Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM)

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International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (127 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Innovative Urban Landscape Design of Riverfront Area in Kembang Jepun, Surabaya   Order a copy of this article
    by Bambang Soemardiono, Murni Rachmawati, Defry Agatha Ardianta 
    Abstract: Surabaya is a growing city of Kalimas river. The emergence of the river as the beginning of the development of the city of Surabaya is possible thanks to its function as a means of communication between up and downstream areas. At some points, the area around the river is used as open spaces that serves as a public space, but in the other points are not yet used optimally. One of them is the river area in Kembang Jepun area. This riverside area in north of Surabaya has several potentials especially related to its function of urban landscape elements and also accessibility and open spaces. Urban landscape is described as socio ecological systems where natural and social processes go together with the ecosystems (Andersson, E, 2006) and in respect of how cities developed over time and their relation to nature (Sherwood, R,). The purpose of this research is to develop urban landscape design innovation in riverfront area in Kembang Jepun. The analysis used in this research approach in sustainable development by giving priority to environmental, economy and social aspect in determining the innovative design for riverfront area. The important analysis tool that will be used is also Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and workshop to capture the aspirations of the community as an ideal riverfront public space.
    Keywords: aspirations; Kembang Jepun area; river; urban landscape.

  • E-waste related statutes in Bangladesh and the negative impacts of e-waste on the environment and human health: An Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kudrat-E Khuda 
    Abstract: Technology has made the life of Bangladeshi people very flexible with new inventions. Here the people depend on technological devices. These devices, along with various facilities, have also invited a series of problems mostly due to the lack of proper management. The Bangladeshi citizens often leave electronic devices that went bad or became unusable, in landfills, rivers, canals, and open spaces. As these devices possess a variety of toxic substances, dumping huge amounts of electronic waste can pollute the environment and threaten human health. As a result, it is important to take the required measures to prevent potential e-waste-related problems. In spite of the alarming levels of e-pollution in Bangladesh, the concerned authorities are yet to take any effective step or formulate any legislation to prevent the existing e pollution. Moreover, the prevailing environmental laws are not adequate to address the issue and its application is still largely absent.
    Keywords: approach; Bangladesh; e-waste; environment; policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10040363
  • Management and Disposal of Sanitary Solid Waste: An Obscured Menace in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Saikat Dutta, R.S.S. Alekhya, B. Chakradhar, Sasi Jyothsna Tadinada 
    Abstract: India is one of the most populous and vast countries of the world with around 1.39 billion people (January 2021) contributing around 17.7% of the total world population. Of this, female population is around 662.90 million making up to 48.03% of the total population covering with different age groups. The most significant age group which contributes largest quantities of sanitary solid waste falls between 1147 years, which is approximately around 359 million Indian women, contributing around 9,000 tonnes of sanitary wastes. For a society it is important to have healthy girl child and women hence maintaining a proper menstrual hygiene is interlinked. Sanitary waste disposal is a worldwide problem due to the complexity of material used in the products and their improper ways of disposal causing threat to health, hygiene and the environment. This paper focuses on creating awareness on generation and handling of sanitary waste in India and the latest technologies available for handling such wastes.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; sanitary waste; feminine products; landfill; Swachh Bharat Mission.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10043792
  • Distribution, Human and Ecological Risks of Microplastics in African Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ababo Workineh Tadesse  
    Abstract: The presence of microplastics in the environment is progressively increasing and becoming an environmental concern in Africa. Despite the production and use of plastics, there is dearth of information and knowledge about negative impacts of these new emerging pollutants. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation activities increase the rate of various pollutants in the environment. The main objective of this review was to summarise and discuss the current status of microplastics pollution in African environment. In addition, this review highlights the knowledge gaps that exist on microplastics pollution in African countries. To assess and discuss some information about microplastics in the environment, the published articles, reviews and other online materials were revised. Different papers were critically reviewed and provide an overview of the current, distribution, knowledge gap and abundance of microplastics in African environment. The obtained data indicated that microplastics are highly found in African environment. Few studies were carried out in aquatic environment and there is lack of research on the presence of microplastics in African terrestrial environment. Therefore, this review recommend, more studies on the presence of microplastics in African environment.
    Keywords: microplastics; risks; emerging pollutants; human health; Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10040687
  • Mini plasma waste plant: a solution to COVID-19 biomedical waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Mukesh Kumar, S.K. Singh 
    Abstract: World environmental health is threatened by biomedical waste. The plastic footprint is increasing by the day due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Biomedical waste (BMW) due to COVID-19 is creating a problem for the survival of human beings. The high survival rate of the COVID-19 virus in the human body, air, and on any material is a matter of concern. The problem of management of BMW disposal gets aggravated due to increasing waste volume and shortage of waste treatment plants. The waste management technologies such as incineration, autoclaving, chemical treatment, dry heat technologies, and plasma-based technology can also deal with such infectious waste. In this paper artificial intelligence equipped with a mini plasma waste plant model for waste volume reduction and as well as a waste-to-value solution with zero infection risk has been discussed. The proposed waste power plant model with a tunnel and Vent webs shall be a better alternative approach for COVID-19 BMW management.
    Keywords: bio-medical waste; COVID-19; Covid-19 waste; plasma waste technology; artificial intelligence; risk minimisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055297
  • Fabrication and characterisation of epoxy-based composite utilising PET waste plastic and bamboo   Order a copy of this article
    by Debendra Kalita, Ayush Srivastav, Pura Ressang, Tarh Kiba, Vinod Yadav 
    Abstract: Bamboo grows abundantly in most parts of the world and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is ubiquitous in our day-to-day lives in the form of water bottles, plastic containers, food packing, etc. The environmental pollution caused by waste PET disposal is an urgent environmental issue which can be addressed by reusing the disposed PET in construction and decoration. The aim of this work is to fabricate a composite using three components viz., raw bamboo, PET waste plastic and resin that can be used in manufacturing and construction; thereby reducing the PET waste contributing to environmental pollution. Four tests viz., impact, tensile, compression and centre-point bending are performed with two replicate specimens in each case to calculate the mechanical properties of the proposed composite. The results presented are shown that the proposed composite methodology requires scientific and holistic approach to make a sustainable alternative material for infrastructure development especially in rural areas.
    Keywords: bamboo; PET waste plastic; resin; composite; plastic waste management; sustainable development; polyethylene terephthalate; PET.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055298
    by M. Fernanda Gazulla, M. Jesús Ventura, Marta Rodrigo, Mónica Orduña, Cristina Andreu, Eulalia Zumaquero 
    Abstract: Co/Al blue ceramic pigment has been synthesised using a Co3O4 of high purity recovered from the active cathode material of spent lithium-ion batteries. The synthesised pigment showed equal technical and aesthetic characteristics to those of the standard one, prepared using commercial Co3O4. Active cathode material was obtained using a physical semiautomatic separation process designed to minimise the contamination of the desired material. As a result of this study, not only the recycling of lithium-ion batteries for environmental protection is addressed but also the resource conservation as cobalt is considered a critical raw material by the European Commission. The different active cathode materials were analysed using different analytical techniques to know the concentration of the element of interest (Co) and the presence of impurities, such as Al, Cu, F, P, etc., as these can reduce the quality of the product recovered.
    Keywords: spent lithium-ion battery; active cathode material; recycling process; cobalt recovery; blue ceramic pigment; waste management; environment protection; secondary raw materials; resource conservation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10041786
  • Challenges in Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Patna: A case study of Patna Municipal Corporation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sneha Swarup, Usha Verma, Ravish Kumar 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a part of public health and sanitation which is an obligatory function of urban local bodies (ULBs) of all districts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of quality and quantitative analysis of solid waste of Patna Municipal Corporation (PMC), which incorporates to identify the sources and quantity of solid waste generation. The objective of this paper is to analyses the financial assistance and infrastructural facilities available for SWM in PMC. The study has been carried out to evaluate the current challenges faced by PMC for the proper management of solid waste. The adopted strategies of PMC are critically reviewed with the help of both primary and secondary data sources. The major findings of this paper are that the shortage of financial supports, lack of infrastructure and inefficient policies regarding waste management are the major challenges faced by PMC today. The study drives the researcher to suggest some measures to eradicate the challenges and opt for a sustainable SWM plan for PMC.
    Keywords: infrastructural constraints; financial impediments; inefficient policies; solid waste management; SWM; Patna Municipal Corporation; PMC; urban local bodies; ULBs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047216
    by Nik Nor Rahimah Nik Ab Rahim, Jamal Othman 
    Abstract: Environmental impacts from poor landfilling practice have been a long-time concern in Kota Bharu, a populated city in Peninsula Malaysia. This requires a sustainable disposal solution, a sanitary landfill, but such a project can turn into a failure without household demand side information. This study investigated the willingness of households to pay for a sanitary landfill by employing a survey-based method known as choice modelling. This is used to obtain the willingness of households to pay towards the environmental benefits of a sanitary landfill described by attributes of controlled leachate discharge, reduced intensity of bad odour, reduced disease vector and promotion of a scenic view. The resulting estimates show positive willingness to pay for each attribute (ranging from RM2.12 to RM12.61) and for the sanitary landfill (ranging from RM7.62 to RM10.41). The gathered information benefits policymakers to make decisions that match the demands of households so as to avoid the likelihood of opposition and project infeasibility.
    Keywords: non-market valuation; choice modelling; sanitary landfill; solid waste disposal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042085
  • Socio-Technical Transformations of Indore’s Waste Management Infrastructure   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankit Tiwari, Pritee Sharma 
    Abstract: Today the problem of waste is the focus in the planning agenda of the Indian government. With the aim of improved waste management, sanitation, and hygiene in 2014 the Swachh Bharat Mission was launched. This Mission has created a behaviour change in the MSW perspective and changed the scope and scale of privatisation into waste management systems. The waste in India, not simply a material, but it is associated with a complex negative connotation of the class and caste. Traditional waste management provides employment and low entry-cost opportunity for deprived people struggling for their livelihood. The privatisation of SWM services increases the penetration of formal or private into the domain of the waste pickers. This paper takes the case of Indore city which shown a positive response in MSW management as compared to other cities of the country. This paper highlights how the waste pickers and Informal sectors of Indore city are affected (positively or negatively) by the formal rights-designation system with an institutional policy change, previous an open-access regime. The key finding highlights the traces and dynamics of transformation. This paper also highlighted that the city has the potential for becoming environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable with possible changes.
    Keywords: informal waste sector; municipal solid waste; privatisation; urban commons; Swachh Bharat mission and smart city mission.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042087
  • Aging effect on the bearing capacity of landfills: A field study experiment   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Mozouni, Ali Ghanbari, Gholamreza Asadolah Fardi 
    Abstract: The complete design of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill requires geotechnical parameters of the landfill bed. In the present study, several plate load tests (PLT) with plates 450 mm in diameter were performed on a landfill surface with different ages in the Karaj landfill in Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate bearing capacity, the modulus of elasticity, and the modulus of subgrade reaction with increasing age of burial. The exact design of landfills, slope stability analysis, and drainage system, as well as gas well integrity are contingent upon these parameters. The results of the plate load tests revealed that the bearing capacity, the modulus of elasticity, and the modulus of Subgrade reaction increased considerably with MSW age. The bearing capacity rose by approximately 14% and 40% in 6 years and 15 years after dumping, respectively. In addition, the modulus of elasticity increased threefold after 15 years.
    Keywords: aging; bearing capacity; field study; landfill; municipal solid waste; plate load test; PLT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042088
  • An In-depth Literature Review of End-of-Life Vehicle Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Rakesh Shrivastava, Gajanan Badwe, R.P. Mohanty, Gunjan Yadav 
    Abstract: The automotive industry has been a major contributor to the economic growth across the globe. However, the industry has struggled to tackle end-of-life vehicle management issues, which have impacted strongly the sustainability aspects of the products. The purpose of this paper is to classify the research papers, identify the research gaps and discover the future research directions in end-of-life vehicle (ELV) management. The study covers an analysis of recent literature published from 2000 to 2020. A total of 261 articles are analysed and classified into themes; such as ELV management practices, ELV legislation, ELV recovery strategies, automotive shredder residue (ASR), environmental impacts, and ELV economics. The study has utility for the auto manufacturers, auto users, academicians and researchers engaged in the field of ELV management to develop a better understanding of the issues and contribute to sustainable development.
    Keywords: end-of-life vehicle management; recycling; environmental impacts; economics; sustainability; automotive industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042089
  • Influence of fine waste from dimension stone processing on vermicomposting   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirna A. Neves, Rodrigo S. De Faria, Eduardo De Sá Mendonça 
    Abstract: The fine wastes from dimension stone processing, generated when blocks of rock are cut into wall tiles, contain chemical elements essential for mineral enrichment of soil. However, these wastes have macro and micronutrients stocked in the crystalline structure of silicate minerals. The aim of this work was to use the vermicomposting process for increasing the release of these nutrients from dimension stone residues. In laboratory, different percentages of rock waste were mixed with an organic substrate, where worms (Eisenia foetida) were inoculated and maintained for 180 days. Vermicomposting occurred in all the treatments but was more efficient in the treatment with 25% of rock waste mixed into the organic matter. During the vermicomposting process, the rock powder added elements to the substrate, raising the concentration of Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Na and B. The pH-values increased, but remained at safe levels, even in the treatment with 50% of rock waste.
