal violet (CV) using bacterial cellulose (BC) powder was evaluated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to observe the interactions between BC powder size (
    Keywords: Statistical analysis; Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Crystal violet; Bacterial cellulose; Adsorption.

  • Economic viability and analysis of wastewater treatment processes in Kuwait   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasem Alhumoud, Ibrahim Alhumoud 
    Abstract: A full and comprehensive economic analysis of wastewater treatment is a prerequisite for ensuring long-term economic, environmental, and social sustainability. The aim of this study is to improve the economic evaluation of treated wastewater reuse. In 2001, the Government of Kuwait built an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Sulaibiya. This plant is designed to treat up to 375 million imperial gallons (IG) of water, but the volume can be extended to 600 million IG. This WWTP is the first of to be built in the Middle East and is the largest plant worldwide that uses a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for water purification. The UF step removes all suspended solids and promotes a substantial reduction in microbiological contaminants. We identify and compare the advantages and costs between using treated wastewater and desalinated fresh water. We show that while treatment costs are highly dependent on the incoming effluent quality and plant size, the benefits and advantages are reasonably high.
    Keywords: Economic; cost; wastewater reuse; RO; UF; WWTP.

  • Towards a Model for Effective e-Waste Management: A Study of Software Industry in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajeev Srivastava, Tarun Dhingra 
    Abstract: In last few years information technology has seen tremendous growth all over the world. This growth has also brought a new kind of waste known as electronic waste or e-waste. The amount of this electronic waste is growing rapidly due to fast change in technology, reducing prices of electronic devices, low recycling rate of e-waste. This growing volume of e-waste is not only very harmful for human health and environment but also lead to resource depletion. So, its important to manage this e-waste effectively. The study was designed with an objective to identify the variables responsible for the growing volume of e-Waste in Software industry and to arrive at a research model for effective e-Waste management. A total of 200 Software Developers of Software industry participated in the survey. A multiple regression analysis was employed and the, Collection and Recycling appeared as the best predictor, followed by Awareness:, and Regulations. Which shows that proper collection of e-waste by authorized collection centers and recycling of e-waste by authorized e-waste recycling centers are required to reduce e-waste in software industry. Secondly, people need to be aware about the hazardous nature of e-waste. The regulations related to e-waste management need to be implemented properly to manage that e-waste effectively. The policy implication is that policy makers of Software industry can use so developed model for developing policies related to e-Waste management.
    Keywords: Recycling; e-Waste; Reuse; Collection; software industry; WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment).

  • Comparison of landfill leachate generation and pollution potentials in humid and semi-arid climates   Order a copy of this article
    by Taher Abunama, Faridah Othman 
    Abstract: Climate conditions e.g. rainfall water are highly affecting landfill leachate generation and characteristics. This article aims to assess leachate generation and pollution potentials from landfills in different climate conditions, e.g. humid and semi-arid regions. Leachate volumes have been estimated by Hydraulic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model, and the main water quality parameters and heavy metals were in-situ and laboratory analyzed. Results of annual leachate generation rates per one ton of waste in humid and semi-arid landfill were 0.148 and 0.079m3 respectively. However, leachate pollutants from humid landfill showed lower concentrations comparing with semi-arid landfill. This was reflected in LPI results of 25.1 and 29.5 for both landfills, respectively. These results concluded that semi-arid leachate gave lower generation rates and higher pollution potential than humid leachate, which can be revealed to the dilution effect of high rainfall levels in humid climates.
    Keywords: Landfill leachate; Humid and semi-arid climates; HELP mode; Leachate pollution index (LPI).

    by Ravanbakhsh Shirdam, Behnam Sadeghi, Mohammad Rezaei Rad, Nematollah Bakhshi, Hossein Ali Mirzaei 
    Abstract: The main objective of the present research is to reuse red mud (RM) and low grade bauxite for brick manufacturing. Red mud is a waste product of a well-known method for alumina production called Bayer process. To optimize brick production, experimental design was used. According to ASTM for brick manufacturing, pressure resistance was regarded as response. It was found out that using RM for brick causes deteriorating brick quality but it has positive effects on reducing temperature of furnace and retention time of brick in furnace. After response analysis, experimental design suggested a mathematical model for predicting the compressive strength of bricks. To validate the model and producing bricks by optimized properties, three specimens with two replicates were produced. Different measurement including Compressive strength, XRD, density, and water absorption, TCLP and ICP were carried out on the optimized specimens. Using RM in brick manufacturing reduces clay consumption and makes retention time of bricks in furnace shorter. Hence, the proposed method for brick making can considerably reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission in comparison with the traditional manufacturing process. Furthermore, by reducing the content of RM piled up behind a tailing dam, the environmental implications will be decreased.
    Keywords: Red mud; brick manufacturing; bauxite; experimental design; waste reuse.

  • Sludge Management in Water Treatment Plants: Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Luay Qrenawi, Fahid Rabah 
    Abstract: Due to the increased environmental concern; there is a considerable pressure on the water authorities for the safe treatment and disposal of sludge. It is very important to choose a suitable sludge treatment and disposal system, which is both economical and technically feasible. In this article, sludge characteristics, quantities and sources will be outlined. A detailed sludge management and treatment methods will be presented. Sludge reuse, incineration, landfilling and disposal were also considered. The study concluded that sludge management should be considered when designing and operating WTPs, adopting beneficial reuse options of sludge will become very essential and it is necessary to investigate the appropriate options for formulating long term sludge management plans under strict environmental regulations. The study recommended that sludge must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effective manner. Great emphasis is to be enforced to minimize the quantity of generated sludge, more studies should be conducted to develop suitable sludge management plans, when applying sludge reuse in agricultural purposes it is highly recommended to investigate the long term effects of sludge reuse, and finally the environmental impacts of different of sludge disposal methods should be evaluated.
    Keywords: Sludge; Management; Treatment Plants; Environmental; Disposal; Characteristics; Quantities; Sources; Regulations; Reuse; Long Term Effects.

  • The Threatening Effects of Open Dumping on Soil at Waste Disposal Sites of Akure City, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Fidelis Ajibade, Bashir Adelodun, Temitope Ajibade, Kayode Lasisi, Christiana Abiola, James Adewumi, Christopher Akinbile 
    Abstract: Soil pollution, a direct consequence of open waste dumping, has ceaselessly gained public attention. This study examines the influence of uncontrolled deposition of MSW disposal on soil in four selected dumpsites across Akure city, Nigeria. Physicochemical and microbial laboratory tests were carried out using standard procedure. Soil samples were randomly collected using soil auger from the major dumpsites (Igbatoro and Iju-Itaogbolu), and the minor dumpsites (Ijare and FUTA), at depths (0 - 10 cm), (10 20 cm), (20 - 30 cm), and control samples taken at a distance 20 m away from each dumpsite. The physicochemical parameters measured include pH, total organic matter, total organic carbon and particle size distribution. Results show that samples were predominantly acidic (4.12
    Keywords: Soil pollution; Solid wastes; Dumpsites; Indiscriminate disposal.

  • Valorization of phosphogypsum waste as K2SO4 fertilizer and portlandite Ca(OH)2   Order a copy of this article
    by Hanan El Alaoui-Belghiti, Ilham Zdah, Yassine Ennaciri, Rachida El Ouatib, Mohammed Bettach 
    Abstract: Series of experiments were performed to follow the reactivity of Moroccan phophogypsum with KOH in order to valorise this environmentally harmful solid waste. The experiments were carried out in aqueous solution under different conditions: with excess of reagent KOH or in stoichiometric proportions and by varying reaction duration at room temperature. The complete decomposition of phosphogypsum (PG) waste into portlandite Ca(OH)2 and arkanite K2SO4 was evidenced by X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optimum decomposition was obtained with stoichiometric mixture using 0.6 M phosphogypsum and 1.2 M KOH. The full decomposition of phosphogypsum was achieved at room temperature in one hour. The results show how phosphogypsum can efficiently converted to valuable products with high purity and in mild conditions.
    Keywords: Phosphogypsum; Industrial waste; Wet process; Conversion; Portlandite; Arkanite.

  • Effect of the poultry droppings waste on the different life stage of Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadia ZEGUERROU, Adjroudi Rachid 
    Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the effect of poultry droppings waste on the different life stage of Eisenia fetida earthworm to protect them from hazardous doses. Adults, juveniles and cocoons were exposed during 90 days to increased doses of poultry droppings (0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 g), added to 250 g of culture substrate. The biological parameters, like mortality, body length, fresh biomass, and cocoons hatching were affected by the organic waste doses and the exposure time. Both poultry droppings doses 10 g (4%) and 20 g (8%) were the less toxic to the cocoons hatching and to the adults and juveniles growth. While the two doses 50 g (20%) and 100 g (40%) had a negative impact on the cocoon hatchability and a toxic effect on the juveniles and adults. Otherwise, the poultry droppings dose 100 g was lethal for the all life stage of E. fetida.
    Keywords: organic waste; effect; poultry droppings; pollutant; Eisenia fetida; life stage; mortality; biomass; body length; cocoon hatching; physico-chemical parameters.

    by Luz Etcheverry-Boneo, Cristian Ishiguro, Georgina Wigdorovitz, Nicolás Pourtale, Judith Lacava, Valentina S. Vela, Melisa S. Olivelli 
    Abstract: Diatoms are able to enhance their lipids production when subjected to stress factors as pollutants. In this study, diatoms were isolated from two sampling sites: a pristine site and a highly polluted river. This work aims to assess differences in biodiversity of diatoms samples and to isolate strains from different environments to compare the amount and characteristics of lipids with potential in enhanced biodiesel production. Biodiversity was compared qualitatively; strains were isolated and assessed for lipids production and profile; and frustules after lipids extraction were studied by SEM and BET. Five genus were isolated and cultured for lipids production: Nitzschia sp., Frustulia sp. and Diadesmis sp from R

  • Utilisation of fish waste bones ash for struvite precipitation in actual landfill leachate   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Darwish, Azmi Aris, Mohd Hafiz Puteh, Aeslina Abdul Kadir 
    Abstract: Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O, MAP) precipitation is an effective method for the pre-treatment of landfill leachate. Recently, research trend is directed to introduce new sources of phosphorus (P), in order to improve the sustainability of MAP technology. The current study investigated the effectiveness of fish waste bones ash as an alternative source of P for MAP recovery in actual landfill leachate. The P-rich solution, extracted from fish waste bones ash, was mixed with magnesium oxide (MgO) before applying the Mg-P mixture to leachate samples. The experimental results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), colour and turbidity were reduced with efficiencies of more than 31%, 32%, 51% and 37%, respectively. In addition, around 70% of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) was recovered in the form of struvite. The presence of struvite crystals in harvested precipitates was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) test. Furthermore, utilisation of Mg-P mixture was considerably competent compared to conventional reagents.
    Keywords: Phosphorus; leachate; ammonium nitrogen; suspended solids; struvite.

  • Treatment of Equine Beds for Composting and Vermicomposting Processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Flávia Gonçalves, Pedro Henrique Presumido, Andressa Vitoria Duarte Souza, Jaqueline Santos Silva, Marcelo Hidemassa Anami, Kátia Valéria Marques Cardoso Prates, Tatiane Cristina Dal Bosco 
    Abstract: Equine breeders seek alternatives to properly allocate saturated beds produced during the confinement and composting and vermicomposting can be viable alternatives. However, it is not elucidated what material used as bed provides better conditions for the treatment of waste. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the performance of five equine beds during composting and vermicomposting made of: T1 - coffee hull; T2 - sawdust; T3 - sawdust and brachiaria; T4 - rice straw; T5 - rice straw and brachiaria. The waste was pre-composted in pile for 42 days. After this period, 15 vermireactors (triplicate) were mounted and the rest of the material remained in piles, to continue with the process of composting for 58 days. Vermicomposting of T1 is not recommended because it was not tolerated by the earthworms but showed good compost quality in composting. Equine beds with brachiaria improve the conditions for waste treatment, as it increases aeration, provides easily degradable carbon and assists in the mineralization of nitrogen.
    Keywords: Eisenia foetida; treatment of farming waste; coffee hull; sawdust brachiaria; rice straw; solid waste; earthworms; composting; vermicomposting; equine beds.

  • Sustainability Assessment of Chemical Processes Via Sustainability Evaluator (SE) In Conjunction with Aspen HYSYS   Order a copy of this article
    by Aliff Radzuan Mohamad Radzi, Nor Zalina Kasim, Talha Ahmad Faisal, Norfazilah Abdul Halim 
    Abstract: Problem in the industry now is engineers are not dealing with sustainability in designing a chemical process. The objectives of this study were to simulate two routes of dimethyl ether (DME) processes, evaluate, and select the most sustainable DME process. The simulation of DME processes comprises of two reaction routes namely via methanol and natural gas. Both processes were simulated in HYSYS with the same production rate and purity level. Costs and mass and energy balance from Aspen HYSYS for both processes were imputed to a tool that evaluates the sustainability of chemical processes namely the Sustainability Evaluator (SE). The impact score calculated by the SE is ranging from 0 (sustainable) to 1 (not sustainable). Results of the SUI produced from the SE revealed that DME production via methanol was more sustainable process for DME compared to via natural gas with a value of 0.13 and 0.31, respectively.
    Keywords: DME; Simulation; Sustainability.

  • Organic waste management: A review of practices from selected Asian countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Nisansala Abeysinghe, Sunil Herat 
    Abstract: Organic solid waste has become a global crisis especially in the developing countries of Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries consisting of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka face very similar problems as with other developing countries in South Asia. If not managed effectively, organic waste leads to disastrous human and environmental health issues. Hence, this study is carried out with objectives of understanding the existing organic waste management methods in the SAARC region and to identify potential improvements for managing organic waste. According to the available literature, recycling, incineration, refuse-derived fuel, anaerobic digestion and land filling are practiced throughout the region. Furthermore, researchers have developed several improved methods to enhance the organic waste management procedures in Asian countries.
    Keywords: Asia; organic solid waste; waste management.

  • Mining Environmental Laws and Regulations: Mexican Experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Jaime-Paredes 
    Abstract: A discussion is made on how to include the environmental variable in the early stages of planning and design of mine waste storage facilities. The environmental impact assessment must be integrated into the planning process to decide the best alternatives for mining exploitation. In other words, in the planning of the work or activity, the environmental variable should be included with the same importance as the economic and technical variables. It must also be included in the analysis, design and construction of the project and in its decommissioning. In the design of an engineering work, the environmental service limit states are dictated by the rules in the matter. This is precisely the reason for studying environmental regulations. To know for what and with what limits to design a mining storage facility. It covers Mexican Environmental regulations, environmental assessment, the effects of mine waste storage facilities on the environment and some principles of geoenvironmental engineering.
    Keywords: Environmental Geotechnical Engineering; Mine Waste; Contamination; Recycling; Environmental Impact; Environmental Legislation.

    by Tetiana Shevchenko, Yuriy Danko 
    Abstract: In a circular economy the material and products value maintenance implies providing a unique way for their multiple transformations in an economy. This study is based on the assumption that preserving the value of a material and product in the economy for as long as possible is the result of the development of the structure of total resource cycles of a territory in terms of closing and slowing of material loops. Development of a resource cycles structure occur due to the reconstruction of the already existing cycles as well as the formation of new ones. In order to measure the improvements in the structure of resource cycles of a territory, that are the consequence of closing and slowing of material loops, the segmentation of resource cycle as a tool could be applied. The paper attempts to develop the methodological approach in measurement of materials and products circularity based on the segmentation of resource cycle. The findings contribute to the extension of the metric apparatus to measure the circularity that, as a phenomenon, is continuously changing in space and time.
    Keywords: circular economy; zero waste; circularity potential; measurement; metrics; circularity indicator; resource cycle; closing loop; slowing loop.