    Keywords: stone meal; recycling; humus; earthworm; Eisenia foetida.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055299
  • Regionalisation studies for municipal solid waste management in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Aline Pimentel Gomes, Pedro D.M. Prietto, Rosa Maria Locatelli Kalil, Adalberto Pandolfo, Sergio Reyes 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) management at the regional level has become increasingly important over the last years. The regionalisation studies evaluate ideal arrangements of municipalities to constitute consortia for sharing infrastructure and management. A document analysis of regionalisation studies for MSW management from 18 Brazilian states was made in order to identify and evaluate the shape of the regions, the criteria and the methods used. The results evidenced a big difference regarding the number of regions proposed, the number of municipalities, the area and population of each region, the environmental, economic, social and political criteria, the hierarchy and the tools used. There is a lack of padronisation in the elaboration of these studies and the development of a consistent method, with the definition of hierarchical criteria, the use of appropriate geospatial tools, as weel as the social participation in the decision-making process can contribute to the elaboration of regionalisation studies.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; waste management; regionalisation for waste management; public consortia; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055300
  • Role of Attitude, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Environmental Knowledge on Behavioral Intentions of Householders Toward participating in Solid Waste Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadia A. Abdulghaffar, Hind A. Bakr 
    Abstract: An individual adopts pro-environmental behaviour that is assumed protective by society for the environment. A series of actions is implied that eradicates the harm majorly done to the environment. Therefore, this study aims to examine the role of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and environmental knowledge on householders behavioural intentions toward solid waste management (SWM) and the extent of householders participation in Jeddah. A descriptive correlational study design has been adopted to determine the relationship between SWM determinants and behavioural intentions of 1038 Jeddah householders. Structural equation modelling using SMART-PLS (partial least squares) has been performed to analyse the data collected. The results have shown a significant and positive relationship between individual attitudes and intentions (r = 0.605, p = 0.00), subjective norms and intentions (r = 0.444, p = 0.00), perceived behavioural control (r = 0.227, p = 0.00), level of awareness (r = 0.320, p = 0.00), environmental knowledge (r = 0.560, p = 0.00), and behaviour of participating (r = 0.604, p = 0.00). Attitude, subjective norms, environmental knowledge, perceived behavioural control, and awareness level positively influence the behavioural intentions of Jeddah householders to participate in SWM activities actively.
    Keywords: behavioural intentions; householders; Saudi Arabia; solid waste management; theory of planned behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042289
  • Process capability study of domestic organic waste composting process a pilot scale case study in rural India   Order a copy of this article
    by G.V.S.S. Sharma, M. Srinivasa Rao, V. Rambabu, M.S. Atchuth Prasad 
    Abstract: This study enlists the different factors controlling the domestic waste composting process and subsequently gives details on the process improvement of identified critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristics of the house hold organic waste composting process. Define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC) approach is adopted for confirming an enhancement in the process capability levels of the CTQ characteristic. Ishikawa diagram is used for finding the potential causes responsible for the process deviation. Prioritisation of corrective actions for causal factors is carried out by means process failure modes and effects analysis (PFMEA). Process monitoring charts are used the study of variations in the process capability index of the process, at the four sigma level, which is equal to the value of 1.33. By employing DMAIC approach, the CP and CPK registered a final values of 3.29 and 2.26 from an initial minimum values of 0.988214 and 0.21496 respectively.
    Keywords: composting; process capability; DMAIC; Ishikawa diagram; PFMEA; critical-to-quality characteristic; CTQ; circular economy; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055301
  • An approach for quantifying the benefits of treating biodegradable municipal solid waste: a case-study from the city of Jambi, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by João Aleluia 
    Abstract: The treatment of solid waste and its processing into resources can result in multiple benefits to society. Many of these are, however, underestimated or simply not taken into account in decision-making processes. This article proposes an approach to support policymakers quantifying these benefits. It focuses on the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste, which usually accounts for more than 50% of waste streams in developing countries. A case-study was adopted to illustrate the application of the approach, with the city of Jambi, Indonesia, selected to this end. The case-study assessed the benefits of adopting biological treatment methods in alternative to the baseline practice of landfilling waste. Composting was the method with the highest level of benefits associated, estimated at 162 USD per ton of waste processed. The case-study also demonstrates the importance of benefit quantification as a basis to properly design public policy instruments in support of waste treatment approaches.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; organic solid waste; anaerobic digestion; composting; developing Asia; Indonesia; case-study; cost-benefit analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042432
  • Comparative study of Decrease in Direct (CO2) and Indirect Green House Gases (CO, NOx, SO2) Emissions from the Coal fired Thermal power Plants Using Energy from Municipal Solid Waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushma Verma, Indranil Mukherjee, Barun Mondal, Provas Roy 
    Abstract: India is the third largest producer and fourth largest consumer of electricity in the world, with the installed power capacity having reached 330,860.58 GW as on December 2017 with primary contribution being from coal. Undoubtedly the emissions from using coal as fuel are plenty. The solution forward seems to be the use of non-conventional energy in combination with the available conventional. An attempt has been made in the paper to present a case study of six metros Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi and Bengaluru, in terms of their utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) as an alternate energy source for electrical energy (based on combustion) in reducing the direct (CO2) and indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NOx, SO2) emissions from the coal fed thermal power plants in all the six metros. The savings in GHG emissions have been worked out for these six metros considering individual plants for the year 2011 and also for the year 2021. The results obtained show that considerable reduction in GHG emissions can be achieved by using energy from MSW and it can thus indirectly reduce the pollution too.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; direct and indirect GHG emissions; composition of MSW; ultimate analysis; heat value; daily energy potential; per capita generation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042673
  • Improving operations performance in waste pickers organizations using governance tools   Order a copy of this article
    by José C. M. Ramalho, Juliana P. Tackla, Sarina F. A. Lessa, Luciana H. Yamane, Roquemar L. Baldam, Renato R. Siman 
    Abstract: Waste pickers organisations (WPO) divert recyclable materials from landfills, adding value to the waste, while creating employment, and thus having great social importance. Unfortunately, they have very low efficiency, because of dysfunctions that impede their economic sustainability. By using an exploratory survey, data were collected to perform an organisation strategy study, using the following tools: business model canvas, current reality tree and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) matrix. This resulted in a better understanding of the business, the problems that cause the low efficiency, but also the opportunities that can be used to invert this trend. Moreover, the methodology described in this paper is innovative, as a frequency analysis based on the SWOT matrices of 62 WPOs was compiled. This can be applied to any group of WPOs, especially in developing countries, to identify and understand possible dysfunctions that may affect their operation.
    Keywords: waste pickers organisations; WPOs; municipal solid waste; waste collection; recyclable materials; governance tools.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042810
  • Multi Criteria Decision Analysis for the identification of feasible rubber waste management alternatives for tire manufacturing industry: A Sri Lankan case study with TOPSIS and SWING   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Varuni Jayasooriya, P.D.P Dasuni 
    Abstract: The waste generated from tire manufacturing process can create long term environmental and health hazards. The present study used a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) based approach to evaluate the feasibility of popular rubber waste management alternatives currently available. Based on expert opinions and a literature survey, 16 criteria, and 6 alternative rubber waste management strategies were identified. The technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method integrated with SWING was applied to identify feasible solid waste management alternatives for waste that generate at the end of the production process from the tire manufacturing industry. Based on the results, pyrolysis was identified as the most feasible waste management solution for rubber waste management which is the priority waste type in the tire manufacturing industry, representing greater closeness to the highest-ranked SWING weights on less public health and safety risks, high revenue generation and marketability, and less waste generation.
    Keywords: multi criteria decision analysis; MCDA; technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution; TOPSIS; solid waste; triple bottom line; tire manufacturing industry; rubber; Sri Lankan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10043073
  • Estimation of Infection from COVID-19 in India using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average model   Order a copy of this article
    by SUNIL GUPTA, Durgansh Sharma 
    Abstract: The impact of corona virus (COVID-19) infection is gradually increasing day by day, because of its high transmission ability. The virus has deeply impacted the global economy, including India, and the number of deaths and positive infections around the world still lies unabated. India recorded its first infection on 30th January 2020, as the first patient tested positive in Kerala for COVID-19. Currently, the figure of infected people and the death rate is very high. The situation needs a forecast infected model that helps predict the exact figure. The prediction allows authorities to take a factual prevention for decision making. We have used the Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average model for Predication of Infection in COVID-19. In this paper, an approximate prediction of new confirmed cases and death cases is performed by using ARIMA based model. Closeness in the analytical and the available results shows the correctness of the proposed ARIMA model. By using the proposed model, an approximate estimation of case count, death count and prediction of cumulative cases in future can be done quite easily. The prediction data shows more than 98 percentage of accuracy, when compared to available actual figures.
    Keywords: COVID-19; infected cases; death rate; ARIMA; forecasting; covidify1.3.0; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10043809
    by Aziah Khamis, Nur Allyssa Mohd Zulfakar 
    Abstract: The world is facing a crisis of insufficient energy to support human life, as the worlds energy demand overgrows in parallel with the worlds population rate and will continue to increase in the future. The usage of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a renewable energy tool is a collective solution to this crisis. This project aims to find a new renewable source of energy as well as to prove and demonstrate the generation of electricity from food waste using MFC. Several manipulated variables were selected to test the maximum power density produced using double chamber MFC such as the different type of food waste, the different pH value for the food waste, the different sizes of the electrode, and the different electrode positioning in the chamber. The experimental results indicate that the best performance of MFC can be attained using fruits that quickly release sugar with a more acidic pH level. The MFC should be prepared using small size electrodes with spaces that were arranged in a vertical position. Therefore, it is proved that energy can be harvest from food waste by using MFC.
    Keywords: bioelectricity; microbial fuel cell; MFC; waste-to-energy; food waste; double chamber; electrodes sizing and positioning; pH level.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10043877
  • People’s awareness, behavior, and willingness about solid waste management in Bhopal city   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahul Wadghane, Omprakash Madguni 
    Abstract: The study identifies solid waste management (SWM) problems in Bhopal, India. Awareness of the segregation, daily waste collection, willingness to use non-plastic products, and willingness to reduce waste at the source has a low positive correlation with a willingness to pay. Only 52.15% of respondents know something about SWM. 39.67% of respondents were not happy about the present SWM. The habit of throwing waste from people is the major problem after irregular sanitary work, harmful consumption patterns and governance. 50.27% of respondents segregated waste, and 94% of the respondents are willing to segregate. 65.76% of respondents have a daily waste collection, and 86.41% of respondents are willing to have a daily collection. 66.12% of respondents were willing to pay extra money for improvement in the SWM. Segregated collection with bins and containers (31.45%) and proper disposal of the solid waste (23.92%) were the top-ranked demands in the existing SWM. 89.50% of the respondents were willing to use non-plastic products. 88.17% of respondents said they are willing to reduce waste at the source.
    Keywords: solid waste management; SWM; respondents; willingness to pay; awareness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10043878
  • Application of artificial neural network in environmental engineering a state-of-the-art review   Order a copy of this article
    by Viren Chandanshive, Ashwini Shanbhag 
    Abstract: The concept of an artificial neural network (ANN) was to imitate the nervous system and human brains activity. Comprehensive literature review revealed that ANNs are widely used in environmental engineering and are recognised in modelling of water quality index and waste-water treatment plant efficiency, as well as in predicting air quality index and noise pollution analysis. This study provides a review of various methodologies and applications in environmental engineering. Accordingly, articles were categorised based on methodology, approach employed, release year, authors, research goals, outcomes, discoveries, solutions, and modelling. A decent corporeal sympathetic ANN approach is summarised in this study. The most significant factors were identified and explained in detail, which will be considered while developing a more efficient neural network model. Furthermore, this research may aid civil and environmental engineers, as well as practitioners, in addressing engineering difficulties and comprehending the applicability of ANN against traditional mathematical approaches.
    Keywords: artificial neural network; ANN; water quality index; wastewater treatment; air quality; prediction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055302
  • Assessment of Soil Quality, Modeling in and around Steel City Rourkela, Odisha, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Trinath Biswal, Pratap Kumar Swain, R.B. Panda 
    Abstract: This work was conducted on assessing the soil quality in and around the steel city Rourkela and its prediction modelling by using regression analysis. The analysed data indicate that the soil is acidic (pH 4.26.0), electrical conductivity (EC) is 342.2680 S/cm, total dissolved solids (TDS) is122.5189.2 mg/l, total organic carbon (TOC) is 0.58-1.46mg/l, total organic matter (TOM) is in the range of 0.41-2.0mg/l, the total N is 0.110.34 mg/l, C/N ratio is in the range of 2.259.1. The C/N ratio is <8.0 indicating infertility of the soil, Na and K is in the required range, whereas TDS is more than the permissible limit. Ni, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Fe are higher than the permissible limit. This research work was carried out in 2019 to aware about the degradation of soil quality and future prediction in and around steel city Rourkela.
    Keywords: total organic carbon; TOC; total organic matter; TOM; pH; soil quality; conductivity; total dissolved solids; TDS; sustainable biological productivity; soil fertility; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10044171
  • Corona Pandemic and Plastic Pollution: A Way Forward   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehjabin Tishan Mahfuz, M. Sarwar Jahan, Shakhawat Hossain, Mubarak A. Khan 
    Abstract: COVID-19 is a corona virus with high rate of human-to-human transmission and mortality. One major consequence of COVID-19 pandemic is the increased use of personal protective equipment (PPE), an essential component for the protection against COVID-19 and other transmissible diseases for healthcare workers and general population. Most of the PPE and biological wrapping materials are made of a petroleum-based polymer, which is non-biodegradable and leads to environmental pollution. This article discusses the preparation and characterisation of a completely biodegradable hybrid biopolymer, made of jute-cellulose derivative with oligo-chitosan. Physico-mechanical, thermal, and degradable properties of cellulose-chitosan biopolymer (CCBP) were studied. The tensile strength of the CCBP is 45 MPa, soluble in normal water, and soapy water within seven days and three minutes. It degrades in soil with 23 months. This technology is aimed to lessen the environmental burden of plastic pollution through accumulation in landfills and air pollution through incineration.
    Keywords: coronavirus; SARS CoV-2; COVID-19; chitosan; oligo-chitosan; jute polymer; personal protective equipment; PPE; plastic pollution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10044178
  • Residents’ Satisfaction of Urban Solid Waste Collection Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown Period in Ede, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Lateef A. Adeniyi, Adewale M. Olayiwola, Sakariyau A. Ademola 
    Abstract: This paper examined the activities of municipal waste collector (MWC) and assessed the satisfaction of Ede residents to the services of MWCs during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were collected from 259 respondents randomly selected from three residential zones in the study area. Data were analysed using residents satisfaction index (RSI). Results indicated that the activities of MWC were irregular during the lockdown period. Furthermore, results showed that residents level of satisfaction with the activities of MWC during the period were core area (RSI = 2.36), intermediate (RSI = 2.03), and transition (RSI = 2.0), while the aggregate was 2.12. The study showed that level of satisfaction derived from services rendered by MWC during the lockdown period was low. Hence, the study concluded that solid waste collection in Ede during the period was poor; majority of the residents rarely felt their impact at a period when their service was mostly needed.
    Keywords: residents’ satisfaction; municipal waste collector; MWC; alternative strategies; urban solid waste collection; COVID-19 pandemic; lockdown; Ede; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051058
  • Effectiveness of cow dung and effective microorganisms on composting of napkins and diapers   Order a copy of this article
    by Namasivayam Vasudevan, Greeshma Odukkathil, Gomathi Ravi 
    Abstract: Absorbent hygiene products (AHPs) have become an indispensable feature of modern-day living for all humans. Absorbent hygiene products (AHPs) are the products designed to absorb excreted body fluids at various stages of a consumers life and are popularly known as diapers, napkins, or sanitary pad. The AHP wastes are not biodegradable under composting conditions unless they are pre-processed. Based on the survey, the total quantity of napkins sold in Chennai was calculated to be approximately 253 tonnes per year. Based on the composition, most of the brands constitute biodegradable material as major component. The napkin contains 60%70% of biodegradable materials and diapers contain 85%92% of the biodegradable materials. In the present study, composting was carried out using amendments like cow dung and effective microbes for composting AHPs (napkins and diapers). The duration of composting was 60 days. pH, moisture, C/N ratio, phosphorus, sodium and potassium were monitored periodically. The final compost characteristics were pH 78, moisture 50%, C/N ratio 1520:1, and phosphorus 23 g/kg. About 70% to 85% of volume and weight reduction were observed during composting.
    Keywords: absorbent hygiene products; AHPs; sanitary pads; diapers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055303
  • Application of Graphene oxide for Fluoride removal: Kinetic and Isotherm study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ram Konale, Nilesh Mahale, Sopan Ingle 
    Abstract: In the present study, graphene oxide (GO) is utilised as an adsorbent for defluoridation from synthetic sample as well as fluorite mine water. A modified Hummers method was adopted for the GO synthesis. The physico-chemical characterisation of the GO was done with FTIR, XRD, FESEM and EDX. The various parameter viz. adsorbent doses (100250 mg/L), contact time (590 min.), pH (210), temperature (298318 K) and initial concentration of fluoride (132 mg/L) were optimised for by GO. The maximum 98.34% fluoride adsorption was achieved by 100 mg/L GO dose in 30 min at pH 6. The adsorption process obeys the pseudo second order kinetics (R2= 0.995), Langmuir (18.86 mg/g) and defluoridation Freundlich isotherm (6.15 L/mg). The ionic interference was found negligible on fluoride removal from the fluorite mine water sample.
    Keywords: fluoride adsorption; graphene oxide; kinetic equation; adsorption isotherm model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10044501
  • Characterization investigation on organic compost of municipal solid waste using Physico-chemical, spectroscopic and thermal methods at different stages   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasir Mushtaq, Abdul Qayoom Dar, Naved Ahsan 
    Abstract: An experimental study was performed on the organic compost produced from municipal solid waste (MSW). In this study, the characterisation of organic compost was carried out by using physico-chemical and sophisticated spectral methods (SEM-EDS, FT-IR and XRD) at four different stages of the decomposition process. The findings of organic compost on the 60th day depicted heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr) were within the prescribed standard limits of Fertilizer Control Order (FCO), 1985, India. The SEM micrographs showed the disintegrated final product of compost material on the 60th day. Further, X-ray diffraction exhibited the reduction of sharp to mild peaks, which represented the change of compost material from crystalline to amorphous material and FT-IR spectra depicted the intense broad peaks on the 60th day of the decomposition, respectively. Eventually, it was concluded that the above techniques were helpful to know the maturity and in-depth characteristics of organic compost.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; compost; scanning electron microscopy; SEM; X-ray diffraction; XRD; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; FT-IR; thermogravimetric; TG.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10044745
  • Waste management during COVID-19 pandemic: could it be time-bomb?   Order a copy of this article
    by Yudha Gusti Wibowo, Bimastyaji Surya Ramadan, Machmudin Fitra Miftahadi, Indriyani Rachman, Nurani Ikhlas 
    Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 has severe problems in the world with both public and economic health aspects. Therefore, the potential for virus transmission through various media needs to be anticipated in various ways, such as IoT-based monitoring systems, quarantine/lockdown and social distancing policies. These policies have an impact on waste conditions in the right region. This article is intended to find out how to transfer SARS-CoV-2 through domestic and non-domestic waste media. Besides, study the policies taken from an area at the SARS-CoV-2 meeting on their waste management. The results of literature studies that have been carried out related to the use of online media increased following the implementation of social distancing policies. Approved, disposable plastic and cardboard waste that is often used as food wrappers are increasing. Disposable medical waste as personal protective equipment also increases the incineration capacity to stabilise the infectious waste. Various countries have issued various waste management strategies during the pandemic. However, future studies are needed to evaluate the management systems effectiveness that is free of viruses and does not become a time-bomb in the mass spread of viruses through waste.
    Keywords: personal protective equipment; PPE; SARS-CoV-2; single-use plastic; SUP; social distancing; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055304
  • Performance evaluation study of effluent treatment plant of polyester textile dyeing industry: a case study of SIDCUL, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Sangeeta Madan, Richa Madan, Athar Hussain 
    Abstract: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of an effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a polyester textile dyeing industry with 150250 m3/day average inflow in Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. The raw effluent was analysed for 18 physico-chemical parameters and eight heavy metals for a period of one year. The study revealed that raw wastewater has high chemical oxygen demand (COD) (2,461.0±48.45 mg/L), colour (892 Pt-Co), sulphate (6,620.0 ±7.22 mg/L) and electrical conductivity (EC) (2,906.0±5.77 μS/cm) respectively. The treated effluent from ETP showed a significant reduction in colour (71.28%), EC (75.71%), alkalinity (76.04%), biological oxygen demand (BOD) (53.34%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (53.53%). However, colour, BOD and COD exceed the standards by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India for safe discharge of industrial effluent in inland surface water and based on the results it is recommended that pollutant level in polyester textile dyeing effluent is of major concern requiring regular monitoring and further advanced treatment.
    Keywords: heavy metals; physico-chemical; polyester textile dyeing; ETP performance; Haridwar; Uttarakhand; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055347
  • Environmental costs management and profitability of small and medium scale poultry farms in Nigeria. Evidence from Osun State   Order a copy of this article
    by Dolapo Faith Sule, Idowu Emmanuel Olubodun, Kehinde Adebola Adewa, Olabisi Damilola Omodara 
    Abstract: This study determined the impact of environmental costs management on the profitability of poultry farms in Osun State. Using a multistage sampling technique, the study administered questionnaires to 74 poultry farmers and results showed that poultry farmers were not well-trained in environmental costs management. In furtherance, the farmers had good knowledge of heat control, bio-security, disease management but little knowledge of environmental pollution management. Also, dumping, compost, and flushing methods of waste disposal were prevalent among sampled farmers. Budgetary analysis revealed average gross margin of N1,947,035.09 (US$5,408.43); gross margin ratio of 1.01/production cycle and environmental costs alone constituted 9.8% of the total variable costs. In addition, regression result showed that environmental costs influenced the profitability of poultry farming. The study concluded that environmental costs affected the profitability of the poultry industry and manifested significantly in the cost of poultry waste generated. Thus, continuous emphasis should be placed on the need to manage waste profitably by earning additional income from poultry waste sales via integrated farming and environmental regulations for poultry farms should be reviewed for effective compliance in the industry.
    Keywords: waste management; disposal method; pollution; community development; poultry policy regulation; government; budgetary analysis; environmental cost; gross margin; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055305
  • Forest fire mitigation by social economic development of local communities using pine needle as potential fuel   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Verma, Kushal Sharma, Abhay Mahajan, Rishi Sharma 
    Abstract: Presently around the globe, bush fire is becoming a severe problem for the forest and its ecology. Countries like Australia has faced major bush fire accidents in the beginning of 2020, in which estimated 18.6 million hectare area has been effected causing damage to 5,600 homes beside the tree lines and destroyed forest cover which requires decades to heal. One of the major causes of these bush fire accidents is biomass present on the floor of the forest. To prevent forests from fire caused by dry pine needles, dry leaves and all the waste products of trees need to be removed from the forest floor. The study has been taken to investigate a possibility to develop an environment in which local communities utilise produced biomass as an instrument of livelihood by converting it into a suitable product through waste to energy route.
    Keywords: biomass; pine needle; forest fire; briquette; ecology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055805
  • To dispose or not to dispose? When risk perception in decision-making impacts teaching and research laboratories environmental management   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernanda Cristina Romero, Luciana Aparecida Farias, Luiz Omir De Cerqueira Leite 
    Abstract: The environmental management systems of universities and research institutes must include waste management and, according to the hierarchy, they must prioritise prevention of the generation of these materials. The purpose of this paper is to identify, analyse and understand the perception of risk regarding radioactive waste among students at a Brazilian nuclear research institute. The study was exploratory qualitative and conducted with the participation of 104 individuals. For data collection, a structured questionnaire was applied, and a participant observation was carried out. It was found that despite the students receiving the same knowledge base in disciplines offered in graduate school, they had different perceptions regarding the risk of radioactive waste that interfered with their behaviour on the disposal of materials in their laboratory practices.
    Keywords: radioactive waste; hierarchy; minimisation; green chemistry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055306
  • What strategic actions for an urban cleanliness policy? Case of the City of Constantine (Algeria)
    by Mehdi Kaghouche, Houria Ariane 
    Abstract: The improvement of citizens standard of living and change of their consumption habits generates a large production of waste in the city, causing several types of pollution, namely visual, olfactory, etc., which, in turn, significantly contribute to the degradation of the urban life, urban image and the environment. This article investigated the concept of urban cleanliness and its evaluation in Coudiat-Aty, one of the well-known, colonial neighbourhoods in the city centre of Constantine. The study used a survey and an observation grid to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the cleanliness of the neighbourhood through the calculation of several soiling indicators. The study findings showed that the Coudiat-Aty neighbourhood is considered unclean and has a mean indicator of soiling 3.02. This result can be explained by the highly busy neighbourhood. Thus by the presence of many administrations and schools which receive a lot of people.
    Keywords: city; environment; neighbourhood; pollution; soiling indicators; urban cleanliness; urban image; waste; Algeria.

  • Profile modelling of solid waste generation of non-household establishments in Butuan City
    by Jan Nino G. Tinio, Breix Michael G. Agua 
    Abstract: This study focused on the solid waste generation of establishments in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte. It aimed to determine some factors affecting the total solid waste daily generation of establishments in the city. Sex of the owner, his/her educational profile, his/her age, civil status, years in the business, type of establishment, and total number of employees were the selected variables considered in this study. It used correlation and Chi square analyses to determine whether or not the variables are related to or associated with the total daily waste generated by the establishments. The results show that the total number of employees and the type of establishment have a significant relationship/association with the generated waste. This study recommends that the local government of Butuan City should specifically develop a policy to address the amount of trash generated by medium-scale and high-scale establishments.
    Keywords: solid waste generation of non-household establishments; commercial solid waste; factors affecting solid waste generation; policy implications.

  • An in-depth literature review of end-of-life vehicle management
    by Rakesh Shrivastava, Gajanan Badwe, R.P. Mohanty, Gunjan Yadav 
    Abstract: The automotive industry has been a major contributor to the economic growth across the globe. However, the industry has struggled to tackle end-of-life vehicle management issues, which have impacted strongly the sustainability aspects of the products. The purpose of this paper is to classify the research papers, identify the research gaps and discover the future research directions in end-of-life vehicle (ELV) management. The study covers an analysis of recent literature published from 2000 to 2020. A total of 261 articles are analysed and classified into themes; such as ELV management practices, ELV legislation, ELV recovery strategies, automotive shredder residue (ASR), environmental impacts, and ELV economics. The study has utility for the auto manufacturers, auto users, academicians and researchers engaged in the field of ELV management to develop a better understanding of the issues and contribute to sustainable development.
    Keywords: end-of-life vehicle management; recycling; environmental impacts; economics; sustainability; automotive industry.

  • Influence Of Geo-Environmental Factors On Landfill Fugitive Biogas Emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Barreto, William De Paiva, Fernando F. Vieira, Daniel E. Bezerra, Marcio Melo, Veruschka Monteiro, Marcus Vinicius Melo De Lyra 
    Abstract: Geo-environmental parameters play the main role in fugitive gas emissions through landfill compacted soil cover layer. Many factors affect biogas emissions, like landfill temperature, external temperature, gas concentration (CO2, O2, and CH4), and local weather conditions. This study aims to identify the intervening factors in the fugitive emissions of biogas through the layer of compacted soil cover of the landfill through the statistical method of principal component analysis (PCA). The measurement of gas flux through the landfill cover layer was made by combining the static flow plate test methodology, gas concentrations, and regional rainfall measurements. Among the factors studied, weather conditions, landfill temperature, and external temperature were the most significant on gas emission through the cover layer. Besides, carbon dioxide and methane flux had independent behaviours. The results highlighted that the mean soil compaction degree and the landfill cell cover layer thickness affect positively the layer gas retention properties.
    Keywords: environment; field testing and monitoring; landfills; renewable energy; statistical analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047075
  • Performance and Emission Analysis of Karanja Biodiesel using Variable Compression Ratio Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry  
    Abstract: In the present work, transesterification is used to synthesise biodiesel. The biodiesel has been tested in variable compression ratio (VCR) Engine. The experimental investigations have shown the compression ratio of 17.5 as the most favourable compression ratio because it provided accurate results of the emission and performance analysis. The performance analysis was measured by changing the load in relation to the mechanical efficiency, brake thermal efficiency and brake specific energy consumption. The volumetric efficiency and brake thermal efficiency were found to be 79.17% and 25.97% at compression ratio of 17.5. The emission analysis has been studied for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbon and smoke. The results were found comparable with diesel fuel.