  • Removal of rhodamine B cationic dye using activated carbon   Order a copy of this article
    by Ana Lucia Denardin Da Rosa, Andre Azevedo Machado, Calina Grazielli Dias Barros, Elvis Carissimi, Dison Stracke Pfingsten Franco, Guilherme Luiz Dotto 
    Abstract: The optimum conditions for the removal of rhodamine B (RhB) dye present in wastewater was tested using commercial activated carbon (AC). Adsorption tests were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of pH, contact time and temperature; the kinetics of adsorption was studied for dye concentrations ranging from 20 to 500 mg L1 using pseudofirst order and pseudo-second order models. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips models. Results showed that the AC had the highest adsorption capacity at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 25
    Keywords: Adsorption; Dye removal; Rhodamine B.

    by Azimmatul Ihwah, Ika Atsari Dewi 
    Abstract: Betel nut (Areca catechu L.) fiber is regarded as waste containing of 70.2% cellulose, 10.92% water, and 6.02% ash. In direct utilization of areca nut, certain innovation is required, one of which is to make handycraft paper. Handycraft paper can be utilized further in making products having artistic and economic value as well as reducing waste and if managed properly, it will give financial value as well. In order to get the expected physical quality of good handycraft paper, the manufacture of handycraft paper from areca fiber requires the addition of used paper, such as used cardboard. This research aims to determine the proportion of raw materials which are suitable in the process of handycraft paper making to produce optimal physical quality. The research was conducted by applying the Response Surface Methodology using two factors, which are the proportion of areca nut and used cardboard paper, involving the 13 treatments with responses, such as: gramatur, tensile strength, tear strength, and water absorbency. The optimal results chosen are handycraft paper formula with 55.74% proportion of areca fiber and 50% of used cardboard with desirability value of 0.807 and 240 g / m2 gramatur value, 26.0589 kN / m2 tensile strength, 498,401 gf tear strength, and 28,935% water absorbency. The most desired result of handycraft paper will be utilized as material for greeting cards or invitation cards.
    Keywords: Handycraft paper; Optimization of Raw Material Proportion; Betel nut; Response Surface Methodology; Used Cardboard.

  • Formulating Landfill Gas Emissions Model for Forecasting Methane Generation from Waste under Iranian Scenario   Order a copy of this article
    by Somayeh Golbaz, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh, Abbas Norouzian Baghani 
    Abstract: This study aimed to determine the methane productions potential from municipal solid wastes based on two setups; Firstly, based on waste composition and secondly based on using the landfill gas emissions model(LandGEM). The results showed that based on the first step, the methane generation rate was found in the range from 1687.7 to 2062.6 mega cubic meter/year(Mm3/year) in the whole of studied regions. From developing LandGEM model, the maximum methane production rate in a landfill would be calculated equal to 2803.2 Mm3 in 2025. Also, the results showed that the methane generation rates have been at variance in five regions of Iran(p<0.05). In the northern regions of the country, the methane generation rate was increased due to the availability of sufficient moisture for microorganisms. Based on the theoretical computational quantities, it can be concluded that the volume of methane produced from municipal solid waste, which contains biodegradable materials (73%), was found very high.
    Keywords: Waste management; Renewable energy; Methane emission; Greenhouse gases; LandGEM model.

  • Estimation of Methane and landfill gas emission from an open dump site   Order a copy of this article
    by George Ngusale, Michael Oloko, Frankline Otiende, Peter Kabok 
    Abstract: Globally, an inventory of methane (CH4) emissions from human related activity is needed by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Waste discarded, herein referred to as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), is a major source of anthropogenic emissions. In Kenya, MSW generation in major cities is ever increasing due to rapid urbanization. The MSW mostly disposed in open dumpsites decomposes (aerobically and anaerobically) releasing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The open dumpsites are normally shallow and unmanaged thus posing direct and indirect environmental hazards to surrounding populace. Kisumu city, the third largest city in Kenya, was used as a case study in determining the total methane and landfill gas emission in Kachok open dumpsite from 1998 to 2018. LandGEM model version 3.02 was used to estimate the gas emission with volumetric methane percent of 50%, production potential of 19.099 m3/Mg and methane generation rate of 0.05 year-1. Results show that in the year 2018, 1.164 *106 m3 and 2.329*106 m3 of methane and landfill gas, respectively, were produced. These values are very significant in planning to upgrade the open dumpsite into a landfill for energy production and other related landfill gas applications
    Keywords: Methane (CH4); Greenhouse gas (GHG); Open dumpsite; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); Kisumu; Kachok.

  • Treatment of Petroleum Wastewater Using a Sequential Hybrid System of Electro-Fenton and NZVI Slurry Reactors, Future Prospects for an Emerging Wastewater Treatment Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirmehdi Seyyedi, Bita Ayati 
    Abstract: In this study, treatment of a 750 mL petroleum wastewater sample was evaluated using a hybrid system consisting of Electro-Fenton and Nano Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI) slurry reactors in sequence. In both systems, effective parameters were optimized by One-Factor-at-a-Time (OFAT) method considering energy consumption and treatment efficiency. For the slurry reactor, nanoparticles were first synthesized and then used in the reactor to treat the wastewater. Both systems were first optimized separately and the hybrid complex was designed based on the sub-systems optimum conditions. As for the Electro-Fenton reactor, maximum COD removal efficiency of 92.78% was achieved in 75 minutes once having optimum initial pH and current values of 3 and 0.5 A respectively. In the slurry reactor, COD removal efficiency of 86.94% was achieved in 60 minutes while having 0.1 g/L of NZVI concentration and neutral initial pH as components of optimum parametric condition. Finally, in the hybrid system, a higher COD removal efficiency of 93.46% was achieved in only 47 minutes. Moreover, consumed energy for achieving the mentioned efficiency was 12.672 KJ being 40% less than that of single Electro-Fenton system.
    Keywords: Advanced Oxidation; Electro-Fenton; NZVI; Petroleum Wastewater; Hybrid System; Wastewater Treatment.

  • Assessment of the logistics to handle the solid waste generated by seaports operation: a Brazilian case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Thiara Gomes, Rodrigo Rosa, Gisele Chaves, Jessica Prata 
    Abstract: Based on Brazilian law, the solid waste generated by the maritime terminals must be must be managed appropriately. In this sense, this paper proposes a reverse logistics network structure with three levels, introducing the idea of handling terminals, to allow the seaports to accomplish the law. A mathematical model to plan it is proposed aiming to maximize seaports financial results. A Brazilian case study was realized based on Rio de Janeiro seaports, 15 scenarios were assessed. Results indicates that transport costs represent up to 80% of the total costs and smaller trucks lead to smaller costs. The financial result was positive at all times indicating that selling waste for recycling could be profitable.
    Keywords: Recycling waste. Reverse Logistics. Maritime terminals. Brazilian Solid Waste Policy. Facility Location Problem.

  • Optimisation of Malachite Green Dye Removal on Spent Tea Leaves Bio-char Using Response Surface Methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Mardawani Mohamad, Rizki Wannahari, Nur Ir Imani Ishak, Rosmawani Mohammad 
    Abstract: Malachite green (MG) is a common dying agent used in various industries although it had brought detrimental effect towards the ecosystem. Thus, removal of malachite green from waste water is crucial to prevent environmental pollution. In this study, spent tea leaves (STL) bio-char was investigated to adsorb of malachite green dye in aqueous solution. The adsorption parameters were optimised by a combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD). Three independent process variables namely adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were selected as input parameters while the percentage of MG removal was considered as response. The most important effect on the bio-sorption performance was found to be the adsorbent dosage followed by the contact time. The effect of initial dye concentration was negligible within the experimental range. Quadratic model was chosen and studied using central composite design (CCD). The correlation coefficient, R2 for the quadratic model of MG removal (%) is 0.9854. The effect of the operating factors was investigated by analysing the 3D response surface graph. The optimum operating conditions for the removal of MG dye using STL bio-char were determined at 0.18 g adsorbent dosage, 46.92 mg/L of initial dye concentration and contact time of 56.16 minutes. At this optimum conditions, the percentage of MG removal up to 98.92 % with desirability of 1.000. The most significant factors affecting on MG removal were adsorbent dosage and contact time. Physical characterizations of MG dye, STL powder and STL bio-char were studied using FTIR analysis and SEM analysis. Thus, it can be concluded that STL bio-char can significantly be an alternative for the removal of MG dye from aqueous solution.
    Keywords: Spent tea leaves (STL) bio-char; Adsorption; Malachite green (MG); Respond Surface Methodology (RSM).

  • Adsorption efficiency of activated carbon produced from waste rubber tyres   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratima Jeetah, Karishma Buddynauth 
    Abstract: Activated carbons were prepared through chemical activation method using waste rubber tyres. Sieved rubber tyres were impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at a ratio of 4. The KOH/tyre slurry was carbonised in an inert atmosphere at 500-800 oC for 0-2 hours. The effect of different chemical activation parameters such as pyrolysis temperature and residence time on the surface area, carbon yield and ash content were investigated along with the methylene blue adsorption onto the activated carbon produced. This method could produce activated carbon with a Methylene Blue surface area and Methylene Blue adsorption efficiency as high as 1787 m2/g and 83% respectively and a lowest ash content of 3.26% at 700 oC and a residence time of 1 hour. Carbon yield decreases while ash content and surface area increases with an increase in carbonisation temperature. Methylene blue adsorption onto the activated carbon produced best fits the Langmuir isotherm.
    Keywords: Waste tyre; Chemical activation; Activated carbon; Adsorption Isotherm; Langmuir isotherm;.

    by Adilson Moacir Becker Júnior, Adriane Lawisch Rodríguez, Adan William Da Silva Trentin, Ênio Leandro Machado, Pâmela Andréa Mantey Dos Santos, Diosnel Antonio Rodríguez Lopez 
    Abstract: The present study aimed to develop a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of municipal solid waste management in Vera Cruz, RS, Brazil, to evaluate conventional waste management system, sorting of recyclable materials and composting treatment.; integrated waste management with sorting of recyclable and composting facilities; optimized integrated waste management for recyclable and composting assumptions (80% and 85%, respectively). Results show that in the optimized integrated waste management it is possible to reduce impacts in the global warming and acidification categories by 65% and 52%, respectively, whereas intermediate scenarios are projected to reduce these impacts by lesser amounts. Transportation and the final destination of the waste are among the waste management stages with the greatest environmental impacts. This LCA can quantify the magnitude of potential environmental impacts and may be used in decision-making process to identify the best scenario management.
    Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Life Cycle Assessment; Environmental Sustainability; Environmental Impact; Recycling; Composting; Environmental categories; global warming; decision-making; public strategies; Brazil.

  • Methodologies of E-Waste Recycling and Its Major Impacts on Human Health and the Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Nizam Uddin, Kunza Arifa, Eylem Asmatulu 
    Abstract: Each year, hundreds of thousands of consumer electronics, computers, monitors, phones, printers, televisions, and other portable devices become outdated, and were mainly dumped to the landfills or poorly recycled. Recent technological development and growing demands for new and better functioning electronics accelerate the amount of electronic waste (e-waste) worldwide, making it to be one of the fastest growing streams in many countries. The estimated lifespan of electronics is about three to five years because of the increasing rates of consumption, new developments and urbanization. E-waste contains many hazardous substances, such as halogenated compounds, heavy metals, radioactive substances, and micro and nano-size dusts all of which require proper handling during the storage, collection, recycling, and disposal stages. This paper highlights the latest developments on e-waste generation and streams, current recycling technologies, as well as human health and environmental impacts of recycling materials and processes. When e-waste is dumped to different landfills, storage sites and uncontrolled locations, these products are usually degraded and leaked to river beds, reservoirs, pounds, and farmlands where toxic chemicals contaminate the freshwater sources, vegetation for livestock and food products. This e-waste can eventually affect the natural flora, fauna as well as human health. The readers will find the new progress in these fields and protection methods.
    Keywords: Keywords: E-Waste; Recycle; Reuse; Health and Environmental Impacts; Sustainability; Economic Benefits.

  • Comparative analysis for seasonal performance of various sewerage treatment plants (STPs) in Delhi, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Prerna Sharma, Sudipta Mishra, Smita Sood 
    Abstract: Different Sewerage Treatment Plants (STPs) were evaluated for a period of 5 years to verify their performance in Delhi, India. It focuses upon the comparative analysis of the STPs to get the best STP among all in terms of its performance and to foresee the impact of seasonal variations affecting their performance. In order to figure out the seasonal performance of these STPs they were subjected to analytical analysis for pre and post monsoon months. Results revealed that Dr. Sen Nursing home STP have shown the best result out of all. Hence the best STP in terms of performance evaluation is Dr. Sen Nursing Home than Vasant Kunj Phase I than Okhla Phase-I STP.
    Keywords: Seasonal Variations; Sewerage Treatment Plants (STP’s); Densadeck/Biofor Technology; Extended Aeration Technology; Activated Sludge Process (ASP) Technology.

  • Decentralized Composting of Garden Waste in Modified Plastic Drums Waste and Product Characterization   Order a copy of this article
    by M.K. Manu, Rakesh Kumar, A. Garg 
    Abstract: Garden waste (GW) is one of the major constituents of municipal solid waste (MSW). The waste assists in aerobic composting of food waste as bulking agent and its characteristics can affect the MSW composting significantly. Therefore, the degradation pattern of locally generated GW during composting process was studied. Among major parameters, the average values of moisture content, carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and organic matter were found to be 39%, 18.21, and ~83%, respectively. Biological parameters, namely, lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose were found to be ~48%, 22% and 26%, respectively (on dry wt. basis). A lab scale GW degradation was carried out in control and modified composting drums (to facilitate natural air circulation) for 32 days period. Only partial decomposition of GW could be achieved despite modifying the drums. The formation of water-soluble compounds and reduction in aromaticity were confirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses.
    Keywords: Garden waste; Bulking agent; Composting drums; Lignocellulosic components; UV-Vis spectroscopy; FTIR analysis.

  • Recycling capacity through formal and informal activities in six cities in S   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernanda Luz, Marcus Castro, Ladislav Rozenský, Miroslav Hájek 
    Abstract: Sustainability of waste management practices is a multidimensional challenge faced by authorities worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries, where informal sector plays important role. In Brazil, municipal government is responsible for the solid waste management, but formal recycling is promoted by cooperatives supported by government and informal workers and enterprises also act on recycling activities. Effective data on the reality of waste flows within the municipalities are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze indicators for the comprehension of recycling capacity of six municipalities in the interior of S
    Keywords: Waste Indicators; Informal Sector; Recycling Rate; Informal Recycling Services; Solid Waste Management Modernization; Small Cities Solid Waste Management.