    Keywords: analysis; biodiesel; efficiency; emission; engine; experimental investigations; Karanja oil; load; performance; transesterification; variable compression ratio; VCR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047077
  • Integrated assessment in municipal solid waste management: a discussion from models to indicators   Order a copy of this article
    by Carolina Xavier Ferreira, Marcelo Seleme Matias, Armando Borges De Castilhos Júnior 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) has a wide range of stages and technologies for application in different social and economic contexts. With the complexity involved in the process, decision making also gradually becomes more difficult. There is currently a plurality of models, tools and indicators that seek to evaluate and represent the performance of these different arrangements under different approaches. The models have evolved from a purely economic approach to dynamic and integrated assessments. This work, supported by a bibliographic review, presents a discussion on the evolution of the models of performance evaluation of MSWM systems and describes the dimensions commonly used in the decision-making process in the form of indicators: economic, environmental and social. This research was carried out through a literature review of the last 20 years (2000-2020) and it was noted that the development of evaluation and optimisation models are still being improved.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste management; performance evaluation models; decision support tools; indicators.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055307
    by Mehdi Kaghouche, Houria Ariane 
    Abstract: The improvement of citizens standard of living and change of their consumption habits generates a large production of waste in the city, causing several types of pollution, namely visual, olfactory, etc., which, in turn, significantly contribute to the degradation of the urban life, urban image and the environment. This article investigated the concept of urban cleanliness and its evaluation in Coudiat-Aty, one of the well-known, colonial neighbourhoods in the city centre of Constantine. The study used a survey and an observation grid to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the cleanliness of the neighbourhood through the calculation of several soiling indicators. The study findings showed that the Coudiat-Aty neighbourhood is considered unclean and has a mean indicator of soiling 3.02. This result can be explained by the highly busy neighbourhood. Thus by the presence of many administrations and schools which receive a lot of people.
    Keywords: city; environment; neighbourhood; pollution; soiling indicators; urban cleanliness; urban image; waste; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047081
  • Estimation of thermal efficiency of dry leaves with dairy scum pellets and comparative study on their thermal disintegration under TGA apparatus and cook stove   Order a copy of this article
    by NIVEDITA IYER, NIVEDITA IYER, Velmurugan B, Velmurugan B, Jignesh Makwana, Jignesh Makwana 
    Abstract: Garden wastes comprising leaves are often considered as unresourceful and usually discarded in the environment without testing its potential. The yard waste consisting leaves of mangifera indica, manilkara zapota, azadirachta indica, ficus benghalensis, polyalthia longifolia, eucalyptus and tamarindus indica were optimised to produce 8 mm pellets using dairy scum as binder in 5%, 10%, 25% scum to biomass ratio and without scum was considered as control. Physical and chemical properties such as particle size, bulk density, true density, moisture, volatile matter, ash, energy density, calorific value, pH, lignin, metals, and tensile strength were observed and analysed for all pellets. Estimated thermal efficiency from combustion analysis of produced pellets were 40.74%, 43.51%, 44.77% and 46.73% for leaves with 5%, 10%, 25% dairy scum and control respectively. Comparative study of thermal behaviour of produced pellets using TGA/DTA and cook stove showed similar isotherms of combustion. The present study also manifest the significance of using dairy scum as binder for biomass pelletisation as an added scope of utilisation of dairy industrial waste in contribution towards renewable energy.
    Keywords: leaves; dairy scum; garden/yard waste; thermal efficiency; thermo gravimetric analysis; TGA; biomass pellets combustion; differential thermal analysis; 8 mm pellets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047082
  • Investigation of Methylene Blue Adsorption on Alum Sludge using Full Factorial 2k Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandyanto Adityosulindro, Fairuz Nabila, Annisa Marlin Rus, Djoko Hartono, Setyo Moersidik 
    Abstract: Alum sludge (AS) wasted from water treatment plant (WTP) was prepared by a simple drying method and tested as an adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from water. Laboratory batch experiment was conducted using full factorial 2k experimental design in order to investigate the influence of experimental factors including adsorbent dose (0.51 g/L), dye concentration (0.050.15 g/L), pH (48), and temperature (3060
    Keywords: adsorption; alum sludge; sludge reuse; methylene blue; full factorial design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048053
  • Evaluation of the productive and environmental potential of closed-loop manufaturing process   Order a copy of this article
    by Flavio Numata Junior, Helena V. G. Navas 
    Abstract: Nowadays the energy is considered, and in the future, the main factor for manufacturing. Therefore closed-loop production processes can reusing waste or by-products, but it has high electricity consumption and generates high rates of pollutants. This scenario is contradictory when looking for the eco-efficiency of the production plant. In this sense, this article aims to develop a theoretical model that optimises solutions to raise the productive and environmental performance of manufacturing. The modelling made compatible the improvements of the system through the inventive principles (theory of inventive problem solving TRIZ) with environmental analysis (life cycle assessment LCA) for the generation of systematic innovations in the manufacture. The experimental results present an architectures of results for the use of thermochemical routes and alteration of the composition of the productive resources for generation of clean energy and reduction of the environmental impacts.
    Keywords: process improvement; TRIZ; LCA; environmental impacts; closed-loop production.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048089
  • Remediation of Heavy Metal Ions from Mining Wastewater using Azadirachta Indica Bark Adsorbents   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The Azadirachta indica bark was powdered and activated with HCl (AIP-H) and NaOH (AIP-N) before being dosed into 50 ml of MW at proportion of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g. The effects of adsorbent dosage, agitation rate, contact time, pH, and temperature on the removal of selected heavy metals (Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Cr3+, and Co3+) from the MW were studied using batch adsorption studies. The dosage of adsorbent required to achieve 100% removal efficiency for the selected heavy metals was found to be less than 2 g for both adsorbents. For both adsorbents, the optimal agitation rate, contact time, pH, and temperature values were 150200 rpm, 60100 minutes, 68 and 30, respectively. Pseudo second ordr kintic modl was followed by all heavy metal models. Thus, using Azadirachta indica bark adsorbent to remove heavy metals from wastewater before it is discharged into water bodies is highly recommended.
    Keywords: Azadirachta indica bark adsorbent; batch adsorption studies; environmental management; heavy metals’ remediation; isotherm model; kinetic model; mining wastewater; removal efficiency; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048091
    by Jonathan Engelmann, Everton Hansen, Marco Antonio Siqueira Rodrigues, Patrice M. Aquim 
    Abstract: Water is an essential natural resource for the survival of species. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques that reduce water consumption and losses in production processes. Water is the main input used in the manufacture of beer and its use varies from the incorporation in the final product, operations that use water as an auxiliary fluid and cleaning operations. The objective of this study is to analyse the use of water within the production process of a microbrewery and to propose alternatives to optimise the use and reuse of water, aiming at reducing consumption. The methodology proposes a survey of water uses and water losses in the microbrewery, a research of water reuse alternatives and an evaluation of the feasibility of the proposed alternatives. The results showed 80% reduction in the amount of cooling water used in the process.
    Keywords: water reuse; microbrewery; cooling water; wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048094
    by Oluwadare OYEBODE 
    Abstract: Engineering assessment, strategic design and interventions are essential for solid wastes management in most nations of the world. This study assessed solid waste management practices at Karimo area of Abuja, Nigeria. Reconnaissance survey and questionnaires were used in gathering of data; 150 questionnaires were administered. Simple random sampling without replacement was used to explore the heterogeneous population of the study area. Households and shops were selected at random from various streets, crescents and close in the study. Descriptive statistics frequency distribution was used for the analysis of the data. The estimated per capita waste generation is 0.65 kg/day. The volume of recyclable waste, potentially hazardous waste and agricultural waste was estimated to be 62.6 m3, 1.22 m3 and 2.45 m3, respectively. Estimated total waste generated per day is 13,505 kg/day for 17,700 people. Based on this data, a system is setup for sustainable environment and effective solid waste management in the community for sustainable environment.
    Keywords: solid waste management; engineering assessment; sustainable environment; Karimo; design and interventions; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048098
  • Consequences of anthropogenic pollutants on the quality of nutrients in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822) from Qua Iboe River, South Eastern Nigeria.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarah Ekanem, Akaninyene Joseph, Eno Iwok 
    Abstract: The impact of anthropogenic pollutants on the nutritional quality of Clarias gariepinus was studied. Samples of C. gariepinus were obtained from fishermen on landing. The collected fish samples were analysed for proximate composition, total petroleum content, and heavy metals levels. Increased levels of the contaminants were recorded in the intense activity stations compared to the control station (UAC beach). Metals and nutritional composition of fish varied between stations. The mean Cr and Ni in fish were above WHO acceptable limits for food, while moisture content was not within FAO acceptable limits. Cluster analysis and PCA plots revealed that Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and THC levels in the fish were introduced from intense anthropogenic activities within the study area, thereby influencing its ash and lipid content. We recommend that Government enforce against indiscriminate discharge of anthropogenic substances into the river, so as to restore the environment back to normal.
    Keywords: consequences; total hydrocarbon content; THC; heavy metals; anthropogenic; pollutants; nutrients; quality; Clarias gariepinus; proximate composition; Qua Iboe river; South-eastern Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048099
  • Performance evaluation of an extended aeration treatment plant (EATP): A case study in Sarawak, Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid, Mohamad Ezad Hafez Mohd Pahroraji, Amira Shazlin Adnan, Juferi Idris, Albright Jeffary, Baxley Jinuin Victor, Nurdiana Wakimin, Muhammad Firdaus Abdullah, Rafidah Husen 
    Abstract: The extended aeration system is a sewage treatment plant for domestic and industrial wastewater. This study evaluates the performance of an extended aeration treatment plant (EATP), located at Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak Branch which has operated for more than 20 years. The evaluation consists of the temperature, pH, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of influent (raw wastewater) and effluent (treated wastewater). The results show that the temperature, pH, turbidity, TSS, COD, and BOD5, of the effluent were in the range of 29.0 to 30.5
    Keywords: biochemical oxygen demand; chemical oxygen demand; COD; extended aeration treatment plant; EATP; performance evaluation; pH; total suspended solid; TSS; turbidity; wastewater; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048100
  • Turn Disaster into Valuable Product   Order a copy of this article
    by Bimastyaji Ramadan, Nurani Ikhlas, Dimastyaji Nurseta, Ika Ulfindrayani 
    Abstract: A hot mud eruption [often called Lapindo volcanic mud (LVM)] that occurred in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, since 2008 has harmed the environment. However, utilising this mud is essential to reduce the financial losses from the disaster. LVM can be utilised as advanced material and valuable product with high economic value. This paper discusses the LVM preparation method and the potential of material recovery extracted from LVM constructively. This desk study showed that LVM could be used as an alternative to making innovative and low-cost construction materials such as cement binders, raw materials for bricks, concrete blocks, and concrete composers; cheap adsorbents; and catalysts both for wastewater treatment and solar cells assembly. Various innovations and development of other materials and valuable products such as ceramic, geopolymers, and nano-adsorbents are still being studied extensively. This paper is expected to fill the gaps in mud recovery and utilisation.
    Keywords: advanced material; Indonesia; Lapindo volcanic mud; LVM; mud recovery; valuable product.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048101
  • Solid waste collection efficiency among South African municipalities   Order a copy of this article
    by Genius Murwirapachena, Nqobile Mpala 
    Abstract: In most developing countries, municipalities are an effective vehicle for local economic development. They are commonly responsible for providing public services to local communities within their jurisdictions. Evidence exists that municipalities are mostly inefficient in providing these services. The worst reality is that municipal efficiency is not commonly measured in developing countries and proper performance benchmarking is rarely done. Using municipal data for the years 2013 and 2014, this study examines efficiency in solid waste collection and its determinants in South Africa. The study uses the stochastic non-parametric envelopment of data method to estimate efficiency. Further, the generated municipal-specific efficiency scores are regressed against selected variables using the pooled ordinary least square and random effect models to establish the determinants of efficiency. Four key findings are reported, and some policy implications deduced. Municipal efficiency in emerging economies like South Africa is important because efficiency gains are useful in transforming communities and living standards.
    Keywords: efficiency; performance benchmarking; solid waste collection; StoNED.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048102
  • An Improved Strategy for Solid Waste Management based on Programmable Logic Controller   Order a copy of this article
    by Thaeer M. Sahib, Rosmiwati Mohd-Mokhtar, Abbas F.H. Alharan, Nabeel Salih Ali, Ali A. Kadhum 
    Abstract: Environmental concerns have been raised in various research and technology development. Advanced technology plays a crucial role in diverse aspects of environmental discipline such as monitoring, tracking, observing, controlling, and so on. The article aims to propose a system to manage and dispose of solid waste to prevent pollution from the main and sub streets. The controller device named LOGO 230RC is utilised to control the system operations by depending on the control actions which were written in the functional block diagram. The simulation experiments were run using the LOGO Soft Comfort software, in which, based on the three flowcharts, the system work logically. The system objectives have been achieved successfully via testing five baskets distributions as a suggestion over the street and have been analysed based on the reduced time to transferring the waste from the source to the target. Based on the results, there is a reduction of waste collection time from 4.06% to 17.87% for all five test cases.