  • Medical Waste Management among Healthcare Workers: The Use of Educational Diagnosis Phase in the Precede planning model" among Health Care Workers in south of Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Maryam Changizi, Ahmad Badeenegad, Masomeh Alidosti 
    Abstract: Despite the fact that medical wastes constitute a relatively small part of the total waste produced in a community, management of these wastes is considered as an important issue and a serious problem for public health around the world. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the management behavior and disposal of medical wastes and its relationship with the factors affecting this event. This analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 200 workers in all health care centers and hospitals in in south of Iran, Shushtar city. The data gathering tool was a five-point researcher-made questionnaire that included: personal information, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors, attitude and performance. Data were analyzed using the independent t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics and regression in SPSS version 22. The mean age of the subjects was 35.1
    Keywords: PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model; Medical Waste Management; Behavior; Health Care Workers.

  • Genetic algorithm hybridized by local search to optimize containers cleaning tours of municipal waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Othmane EL YAAKOUBI, Meryam Benabdouallah, Chakib BOJJI 
    Abstract: Collection of municipal wastes is an important logistic activity within any city. After the collection operations a systematic cleaning of the waste containers is important for the public health because the containers become dirty. In this paper, we study the containers cleaning tours as a variant of Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window (VRPTW) which is concerned with finding cost optimal routes for vehicle. As solving approach, the Genetic Algorithm is adopted and then applied on a set of instances from the literature. The experiment results prove the efficiency of the proposed approach.
    Keywords: Municipal waste; containers cleaning tours; VRPTW; Genetic Algorithm.

  • Procedure for economic analysis of projects for selective collection of used PET bottles   Order a copy of this article
    by Darlene Gomes Baêta, Ricardo César Da Silva Guabiroba 
    Abstract: Empty PET bottles after consumption, without adequate disposal, have serious negative environmental impacts. Reverse logistics is a sustainable solution, by reinserting the material in the life cycle. This paper reports the development of a procedure for economic analysis to assess whether it is attractive for scavenger cooperatives to participate in a project for selective collection of used PET bottles, in two scenarios: collection with municipal public schools functioning as voluntary delivery points, and as incentivized exchange points (in return for a reward to the schools). The procedure was applied to evaluate a used PET bottle selective collection project in the municipality of Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The results indicate that the project is economically viable and attractive to the cooperative investigated. The project is also beneficial to the citys public schools when functioning as incentivized exchange points, by generating revenue to sponsor educational activities.
    Keywords: used PET bottles; economic analysis; collection points; scavenger cooperative; selective collection; recycling; reverse logistics; public schools; Rio de Janeiro State; sustainability.

    by Jomata Igben, Celestina Ihayere, Eghosa Igun 
    Abstract: This study aimed to examine solid waste generation and disposal as problems of urbanisation in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data utilized in the study were obtained from questionnaire administered on a sample selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. The questionnaire covered the typology of solid waste, disposal methods and community participation in waste management. This was complimented by physical examination of waste dumps and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with 15 selected community leaders. The study revealed that a variety of solid waste comprising of bio-degradable (68.8%) and non-degradable (32.2%) are generated by households and are disposed in unsustainable ways; manifested by the heaps of refuse in public places and natural features such as riverbanks and forests. In addition, there is a very low level of communal participation in waste management. The study recommends the planning and establishment of dumpsites, and education of the teeming population on the hazards of unsustainable disposal of solid waste.
    Keywords: Solid waste; Dump sites; Communal participation; Sustainability; Delta State.

    by Muhammad Shettima 
    Abstract: Abstract: The study shows an effective and sustainable alternative method of managing the growing greywater problems in Nigeria. Environmental pollution and health related problems as a result of poor greywater management have been a reality in many African countries. Greywater reclamation for non-potable reuse including toilet flushing, landscaping and agriculture is among the options to promote reduction in consumption of potable water and control to problems related to environmental pollution. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the treatment capability and performance of rice husk as an abundant agricultural by-product to develop greywater reclamation system in Gujba local area in Yobe state of Nigeria. The performance of this unconventional reclamation system shows that rice husk material is efficient to treat greywater to non-portable quality for domestic agriculture use in farming and livestock feeding.
    Keywords: Detergents; Grey water characteristics; Natural or waste material; Non-potable uses; Treatment systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10026671
  • A Review on Methods of Assessing Pollution Levels from Landfills in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Joan Nyika, Ednah Onyari, Mergersa Dinka, Shivani Mishra 
    Abstract: As a result of poor MSW management in South Africa, leachate generation has been reported in lined and unlined landfills, which calls for measures to quantify and safely return it to the environment without causing adverse effects on the facilities' vicinity. This paper presents a review of studies on leachate assessment and quantification in South African landfills. The use of pipes is discussed as an intrusive method while lysimetry, WBM, geoelectrical mapping and ICP-OES are discussed as non-intrusive methods. Findings of the review allude to the importance of advanced operations management, rehabilitation and redesigning of landfills for accurate quantification of generated leachate. Additionally, intensive research is necessary in this field to validate findings of existent studies and cover the under-researched areas of the country and sub-Saharan Africa at large. Moving forward, this review recognizes that accurate leachate quantification in landfills is a potential solution to deterring its migration and pollution to the environment.
    Keywords: Leachate quantification; Landfill; South Africa; Solid waste management; Pollution.

  • Management of dental waste in Shahrekord, Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Moayede Taie, Abdolmajid Fadaei 
    Abstract: Solid dental waste is a major contributor to the spread and development of diseases. This study was performed to determine the quality and quantity of solid dental waste and to evaluate management practices in dental offices of Shahrekord, Iran. Thirty general dental offices out of 49 dental centers in Shahrekord were randomly selected. The study was performed through observation, consultation, and evaluation of policies and regulations. Then, the wastes were classified based on their characteristics and hazard potentials. The findings showed that domestic and infectious waste accounted for the highest percentage of dental waste, while toxic and chemical/pharmaceutical waste was responsible for the lowest percentage in all offices. Domestic, infectious, chemical/pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes accounted for 69.7%, 22.5%, 7.2%, and 0.6% of all dental waste, respectively. Overall, no effective measures were taken in dental offices for waste separation, minimization, or recycling. Based on our findings, recycling/reuse is the optimal waste minimization method. Also, it is suggested to hold educational workshops in order to increase the staffs knowledge in dentistry care centers.
    Keywords: Dental waste; Infectious waste; Chemical and pharmaceutical waste; Toxic waste; Shahrekord.

    by Ubanwa Eze, Kola Ogedengbe, Emeka Ndulue 
    Abstract: The main objective of this study was out to characterize and determine the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. A total of 226 households and 4 major dumpsites drawn from 4 different local government areas (LGA) were sampled. Analyses carried out include physical composition, chemical composition, proximate and ultimate analysis on randomly selected samples according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Results obtained showed that waste generation rate in Ibadan metropolis is 0.63kg/capita/day. From the sampled households, through sorting and physical characteristics, the MSW is composed of food waste (53.53%), paper (23.22%), plastics (8.94%), wood (4.35%), rubber (2.22%), polythene (1.66%) and textile (1.66%). Also, the analysis showed a moisture content of 31% and a high percentage of organic matter because of the high proportion of food waste. The calorific value was determined to calculate its energy content and potentials. Calorific value of 12.6 MJ/Kg was obtained using the modified Dulong equation which is greater than the benchmark for assessing electricity potential from MSW. An estimated 1,124.7 tons/day was generated from landfills in central Ibadan in 2013. This translates to an energy potential of 3.6 GWh and 45.5 MW of electrical power potential which can 122.9*106 households outside of the national grid. We conclude that with appropriate technology (biochemical or thermochemical process) on MSW, it can help in waste management and electricity generation.
    Keywords: Energy recovery; Municipal solid waste (MSW); Ibadan.

  • Criteria for classification and destination of healthcare wastes with potential biological risk: comparison between Brazil and Portugal   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcos Mol, Noil Cussiol, Susana Paixao 
    Abstract: Healthcare wastes (HCW) have potential sources of disease spread, however only a small fraction presents a high potential risk. It is important for the scientific community to discuss topics about these risks. This study aims to evaluate the classification and destination of HCW in Brazil and in Portugal, with a particular focus on infectious wastes. A bibliographical research was carried out based on scientific papers and legal instruments about HCW management. Wastes with lower infectious hazard, A4 subgroup in Brazil, do not require previous treatment before final disposal. In Portugal, differences in classification system suggested that the Brazilian A4 subgroup is comparable with some wastes from patients rooms and health assistance areas, considered as high risk. These differences influence the management system, particularly in relation to infectious waste. Both Brazilian and Portuguese standards recommend safety during the management process, aiming at the protection involved workers.
    Keywords: Solid waste; Healthcare waste; Medical waste; Waste classification; Waste destination; Waste segregation; Legislation; Brazil; Portugal; Biological risk.

  • Innovative Urban Landscape Design of Riverfront Area in Kembang Jepun, Surabaya   Order a copy of this article
    by Bambang Soemardiono, Murni Rachmawati, Defry Agatha Ardianta 
    Abstract: Surabaya is a growing city of Kalimas river. The emergence of the river as the beginning of the development of the city of Surabaya is possible thanks to its function as a means of communication between up and downstream areas. At some points, the area around the river is used as open spaces that serves as a public space, but in the other points are not yet used optimally. One of them is the river area in Kembang Jepun area. This riverside area in north of Surabaya has several potentials especially related to its function of urban landscape elements and also accessibility and open spaces. Urban landscape is described as socio ecological systems where natural and social processes go together with the ecosystems (Andersson, E, 2006) and in respect of how cities developed over time and their relation to nature (Sherwood, R,). The purpose of this research is to develop urban landscape design innovation in riverfront area in Kembang Jepun. The analysis used in this research approach in sustainable development by giving priority to environmental, economy and social aspect in determining the innovative design for riverfront area. The important analysis tool that will be used is also Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and workshop to capture the aspirations of the community as an ideal riverfront public space.
    Keywords: aspirations; Kembang Jepun area; river; urban landscape.

  • Remediation of decay tanks for high-activity radioactive waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Josef Babor, Jakub Beinstein 
    Abstract: The paper aims to present the remediation of decay tanks for high-activity radioactive waste in
    Keywords: decay tank remediation; sanitation radioactive waste; liquidation contaminated fluid; solid waste; decontamination surfaces; radionuclide characterization; extraction high activity waste; decontamination; radiation protection; environmental monitoring;.

  • Modification of Adsorbent from Banana Peel for Lead Removal   Order a copy of this article
    by Nurafiqah Najwa Mat Zain, Yung-Tse Hung, Chee Sien Wong 
    Abstract: The efficiency of modified adsorbent produced from banana peel for the removal of lead from contaminated solution was studied in this paper. The banana peel was used as adsorbent because it contains functional groups that contribute to the adsorption of heavy metal. This paper focuses on the modification of adsorbent to increase the adsorption capacity for lead. The effects of different modification processes were studied and the results showed that the adsorption capacity of banana peel could achieve 3.46 mg/g via carbonization process at 700
    Keywords: adsorption; modification of adsorbent; lead; banana peel.

  • Management of Unused Pharmaceuticals Waste at Governmental Hospitals and Homes in Gaza, Palestine: Empirical Insights for Further Actions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Tabash, Mosab Tabash 
    Abstract: Unused pharmaceuticals management is highly complex for healthcare facilities. The improper management practices exhibit adverse impacts on the environment as well as on human health worldwide. This study aimed to assess management practices of unused pharmaceuticals at governmental hospitals and homes in Gaza Strip. The study was a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted at five main hospitals in Gaza and 88 interviewed questionnaires were obtained. A survey was carried out among 371 household participants from the community at the largest city of Gaza. The results revealed inadequate management of unused pharmaceuticals at governmental hospitals. There is limited training programs (9.1%) and absence of practical guidelines. Moreover, there is an inadequate segregation practice (33%). The only method used for treatment of hazardous waste is incinerators. Many types of unused pharmaceuticals are disposed in the landfill without any treatment (64.8%). The results from the household survey showed that more than half of the respondents have unused, leftover or expired medicines. Most of them was disposed through the general waste bins; however, 80.9% of respondents felt greater responsibility and willingness to participate in any future household unused pharmaceuticals collection/take back programs. This study clearly highlights the need for appropriate actions and measures for safe disposal of unused pharmaceuticals and planned methods for collecting unwanted pharmaceuticals from households.
    Keywords: Unused; Pharmaceuticals; Health; Environment; Hospitals; Household; Landfill; Disposal; Medicine; Expired.

  • Comparative optimization of biohythane production from starch wastewater by one-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Chakkaphop Warrajareansri, Jaruwan Wongthanate 
    Abstract: Now, energy crisis was the problem in the world. This research was study the biohythane production for renewable energy. The experiment was optimized using starch by one-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. For two-stage, the optimal conditions of biohythane production were pH 7.0, thermophilic temperature, C/N ratio 30 for a first step (hydrogen yield 63.65 mL H2/g COD) and pH 7.5, thermophilic temperature, C/N ratio 30 for a second step (methane yield 184.59 mL CH4/g COD). Furthermore, one-stage was achieved at an initial pH 7.5 under thermophilic temperature and C/N ratio 30 (methane yield 206.47 mL CH4/g COD). At optimal conditions, the maximum COD removal of two-stage (73.75%) was higher than that of one-stage (68.70%). Overall bioenergy recovery of two-stage was more generation than that of one-stage, including utilization of organic matter at the same time.
    Keywords: Biohythane production; Starch wastewater; pH; C/N ratio; One-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion.

  • Treatment Potential and Phytoextraction Capacity of Phramites australis in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Constructed Wetlands   Order a copy of this article
    by Catherine Githuku, Julius Ndambuki, Wanjala Salim, Badejo Adedayo 
    Abstract: Industries and mines are known to dispose wastewaters that contain heavy metals. When accumulated beyond permissible limits in the environment and in living organisms, heavy metals are known to cause toxicity. This study investigated the potential use of Phragmites australis in the removal of cadmium, chromium and lead from synthetic wastewaters using constructed wetlands (CW). CW units made of plastic containers with dimensions of 0.56 m in diameter and 0.70 m deep were set up, each unit containing a bottom layer of granite and a top layer of sandy soil. Phragmites australis was planted separately then intercropped with Vetiveria zizanioides, Typha latifolia and Cyperus latifolius. Water, plants and soil were sampled and analysed for heavy metals to determine metal concentrations and removal efficiencies and kinetics. The removal efficiencies of metals by P. australis were 96.66(+/-)0.76%, 96.22(+/-)1.61% and 76.08(+/-)3.27% for Cd, Cr and Pb respectively over a period of 6 days. The metal accumulation results showed that Cd, Cr and Pb accumulated in the P. australis organs in the order Roots> Stems > Leaves. P. australis can be considered as a good phytostabilizer for Cd, Cr and Pb. Experimental data of the 3 metals in both single- and multi-metal wastewaters fitted better in first order kinetic model compared to second order kinetic model. This study recommends further research into application of P. Australis in treatment of Cd, Cr and Pb polluted wastewaters.
    Keywords: Bioaccumulation factor; constructed wetlands; heavy metal accumulation; kinetic rate equations; Phragmites australis; synthetic wastewater; transfer factor.

  • Operational parameters optimization for simultaneous removal of two drugs in hospital wastewater RSM approach.   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadeem Ahmad Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Izharul Haq Farooqi, Sergij Vambol, Viola Vambol, Volodymyr Koloskov 
    Abstract: This paper addresses to the task of the simultaneous removal of two common types of drugs (Ibuprofen and Ofloxacin) through combined Electro-coagulation, Moving bed biofilm reactor followed with Ozonation treatment process. Using response surface methodology optimization of various operational parameters was observed including: hydraulic retention time; mixed liquor suspended solids; ozone consumption; time of ozone exposure; Manganese oxide concentration and their responses on Ibuprofen and Ofloxacin removal efficiencies. In optimization phase Central Composite Design was used and responses were maximized. From simulation data removal efficiency values of 92.89% and 94.04% were obtained for Ibuprofen and Ofloxacin respectively at Hydraulic retention time of 23.99 hrs., mixed liquor suspended solids of 2999.99 mg/L, ozone consumption of about 5.55 L/hrs with ozone exposure time of 16 minutes having optimum Mangenese oxide dose of 2.02 mg. Finally, the degraded by-products were also identified using gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis.
    Keywords: optimization; operational parameters; drugs removal; hospital wastewater; response surface methodology; antibiotics removal; photo-Fenton process; MBBR treatment; ozonation.

    by Sabrina Karim, Mohamed Imran Shah Mohd Shah, Norfateha Zakaria, Ahmad Naim Ahmad Yahaya, Yung- Tse Hung 
    Abstract: In Malaysia, food waste had become a significant problem. These recyclable natural waste resources are channelled towards the production of value-added products e.g. hydroxyapatite; which can be used as photo catalyst and many other applications. This study synthesized hydroxyapatite (HA,Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) powder from food waste using wet precipitation method. FTIR analysis was done on the synthesized hydroxyapatite powder, calcined samples and raw materials for each resource to study the functional group and the changes of composition in each sample. The LCA study done in this paper comprises of goal and scope definition, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment as well as interpretation of data. Based on the results obtained, FTIR analysis shows that the synthesized powder is indeed hydroxyapatite based on the presence of important feature such as CO32- , PO23- and OH group and egg shell is proven to be the eco-friendliest resource as the production process contributed only 1% to environmental impact
    Keywords: food waste; hydroxyapatite; calcination; life cycle analysis; wastewater.

  • Study of the primary compression of fresh Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Léa Beatriz Dai-Prá, Marcelo Oliveira Caetano, Luciana Paulo Gomes, Felipe Gobbi Silveira, Luciano Francisco Flores Rosa 
    Abstract: The study of the compressibility of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an essential factor that contributes for the prediction of consolidation in sanitary landfills. This study researched the primary compression of the fresh MSW, in the laboratory, applying recognized methodologies of soil mechanics. Compression tests were performed on bench scale, using samples with 50.14% (wet weight basis). The average density was 0.68
    Keywords: MSW; fresh Municipal Solid Waste; compressibility; laboratory; wet weight basis; specific gravity; primary compression of solid waste; primary compression index.

  • Efficient Approach for Improving Municipal Solid Waste Management in Oman Towards Sustainable Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed F.M. Abushammala, Wajeeha A. Qazi 
    Abstract: Sultanate of Oman faces the problem of rapid growth in waste generation, and other than limited recycling there are no waste treatment facilities where waste from landfills can be diverted. This situation demands for an optimum waste management plan to divert waste from landfills and to reduce the environmental impacts. In this study, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was utilized to incorporate the priorities of several criteria and four waste management scenarios into the hierarchy structure based on the preferences of experts and stakeholders. Different waste management plans are presented as alternate options to the current municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Oman. This study concludes that the economic and environmental criteria ranks the highest when deciding on the best waste management plan for Oman. The results show that scenario 2, which integrates incineration with the current practice of landfilling, is the optimal approach for the situation of Oman. Scenarios 2 and 3 that involved source separation of waste along with anaerobic digestion and recycling respectively, ranked in the middle; while the status quo presented in scenario 1 performed worst.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste management; analytical hierarchy process; multi criteria decision analysis; Oman waste generation; greenhouse gas; waste treatments; landfill; incineration; anaerobic digestion; recycling.

  • Design and optimization of high rate decentralized vermicomposting reactor for the household organic waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Chandrasekaran Ramprasad, Doppalapudi Alekhya 
    Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in the biggest challenge faced by many of the urban local bodies and other authorities. In the present study, the feasibility of the vermicomposting process in one of the apartments of Class II Indian cities was studied and analyzed to identify the key issues in solid waste management. The study also optimized the parameters like pH, temperature and moisture content for the ways to quicken the vermicomposting process. The household solid waste was characterized by two different economic classes for a period of two weeks. The average solid waste generation rate from the household was 0.339 kg/capita/day and it was composed of organic waste of 50%, inorganic portions like paper and plastic of 48% and household hazardous waste of 2%. The major portion of the household solid waste is the organic fraction and vermicomposting is one of the better options for treating it.
    Keywords: Organic waste; Eisenia fetida; vermicomposting; decentralized vermireactor; Co-processing.

  • The lignocellulolytic effect from newly wild white rot fungi isolated from Colombia.   Order a copy of this article
    by Cristian Javier Zambrano-Forero, Lina Rocío Dávila-Giraldo, Luis Oveimar Barbosa Jaimes, Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga, Gerardo Lucio Robledo, Walter Murillo Arango 
    Abstract: Lignocellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on the earth. It is the main agro-industrial waste component, it has no added value and, in some cases is the main cause of environmental problems. The fungi can be used in the transformation of residues and different biotechnological processes. In the present research, seven strains of white rot fungi collected in Ibagu
    Keywords: Lignocellulose; white-rot-fungi; FTIR; agro-industrial waste; cellulase; ligninase; solid fermentation.

  • Estimating the lifespan of the Bras   Order a copy of this article
    by Francisco Orlando Holanda Costa Filho, Marisete Dantas De Aquino, Francisco Humberto De Carvalho Júnior 
    Abstract: The environmental impact assessment report (EIAR) of the Bras
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste; MSW; Distrito Federal; environmental impact assessment report; EIAR; Pearson correlation; linear regression; simple regression; multiple regression; landfill; socioeconomic indicators; recycling rates; estimates; Shapiro-Wilk test; trend analysis.

  • Removal of 4-Nitrophenol from Aqueous Solution by Using Recycled Carbon Black (rCB) from Waste Tires   Order a copy of this article
    by Umi Fazara Md Ali 
    Abstract: The conversion of industrial waste into useful adsorbent for wastewater treatment is desirable as it promises cost-effective adsorbent and reduces waste productions at the same time. Adsorption of the 4-nitrophenol by recycled carbon black (rCB) and modified rCB (MCB) was investigated in this research to determine their adsorption capacity by varying various parameters: initial concentration, pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage. The surface morphology, surface chemistry, iodine adsorption number and ash content of both samples were also analyzed. The adsorption characteristic of 4-Nitrophenol was determined by equilibrium and kinetic studies. Equilibrium isotherm was tested by using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity of 4-nitrophenol onto rCB and MCB was found to be 7.46 mg/g and 21.83 mg/g respectively. The adsorption kinetic data of both rCB and MCB fit better to Pseudo-Second-Order kinetic model. This study also demonstrated the MCB adsorbent better capability to remove 4-nitrophenol compounds in the neutral and basic environment.
    Keywords: waste tire; carbon black; KOH impregnated; 4-nitrophenol; adsorption.

  • Reuse Potencial of Mature Leachate After Application or Isolated and Combined Advanced Oxidative Processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Samara Teixeira Pereira, Elisângela Maria Rodrigues Rocha, Romildo Henriques Dos Anjos Júnior 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to analyze the reuse potential of leachate from a mature landfill treated by advanced oxidative processes. Where tested three treatment routes: H2O2/UV-C followed by solar photoFenton; H2O2/UV-C followed by Fenton and solar photoFenton isolated. The leachate treated by the three analyzed routes can be reused as nonpotable water for urban, environmental and aquaculture purposes. The treatments improved the quality of the treated leachate with removals of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and thermotolerant coliform 90%, 70% and 100%, respectively. The isolated solar photoFenton route resulted in better quality treated leachate in terms of COD, turbidity, sludge volume, nitrate concentration and residual H2O2. Therefore, it was concluded that leachate reuse can improve urban solid waste management and that isolated solar photoFenton provided better results using a natural radiation source to increase the efficiency of the photocatalytic process, allowing the operational costs of to be reduced.
    Keywords: Recalcitrant effluents. Photo-Fenton. Peroxide. Ultraviolet Radiation. Solar Energy. Reuse.

  • CFD Simulated model and Experimental tests for Critical Depth and Flowrate Estimation over a Broad-Crested Weir under the Longitudinal Slope Effect   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadiq Muhson, Zainab Al-sharify 
    Abstract: A weir is a small overflow dam used to alter the flow characteristics of river or stream. It can be used as a water measurement device in irrigation canals. This work consists of an experimental approach using rectangular broad-casted weirs having varied edge geometries for investigating the longitudinal slope effect on the relationship between the weir center depth and the critical depth. Based on this relationship, the statistical regression analysis method was used to derive a new and precise formula to estimate the flowrate over square and rounded broad-crested weirs. In all cases, the depth at the center of the weir was considered as the control section. In general, it was found that the longitudinal slope So has a significant effect on the relationship between the critical depth and the depth at the center of the square broad crested weir. Also, the longitudinal slope So has an insignificant effect on the relationship between the critical depth and the depth at the center of the weir. Consequently, the longitudinal slope also has an insignificant effect on the flowrate estimation formula. Computational fluid dynamic model using FLUENT ANSYS version 16 was also designed and operated to simulate the problem based on the VOF method multidimensional two phase flow model and standard k~? method. The model provided a very good simulation of the problem for the new flowrate formula and the existing pressure head at the center of the weir. Comparing the computed flowrate using the new formula with respect to the actual experimental tests and the results of the simulation model gave a very good agreement results.
    Keywords: Rectangular broad-crested weir; Discharge coefficient; Dimensional analysis; Subcritical flow conditions; CFD.

  • Review of Waste Strategy Documents in Australia: Analysis of Strategies for Construction and Demolition Waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Salman Shooshtarian, Tayyab Maqsood, Peter Wong, Malik Khalfan, Rebecca Yang 
    Abstract: The construction industry in Australia has grown significantly in the past two decades in the wake of population growth, migration and expansion in the tertiary education industry. The growing population has necessitated extensive property development, better public transport and improved infrastructure. To achieve all of this, construction activities have been on rise; resulting in a significant growth in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation. However, the management of C&D waste has presented issues that have proven impact on the Australian society, environment and economy. Therefore, this review study is conducted to investigate how C&D waste is dealt in eight jurisdictions of Australia. This study reviewed the strategies recommended in waste strategy documents in these jurisdictions. Particularly, the study reviewed waste recycling and recovery targets, illegal dumping and stockpiling, extended producer responsibility, definition of waste versus resource; use of C&D recycled waste, and energy from waste extraction. The results of this review have provided an insight into the approach taken in the Australian context to deal with C&D waste stream.
    Keywords: Australian jurisdiction; legislation; construction industry; environmental protection authority.

  • Characteristics of sewage sludge and its potential applications in the construction industry: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Kumar. A 
    Abstract: The treatment of wastewater in sewage treatment plants results in a by-product called sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has limited practical applications and hence its disposal is becoming a major environmental problem around the world. Over the years, sewage sludge has been used to recover energy, heavy metals and in agriculture after undergoing various treatment processes. In recent times, sewage sludge is being used in the construction industry to reduce the exploitation of natural resources. Based on the previously published research articles, treated sewage sludge has been used as lightweight coarse aggregate, as a pozzolanic material, in the manufacturing of cement and also in the production of bricks and cement blocks respectively. The applications are economically viable and help in the effective disposal of sewage sludge. Therefore, a critical review of the potential application of sewage sludge in the construction industry is presented in this article.
    Keywords: Sewage sludge; sewage sludge disposal; sewage sludge ash; lightweight aggregate; incineration; sludge ceramics; sludge eco-cement.

  • Separation of Bisphenol A from Aqueous Solution by using Data from Ternary Equilibrium Systems of Bisphenol A -Water - Solvents composed of Butan-1-ol, Cyclohexanol and Cyclohexane   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The present study shows how to remove Bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solution using different sorts of solvents. To do so, liquid-liquid equilibrium data were obtained for ternaries systems of Bisphenol A-Water-Solvents using Butan-1-ol, Cyclohexanol and Cyclohexane as solvents in order to study the possible distribution of Bisphenol A in these solvents compared to water. The mutual solubility curves, tie-lines data, distribution coefficients, selectivity diagram and separation factors were determined for these three aqueous systems. The distribution coefficients show that all the three solvents are suitable to extract Bisphenol A, with a high potential ability for the Cyclohexanol. But regarding the separation factors, Butan-1-ol presents the high value, indicating its potential ability to separate Bisphenol A from water. This has been confirmed by the study of the selectivity diagram. The thermodynamic consistency of the equilibrium tie-lines data was ascertained by Othmer - Tobias and Hand plots.
    Keywords: Bisphenol A; Ternary System; Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data; Separation Factor.

    by Smita Sharma, Naresh Dutt Mathur 
    Abstract: The increased mismanagement of municipal waste has led to the deterioration of the environment in various areas. The smart city of Jaipur is also facing the wrath of failure to manage its ever-increasing municipal solid waste. The present study attempts to assess the ground water quality around open dumpsite at Mathuradaspura. Twenty-five grab samples were collected from the areas around this dumpsite. The study revealed that there were significant deviations of almost all the parameters from standards. The pH levels were found to be in the range of 6.3 to 7.7,Electrical Conductivity (EC)was found to be between 65-287
    Keywords: Open Dumpsite; Mismanagement; Ground Water Quality; Jaipur; Solid Waste Management; Physico-chemical analysis; communities; health hazards.

  • Managing sewage sludge and pine needles through anaerobic co-digestion in hilly terrain: A lost cost approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashish Kumar 
    Abstract: The Pine Needles (PNs) and Sewage Sludge (SS) have a significant amount of biodegradable due to this highly susceptible to pollute the environment. Both the wastes can be managed via anaerobic digestion. However, the low ambient temperature in hilly areas can affect the digestion process. Therefore, to determine their anaerobic digestibility in hilly terrain two digesters were examined: one with mono- anaerobic digestion of SS and another one with co-digestion of SS with PNs. It was found that co-digestion yielded 40.93% more biogas than that mono-digestion of SS. Cumulative methane yield of 158.6 mL g-1VSadded and 268.45 mL g-1VSadded was obtained from SS and co-digestion of SS-PNs, respectively. During the experiment, a reduction of 26.7% and 35% COD and VS for SS and 30 and 34% COD and VS for SS-PNs were reported, respectively. To study the anaerobic digestibility various mathematical models and one kinetic model were also used. This study concludes that PN and SS can be managed through anaerobic digestion however their co-digestion is highly recommended.
    Keywords: Pine needle; sewage sludge; biogas; methane potential; co-digestion.