    Keywords: solid waste management; programmable logic controller; function block diagram; municipal solid waste; sensors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048103
    by Thais G. Carpanez, Jonathas B. G. Silva, Mayara De O. Gonçalves, Vanessa R. De Paula, Marcelo Otenio, Samuel R. Castro 
    Abstract: The present study evaluates chemically the soil after an application of treated wastewater originated through anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle wastewater in the cultivar Pennisetum purpureum (BRS Capia
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion; fertigation; waste; soil; treated wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048104
  • Comparative assessment efficacy of yield maximization of recovered used lubricating oil by Ca(OH)2-Iso-butanol/KOH-1-butanol extractive-flocculative process by Central Composite Design approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sayantan Sarkar, Deepshikha Datta, K.S. Deepak, Bikash Kumar Mondal, Bimal Das 
    Abstract: The waste lubricating oil produced after prolonged use creates a threat to the environment, health, and economy. Proper disposal method and treatment of this waste oil is required for the development of a sustainable environment. The present work emphasises on extraction flocculation process for reclamation of used engine oil. Comparative assessment and optimisation study was done using two different solvents (Iso-butanol,1-butanol) and flocculants (Ca (OH)2 and KOH) by central composite design approach to achieve the maximum percentage recovery of refined oil. The optimise parameters evaluated were extraction time: 30 minutes and 80 minutes, extraction temperature: 60
    Keywords: waste lubricating oil; response surface methodology; central composite design; CCD; extraction-flocculation; yield.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048105
  • Potential application of the by-product Ammonium Nitrate from Uranium Purification Facility as a Nutrient Enriched Fertilizer   Order a copy of this article
    by S. MEHETRE, Shrishma Paik, S.K. Satpati, M.L. SAHU, S. Penna, V.P. Venugopalan 
    Abstract: Ammonium nitrate is obtained as a by-product from the nitrate effluent generated during uranium purification process. This is a traditional nutrient source and has a proven potential for application as a fertiliser for increasing the productivity of crop plants. In the present study, biogas manure was amended with ammonium nitrate and tested with Maize and Mungbean crops for increasing yield to enable a gainful utilisation of the Nitrate effluent towards agriculture purposes. Results showed increase in the yield and biomass with the application of ammonium nitrate amended manure in both the crops and it helped in enhancement in soil carbon and other microbial parameters too. Thus, the enriched manure played dual role of increasing the crop yield as well as improving the soil fertility. This novel study has opened up the possibility of fruitful utilisation of ammonium nitrate effluent generated in uranium refineries for improving production of different crops.
    Keywords: ammonium nitrate; manure enrichment; nutrient; plant growth; uranium extraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048107
  • Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management : A Case Study of Srinagar Municipal Corporation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasmeena Bashir, Mohammad Younus Bhat, Md. Sarfaraz Equbal 
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to estimate the willingness to pay for solid waste management (SWM) improvement in Srinagar. Further to find the effect of socio-economic determinants on willingness to pay of the residents. The present study is an endeavour to discuss the demand side issues which will be important for policy makers to design appropriate waste management service given the preference of residents. To accomplish the objectives of the present study and for testing the hypotheses a contingent valuation (CV) study was designed and executed by randomly selected households in the study area. The logistic regression model results revealed that 90.6% of the total respondents are willing to pay for better solid waste management service. The mean willingness to pay of the respondents in Srinagar is Rs. 162.72 per month. Willingness to pay is significantly affected by socio-economic variables like income, education, gender, position of the respondent, and households receiving collection service. This information can specifically help in providing better solid waste management services to the residents of Srinagar and in general is also helpful in improving the quality of environment.
    Keywords: solid waste management; SWM; contingent valuation method; CVM; logistic regression model; willingness to pay; WTP; Srinagar Municipal Corporation; SMC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048360
  • Life cycle sustainability assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis: selection of a strategy for municipal solid waste management in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by RITIELLI BERTICELLI, ADALBERTO PANDOLFO, Rodrigo Fernando Dos Santos Salazar, Robson Evaldo Gehlen Bohrer 
    Abstract: The objective is to develop a model to support decision-making in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA). The methodology consists in the creation of alternative MSW management scenarios, evaluating environmental sustainability throughout the life cycle assessments (LCA), economical sustainability throughout the life cycle cost (LCC) assessment and social sustainability throughout the social life cycle assessment (SLCA). The analyses were integrated through the LCSA and a three-dimensional weighting and analysis of the indicators was carried out through the multicriteria analysis. The model can assist in the decision support process for sustainable management of MSW in Brazilian municipalities.
    Keywords: sustainable development; life cycle; municipal solid waste; MSW; multi-criteria analysis; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048361
  • Designing a framework for managing municipal waste through utilizing WtE conversion technology: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul Sattar Safaei, Faezeh Bagheri, Mohammad Mahdi Paydar, Sahar Sharifi Barforooshi 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste management has always been an inevitable challenge for governments to overcome. This study proposed a new framework for managing waste by exploiting it as an endless resource for generating energy. The suggested framework establishes a comprehensive waste management plan in two stages. The first stage determines the optimum waste-to-energy (WtE) technology based on key criteria by employing TOPSIS. These criteria are not restricted to sustainable dimensions and consider technical dimensions as well. The second stage designs a supply chain structure based on the installation of a WtE power plant, with the goal of maximising profit while minimising CO2 emissions. The proposed adaptive model allows the decision-maker to choose a WtE technology in the first stage and accordingly outline the supply chain structure. A municipal solid waste management case study provided insights into how the proposed framework.
    Keywords: municipal waste management; waste-to-energy power plant; technology selection; multi-objective optimisation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048362
  • Converting Fruit Waste into Biogas: A Waste to Energy Strategy for Urban Markets in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Taiwo Hammed, Sridhar Mynepalli, Adenike O. Majekodunmi 
    Abstract: This study aimed at producing biogas, an alternative source of energy, from selected fruit wastes generated in markets in Ibadan, Nigeria. Slurries of five varieties of fruit waste viz: orange slurry (OS), pineapple slurry (PS), watermelon slurry (WMS), banana slurry (BS) and tomato slurry (TMS) were fed into 1 m3 biogas digester in batches and monitored for their biogas yield potentials. Physicochemical analyses of the fruits, feedstock slurries and spent slurries were carried using standard methods. The TMS had the highest potential of biogas generation (6.52
    Keywords: biogas digester; energy generation; carbon nitrogen ratio; fruit waste; methane concentration; spent slurry; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048419
  • A Graphical Method to Determine the Incinerability of Municipal Solid Waste   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Incinerability index (i-Index) is a recently developed multi-dimensional indicator which quantifies the incinerability of municipal solid waste (MSW) incorporating the 3-E concept. However, a limit/range of values needs to be defined within which MSW can sustain incineration autogenously. This article showcases a graphical method to determine the incinerability, called incinerability plot or i-Plot. i-Plot consists of a plot constructed using normalised parameter values. Three incinerability zones are subsequently defined, viz. central non-incinerable zone, followed by incinerable and autogenously incinerable zone. As the distance from the centre of the plot increases, incinerability increases, until it attains self-sustained combustibility towards the outer boundary of incinerable zone. The corresponding i-Index values are used to establish an incinerability range. MSW with i-Index > 45 is hence incinerable, whereas i-Index > 89 is autogenously incinerable for energy recovery. Based on the position of MSW in the plot and the composite indicator value, assessment of incinerability may be made. i-Plot also illustrates the variation in individual parameter scores besides identifying the contribution of individual parameters to the incinerability.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; waste to energy; WtE; feasibility assessment; decision-making; incinerability; i-Index; waste management; incineration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048445
  • Estimate of landfill leachate generation by the water balance method   Order a copy of this article
    by Willian Fernando De Borba, José Luiz Silvério Da Silva, Pedro Daniel Da Cunha Kemerich, Ericklis Edson Boito De Souza, Gabriel D`Ávila Fernandes, Mateus Guimarães Da Silva 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to estimate the generation of leachate in a landfill area without the use of a geomembrane liner. The generation of leachate was estimated by the water balance method from 2007 to 2017. Information on underground water quality was obtained through monitoring of historical series in four monitoring wells. The results indicated an average generation of 0, 31 L.s1. The electrical conductivity of the well water monitored changed during the analysed period, mainly in the wells located in the smallest topographic dimensions. These results found that even with the presence of a low permeability clayey soil, the absence of the waterproofing system in this disposal cell, allows the leachate to percolate to the water level of the non-continuous temporary suspended groundwater. This was evident by changes in groundwater quality parameters. Thus, additional studies are recommended, aiming at on-site monitoring of the leachate flow and quality.
    Keywords: non-continuous suspended aquifer; contamination; monitoring wells; MW; urban solid waste.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048530
  • Methane production generated by the biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste confined in lysimeters under a tropical climate   Order a copy of this article
    by Gustavo Henrique Tonelli Dutra De Almeida, Renata Lima Moretto, Miriam Gonçalves Miguel 
    Abstract: The generation of methane from municipal solid waste (MSW) confined in sanitary landfills is influenced by several factors, including climatic and operational conditions. This research evaluated the production of methane gas resulting from the anaerobic biodegradation process of MSW, produced in southeastern Brazil, confined in lysimeters for 30 months. The influence of climatic conditions and the effect of the application of saline solution on the MSW anaerobic biodegradation process were considered for methane production. The volumetric concentrations of methane peaks were significant in periods of high temperatures and after high rainfall. Five biodegradation phases were observed, from aerobic to anaerobic methanogenic phases. The methane peaks started in the initial methanogenic phase; however, the highest values were observed in the stable methanogenic phase. The application of the saline solution caused a delay of 100 days in the initial methanogenic phase and an increase of volumetric concentrations of methane over time.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; methane; anaerobic biodegradation; lysimeter; saline solution; sanitary landfill.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048715
  • Prioritization of major industrial wastes using Analytical Hierarchy Process for Micro Small Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Ram Babu Verma, Sanjay Kumar Jha 
    Abstract: The paper deals about the identification of process waste associated with the product manufacturing cycle. Each product has its own production cycle that includes a series of manufacturing operations, starts with the acceptance of the customers order and ends with the delivery of the finished product. Owing to the fact, long-term use of machines and equipments causes wear and tear results process inconsistencies, errors and breakdowns. These Anomalies produce waste in form of man, material, and machine. The manuscript explains about analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for waste identification and prioritisation. The major waste associated with the production process of micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) identified and ranked by using the AHP technique. All of these identified industrial waste categorised under lean seven waste, denoted by acronym TIMWOOD. The waste weightage factor (score) calculated by using the AHP decision matrix revealed that Waiting Time is the most significant waste, contributed 33.2% of total waste. In order to reduce process waste, manufacturing process drastically changed in light of the waste analysis findings.
    Keywords: lean waste; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; MSME; paired analysis; TIMWOOD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048752
  • Evaluation of Dynamic Characteristics and Contemporary Management of Institutional Solid Wastes   Order a copy of this article
    by KULBIR SINGH, Rajesh Lohchab, Anil Nain, Miklesh Kumari 
    Abstract: Unscientific handling of solid waste is not only posing a serious risk to the ecosystem and human health but simultaneously deprives the opportunity of resource recovery. In this study, solid waste collected from the areas of Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar was characterised through personal field investigations, secondary information like population estimation, and using ASTM D5231-92 standard method. The average quantity of solid waste generation was found to be 645.1
    Keywords: composition; generation; university campus; waste management; sustainable.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048924
  • Treatment of latex processing effluent using aerobic granulation technology   Order a copy of this article
    by B.K. Bindhu, MADHU G, HARITHA M 
    Abstract: Latex processing industries consume large volumes of water and the discharge of wastewater may cause serious and prolong consequences to the environment. Various treatment technologies that currently have been used for the latex processing effluent have many advantages and limitations. Aerobic granulation technology was used for the treatment of latex processing wastewater with a high organic loading rate (OLR) (6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 d)) and short settling time (5 min) in a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Towards the end of five weeks of operation, stable granules of average size of 1.3 mm and average specific gravity of 1.007, with a settling velocity of 45 m/h were developed. Very high removal efficiencies were achieved for COD (97%), suspended solids (93.7%), and nitrogen (90.9%). Aerobic granulation technology is proved to be an excellent option for the treatment of effluents from latex processing units.
    Keywords: aerobic granulation; latex processing effluent; sequencing batch reactor; SBR; organic loading rate; chemical oxygen demand; COD; settling time; settling velocity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049807
  • Household disposal practices of unused and expired medicines: a case study of Guwahati City, Assam, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nandini Chakraborty, Mayuri Chabukdhara, Manashjit Gogoi 
    Abstract: Demand for pharmaceuticals to treat as well as prevent diseases will continue to increase. As such, disposal of unused and expired medicines is a growing challenge faced worldwide. This study focuses on evaluation of disposal practices of unused and expired medicines in Guwahati, Assam, one of the fastest growing cities in northeast India. The study also intended to identify the reasons for unused or unwanted medications in households. About 99.5% of the participants disposed of their unused and expired medicines in garbage bins which may pose threat to the environment. Organised take back programs and proper guidelines for careful disposal of unused and expired medicines may help to reduce the risk to the environment as well as human health. Further, behavioural changes such as completion of prescribed medicine courses, reduced self-medication, and wastage may also help in minimising the medicinal waste burden and their potential impact on the environment.
    Keywords: unused and expired medicines; disposal practices; garbage bins; environmental risk; take back programs; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055811
  • Geospatial techniques in identifying suitable waste dumping sites- A case study of the migrated Rohingya community   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahammed Dayem, Aysha Akter 
    Abstract: Migrated Rohingya community in southeast Cox Bazar in Bangladesh is experiencing poor or absence of waste management. An intensive questionnaire survey covered around 0.85 million migrants to observe the existing waste management practices. The selected area comprises of Ukhia, Kutubpalong mega camp, Gundum, Balukhali Bazar and Phalungkhali. The geospatial technique was applied based on three selected criteria, vis., social, economic, and physical. Physical measures include land use, soil type, geomorphology, slope, and drainage datasets from secondary sources. Secondary and primary data sources cover the social and economic criteria, i.e., population and their residence from both the road and drainage networks. The study’s findings suggested that gender biases exist regarding awareness of poor waste management. Finally, to ensure green community, an overlay weightage approach was adopted using the geospatial technique; the study area was classified based on suitable dumping site as very high (0.09%), high (0.05%), medium (0.34%), low (17.96%) and very low (81.55%). This is envisaged that the acquired suitable waste dumping site map would provide relevant information to the adjacent community and the service provider.