  • Enhancing climate action at grassroots levels in least developed countries: Unlocking bio-briquetting opportunities for communities in Wajir, Vihiga, Kitui, and Kajiado Counties in Kenya   Order a copy of this article
    by Raphael Otakwa 
    Abstract: This paper reports on the existing opportunities in the arena of bio-briquetting of agricultural waste, for provision of clean energy for use in cooking, increased economic activity, and greater contribution to climate change action for grassroots communities in the Least Developed Countries. Grassroots communities bear the starkest brunt from climate change, but also appreciably contribute to the problem through their activities like deforestation, land-use changes, and cooking using fuelwood. Bio-briquettes from agricultural residues could help to mitigate this. Inadequate data on this, however, hampers informed action on the matter. In this work, feedstock from agricultural residues sourced from Wajir, Vihiga, Kitui, and Kajiado were prioritized based on their ability to produce attractive and competitive bio-briquettes and used to make bio-briquette pellets that were studied to establish their calorific values using a bomb calorimeter. Feedstock sourced from Wajir, Vihiga, Kitui, and Kajiado Counties had calorific values ranging from 32 kCal/kg to 4523 kCal/kg for banana peels and groundnut husks, 2970 kCal/kg and 4381 kCal/kg for banana peels and sugarcane bagasse, 2910 kCal/kg and 4694 kCal/kg for tobacco waste and cotton stalks, and 3110 kCal/kg and 4100 kCal/kg for vegetable waste and wheat straw, respectively. Mixing feedstock that lead to bio-briquettes of low calorific values with those that produce bio-briquettes of high calorific values helped to improve the heating values of the bio-briquettes with low calorific values. These findings are valuable toward improving the heating values of bio-briquettes made out of feedstock that are most common in targeted grassroots communities but which produce bio-briquettes of low heating values.
    Keywords: bio-briquetting; climate action; sustainable development; poverty alleviation; grassroots.

  • Influence of personal value orientations on pro-environmental behaviour: A case of green shopping bags   Order a copy of this article
    by Asphat Muposhi, Mercy Mpinganjira, Marius Wait 
    Abstract: Limited success has been reported thus far on the effectiveness of government interventions such tax in promoting the use of green shopping bags in developing countries. This study employs the value-belief-norm theory to examine whether personal values influence the use of green shopping bags in South Africa. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from a sample of consumers drawn from South Africans Gauteng province. Structural equation modelling results identified biospheric value as the major predictor of new ecological paradigm. The relationship between altruistic value and new ecological paradigm was found to be insignificant. Awareness of consequences was found to be a significant predictor of ascription of responsibility. Furthermore, personal norm managed to explain a significant variance in the behaviour of using green shopping bags. The findings of this study support the use of personal values in formulating policies aimed at promoting the use of green shopping bags.
    Keywords: single-use plastic shopping bags; green shopping bags; value-belief-norm theory; South Africa.

  • The Municipal Solid Waste Disposal of Okhla Landfill in Delhi: Locating Legal Framework and Institutional Responses   Order a copy of this article
    by Stellina Jolly, Nafees Ahmad 
    Abstract: It is estimated that out of the 9,600 tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated by Delhi only 78% of the waste is collected, 9% is treated by composting, and the remaining gets dumped in one of the three (Okhla, Ghazipur, Bhalswa) open landfill sites located at the outskirts of Delhi. The present article stems out of the assessment of the practice of solid waste management at Okhla Landfill site based on the field study, including survey analysis and primary data collection and investigation. The article looks into the legislative framework and judicial interventions to modernize and organize the waste disposal system on scientific lines. The outcomes of the present study demonstrate that decentralization, capacity building, and access to the sharing of waste management knowledge, holds the crucial driver for sustainable waste management.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste Management; Landfill Waste Disposal; Environmental Justice; Waste Management Legal Framework; Central Pollution Control Board.

  • IoT-enabled Tip and Swap Waste Management Models for Smart Cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Theodoros Anagnostopoulos, Arkady Zaslavsky, Klimis Ntalianis, Christos Anagnostopoulos, S. R. Jino Ramson, Parth Jatinkumar, Sara Behdad 
    Abstract: Current technical advances in sensors, actuators, and wireless networks enable the Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Key features of IoT are the 'smart things, which have significant computational capabilities. In this paper we focus on waste management using dynamic allocation of collection and transfer points with subsequent transporting of waste to processing facilities. Waste management involves a variety of tasks from the collection of the waste in the field to the transport and disposal to the appropriate locations. The proposed waste management system contributes to innovative Smart City (SC) applications with impact in the dynamic allocation management of mobile depots in the SC. We propose a set of models, which advocate for replacing traditional way of tipping waste into larger containers by swapping full waste bins with empty ones. We also propose the concept of mobile depots as intermediate collection and transfer points. Quantitative and qualitative metrics to assess the efficiency of the proposed models are used. We incorporate the CT, TT, L, D and F quantitative metrics and the S qualitative metric. The S metric takes as input the values of the quantitative metrics and gives an output of high or low satisfaction. The models demonstrate their efficiency and potential adoption by SCs.
    Keywords: Smart Cities; Internet of Things; Tip Models; Swap Models; Waste Management System.

  • Smart waste management paradigm in perspective of IoT and forecasting models   Order a copy of this article
    by MOHD ANJUM, Sana Shahab, Mohammad Sarosh Umar 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste management has evolved as a major component of smart city services that encompasses a variety of tasks from household collection to final disposal/recycling. This paper critically discusses, firstly, mathematical and statistical aspect of solid waste management services in the direction of smart city development. Secondly, it proposes novel and intelligent waste management architecture through adoption of state of the art Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Mathematical and statistical aspect covers the comprehensive information of forecasting models. This paper classifies the models on the basis of influencing factors (socio-economic and demographic), planning period (short, medium and long) and ranking methods in order to foresee the amount of waste generated. Moreover, validation of the model is proposed to identify how well a model and associated data accurately forecasts the amount of waste generated for the actual solid waste management system. Accurate prediction of solid waste amount plays a crucial role in waste collection and disposal system planning and serves as a backbone data for municipal solid waste framework designer. The synergetic categorization of models expedites the decision makers and researchers to identify crucial influencing factors that help in developing the mathematical model. Recent research indicates that there is a paradigm shift towards the new era of integration of IoT, intelligent software and web technologies. New intelligent software and highly reliable physical sensing smart devices with versatile functionalities are used to create an efficient integrated platform of desired functionalities. This paper emphasizes on adoption of IoT technologies in proposed waste management architecture and a comprehensive and thorough survey of IoT technologies is also presented to explore their characteristics and applications in waste management system. Further, an intelligent waste management architecture is proposed for real-time monitoring of smart bin, collecting vehicle, dynamic scheduling, and route optimization. This new type of monitoring framework is based on static data, real-time wireless sensor network data and optimization algorithm. Primarily, smart bin has inbuilt sensors to sense status, a GPS module, and a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag for location tracking and authentication. The smart bin coordinates with the server to update status in real-time via general packet radio service module when any change occurs. This real-time information, along with bin static parameters and global information system software, can be used to carry out vehicle route optimization and dynamic scheduling.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Smart bin; Smart vehicle; Work Server; Spatial technology; Internet of Things technologies; Dynamic Scheduling and Routing.

  • Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on sugarcane bagasse to enhance the production of hydrogen and organic acids   Order a copy of this article
    by Lais Americo Soares, Camila Abreu Borges Silva Rabelo, Paulo Seleguim Jr, Maria Bernadete Amancio Varesche 
    Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was characterized as a feedstock to generate value-added products using hydrothermal pretreatments (150-210
    Keywords: Bioenergy; Lignocellulosic biomass; Liquid Hot Water.

  • Environmental, Socio-economic, and Human Health Impact of Illegal Waste Disposal in Katutura Township of Namibia   Order a copy of this article
    by Omotayo Awofolu, Immanuel Zeriapi 
    Abstract: Inappropriate waste management practices such as illegal disposal of wastes can seriously jeopardise the socio-economic dynamics and well-being of people in communities. This study investigated the impact of illegally disposed solid wastes in Katutura, a densely populated township in Windhoek, Namibia. The research was descriptive, using mixed methods that involved qualitative and quantitative analysis. A total of two hundred and thirty-four (234) structured and self-administered questionnaires were received from participants and responses therein were processed and analysed. Results showed that (51.7%) of respondents acknowledged the detrimental impact on illegally disposed wastes on human and environmental health. About (80.1%; 189) further attested to the impact on quality of life and socio-economic activities (119, 53.4%) in the communities. In terms of the attitude of perpetrators of this illegal practice, respondents believed that they simply do not care (38.9%) and that lower educational attainment (49.1%) was also a contributing factor. In order to curtail and discourage the habit of illegal wastes disposal, recommendations include increase in the frequency of waste collection 52 (50.5%), introduction of waste recycling initiatives in communities. Not surprising though, a high number of respondents (172, 73.5%) did not support the privatisation of the solid wastes management process.
    Keywords: Environment; solid wastes; illegal; disposal; Unauthorised; human health; Communities; Katutura; Township; Windhoek.

    by Bambang Soemardiono 
    Abstract: The area in North Gresik, East Java is selected site by local Government to be erica campus which combine education, research and agro industry in one campus. The planned erica campus therefore should be specific, combination between education, research in a agro techno park and have a unique character with special needs and also sustainable. The site and its elements of landscape which is consist of land, surface- and groundwater, climate, vegetation and fauna in the Erica campus play an important role in developing circulation system, building mass as well as green open space.rnSupported by external factors such as future infrastructure and easy accessibility, it is also important to identify what are the important landscape elements which should be considered in this thematic cluster and what kind of criteria should be developed in a long term. rn
    Keywords: erica campus;Indonesia;landscape elements;north Gresik.

  • Hydrogen production potential comparison of sucrose and crude glycerol using different inoculums sources   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Cristina De Almeida Silva, Luiz Olinto Monteggia 
    Abstract: The hydrogen production potential from crude glycerol was evaluated using a batch test, at four different food microrganisms ratios (F/M) and the results were compared with sucrose, a substrate considered a degradation model. It was used two different inoculums, one generated by natural fermentation of the used substrates and the other by direct inoculum, using pretreated anaerobic sludge. The obtained results indicated low hydrogen potential production using natural inoculum. The predominant volatile fatty acids (VFA) were acetic and butyric acids, and when used direct inoculation, the acidification degree reached of up to 50%. The productivities were close to and even higher than those obtained with sucrose, with direct inoculum, reaching a maximum value of 8.5 mL H2/L·h at F/M 2. It was observed a decrease of the crude glycerol conversion efficiency when higher F/M ratios were used, possible by high concentrations of glycerol cause an inhibitory effect on H2 production.
    Keywords: hydrogen production; crude glycerol and sucrose comparison; natural and direct inoculation; volatile fatty acids production; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027830
  • Biodegradation of purified terephthalic acid manufacturing effluent from a petrochemical industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Josephine Antonette Sophia Amalorpavanathan, Yamini Shah, Chandraprakash Gocher, Sunil Soni, Kalpana Gopalakrishnan, Rakshvir Jasra 
    Abstract: Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is the raw material for polyester fibres, plastics, coating and adhesives. Its manufacture generates large volumes of effluent with high concentration of terephthalic acid (500-600 ppm), a critical pollutant. In this study a mixed culture made up of five types of bacteria, derived from the effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge was used to aerobically treat the PTA effluent, removing all the benzoates [4-carboxybenzyl alcohol, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 4-carboxy benzaldehyde (4-CBA), benzoic acid, p-toluic acid and trimellitic acid] which contribute to its chemical oxygen demand (COD). The study included optimisation of pH (6­9), pH neutralisers and biomass concentration (≥2,000 ppm Mixed liquor suspended solids) for achieving 94–95% COD removal in 72–96 h, the results being supported by HPLC analysis. Metals (Co, Mn and Mg) reduced significantly (88%, ~100% and 83%, respectively), being utilised for growth or getting sequestered in the biomass. Characterisation of the five pure cultures was carried out.
    Keywords: purified terephthalic acid; PTA; wastewater; biodegradation; ETP sludge; chemical oxygen demand; COD; HPLC; pH neutraliser.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027831
  • Hydraulic and volume change characteristics of compacted clay liner blended with exfoliated vermiculite   Order a copy of this article
    by Dharmil Baldev, Apurv Kumar, Pavan Chauhan, M. Muthukumar, Sanjay Kumar Shukla 
    Abstract: Clays are used for the construction of waste containment barriers, because of its low hydraulic conductivity. Due to the difficulty in obtaining the natural clay satisfying the essential requirement as a liner material; commercially available bentonites are being used for the construction of clay liners. Bentonite undergoes large volume changes upon saturation. Various physical and chemical stabilisation techniques are in practice to stabilise the bentonite. Previous studies reported that contaminants with high concentrations attack clay minerals leading to increase in their permeability. Exfoliated vermiculite, finds several applications in construction industry, also found to be good absorbent material. Hence, this study has been carried out to find the optimal percentage of vermiculite that can be added to the bentonite so that it satisfies the essential requirements of clay liners and absorb the heavy metals from contaminants. Several index properties and engineering properties tests on bentonite-vermiculite mixtures were performed. From the studies, it was found that 30% of vermiculite can be added to bentonite, so that the essential requirements of liner can be maintained.
    Keywords: clay liner; exfoliated vermiculite; stabilisation; sand-bentonite mixtures; waste containment system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027832
  • Estimation of fate of sulfamethoxazole in soil by adsorption test and diffusion cell test - a comparative analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Neelancherry Remya, Ankit Singh 
    Abstract: The present study investigated adsorption of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), one of the antibiotics of sulfonamide group, in three soils by adsorption and diffusion cell test. The removal efficiency of SMX by adsorption in soil-1,-2 and -3 were 80.16%, 23.39% and 15.51% when the organic matter (OM) content was 6.05%, 9.22% and 11.10% respectively. The respective maximum adsorption capacities estimated by adsorption test in the three soils were 3.31, 3.13 and 2.47 mg/g. On the other hand, the corresponding adsorption capacity obtained by the diffusion cell test was 0.016, 0.010, 0.008 mg/g, which showed 15 to 30 times decrease compared to the estimated values by adsorption test. The adsorption results showed a weak interaction and negative correlation of SMX with OM. The retardation factor of SMX in the three soils-1, -2 and -3 were respectively 181.32, 47.26 and 34.04. At SMX concentration greater than 10 mg/L, leaching of SMX increased with increase in pH due to increased hydrophilicity resulted by speciation of SMX.
    Keywords: sulfamethoxazole; soil; adsorption; isotherm; adsorption capacity; central composite design; response surface methodology; diffusion coefficients; organic matter; pH; retardation factor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027829
  • Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of environmental deterioration and identification of impacts due to irregular occupations at the margins of the Capibaribe River, city of São Lourenço DA MATA/PE   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Júlia De Oliveira Holanda, Diogo Henrique Fernandes Da Paz, Kalinny Patrícia Vaz Lafayette, Tiana Cibele Fagundes Ximenes 
    Abstract: Disorganised urban occupation in the surrounding river regions has had many negative impacts on natural systems and human populations. The Capibaribe River in the city of São Lourenço da Mata, in Pernambuco, suffers from these environmental impacts. The objective of this research was to carry out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of Environmental Impacts in an irregularly occupied section in the margin of the Capibaribe river, in São Lourenço da Mata / PE, through bibliographic research, characterisation of the area, data collection and development of interaction matrices for analysis of identified impacts. 36 sites of irregular occupations were identified in the area considered as permanent preservation areas, indicating non-compliance with environmental laws. The negative impacts were predominant in relation to the positive impacts. The impacts to the anthropic environment can be considered mainly as direct and local and the impacts on the biotic environment can be interpreted mainly as reversible.
    Keywords: irregular occupation; environmental impacts; permanent preservation areas.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027833
  • Assessment of heavy metals in simulated leachates and the ashes of end-of-life tyres   Order a copy of this article
    by Adebola A. Adeyi, Peter O. Oladoye 
    Abstract: Tyres are rubber-based materials with a complex structure. This study assesses the levels of heavy metals in simulated leachate of end-of-life tyres (EoLT) and its ashes. Two passenger car and motorbike tyres and their ashes were subjected to TCLP, SPLP and DIN Batch test to simulate their environmental impacts. Heavy metals in the simulated leachates and ashes were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion of the samples. Heavy metals concentrations varied with the types and quality of the tyres. Zinc concentrations was the highest among the heavy metals determined. The concentrations of heavy metals in the TCLP leachates of EoLT ranged from 0.02-0.06 mg/L Cu, 3.13-5.86 mg/L Zn, 0.004-0.03 mg/L Cd, Not detected (ND)-0.04 mg/L Cr, and 0.08-0.13 mg/L Pb. This showed that EoLT are potential source of heavy metals loading in the environment. Thus, the need for their appropriate management is imperative.
    Keywords: end-of-life tyres; environmental pollution; simulated leachate; ash; heavy metals; assessment; TCLP; SPLP; DIN batch leachate; MSW; co-disposal; stock pilling; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027834
  • Decolourisation of malachite green dye by potassium carbonate-treated kernel shell adsorbent   Order a copy of this article
    by Aw Yeong Pei-Yee, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini 
    Abstract: The present study attempts to utilise potassium carbonate-treated kernel shell adsorbent for the decolourisation of malachite green solution. The adsorbent was characterised using FESEM, surface area analyser and FTIR. The bottle-point-technique was used to evaluate the adsorptive characteristics of kernel shell adsorbent. Results show that the equilibrium data are better represented by the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum malachite green removal of 15 mg/g. The pseudo-first-order model fitted well to the kinetics data, suggesting the diffusion-type adsorption of malachite green onto the kernel shell adsorbent. The chemically-treated kernel shell adsorbent is a potential candidate for the decolourisation of cationic dye in water.
    Keywords: adsorbent; chemical treatment; decolourisation; malachite green; palm kernel shell.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027835
  • Analysis of volumetric variation and specific deformation of municipal solid waste in experimental lysimeters   Order a copy of this article
    by Rômulo De Medeiros Caribé, Libânia Da Silva Ribeiro, Cláudio Luis Araujo Neto, Raul Batista Araujo De Sousa, Breno Moura De Araújo Nóbrega, Márcio Camargo De Melo, William De Paiva, Veruschka Escarião Dessoles Monteiro 
    Abstract: Problems involving operations, stability and deformability are common in landfills. In most cases, they occur due to high content of organic matter present in the waste mass. The objective of this research was to study the volumetric and specific deformation of municipal solid waste (MSW) using experimental lysimeters at different scales, with high and low concentrations of organic waste. The MSW sample was obtained from the city of Campina Grande-PB. Three experimental lysimeters were manufactured: two bench-scale lysimeters and one pilot-scale lysimeter. The monitoring of settlements was carried out by in situ measurements. The top layer of the pilot lysimeter showed the greatest loss of volume (0.45 m3) over the period of 91 days. The bench lysimeter BL-OW provided massive volumetric deformation over time insofar as it had high concentrations of organic waste. Through this study, it could be inferred that small scale lysimeters can improve degradation.
    Keywords: gravimetric composition; volumetric composition; vertical deformation; municipal solid waste; MSW.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027837

Special Issue on: Sustainable Computing for Waste Management and Systems

  • A comparative study of grey water generated from commercial and residential buildings   Order a copy of this article
    by Shamim Shaukat Khan, Shifana Fatima Kaafil 
    Abstract: A comprehensive study is undertaken to compare the characteristics of grey water (GW) samples collected from the kitchen line of a commercial and residential building located in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The various characteristics of the samples analysed in this paper are pH, conductivity, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness, temporary hardness, permanent hardness, chloride and biological oxygen demand (BOD). This study is useful to determine the type of treatment process for kitchen line GW because it depends largely on its characteristics in terms of the pollutant strength.
    Keywords: grey water; pollutant strength; commercial and residential buildings.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2020.10027836

Special Issue on: ICSET 2018 Sustainable Management, Engineering and Technology - Part A

    by Amin Safwan Alikasturi, Muhammad Izzuddin Mokhtar, Muhammad Asyraf Zainuddin, Magdalyn Empina Serit, Nur Syafiiqah Abdul Rahim, Shahrulzaman Shaharuddin, Mohd. Razealy Anuar 
    Abstract: An eco-friendly bioremediation technology that removes heavy metals and contaminants in soil and water using plants is known as Phytoremediation. It has been an effective and affordable remediation method to absorb contaminants. Hence, this paper aims to analyse the ability of two plants to absorb lead (Pb) in three types of water i.e.; distilled, mineral and surface water. Two green plants used in this research were, Nappier grass (Pennisetum Purpureum) and Red Scallion (Allium Fistulosum). The plant were grown for 14 days in the water-only medium and a portion Pb(NO3)2 solution were added as a lead contaminant. The research were carried out in a fume cupboard with a tungsten bulb as a light source. The light intensity, humidity, temperature and concentration of Pb(NO3)2 were monitored. The lead concentration were measured by analyzing the lead content in liquid sample taken from the beaker where the plants were grown. The concentration of lead in the water were analysed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) at 283.3 nm wavelength. In 14 days of experiment, the highest rate of lead absorbed was achieved by using Pennisetum Purpureum plant in distilled water, which is 2.188 ppm/day. However, the Pennisetum Purpureum showed the highest amount of lead removed (86.99%) in surface water. While for, Allium Fistulosum plant, the highest rate of lead absorbed was found by using distilled water (1.322 ppm/day). The Allium Fistulosum showed the highest amount of the lead removed (49.22%) in distilled water. Additionally, plants named Mung bean (Vigna Radiata) and (Allium Schoenoprasum) were also studied and were unable to absorb the lead contaminant under the same experimental procedures.
    Keywords: Absorption; Heavy metal; Lead; Phytoremediation; Water;.

    by Siti Nor Hidayah Arifin, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Norehan Rohaizad Ismail, Adel Al-Gheethi, Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim 
    Abstract: Direct discharge of domestic greywater to the ditches without any treatment affects the environment. Therefore, an investigation was conducted to assess the greywater quantity at the village areas based on the household activities and to analyse the effects of different greywater sources to drainage using loading rates while calculating the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) level by Streeter-Phelps equation. Three houses with different number of households were chosen for data collection. The greywater discharged from different sources (kitchen, bathroom and laundry) were measured at peak hours within 5 days (weekdays and weekend) by using grab method. The samples from nearby water body were taken for analysis of DO and measurements of flowrate for Streeter-Phelps equation. Overall, the greywater of bathroom from House A was higher with the average of 263.5 L/day followed by kitchen and laundry sources with the average of 133.04 L/day and 52.14 L/day respectively. Total pollutant produced by greywater from kitchen source according to the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) loading rate was observed to be high for House A, B and C with the BOD loading rates of 302.1, 194.9 and 274.2 kg/day, respectively. From Streeter-Phelps modelling, the value of measured DO at point source showed a low level of oxygen which was 3.29 mg/L. However, the values were increased along the stretch of the stream as a result of self-purification of the stream. Therefore, this study was expected to give benefits to local authority as their references or guidelines in greywater planning system.
    Keywords: Greywater quantity; Household activities; Stream; Water contamination; Water quality.

    by Yashni Gopalakrishnan, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed 
    Abstract: Direct discharge of bathroom greywater (BGW) with high content of chemical derivatives from soap and detergent products may alter the receiving environment. Therefore, this research was undertaken to study the quality and effects of BGW and treat the BGW by solar water distillation (SWD). Three samples of BGW were taken at the study area and designated as House A, House B, and House C. Testing of the soil was conducted prior to the irrigation using greywater to specify the soil characteristics. Towards the end of this study, chemical properties of the soil (pH) and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. Other calculated parameters were cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of the soil. SWD treatment was tested for pH, Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) of the BGW. The pH of the soil before irrigation was 3.22
    Keywords: bathroom greywater; soil; properties; effects; solar water distillation.

    by Shahrulzaman Shaharuddin 
    Abstract: The production of the cassava chips as a type of snack to satisfy demands from consumers is growing from time to time. In Malaysia, this snack industry has contributed to increasing the demand for oil-palm based cooking oil, which is commonly used in deep frying processes. However, usage of the cooking oil in high volumes during a deep-frying process may lead to high production of cooking-oil waste. This waste would further contribute to the production of environmental problems and current waste disposal. Moreover, the frying process uses heat that can increase the lipid content and reduce the appearance, nutritional values and benefits of consuming cassava chips. This research was performed to evaluate the effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) concentration (1, 2 or 3%) and CaCl2 solution (1.0%) as coating materials on the characteristics of fried cassava chips. The coating materials were attained from edible and natural sources. A dipping method was used in performing the edible coating process. The characteristics evaluated of the chips were lipids content, colour measurement, texture, functional group (FTIR) and sensory analysis. All data were then analysed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test. Results showed 3% CMC as an excellent edible coating in reducing the lipid content of cassava chips up to 10%. Besides, the coated-cassava chips significantly brightened up their colour and produced a better crispiness level as compared to uncoated-cassava chips. FTIR spectra obtained had confirmed the presence of CMC coating on the coated sample. In terms of sensory value, the coated chips showed a slightly higher overall acceptability. Overall, the CMC-coated cassava chips reduced the lipid contents, which subsequently resulted in a healthy, tasty and better appearance snack. Indirectly, it may also reduce the high usage of oil-palm based cooking oil during the deep-frying process as a smaller amount cooking oil would be needed.
    Keywords: carboxymethyl cellulose; cassava; chip; coating; fat; characteristic.

  • Greywater Discharge and Its Treatment using Pottery Waste Ceramic Filter   Order a copy of this article
    by Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Adel Al-Gheethi, Amir Hashim Mohd. Kassim 
    Abstract: The discharge of untreated greywater from domestic sources in villages is a major source of environmental problems. Characteristics of greywater regarding the influence of in-house and external sources on greywater discharge have been investigated in the present study. Greywater samples were obtained from 27 village households and the effect of the drainage distances on greywater characteristics was investigated by installing greywater treatment system using pottery waste ceramic filter (PWCF). The effectiveness of the PWCF was optimized using different sizes (0.25, 0.60, and 1.18 mm) of ceramic filter media in the treatment chamber at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) (1, 2, and 3 h). Statistical analysis conducted using paired T-set showed significant differences between greywater from the two drainage distances. A strong correlation was observed at distance within 81100 m, which signified that the influence of gender and the number of household occupants were affected by the distance of greywater discharge. However, findings from the greywater characteristics revealed that the PWCF reduced the concentration of COD by 99.37%, BOD and TSS were reduced by 74.3 and 100% respectively as a function of working particle size of 0.25 mm within operational time limit of 3 hours. Principal findings of the data in the study indicated that the characteristics of greywater were influenced by the number of occupants, household activities and the drainage distance. However, the application of PWCF for the effective treatment of household greywater can enhance the quality of treated greywater before the final disposal into the environment.
    Keywords: Ceramic Filtration; Hydraulic Retention Time; Greywater Quality; Reduction; Adsorption.

  • Oil Palm Frond Biochar Potential as Heavy Metal Adsorbent by Rapid Small-Scale Column Test   Order a copy of this article
    by Amelia Md Som, Wang Zhenzhen, Yemi Akinyugha, Radzi Samsunanwar, Robert Bachmann 
    Abstract: Oil palm frond (OPF) is one of the most abundant by-product of oil palm industries. Converting OPF into a biochar would improve its value significantly as it has the potential to be used as a low cost adsorbent. In order to have a complete laboratory evaluation of a new adsorbent, it is essential that a column studies is conducted. There are several methods to conduct column evaluation for sorbents and among those is the Rapid Small-Scale Column Test (RSSCT). Its smaller volume enables faster turnaround of results. These columns also require less space and water compared to traditional column. RSSCT was used to simulate the effectiveness of oil palm frond biochar as a new low cost adsorbent. The experimental data were fitted into Yoon and Nelson adsorption kinetic model resulting in a linear regression coefficient (r2) greater than 0.81 that indicate that this model can adequately explain the overall Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ adsorption kinetics onto OPF biochar. The calculated breakthrough time and capacities match with Yoon and Nelsons predicted column adsorption capacity. Simulation of full-scale column can be done by using the data obtained in this study.
    Keywords: Biochar; Oil palm frond; Rapid small scale column test (RSSCT).

  • Green depolymerization of polyhydroxyalkanoates by superheated steam (SHS) hydrolysis towards chemical recycling   Order a copy of this article
    by Elmy Nahida Othman, Hidayah Ariffin, Haruo Nishida, Mohd Ali Hassan 
    Abstract: Green depolymerization of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and its blend with petroleum-based plastics was conducted using superheated steam (SHS) hydrolysis at 110 160
    Keywords: polyhydroxyalkanoates; superheated steam hydrolysis; mechanical separation; weight loss; chemical recycling.

    by Mohd Razealy Anuar, Siti Ros Alleza Che Rasdi, Shahrulzaman Shaharuddin 
    Abstract: This present work addressed the study of new biolubricant production from fatty acid methyl ester using propylene glycol (PG) as substrate base. The production of propylene glycol diester (PGD) has been determined by conversion. Due to edible characteristic with minimum toxicity, PG was chosen as substrate base replacing trimethylolpropane (TMP). Reaction parameters studied were including reaction temperature (140 oC 180 oC), catalyst loading (0.1 wt% - 0.5 wt%), molar ratio of PG: FAME (1:2 1:6) and reaction time (2 hr 8 hr). Through the determination of PG conversion into PGD, the optimum parameters during the reaction has been studied. Toxicity analysis by using brine shrimp was conducted to analyze the toxicity effect of the PGD. The optimum condition for production of biolubricant study with the highest PGD conversion (99.2 %) was found at temperature 160 oC with molar ratio PG:FAME= 1:6 using 0.5 wt% for 8 hours of reaction time. The minimum level of toxicity for PGD was successfully surpass the petroleum-based lubricant. The study is economically feasible and it is proven to be favourable. Hence, production of PGD by using PG as substrate base is highly potential in producing a new alternative of edible biolubricant that effectively applicable for the outshine future.
    Keywords: propylene glycol diester; propylene glycol; fatty acid methyl ester; toxicity; tribology.