    Keywords: waste management; dumping site; overlay weightage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049808
  • Long-term environmental impact of COVID-19 pandemic: Derailed Single-use plastic ban   Order a copy of this article
    by Mitu Mewada, Susy Albert 
    Abstract: The earth’s climate is encountering positive ecological benefits of the pandemic as clean sea shores, improved air quality and decreased environmental noise have been witnessed. On other hand increase in single-use plastics today may leave the drawn out effect on our biological system. This article covers how COVID-19 pandemic is indirectly affecting the earth. The virus has brought plastic into our lives like never before in form of masks, gloves, personal protective equipment (PPE) coveralls and body bags which is without a doubt leading to increase in plastic pollution and hence triggering health concerns. The plastic boycott in India has been generously postponed because of current needs. Everyday whole world is battling against coronavirus. It is at the same time seething the plastic waste issue which unfortunately cannot be fixed by vaccines and lockdowns.
    Keywords: plastic waste; COVID-19 pandemic; environmental issue; plastic waste management; solid waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049809
  • Sustainable Bio-Ethanol Production from Java Citronella-A Lignocellulosic Residual Biomass   Order a copy of this article
    by Vidyadhar Gedam, Anup Chahande, Pranav Pathak, Swapnil Dharaskar 
    Abstract: The present work investigates the potential of Java citronella lignocellulosic residual biomass for efficient bioethanol production. The study focuses on the physicochemical analysis of Java citronella to explore the % of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, calorific value, ash contents, carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulphur (CHNS) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the physicochemical analysis, the samples were subjected to subsequent acid and alkaline pretreatment along with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) test followed by submerged biological fermentation using commercial yeast. The fermented samples were then distilled, and the distillate was examined by gas chromatography (GC), and the percentage of bioethanol was estimated. The result highlights that the collected Java citronella sample has considerable % cellulose content and alkaline pretreatment was more effective than acid treatment. In conclusion, Java citronella residual biomass has a potential for bioethanol production leading to sustainable energy options.
    Keywords: sustainable bio-ethanol; waste management; biomass; pretreatment; lignocellulosic gas chromatography.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049810
    by Shard Shard, Sapna Koul, Devesh Kumar, Hotniar Siringoringo 
    Abstract: Since a long time, the problem of urban solid waste (USW) has been solved by recycling it into energy. However, there is a difficulty with the conversion technique which limits its application. There are many conversion technologies discussed in this study which include incineration, bio methanation, pyrolysis, and gasification. Each technology was evaluated and compared each other. The indicators used in comparison are physical requirement, chemical requirement, and the sustainable use of the technology to convert USW to energy is given specific consideration. The results of the assessment demonstrate that biological technology is most suited to transforming waste into energy with a minimal environmental impact. Other techniques like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are highly effective and gives efficient output but will contaminate the environment with hazardous gaseous pollutants, which would surely increase global warming and greenhouse effects.
    Keywords: urban solid waste; USW; bio methanation; incineration; pyrolysis; gasification; MCDM; energy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049812
    by Vikram Bali, Sonali Mathur 
    Abstract: Managing waste is an important challenge for the municipal corporations from waste collection to waste disposal. Every day we come across dustbins that are unreasonably full and garbage is spilling out. The spilled garbage results in unhygienic conditions and spreading of various diseases. More resources are consumed while collecting garbage from the public places as garbage collection points are very few and it is difficult to find if the dustbin is empty or full. Through this research paper, we present the use of smart dustbin which helps in monitoring the dustbins thereby also saving fuel and work hours by finding shortest distance for garbage collectors to reach and empty the dustbins. Internet of things (IoT) technology will help the garbage collectors in saving fuel, working hours and money. Thus, constantly monitoring the garbage in the dustbins will help in lending a hand towards keeping the environment clean and green.
    Keywords: waste management; IoT; smart city; smart dustbin; real-time data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049956
  • Public-Private Partnership and Urban Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Lagos State, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Oluwaseun Kugbayi, Adeleke Adegbami 
    Abstract: The persistent increase in the volume of solid wastes generated resulting from the steady increase in population, industrialisation, rural-urban drift, and general economic growth have become one of the major challenges confronting Nigeria, like many other developing countries. The successive government in Nigeria have continued to take various measures at managing the generated wastes in other to achieve safe, inclusive, and sustainable cities in line with the United Nations sustainable development goals. Using a mixed research method, the study investigates the extent to which public-private partnership has helped in managing waste in Lagos State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that the privatisation of waste collection services has contributed immensely to effective waste management in Lagos state. The study concluded that challenges faced by the private sector operators notwithstanding, their involvement in waste management have brought about effectiveness in waste collection and management in the state.
    Keywords: privatisation; solid waste; waste management; public-private partnership; urban centre; Lagos.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049998
  • Determination of Waste Collection and Transport Routes with Exact and Heuristic Methods, A Case Study of Kampung Cipare, Tenjo   Order a copy of this article
    by Harummi S. Amarilies, Ezra Denia, M. Aulia Budi Santoso, A.A.N. Perwira Redi 
    Abstract: The people of Kampung Cipare, Tenjo, Indonesia, still practice backyard burning and have no waste management system. To increase awareness of waste management, we conducted research to compute the shortest waste collection and transportation route using exact method and heuristic approach. The shortest route provided by exact method was landfill T1 T3 T6 T8 T9 T10 T7 T5 T4 T2 landfill with total distance of 1.25 km and computation time of 0.015625 minutes. While the shortest route produced by the heuristic method was landfill T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 T9 T10 T7 landfill with total distance of 1.37 km and computation time of 0.000254 minutes. Compared to heuristic approach, exact method provided a shorter route by 120 metres.
    Keywords: exact method; heuristic method; nearest neighbour; waste transport route; optimisation; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049999
  • Taguchi-grey relational based multi response optimization of diesel- Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends fuelled diesel engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Anant Nagpure, Walmik S. Rathod, Supriya B. Chavan 
    Abstract: Experimental investigation was done on a single cylinder, four stroke, VCR diesel engine using diesel and diesel-Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends for performance optimisation. This paper explores the combined effect of three input parameters, viz. compression ratio, blend proportion, and load, in controlling three main response variables, viz. brake power (BP), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The experiments were conducted using the design of experiments proposed by Taguchi. Using signal-to-noise ratio and grey relational analysis, data obtained with the L9 orthogonal array was analysed to find the optimum combination by transforming the multi-response problem into a single response problem using grey relational grade (GRG). By means of experiments, the optimum combination of input parameters was further confirmed. The results of this study revealed that, at a compression ratio of 16, with a blend proportion consisting 10% of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel at 75% load, gives the best possible performance.
    Keywords: variable compression ratio; diesel-Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel; diesel engine; Taguchi method; L9 orthogonal array; grey relational analysis; ANOVA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050000
  • Evaluation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus inactivation in a healthcare waste treatment by autoclaving   Order a copy of this article
    by Amanda Oliveira, Valdir Schalch 
    Abstract: Healthcare waste can lead to environmental impacts, even when treated and disposed in landfills, since it may show some hazard indicator. This study aims at optimising the autoclaving process in view of the lack of data on the optimal exposure time, temperature, and steam pressure for microbial inactivation, and analyse possible interferences of the fraction occupied by healthcare waste in the autoclave. Tests were performed at 116
    Keywords: healthcare waste; Geobacillus stearothermophilus; autoclaving; infectious waste; waste treatment; microbial inactivation; inactivation fraction; sterilisation; disinfection; hazardous waste management; solid waste management; endospores.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050002
  • Collection and transport of municipal solid waste in a developing Country: the case of Greater Beirut Area in Lebanon   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbas E.L. Toufaili, Gabriella Pacheco, Luca Toneatti, Dario Pozzetto 
    Abstract: Waste generation has increased globally due to the fast-economic development and urbanisation. In developing countries, many factors are contributing in increasing its generation. In this paper, different methodologies to adopt a better action plan into the solid waste management system in Greater Beirut Area in Lebanon were applied. The main objectives were to: 1) provide a geographical mapping distribution of the solid waste bins in Greater Beirut; 2) select the best solid waste collection route; 3) perform cost calculation of the collection phase; 4) calculate the greenhouse gases emissions. SWOT analysis, QGIS software, Euclidean traveling salesman problem method were employed. For a proper solid waste management system, 7,127 bins are needed to be distributed in Beirut, 52 trucks to collect the waste. Application of Euclidean traveling salesman problem yielded for choosing a shorter solid waste collection route. Circular economy should be adopted in Lebanon to achieve zero waste.
    Keywords: solid waste collection route; municipal solid waste transport; developing countries; Euclidean travelling salesman problem; ETSP; Greater Beirut Area; GBA; quantum geographic information system; QGIS; solid waste management; SWM; solid waste management costs; SWOT analysis; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050057
  • Recent development of metal-organic framework 5 (MOF-5) adsorbents for organic dye removal from aqueous solution   Order a copy of this article
    by Irvan Dahlan, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Yung-Tse Hung 
    Abstract: The development of novel materials is critical for the sustainable improvement of adsorption of organic dye contaminants. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently gained a lot of attention due to their unique features. One of the most representative MOFs is MOF-5 [Zn4O(BDC)3]. This study compiles the recent research on the adsorptive removal of different organic dyes from aqueous solutions using pristine and modified MOF-5. The history and background of MOFs together with synthesis methods and characterization were briefly discussed. The development of MOF-5-based materials and their effectiveness under various process parameters in organic dyes adsorption were briefly highlighted. The discussion related to the characterizations of MOF-5 was also included. This review also outlined several challenges that the scientific community should investigate further to improve MOF-5 applications in organic dye adsorption. This review provides a valuable resource for researchers intending to use MOF-5 to remove organic dye from aqueous solutions.
    Keywords: adsorption; organic dyes; wastewater; metal-organic framework; MOF-5; organic linker; 3D framework; porous materials.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050059
  • Energy Access Gaps, Biomass Power and sub-Saharan Africa: A Remediation Model for Policy Development   Order a copy of this article
    by JUNE LEVI-OGUIKE, Diego Sandoval, Vishwas Vidyaranya 
    Abstract: This paper extends the drivers-pressures-state-impact and response (DPSIR) model to the context of current energy access and waste management challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective is to highlight opportunities for decentralised biopower adoption, while considering the multifaceted environmental and economic challenges exacerbated by the global pandemic. The model is applied to a biopower-related case study and the outcome suggests amongst others, that the presence of requisite infrastructure, environmental legislation, strategic public-private partnerships, policy advocacy, intervention and implementation, all contribute positively to successful waste valorisation and renewable energy-recovery schemes. The DPSIR model is adopted in this context, to advance renewable energy, environmental and specifically solid waste management policy efforts in the region, while promoting the use of biomass resources in electricity generation.
    Keywords: energy access; Africa; sustainability; biomass; DPSIR; policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050119
  • Exploring household recycling participation e-wastes management: An application of TPB and NAM models   Order a copy of this article
    by Idrees Waris, Shahzad Khalil, Malik Dad 
    Abstract: The rapid use of electrical and electronic appliances has endangered the sustainability of the environment. Although the role of households is paramount in the management of e-waste, the studies provide little information regarding the proper disposal and recycling of e-waste in developing countries. This study has used an integrated framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and norm action model to study e-wastes recycling intention in Pakistan. The findings reveal that awareness of consequence, subjective norms, and personal norms are the key predictors of e-wastes recycling intention. Awareness of the consequence was a key predictor of households e-wastes recycling intention. Further, the results depict that attitude, perceived behavioural control and recycling habit have an insignificant influence on e-wastes recycling intention. Further, the study provides useful implications to policymakers and marketing strategists to enhance the awareness of e-waste recycling, and measures to cope with the issues of e-waste in developing countries.
    Keywords: awareness of consequence; personal norms; subjective norms; perceived behavioural control; recycling habits; recycling intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050226
  • Strategies for Promoting Integrated Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Ghana.   Order a copy of this article
    by Emmanuel A. Iyiegbuniwe 
    Abstract: We examined the challenges of Ghanas municipal solid waste (MSW) management which is of significant environmental health importance. The main study objective was to review MSW challenges and recommend proven strategies, policies, and practices for sustainable waste management. Resource limitation, inadequate budgets, and knowledge gaps were key challenges identified as preventing the implementation of sustainable MSW management. Consistent lack of data and inadequate MSW information prevented comparisons across municipalities. Proven strategies and practices for promoting integrated MSW included engineered landfills, recycling, material recovery, and waste-to-energy generation. Stakeholders commitment and sound knowledge of MSW collection and tracking are required for cost-effective management programs. Education and communication are key to promoting sustainable waste management that includes environmental awareness and implementation of culturally-appropriate messages that target perceived barriers, benefits, and threats. Effective and sustainable MSW management must consider environmental impacts, economic and financial benefits, socio-cultural and political factors, sound institutions, and proactive policies.
    Keywords: Ghana; municipal solid waste; MSW; sustainable waste management; waste recycling; engineered landfills; waste-to-energy generation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050261
  • Influence of environmental factors on evapotranspiration in a peatland ecosystem in Central China   Order a copy of this article
    by Ihab Alfadhel, Jiwen Ge, Sakinatu Issaka, Hasanain Alawadi, Yongxi Sinan, Yaoyao Liu 
    Abstract: Environmental factors affect evapotranspiration and usually cause a serious loss of water content from wetland ecosystems. Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration is vital to determine the amount of water necessary to preserve wetlands, particularly peatlands in Central China. The period studied was 24 months. The highest value (0.157 mm/hr) occurred in first growing season, and the lowest value (0.045 mm/hr) occurred in the non-growing season of 2017. Seasonal differences in evapotranspiration occurred in the active growth seasons June through October. The peak value of net radiation was 369 W.m2 in September 2017. There was a clear relationship between evapotranspiration and air temperature but weak correlation with precipitation; annual precipitation was 19 mm. The Bowen ratio showed no correlation with evapotranspiration. The average rate of evapotranspiration throughout the study period was 80%-95%. The eddy covariance technique was used to determine the effect of certain environmental factors on wetland evapotranspiration.