  • Leaching of Silver from Computer Printed Circuit Boards using Citric acid with Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidant   Order a copy of this article
    by Nor Nabiha Md Zan, Wan Nurul Amira Wan Mohd Lotfi, Rapidah Othman 
    Abstract: Leaching of silver (Ag) from computer printed circuit boards (CPCBs) was investigated in this study. This work investigates the efficacy of the citric acid (C6H8O7) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the leaching of Ag from CPCBs. Leaching of Ag was affected by various conditions such as C6H8O7 concentration, H2O2 concentration, temperature and stirring speed at controlled acidic pH. Optimal parameters of Ag leaching were determined as 1.5 M C6H8O7, 1.5 M H2O2 at a static condition with temperature of 40
    Keywords: citric acid; printed circuit boards; silver leaching; thermodynamic; waste management.

Special Issue on: ATIPC-2018 Innovative Advanced Technologies in Industrial Waste Management

  • Mitigation of Methylene Blue from Wastewater by Adsorption/Photodegradation on TNT Surface   Order a copy of this article
    by Saismrutiranjan Mohanty, Sanjoy Kumar Maji 
    Abstract: Titanate nanotubes (TNTs) were hydrothermally synthesized and were characterized by XRD, and SEM/EDX. The as-prepared TNTs were used to remove dye, Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous media at 25
    Keywords: TNT; Hydrothermal method; Methylene Blue; Adsorption/photodegradation; Spiked dye bearing sample.

    by Pushpinder Singh, S.K. Singh 
    Abstract: The need for recycling and reusing the waste materials has been arising due to disposal problems and other problems like excessive mining, depletion of natural resources. The present study focused on the utilization of demolition concrete waste in the form of aggregates in bituminous concrete (BC) mixes before and after thermal treatment. Experimental results showed that Marshall mix design parameters were satisfying the permissible requirements in case of bituminous concrete mixes prepared by using the recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and thermally treated concrete aggregates (TRCA), though the optimum bitumen content was more as compared to mixes prepared with natural aggregates. Thermal treatment had positive impact on Retained stability value, but Marshall stability value in case of TRCA mixes was observed as lesser than that of RCA mixes. Material cost analysis suggested that the utilization of RCA is economical as compared to natural aggregates.
    Keywords: Construction and demolition waste; Recycled concrete aggregates; Thermal treatment; Natural aggregates; Bituminous concrete.

  • Feasibility Study for Using Waste Tyre Rubber in Bituminous Concrete   Order a copy of this article
    by R.A.J. KUMAR THAKUR, S.K. Singh 
    Abstract: An experimental program was undertaken to investigate the performance of rubber-modified bituminous mixes by using rubber as an aggregate, bitumen modifier and filler. The research was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, bitumen was modified by blending crumb rubber (75
    Keywords: Waste tyre rubber; Rubber aggregate; Modified bitumen; Bituminous concrete; Wet process and Dry process.

  • Treatment of Laundry Wastewater by UVC Based Advanced Oxidation Process- A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepjyoti Das, Najmul Haque Barbhuiya, Bijoli Mondal, Asok Adak 
    Abstract: The main aim of this research is to evaluate the treatment of laundry wastewater by the UV-H2O2 advanced oxidation process. The COD and BOD of the wastewater were about 800 mg/L and 120mg/L respectively, which indicate that the wastewater is poorly biodegradable. In the batch operation, H2O2 dose was varied as 10, 20, 30 and 40mg/L. The percentage removal of COD was found to be 42, 53, 77 and 75% respectively for peroxide dose of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L. The biodegradability index increased with increase in peroxide dose. The degradation followed first order kinetics and the kinetic constants were obtained as 0.0045, 0.0059, 0.0117 and 0.0119min-1 for peroxide dose of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L. In continuous mode operations, the COD removal efficiency was obtained as 25, 43, 45, 48, 57 and 32% respectively for peroxide doses of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L respectively.
    Keywords: Laundry; surfactant; advanced oxidation process; UV/H2O2.

  • Characterization and Potential of Java Citronella-A lignocellulosic residual biomass for bio-ethanol production   Order a copy of this article
    by Vidyadhar Gedam, Anup Chahande, Pranay Raut, Pranav Pathak 
    Abstract: The present work investigates the potential of Java citronella lignocellulosic residual biomass for efficient bioethanol production. The study focuses on physicochemical analysis of Java citronella for exploring the percentage of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin content vis-via Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), Acid Detergent Fibres (ADF) and Neutral Detergent Fibres (NDF) analysis. Furthermore, the calorific value, ash contents, Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen-Sulphur (CHNS) analysis, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed. After the detail physicochemical analysis, the samples were subjected to subsequent 2 and 3 N acid and alkaline pretreatment along with 3 5-Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) test followed by submerged biological fermentation using commercially available yeast. The fermented samples were then distilled, and the distillate was examined by Gas Chromatography (GC), and the percentage of bioethanol was estimated. The result highlights that the collected Java citronella sample has considerable % of cellulose content (41.53
    Keywords: Bio-ethanol; Ligno-cellulosic residual biomass; Pre-treatment; Gas Chromatography.

  • Inventory of Hazardous Waste from Industry: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Maher Al-Jabari, Mai Anati, Nancy Arman 
    Abstract: Efficient management of hazardous wastes (HWs) requires sufficient data about their quantities, qualities and distribution. There are no efforts for separation, classification, or storage of HWs in Palestine. This paper presents a route for establishing the inventory of industrial hazardous waste for Hebron city in Palestine as a case study. It evaluates and classifies generated industrial HWs, according to the Palestinian hazardous waste list. Its methodology is a survey using a questionnaire, interviews, and field visits for data collection. The HWs are classified according to the industrial source, phase and hazardous characteristics. The total generated industrial HW in Hebron is 31,700 ton/year, with its majority coming from leather and shoes (64% of HWs) and photographic subsectors (33% of HWs). The largest amount of HWs is in liquid form (83%), as solutions of strong acids and bases characterized hazardous due to their corrosivity, not toxicity. Solid HWs are generated from all local industries with an annual amount of 5500 ton/year (representing 17%). The amounts of paste HWs are 18 ton/year (representing 0.1%). The most frequent waste code is mainly that for packaging waste (with a code of 07-01-109).
    Keywords: hazardous; solid; Waste; classification; industry; Hebron.

  • Application of Experimental Design Approach for Optimization of the Photo-chemical Degradation of Anionic Surfactant in Aqueous Solution   Order a copy of this article
    by Bijoli Mondal, Asok Adak, Deepjyoti Das, Pallab Datta 
    Abstract: The present work deals with the optimization of degradation of SDS in synthetic wastewater using UV-H2O2 process. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize and create an experimental design for SDS degradation. The effect of four important process variables (H2O2 dose, initial SDS concentration, pH and nitrate concentration of the solution) on SDS degradation were discussed individually and interactively. Results indicate that initial SDS concentration and NO3- shows a significant decrease. On the other hand, H2O2 dose showed an increase in rate of degradation followed by decrease beyond certain concentration. The maximum fluence-based rate constant of 0.005925 cm2/mJ was obtained under the optimized conditions: H2O2 dose of 1 mol H2O2/mol of SDS, initial SDS concentration of 100 mg/L, pH of 7 and nitrate concentration of 0.25 mM.
    Keywords: UV-H2O2; hydroxyl radical rate constant; sodium dodecyl sulfate; Response Surface Method; Central Composite method.

  • Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils around Durgapur industrial area, West Bengal, India   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The concentrations of heavy metals viz. Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg were examined in the surface soil of the industrial city Durgapur, West Bengal, India to assess the level of contamination occurred due to extensive urbanization and industrialization. The elevated levels of concentration of contaminants in soil are a significant environmental concern due to their possible migration to the groundwater through infiltrating rainwater along with the potential source of entry into the food chain through root water uptake by the plants. In the current study, an attempt was also made to examine the localized variability of the heavy metal concentrations in the soils of Durgapur city. The contamination assessment was carried out based on the geo-accumulation index, contamination factor, pollution load index, degree of contamination, and potential ecological risk index. The Pearson multivariate correlation and principal component analysis were also performed to ascertain the source of pollution in the study area. The surface soil samples were collected from 16 (sixteen) locations in and around the city and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The heavy metal concentration levels were also compared with the guidelines depicted in the United States Environmental Protection Agency & Canadian Council of the Ministers of Environment standards for soil pollution. The alarming level of soil contamination was found at all locations according to MULLERS classification. The results found in the present studyreinforce the importance of establishing uninterrupted and systematic monitoring of heavy metal pollution in the industrial area to ensure that the contamination level does not cause serious environmental hazards to the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
    Keywords: Heavy Metals; Soil Pollution Assessment; MULLERS classification; Pollution Load Index; Contamination Factor; Potential Ecological Risk Index;.

  • Sensitivity Study on Moving Bed Hybrid Bio-reactor (MBHBR) System Treating Composite Chrome Tannery Wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by Supriyo Goswami, Debabrata Mazumder, Yung?Tse Hung 
    Abstract: The present paper describes a theoretical optimization study on Moving Bed Hybrid Bioreactor (MBHBR) system treating composite chrome tannery wastewater, with a view to find out the effects of important parameters on its performance. In view of that a simplified solution of Moving Bed Hybrid Bioreactor (MBHBR) has been presented which represents the relationship between influent substrate concentration (So), effluent substrate concentration (S), substrate flux (J), bio-film density (Xf), specific surface area (a), hydraulic retention time (θ) and solid retention time (θc). The developed model is capable to compute the output parameters rapidly and accurately for any given set of input variables. In order to determine the sensitivity of the reactor performance, important parameters viz. Organic loading rate (OLR), Hydraulic retention time (HRT,θ) and bio-carrier concentration (C) were varied accordingly within their feasible ranges. Finally the values of COD removal efficiency were plotted with respect to the relevant input variables to investigate the optimum condition under the steady state.From the optimization study, it has been found form that, OLR, HRT and the attached bio-carrier concentrations should be 6 kg COD/m3/day, 8 hours and 75g/L respectively in order to remove 85% or more COD from wastewater in MBHBR system.
    Keywords: MBHBR; simplified model; simplified solution; optimization study;chrome tannery wastewater.

  • Decolorization of dye and removal of COD from textile wastewater using biodegradation method   Order a copy of this article
    by Barnali Mandal, Sattar Mallick 
    Abstract: A study has been conducted on the biodegradation of dye and removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile waste water using mixed microbial culture in batch mode process. The microbial consortium was isolated from textile dye wastewater. The effect of process parameters namely, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration on decolorization and COD reduction of textile waste effluent were studied. The process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The experimental results were analyzed statistically to evaluate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum values of pH, temperature and initial dye concentration were 7, 30oC and 327 mg/L respectively. Under optimum process condition, the percent removal of dye and COD were 98.68 and 92.3 respectively. The experimental results were satisfied by the model.
    Keywords: dye; COD; textile effluent; optimization; CCD; RSM.

  • Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon by functional Reduced Graphene Oxide from OrganicRich Water Pre-treated by Electrocoagulation   Order a copy of this article
    by SOUMYA KANTA RAY, Chanchal Majumder, Prosenjit Saha, Yung-Tse Hung 
    Abstract: Dissolve organic carbon (DOC) is produced from different anthropogenic activities. DOC influences the production of carcinogenic disinfection by-product (DBP) at the time of disinfection during water treatment. This DOC is extremely hydrophilic in nature and difficult to separate from water by the conventional treatment procedures. Therefore, an integrated system is introduced to control DOC where a pretreatment by Electrocoagulation (EC) followed by adsorption with a nano-adsorbent made of reduced graphene oxide (fRGO) coated sand impregnated by iron was used. The pretreatment reduced 38.19% of DOC whereas 99.3% of DOC was removed by the combined process.
    Keywords: Dissolve organic carbon (DOC); Disinfection By-product (DBP); Electrocoagulation (EC); reduced graphene oxide impregnated (fRGO).

  • Treatability study of synthetic slaughterhouse wastewater using Enhanced Clarifier Hybrid UASB Reactor   Order a copy of this article
    by Radhakrishnan Loganath, Debabrata Mazumder, Yung?Tse Hung 
    Abstract: The present study deals with treatability of synthetic slaughterhouse wastewater in an Enhanced Clarifier Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (EC-HUASB) reactor, which is an emerging technology for treating high strength wastewater. The main objective was to evaluate the performance of an HUASB system in respect of COD removal efficiency under varying operational conditions and hence to optimize the relevant parameters. The EC-HUASB reactor was operated with the Organic Loading Rates (OLR) ranges starting from 2.40 to 9.60 kg COD/m3/d by means of variation in Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and COD in the range of (24 6) hrs. and (1000 6000) mg/L respectively. The maximum COD removal efficiency was attained as 96 % corresponding to COD loading rate of 4.00 kg COD/m3/d. However, the maximum biogas production was observed to be 47.65 L/d at COD loading rate of 9.60 kg COD/m3/d. The optimum COD loading rate was determined as 8.00 kg COD/m3/d exhibiting COD removal efficiency of 92% and biogas production of 41.5 L/d.
    Keywords: synthetic slaughterhouse wastewater; EC-HUASB Reactor; organic loading rate (OLR); COD removal efficiency; biogas production.

    by Sandip Haldar 
    Abstract: Refractory azo-dye compounds used in the textile industry are commonly detected in wastewater. In this study, the decolorization of methyl orange (MO) and several food dyes have been studied by Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic acid (DTPA) stabilized nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) particles immobilized in agarose membrane (Im-nZVI-AM). The decolorization rate has been studied with respect to the dosage of nZVI particles and temperature. The degradation of dyes have been studied by measuring the change in ac conductivity of the initial and final dye solution. The decolorization rate increases with the increasing of nZVI particles dosage and temperature of the dye solution. 50% Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) concentration has been used to increase the efficiency of degradation. In this study Im-nZVI-AM has been used multiple times to treat the wastewater.
    Keywords: azo-dye; Im-nZVI-AM; degradation; agarose; wastewater.

  • Characteristics and Treatment of Dairy Industry Wastewater in a Suspended Growth Batch Reactor   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek Das, Pradyut Kundu, Sunita Adhikari 
    Abstract: Present study was undertaken to evaluate the kinetic coefficients of a suspended growth batch reactor for biological treatment of dairy effluent. The study was carried out in a laboratory scale batch setup resembling an aeration tank of activated sludge process. Samples of dairy plant were withdrawn on regular interval to establish statistically mean values of wastewater characteristic. A simulated sample was prepared synthetically on the basis of statistically derived real life characteristic of dairy effluent which was evaluating average COD concentration of 640 mg/L and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration of 43 mg/L. Batch kinetics study was done to obtain kinetic coefficients (viz. Y, Ks, kd and k)
    Keywords: Dairy wastewater; suspended growth system; COD removal; NH4-N removal; Kinetic coefficients.

  • A Comparative Study on Cr(VI) Removal by Graphene Oxide(GO) and Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide(fRGO)   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Effluent mainly from metal processing industry contains hexavalent chromium is a major concern. In this study Cr(VI) removal was done by GO and fRGO and a comparative study was carried out. At equilibrium pH 2 fRGO gives more removal than GO. For both the materials, Langmuir adsorption isotherm fit better than Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption capacities of GO and fRGO are found to be (9.90 mg g-1) and (17.54 mg g-1) respectively. Both the materials follow pseudo-second order removal kinetics and fRGO (0.07 g mg-1 min-1) shows faster removal rate than GO(0.03 g mg-1 min-1). It was found that (fRGO) can remove 1.77 times more Cr(VI) than graphene oxide (GO).
    Keywords: Chromium; comparative study; Adsorption; GO; fRGO.

  • Biotransformation of Industrial Sludge: Vermicomposting of Agricultural Sludge using Eisenia foetida Earthworm   Order a copy of this article
    by Dayanand Sharma, Bhavesh Patel, Chintak Kamalesh Parashar 
    Abstract: India contributes significantly to around 18% in global milk production and 25% in sugarcane production. Gujarat has huge potential to produce compost/vermicompost from the agricultural sludge of sugar cane and dairy industries. The sugarcane press mud and dairy industries sludge were mixed with cow manure and formed five different mixture combinations M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5. In a comparison of five vermireactor, the highest earthworm cocoons production rate was observed in M5 and M4. Moreover, the earthworm growth rate was found highest, about 39% in M5 and 34% in M3. Further, the increment in nutrients was observed nearly after 90 days of the vermicomposting process in every combination. The concentration of micro and macronutrients was observed within the permissible range. The C:N ratio and germination index were found to be 9-11 and 100 to 121% respectively, along with the negligible CO2 evolution in every combination that reveals the maturity of vermicomposting.
    Keywords: Vermicomposting; dairy industries; sludge; sugarcane press mud; nutrient.

Special Issue on: ICSET 2018 Sustainable Management, Engineering and Technology - Part B

  • Geological Problems and Economic Evaluation for Underground Space Utilization: Case Study on Beijing, China   Order a copy of this article
    by Liang Guo, Chun Pei, Liang Cao, Jiao Zhu, Deliang Qian 
    Abstract: The urban geological environment should be the main carrier for the socio-economic system, a comprehensive geological survey and economic evaluation provide the basis for sustainable development of underground space resources. According to the experience of new town planning in China, there is a need for scientific exploration and planning for underground space in order to overcome the limitations of available urban surface space. Through in-depth analysis of geological background in the Beijing area, some typical geological engineering and geo-environmental problems are put forward in this study, such as changing of groundwater level, deterioration of groundwater quality, land subsidence, active faults, hazardous gas, and covered karst collapse. In addition, it is necessary to incorporate 3D urban planning into conventional planning practices with a dynamic decision-making process. For Beijing, economic evaluation, including the environmental security, land use regulations, public finance and risk management of underground space is also forecasted in this study.
    Keywords: Urban underground space; Geological problems; Economic evaluation; Beijing.

    Abstract: Generally, vegetable waste is generated in huge volume in the wholesale market on a daily basis. This waste requires a separate area for disposing. By adopting anaerobic decomposition, the waste is fed into the anaerobic reactor which produces biogas and digestate. The biogas produced is an effective energy resource and the digestate is used as fertilizer. Five batch reactors A, B, C, D, and E were used to treat the vegetable waste at different inoculum with different ratios to determine the effective inoculate ratio. Under the anaerobic condition, the pre-treated vegetable waste along with the inoculum (cow dung) was fed into the reactor 1 and 2 in the ratio of 1:3 each respectively. Another two reactors 3 and 4 were fed with EM solution (effective microorganism solution), cow dung and vegetable waste with a ratio of 1:2:2 and 1:1:1. Additionally, a reactor E was fed with anaerobic slurry replacing EM solution at a ratio of 1:1: 1. From the results obtained, the addition of EM solution increases gas production. But the addition of anaerobic slurry showed accelerated degradation with high gas production than EM solution.
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion; vegetable waste; EM solution (effective micro-organism; cow dung; anaerobic slurry; methane.

  • Development of Biodegradable Antimicrobial Food Packaging Film with Cinnamaldehyde   Order a copy of this article
    by Siti Zubaidah Abdullah, Woei Yenn Tong, Chean Ring Leong, Nur Amiera Syuhada Rozman, Nur Humaira Mohammad Hamid, Sabrina Karim, Najua Delaila Tumin, Siti Afifah Muda, Lily Suhaila Yacob, Yung Tse Hung 
    Abstract: The research aimed to develop an alginate-based film incorporated with cinnamaldehyde for food packaging applications to prevent overall negative impact to the environment. The biodegradability of the film was tested with Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029. After 21 days of incubation, the fungal growth was visible on the plate with alginate film, and 29.7% of weight loss was observed. The mechanical characterization showed that the film obtained was strong and flexible. No burst release was detected throughout the cinnamaldehyde release test. Cross streak test inhibited 6 out of 8 test microorganisms. Correspondingly, all Gram-positive bacteria demonstrated 100% growth inhibition. The antibacterial efficiency of the film was tested by using cooked rice as a food model and showed a significant reduction of bacterial load. The film also exhibited 5.0-log suppression of microbial growth relative to control. The results indicate the potential use as an active and biodegradable food packaging material.
    Keywords: Alginate film; Biodegradable material; Cinnamaldehyde; Food packaging.

  • Collagen Type I As Model Protein Precursor To Analogue Fish Co-Product Processing For Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE)-Inhibitory Peptides: In Silico Approach Applying BIOPEP   Order a copy of this article
    by Khairul Faizal Pa'ee, Nadia Razali, Shahrul Razid Sarbini, Yung-Tse Hung, Emmy Liza Anak Yaji 
    Abstract: Collagen type I is an abundant protein in fish processing co-product such as scale, skin, bones and head. It has the potential as precursor to produce angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-Inhibitory peptides. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate collagen type I through in silico analysis as fish co-processing protein analogue for ACE-inhibitory peptides, as well as to predict the theoretical peptides released by thermolysin. Collagen type I alpha 1 and alpha 2 sequences information was obtained from UniProt database. BIOPEP was used to determine the profiles of potential biological activity and the following parameters were calculated: the frequency of release of fragments with given activity by selected enzymes (AE), and the relative frequency of release of fragments with given activity by selected enzymes (W). Thermolysin was chosen due to its specificity to cleave peptide bonds with hydrophobic amino acids. Both alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunit contained as significant amount of glycine and proline obtained from ProtParam. The profile of potential biological activity suggested that 247 ACE-inhibitory peptides could be obtained from the parent protein sequence of collagen type I alpha 1 and alpha 2. Potent peptides were observed with low IC50 (<10 μM) and high peptide score (>0.80) derived from milk and fish protein hydrolysate. In silico hydrolysis by thermolysin released theoretical potent peptides with IC50 less than 5 μM for both collagen type I subunits with high number of occurrence. The high number of bioactive fragment in collagen was associated with high composition of glycine and proline content. Furthermore, in silico gastrointestinal digestion of theoretical peptides retained its potency. Therefore, in silico analysis suggested that collagen type I alpha 1 and alpha 2 can be of advantage as potential ACE-inhibitory peptides precursor to release its potent peptides and retained its potency during gastrointestinal digestion.
    Keywords: Fish Processing Co-Product; Collagen Type I; Thermolysin; Bioactive Peptides; ACE-inhibitory activity; BIOPEP.

  • The Production of Collagen Type I Hydrolysate Derived From Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Skin Using Thermoase PC10F And Its In Silico Sensory Activity Profiles   Order a copy of this article
    by Khairul Faizal Pa'ee, Shahrul Razid Sarbini, Yung-Tse Hung, Suganya Nair Ramonaran Nair Ramodaran, Emmy Liza Anak Yaji, Nadia Razali 
    Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine the optimum condition (enzyme to substrate ratio, temperature and pH) to hydrolyse collagen type I using Thermoase PC10F (thermolysin). In silico evaluation on amino acids profile of collagen type I and in silico sensory profile of the hydrolysate were performed using Protparam and BIOPEP respectively. Theoretical thermolysin was chosen from the BIOPEP due to its specificity to cleave peptide bonds with hydrophobic amino acids. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized based on its optimum degree hydrolysis (DH) using o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) method. The temperature of 60
    Keywords: Tilapia Co-Product; Collagen Type I; Protein Hydrolysate; Thermoase PC10F; Sensory Peptides; BIOPEP.

    by Sabrina Karim, Idzuan Idris Chin, Yung-Tse Hung 
    Abstract: The present study aims to extract curcumin from turmeric (Curcuma Longa) and hydroxychavicol from betel leaves (Piper Betle) using Soxhlet Extractor as well as to identify the composition of each compound through FTIR spectroscopy. Subsequently, to assess the activity of both active compounds with various diabetic bacteria; Escherichia coli, MRSA, Candida albicans, Proteus mirabilis, and Yersinia sp. through disc diffusion method. As time progresses, more and more synthetic drugs are produced and consumed due to its reliability and efficiency despite that they contain a certain amount of toxicity that may harm the human body. Traditional herbs (therapeutic plants) have been exploited and were proven effective even in contemporary studies on antimicrobial activities and can be as an alternative for future applications. With the Soxhlet method, highest extraction yields for both samples; Curcuma Longa and Piper Betle, were 41.52% and 34.93% respectively. FTIR spectrums of both turmeric and betel have shown the presence of a hydroxyl group which indicates the presence of interchangeable protons from alcohol at wavelengths of 3350.06 cm-1 and 3341.91 cm-1 respectively. It was convinced that this functional group acted against pathogenic bacteria because of the antioxidant properties. Ultimately, betel (Piper Betle) has shown better inhibitory activity than turmeric (Curcuma Longa) against MRSA, P. mirabilis, E. coli, and C. albicans.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity; Betel Leaf; Curcumin; Diabetic Bacteria.

  • Time Series Analysis of Solar Irradiation By Using SARIMA Modeling   Order a copy of this article
    by Zaida Rahayu Yet, Nurulkamal Masseran 
    Abstract: Solar forecasting has received much attention due to the rising demands in the application of solar energy as a source of electricity. This study intended to develop statistical models for forecasting solar irradiation in Peninsular Malaysia by using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) and Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models. The monthly measurements of global solar irradiation for nine years (2006 2014) were used in this study. Out of these nine years data, the first eight years of data were used in the model development and 2014 data were used for validating the model. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the constructed models. Partial autocorrelation function (PACF) and Autocorrelation function (ACF) of residuals and Ljung-Box tests were used to compare the goodness-of-fit between the different models. Based on the results obtained from the application of the ARIMA and SARIMA models using the data of Peninsular Malaysias, it was found that the SARIMA (2,1,0) (1,1,0)12, (1,0,0) (1,1,0)12 and (1,0,0) (0,1,1)12 model was the best fitting of solar radiation prediction for the studied area.
    Keywords: Solar radiation; time series; SARIMA.

  • The Sustainable High Chair for Infants by Perspective Industrial Design   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Sustainability in product design is the ability to use both natural or composites materials in a product in which it will later benefits the environment and social life in the future. The awareness of sustainability aspect as well as hygienic aspect to this product is highly crucial especially in baby products. The product known as the baby high chair is the subject of this paper. Baby high chair comes with different type and material depending on the market demands. In this paper, aspects that been investigated is the type of material been used in the market, comparison of using current material and sustainable material to the applied product and the product development of the baby high chair according to design perspective. Along with that, it also discussed the consideration of safety aspects, ergonomic, product design and proposed materials in line with the current sustainability requirement. In this paper the methods used are Quality Functional Deployment (QFD), Product Design Specification (PDS), and Concept Design & Development. The Design analysis is carried out on material properties, and bamboo composite was chose as the sustainable material in the paper. The testing using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), three-point bending method D7264-07 as standard test method. This paper contributes to the usage of sustainable material as alternative option to hygiene product in the future.
    Keywords: Baby High Chair; Design Process; Material; Sustainability.

  • Evaluation of the Toxic Effects of Bioactive Compounds from Orthosiphon Stamineus Extracted from Supercritical Fluid Ethanol-Modified Carbon Dioxide Extraction with Zebrafish Toxicity Test   Order a copy of this article
    by Masniza Mohamed-Mahmood, Masturah Markom, Wan Ramli Wan Daud, Che Nurul Ain Nadhirah Che Mansor, Nur Afiqah Mohd Azhari 
    Abstract: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with ethanol-modified carbon dioxide was tested to extract bioactive compounds from Orthosiphon stamineus. Exposure to organic solvent used as cosolvent in the extraction process and production of naturally toxic secondary metabolites of plant is particularly risky and needs further assessment. In the present study, rosmarinic acid, 3-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4- tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin and eupatorin were identified and quantified in the extract. The toxicity of the extract was evaluated in zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET). The SFE system with fixed conditions of total flow rates (4 mL/min), cosolvent content 10 % (v/v) of ethanol-water 75 % (v/v), pressure at 225 bar and temperature at 60
    Keywords: Orthosiphon stamineus; Supercritical Fluid Extraction; Zebrafish embryotoxicity test.

Special Issue on: ICSET 2018 Sustainable Management, Engineering and Technology - Part A

  • Method Verification on Decomposition Study of Oxo-Biodegradable Polymers   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaliesah Abbas, Robert Thomas Bachmann, Siew Kooi Ong, Soh Kheang Loh 
    Abstract: Oxo-biodegradable polymers are gaining popularity in response to environmental concerns. However, soil burial respirometric methods such as the Chiellini et al. (2003) jar test need to be verified independently to confirm that these polymers are truly metabolised to CO2 and H2O as claimed. The aim of this study therefore is to confirm the suitability and repeatability of Chiellinis biodegradation method using four different oxo-biodegradable polyolefins from supermarket shopping bags, commercial compost as negative and a cellulose tissue paper as positive control. A 9-week incubation trial was conducted in triplicate at 55
    Keywords: soil burial test; oxo-biodegradable plastics; polyolefin biodegradation; biometer flask; respirometric test.

    by Nadia Razali, Nurhanim Zulaikha Kamarulzaman, Tengku Fazli Tengku Jaya 
    Abstract: Oil palm waste used in this study were oil palm frond and oil palm leaves. Both feedstock was then converted into biochar using Belinio gasifier. High carbon content and high fixed carbon were identified in the both biommass which made them had a potential to be converted into biochar. For application of wastewater treatment, the biochar should be produced at the temperature higher than 500 oC. Approximately about 20 % w/w of biochars were obtained from the TLUD gasifier and biochar produced form this process is low in moisture content and has high in porous structures indicative of many adsorption sites thus showing desirable characteristics for potential application as adsorbent. BET surface area obtained from this studies are 248.08 m2 and 264.73 m2/g for OPF and OPL biochar respectively. Both OPF and OPL biochar can remove more than 50% COD from biological treated palm oil mill effluent (POME).
    Keywords: adsorption; biochar; gasification; oil palm waste; wastewater.