    Keywords: energy flux; eddy covariance; seasonal variation; environmental variable; wetland ecosystem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055812
  • Screening of potential bacteria from soil sample for methylene blue dye degradation: RSM modelling and Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Shalini Prajapati, Yelamarthi PYDI SETTY 
    Abstract: This study aimed to screen the bacteria from the samples collected from textile dye enriched soil. Twenty-one soil bacteria were isolated and examined for their efficacy for methylene blue (MB) decolourisation. Bacillus cereus found to be the potential microorganism for MB decolourisation, characterised using 16S rRNA sequence technique. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimise the three independent variables like dye concentration (mg/L), pH and glucose concentration (g/L) for decolourisation of MB. The experimental run given by central composite design (CCD) with quadratic model was conducted used in this study to optimise the variables and fit the model. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed; R2 = 0.9992 and R2 adj = 0.9985, which confirmed that experimental and predicted response are in good agreement and the model is highly significant. The optimal values of dye concentration (mg/L), pH and glucose concentration (g/L) proposed by RSM were found to be 70, 7.88 and 3.33, respectively.
    Keywords: decolourisation; methylene blue; Bacillus cereus; response surface methodology; RSM; central composite design; CCD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050941
  • A Review of the Green Approach to the Treatment of Solid Waste Leachate   Order a copy of this article
    by Kasun Wijerathna, F. Sumaiya Idroos, M.M. Pathmalal 
    Abstract: Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation related anthropogenic activities result in significant solid waste generation worldwide. Improper solid waste management practices cause the accumulation of landfill leachate in larger quantities, posing a serious hazard to ecosystems. Current physicochemical leachate treatment options have some drawbacks, including high operational costs, lower efficiency and environmental deterioration. Hence, the application of beneficial microbial communities for waste treatment has become a rapid moving, greener approach. Microbial degradation techniques such as membrane bioreactors, activated slug systems, sequencing batch reactors and lagoon systems are successfully applied to leachate treatments achieving more than 90% removal of COD, BOD and N-NH3. Furthermore, novel studies on the applicability of extracellular enzymes rather than crude microbial biomass are considered a more practical approach for bioremediation. The present review summarises the different microbial technologies for leachate treatment and their recent research findings by evaluating the application feasibility of based on current knowledge.
    Keywords: solid waste landfill leachate; biological treatments; bioremediation; microbial community; extracellular enzymes; organic contaminants.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050942
  • Assessment of Health Care Waste Management in Malaysian Hospital Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali B. Mahdia, Zahraa A. M. AL-Ibraheemi, Chandima Gomes, Abeer H. B. Al-Sultan 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the management scenarios of solid healthcare waste (HCW) and the currently used waste management technologies, intending to highlight the weak links to be strengthened. Unannounced visits were made to two governmental general hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia, each several times within one year. Waste generation, segregation, transportation, storage and disposal of the hospitals were comprehensively analysed. The outcomes highlight that HCW management performances need logistic modifications by increasing internal audits and strict regular monitoring by the hospital authorities and state-appointed statutory bodies. In addition, the 27.6 tonnes and 21.8 tonnes of HCW per month generated at both hospitals, need to be reduced and managed appropriately. These findings pave the way to develop better modules for solid HCW management for medical facilities for safer and more efficient waste disposal.
    Keywords: healthcare waste management; infectious waste; internal transportation; central storage; waste treatment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050944
  • Trends and Contribution of Solid Waste Research in Iran and Comparison with the World: A systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Aram Tirgar, Zahra Aghalari, Hans-Uwe Dahms 
    Abstract: This systematic review study was conducted using a bibliometric analysis for a 12 year period on articles published in five specialised Iranian environmental health journals and three international environmental health journals that are among the top 5% and 10% based on SNIP, emphasising the issue of solid waste. A review of 1679 articles in Iranian environmental health journals and 6,200 articles in international environmental health journals revealed that 9.41% and 0.43% of the articles published here were in the field of solid waste. In Iranian and international journals, the highest number of articles were about municipal solid waste 64% and 63%, respectively. The separation of the included articles were based on the six processes characterising solid waste, with the highest number of articles in Iranian journals about waste generation were 53.7% and in international journals about waste disposal were 34.7%.
    Keywords: solid waste; environmental health; articles; Iranian journals; international journals; content analysis; bibliometrics; systematic analysis; review; contribution; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050947
  • Construction and Demolition Waste Management: A Conceptual Framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Reza Esa, Anthony Halog, Lucia Rigamonti 
    Abstract: In Malaysia, there is still a lack of awareness of the impacts of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes to the environment despite the robust growth of the construction industry. This study was conducted to identify the most suitable waste minimisation strategies to be adopted throughout the construction cycles via obtaining views from the expert panels. A three rounds of Delphi technique were conducted; in which the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was incorporated in the second round. Experts opinions of government agencies, developers, consultants and contractors were gathered to carry out this study. The results reveal that there is needs to integrate the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle at each stage of the construction cycles. Furthermore, it was observed that the most fitting waste minimisation strategies that can be used throughout the construction cycle are modern construction modern, improving and tightening regulation and improve site management. Consequently, a conceptual framework of C&D waste management has been developed based on the inputs from the study.
    Keywords: C&D waste management; Delphi method; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; conceptual framework; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050949
  • Fabrication of Thermal Insulations by Recycling of Rice Straw and Rice Husk Used for Energy Management Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Eman Mohamed Gabr, Enas Arafa Ismail, Aziza El-Sayed El-Tabei 
    Abstract: Energy consumption and environmental protection are strongly connected. Thermal insulation is a poor conducting material. Thermal insulation applications for building and industrial sectors minimise both energy losses and green gases emissions. The objective of this work is the fabrication of thermal insulations by recycling rice wastes (rrw). Fabrication stages are preparation and grinding, adding several binders with different compositions. Then samples are compressed into discs; to test their thermal efficiency, handling, and usability. The best sample composition is (60% grinded rice wastes) and (40% additives of recycled dissolved foam and polyvinyl acetate). Painting the sample with thin protective layer of aerogel or rosin or epoxy improves thermo-mechanical performance of it. Initial estimation of an industrial case study improvement due to apply (rrw) is saving of fuel cost by 1,700,000 $/y and decrease of carbon emissions by 95%. Energy management and wastes recycle technique; have economic benefits and good environmental impact.
    Keywords: rice wastes recycle; binders; heat losses; energy management; environment protection; emission control; thermal insulations; thermomechanical performance; production evaluation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050951
  • Statistical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling of Plackett-Burman Screening Design to Improve the Fuel Properties of Oil Palm Fiber by Torrefaction Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Chokchai Mueanmas, Panadda Indum 
    Abstract: In this study, the two-level Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen the significant variables of torrefaction process of oil palm fibre (OPF). The independent parameters such as temperature, time, oxygen feed, heat rate and OPF size were studied. The %mass yield (%MY) and fuel properties including %moisture content (%MC), %volatile content (%VC), %ash content (%AC), %fixed carbon content (%FC) and heating value (HV) were selected as response variable. The results indicated that temperature, time, oxygen feed rate and heat rate performed statistically significant to the response of torrefied OPF. All obtained mathematical models showed a good fit with high coefficient of determination and their reliability was demonstrated by diagnostics plot. At the maximum experimental result, the %FC and HV of torrefied OPF increased by 13,483% and 27.42%, while the value of %MC and %VC decreased by 93.71% and 42.55%, respectively, as compared with the raw OPF. Thus, the torrefaction seems to be a potential process to improve the quality of fuel properties of OPF.
    Keywords: oil palm fibre; OPF; torrefaction; Plackett-Burman screening design; proximate analysis; heating value.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050952
  • Solid Waste Characterisation and Recycling Potential for a University Campus in a Developing Nation   Order a copy of this article
    by AMIT KUMAR JAGLAN, Hari Bhakta Sharma, Mansi Vinaik, Brajesh Dubey 
    Abstract: The present study aims to estimate the recyclable potential of the solid waste generated from a University Campus in India through detailed characterisation, quantification, and economic analysis. The study found high fraction of organics (36%) followed by plastic (27%) and paper (17%). The overall recycling potential was 78%. With an efficient integrated solid waste management system in place, it was estimated that the net recyclable waste of 216 tons generated from the university campus could generate revenue of 2.6 million INR (USD $36,500) annually. As a part of the waste management framework, plastic, paper, metal, and glass components were found to have immense potential of sale to local scrap dealers. Organic waste can be recycled directly on-site at the campus in the form of compost and/or biogas. The solid waste management framework proposed in this study for university campuses can be simulated for educational campuses, following circular economy (CE) approach.
    Keywords: university campus; waste management; waste characterisation; recycling potential; economic valuation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051175
  • Factors affecting community participation in an e-waste recycling program   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong Thi Thu Nguyen, Chun-Hung Lee, Hang Thi Thu Nguyen, Thi Thanh Thuy Phan, Van Viet Nguyen, Rern-Jay Hung 
    Abstract: In the process of moving towards a sustainable society and circular economy, the recycling of e-waste has been an indispensable target for all nations from the perspectives of environmental protection and resource utilisation. As citizens are considered key implementers in the recycling system, the study aims to grasp factors affecting community participation in the e-waste recycling program in Vietnam. The logistic regression model was used to analyse the data of 600 household members collected via face-to-face interviews. The results suggest that abstract norms and conveniences and incentives are the most important indicators in positively explaining recycling participation. It is also detected that only income has a significant influence on residents decision whether to be involved in e-waste recycling. This study is expected to share necessary information to policy-makers, especially, for some countries whose e-waste regulations are under revision, aiming to ensure environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and circular economy.
    Keywords: community participation; e-waste recycling; abstract norms; conveniences and incentives; circular economy; sustainable development goals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051889
  • Assessing Quality Wastewater for Irrigation in Swaziland (eSwatini) using Multivariate Statistical Analyses: Organics and Nutrients   Order a copy of this article
    by Thabani Mamba, Julius Mosyoka Ndambuki, Williams Kupolati, Ola Olaleye 
    Abstract: Data is sparse on the quality of wastewater (WW) discharged into rivers. The objective was to assess the quality of WW variables (organics and nutrients) using multivariate statistical analyses and compare these with international WW quality standards for irrigation. Samples were collected for 22 months and analyzed in the laboratory. Data were analysed statistically. Results showed WW variables (nutrients) were within the normal standards and guidelines for water quality for irrigated agriculture and aquatic lives. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed four components accounted for about 79.40% of the variations in the properties of the WW effluents. The PC-1 was 31% and associated with coliforms and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results of the cluster analysis showed that the 11 WWTPs can be grouped into four clusters for ease of management. The elevated levels of total coliforms (TC), FC and COD from these treatment plants may pose risks to aquatic lives.
    Keywords: Eswatini; irrigation; multivariate statistics; organics; wastewater treatment; Southern Africa; Swaziland.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10052823
  • Methane generation potential for waste with different landfill ages   Order a copy of this article
    by Tuilly De Fátima Macedo Furtado Guerra, Thiago De Sá Sena, Francisco Auriberto Ferreira Marques Junior, Marcio Melo, William De Paiva 
    Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for methane (CH4) generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) at ages 0, 1, and 2 from the landfill located in Campina Grande, in the State of Para
    Keywords: landfill gas; landfilling ages; semi-arid climate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10052983
  • Public awareness, knowledge and practice towards mandatory waste separation to support recycling in greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Ling Chen, Tapan Kumar Nath, Alex.M Lechner 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine different stakeholders awareness, knowledge and practice toward household waste separation and recycling (HWSR) in Greater Kuala Lumpur to address the paucity of research on the effectiveness of the policy and publics attitude concerning HWSR in Malaysia. Data were collected through: 1) a public social survey carried out using face-to-face interviews and online surveys and 2) key-informant interviews with stakeholders associated with solid waste management (SWM. Pearsons correlation, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-squared tests were carried out to find significant differences between selected variables. Results show that the respondents had good knowledge (mean score of 3.2 out of 4), and 38% of the respondents were practising some form of HWSR. Many respondents (65%) were not aware of the current waste separation policies, but 93% of the respondents would be willing to separate waste at source if necessary facilities were provided. Suggestions are made for stricter enforcement of policies and dissemination of information around HWSR through public engagement by all relevant stakeholders.
    Keywords: household waste; waste separation at source; recycling; social survey; public awareness; human behaviour; policy effectiveness; Greater Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10053038
  • Healthcare solid waste management in south Ethiopia: A case study of Wolaita Sodo referral hospital   Order a copy of this article
    by Shetie Gatew, Bereket Lambiso Wecho 
    Abstract: Healthcare facilities generate wastes that contain potentially hazardous wastes to the public and the surrounding environment. The management of these wastes is an important issue in Ethiopia. Wolaita Sodo referral hospital is one of the hospitals in the country which has critical problems in healthcare waste management. Across sectional descriptive study was conducted between March and November 2019 to quantify, characterise, and assess healthcare solid waste management practices in Wolaita Sodo referral hospital, South Ethiopia. Observational checklists, questionnaires, and weighting scales were used to quantify the generated healthcare solid wastes. The mean generation rate of healthcare solid waste was 0.67 kg/patient/day and 0.74 kg/bed/day. Of this 0.41 kg/bed/day (56.7%) was general waste and the rest 0.34 (43.5%) was hazardous waste. The quantity of total healthcare solid waste generated was positively correlated with the number of beds and patients (rs = 0.57, P = 0.02 and rs = 0.73, P = 0.01). Waste segregation and pre-treatment of infectious wastes were not practiced by the hospital. Solid wastes were stored, transported, treated, and disposed of improperly. Hence, waste management practices need to be improved through periodic training and adequate supplies of materials for the waste handler.
    Keywords: hazardous waste; healthcare solid waste; waste characterisation; waste management; waste quantification; Wolaita-Sodo; Ethiopia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2025.10055253
  • Study on Optimum Utilization of Water Treatment Plant Sludge for Treating Domestic Wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Rishi, D. JUSTUS REYMOND 
    Abstract: The water that is treated in the water treatment plant produces sludge that contains silt, debris, and coagulants that are used for the treatment process. The sludge so produced usually are dumped into waterbodies or landfills. When doing so the chemicals percolate into the soil reaching the groundwater and polluting them. This project mainly focuses on using this water treatment plant sludge in treating domestic wastewater. An aeration tank was set up with air pumps, bottles, measuring jars and glass tanks. The sludge was directly added to the sewage water collected from the wastewater treatment plant in varying proportions with a detention time of 5 days. When tested, it was found that the levels of BOD and COD were reduced drastically as compared to the existing methods of treatment. It was found that when 30% of sludge was added to the wastewater a 67% of reduction in BOD and 6.2% of reduction in COD was observed. A combination of 15% of activated sludge and 5% of water treatment plant sludge was observed with a decrease in 68% of COD and a 38% increase in BOD. Also, it was observed that the formation of froth in the aeration tank was reduced.
    Keywords: water treatment plant sludge; coagulant; domestic wastewater; aeration tank; activated sludge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10054290
  • Economics of Waste Minimization, Recycling and Energy Efficiency Practices for a Final Assembly Automotive Plant   Order a copy of this article
    by Salma Shaik, Matthew J. Franchetti 
    Abstract: The case study investigates the solid waste management infrastructure, energy consumption, and wastewater generation at a large-scale final assembly automotive plant in Northeast Ohio, USA. The study is novel in that it takes a holistic approach in examining solid waste, energy usage, and wastewater generation from an economic perspective at a final assembly automotive plant. Existing records were analysed to identify historical trends and additional data were collected through a comprehensive assessment of the facility. The data analysis indicates that an additional 106.141 metric tons of waste material could be recycled annually. By replacing the existing fluorescent lighting with energy-efficient LED lighting, the electricity savings are approximately 5 million kWh/year with a cost saving of $500,000/year. The paper also discusses waste-water treatment, paint sludge management, and composting opportunities which would help the plant to become more sustainable with improved economics.
    Keywords: recycling; automotive assembly plant; waste minimisation; solid waste; energy management; economics; lighting; wastewater; composting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10054291
  • Environmental and Economic Modelling for Municipal Solid Waste Management Strategies: A Case Study in OH, USA   Order a copy of this article
    by Zonghua Xu, Lakshika Kuruppuarachchi, Alex Spivak, Matthew J. Franchetti 
    Abstract: Management strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) have been conducted concerning greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for cities and large geographical regions, but few have been conducted related to GHG emissions from a single facility. This study fills that gap by evaluating economic cost, and social cost of CO2e for the treatment of MSW streams for a single large facility in Ohio, USA moving towards a zero waste to landfill strategy. A total of eight scenarios related to varying IWM strategies at the facility were studied. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Waste Management Model (IWM) to find the best potential integrated MSW management strategy. The results indicated that the economic cost and social cost of CO2e decreased by 49.05% and 2.25 times respectively compared with the current scenario by increasing the recycling rate for the facility by 50%, diverting 30% of food waste to AD processing (from 0%), incinerating the rest of the waste for energy, and sending little to zero waste to landfills.
    Keywords: zero waste to landfill; GHG emissions; CO2e social cost; municipal solid waste; life cycle assessment; LCA; integrated waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10054292
  • To assess the dynamics of emission effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by using the flux chamber technique at Titardi (capped) and Balicha (uncapped) landfill sites of Udaipur, Rajasthan   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Dwivedi 
    Abstract: To evaluate the efflux of CO2 and CH4 gases by the application of static flux chamber (SFC) method at Balicha landfill site (BLS) and Titardi landfill site (TLS) situated in semiarid region of Rajasthan for a period of 2018 and 2019. The geometric mean flux of CO2 and CH4 fluxes at BLS during the studied period was ranged from 0.522 to 0.787 gm/m2 /day and from 0.175 to 0.252 gm/m2 /day, respectively. Whereas; the geometric mean fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at TLS was straddling from 0.272 to 0.472 gm/m2 /day and 0.087 to 0.134 gm/m2 /day sequentially in the same given period. The carbon footprint generated from the BLS and TLS was approximately 0.156 Gg/yr and 0.0135 of CO2 equivalent. The results, were statistically quantified using the coefficient of variation, demonstrated that the considerable temporal fluctuation in the CO2 and CH4 gas emanation fluxes at BLS and TLS was noticed so, mitigation needed.
    Keywords: static flux chamber; SFC; landfill efflux; greenhouse gas; GHGs; carbon footprints.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055814
  • Determinants of waste generation and segregation behaviour among the educated communities in the Western and the North-Western Provinces of Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by R.N.K. Soysa, Asankha Pallegedara, Ajantha Sisira Kumara, Dissanayake M. Jayasena, M.K.S.M. Samaranayake 
    Abstract: Solid waste, especially municipal solid waste, is a growing problem in Sri Lanka, and this problem has become intensified due to the absence of proper waste management systems in the country. At-source segregation could be practised at the household level as one of the solutions to this problem. The study intends to identify the factors influencing the waste generation and segregation behaviour of households of educated communities who have received tertiary education in Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire through an online survey and responses from 402 respondents were analysed by employing logistic and OLS regression analysis. The study identified that family income level, local governmental authorities involvement in waste collection, age of the household head, and house type significantly affect the waste segregation behaviour of households of educated communities. Further, age of household head, family size, attitude, land area, household ownership, family income and involvement of local governmental authorities in the waste collection significantly affect the household solid waste generation. Implementation of policies and effective strategies in the local government authority levels would be an effective practise to encourage proper waste management practises in Sri Lanka.
    Keywords: waste management; waste segregation at source; waste generation; households; recycling; municipal solid waste; logistic regression; multiple regression; educated community; Sri Lankan; Sri Lanka.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055247
  • In-sight into microbial structure and function of an Eastern Obolo estuarine water using metagenomics   Order a copy of this article
    by Uwem Edet, Ini Bassey, Iniobong Ebenge Andy, Rose U. B. Ebana, Udotong Ime Rufus 
    Abstract: Estuary microbes play several crucial roles that are not fully understood. We utilised metagenomics, a culture-independent technique to evaluate microbial composition and functions in an estuary. Sampling and physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard techniques. Extracted metagenomic DNA was sequenced using next-generation sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform. In addition to taxonomic analysis, functional genes assessment was carried out using several pipelines for a robust analysis. The result of the physicochemical analysis showed anthropogenic influence on the estuarine water. Structural composition revealed two kingdoms (bacteria and archaea), and the dominant phyla to be firmicutes and proteobacteria. All three pipelines combined showed genes associated with energy metabolisms, post-translational modifications, and environmental information processing. Interestingly, these functions were linked to either proteobacteria (alpha and gamma proteobacteria) or firmicutes. The wide array of energy metabolisms and environmental information processing pathways confirm microbial versatility in an estuary. Evaluation of microbial structure and function as done in this study can infer the status of an ecosystem.
    Keywords: metagenomics; bioinformatics; Niger-Delta; estuary; microbial function.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055256
  • Dual step synthesis of chromium removal from tannery industry wastewater with photocatalytic effects of TiO2   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Vinicio Masabanda, Vicente Delgado, E. Rajasekhar, Naga Raju Maddela 
    Abstract: In this paper, results presented were about photocatalytic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the removal of chromium (Cr) from tannery industry wastewater collected in tungurahua province in Ecuador. The primary source of the oxidation process (OP) is the method of photocatalysis. In this investigation, a prototype cylindrical collector (PCC) was designed to treat the wastewater. According to the results, a linear relationship was obtained between the dual step synthesis (DSS) of chromium removal from tannery industry wastewater with photocatalysis and solar energy. Photocatalysis effects showed highest removal of chromium at different concentrations and short periods of reaction time. The low-cost photocatalysts acted as functional capacity for the treatment of wastewater. The method of dual step synthesis of chromium removal from tannery wastewater with photocatalytic effects of TiO2 could be a sustainable and green synthesis approach. Dual step synthesis (DSS) method coupled with photocatalysis is effective in the production and generation of green energy. The degradation of organic pollutants in wastewater treatment is extensively engaged with titanium dioxide. The activation of the catalyst is necessary for solar radiation.
    Keywords: chromium; photocatalysis; solar radiation; titanium dioxide; wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055732
  • Effective organic fertiliser through a novel approach of biocatalyst activated from biochar   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadun S. Gunasekara, Renuka T.K. Ariyawansha, B.F.A. Basnayake 
    Abstract: Instead of simply mixing biochar into compost, it was decided to activate the biochar. Aqueous biocatalysts were produced in the aerobic reactor (AR) and anaerobic reactor (ANR), containing water, shredded market waste, and rock phosphate (RP) by adding biochar intermittently to reach neutral pH. AR surpassed pH 7 to reach 9.07 but the ANR could only attain 5.92 on 44th day. In AR, available P content increased from 55.24 mg/L to 2,196 mg/L and ANR from 113.86 mg/L to 2,183 mg/L. Aerobic and anaerobic biocatalysts were mixed separately into two piles of shredded garden wastes of 1 kg each with the third as the control. Total P contents of aerobic, anaerobic, and control compost were 2.45 mg/g, 1.93 mg/g, and 0.78 mg/g. respectively. Slightly less total N in biocatalysts but converted to organic acids while increased available K compared to control. Aerobic biocatalyst is the best because enzyme kinetics reveal competitive inhibition existed in ANR in forming the catalyst and noncompetitive inhibition manifested when aerobic catalyst was added to garden wastes.
    Keywords: aerobic; anaerobic; biochar; biocatalyst; composting; market waste; organic fertiliser; solubility of rock phosphate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055734
  • Investigation of the effect of water treatment plant effluent on river quality: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahram Moradi, Narges Raeisi, Darshan Mehta, Saeid Eslamian 
    Abstract: The influx of human sewage and effluent from most industries causes numerous pollutions in rivers, and the consequences of these pollutions may endanger human health and river ecosystems. In order to determine the effect of effluent on Karoun water quality, five sampling stations were considered. The first, third, and fifth stations were determined on the river, i.e., from Sheyban (upstream) to the Daghagheleh (downstream) treatment plant, on the other hand, the second and fourth stations were specified at the entrance of the treatment plant effluent to the river. Sampling was done monthly in four seasons from January 2020 to December 2020. Based on the values measured at the stations, the seasonal and annual quality index was calculated for each station, and then the different stations were classified based on the water quality index (WQI) system. According to the results, the annual quality index in different stations ranged from 524.79 to 648.93 (fourth group). On the other hand, comparing the results between the stations located on the river also shows that the water quality from the first to the fifth station is almost declining.
    Keywords: water treatment plants effluent; quality index; Karoun River; urban uses.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056374
  • Reverse logistics systems for post-consumer packaging in Brazil: obstacles and current panorama   Order a copy of this article
    by Ana Ghislane Henriques Pereira Van Elk, Leticia Figueiredo Da Silva, Marcelo Obraczka 
    Abstract: This article describes the current panorama of reverse logistics applied to post-consumption packaging at the federal level in Brazil, the current reverse logistics systems and the main obstacles and gaps that hinder their implementation are discussed. The study was limited to paper packaging (including boxboard and cardboard), glass, plastic, and metal. The span of the research was from 2010 (when the Brazilian Federal Law that established the National Solid Waste Policy was introduced) up to 2020. The results showed that paper is the material with the highest amount marketed by waste pickers organisations (52%), followed by plastic (22%), glass (17%), other metals (8%), and aluminum (1%). However, when considering the sales of materials, plastic has a greater representation than paper and other metals. Since the responsibility is shared, the RLSs works in a confusing manner, and there are conflicting interests, especially in the case of post-consumer packaging.
    Keywords: solid waste; waste management; post consumption packaging; reverse logistics; shared responsibility.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056768
  • Treatment of textile industry effluents by Fenton processes using galvanising industry residues   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Rollin Hilsendeger, Dayane Gonzaga Domingos, Beatriz Lima Santos Klienchen Dalari, Amanda Dalalibera, Maria Eliza Nagel-Hassemer 
    Abstract: Effluents from the textile industry pose a significant environmental threat due to their high concentration of toxic synthetic dyes and recalcitrant compounds. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are a promising treatment option, but their high cost limits their practical application. This study used a liquid residue from the pickling stage of the galvanising industry as the acid and iron source to trigger Fentons reactions for textile wastewater treatment. A Box-Behnken design with two independent variables (2 to 4 mL L1 pickling liquid residue and 70 to 210 mg L-1 hydrogen peroxide) was used to conduct the experiments. The treatment resulted in 97% color and 96% turbidity removal, as well as 60% toxicity reduction verified by the germination rate of Lactuca sativa seeds. The treatment also reduced Cr by 54%, Zn by 7%, and eliminated Fe from the final effluent. This method offers a cost-effective and efficient approach for treating textile wastewater.
    Keywords: Fenton process; galvanising residue; textile wastewater; toxicity; advanced oxidation processes; AOPs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056942
  • Comparison of the performance of intra and interspecific earthworm species in vermicomposting coral vine (Antigonon leptopus)   Order a copy of this article
    by S. G. Antony Godson, S. Gajalakshmi 
    Abstract: Three epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus were utilised to understand the intra and interspecific competition for food and space by comparing the process efficiency of vermicomposting coral vine. Coral vine was subjected to vermicomposting directly without any supplementation of animal manure or any pre-processing. Over a period of 150-day pulse-fed operation, all the reactors fed with coral vine were sustainably vermicomposted with the increase in earthworm zoomass, and offspring generated. The most efficient production of vermicompost was achieved by E. eugeniae followed by other two species. There was no significant difference, statistically, in the reactor performance when two or three of the species were used together. Overall, it is affirmed that the interspecific population of earthworms has no perceptible advantage over intraspecific population in the vermicomposting of coral vine.
    Keywords: intra and interspecific population; coral vine; Eudrilus eugeniae; Eisenia fetida.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056984
  • Willingness to pay for waste management in Khulna City of Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Ziaul Haider, Nusrat Jahan, Sk. Faijan Bin Halim 
    Abstract: This study attempts to reveal/unveil the waste management problem, thereby estimates households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved waste management services. A total of 200 sample households’ are randomly selected from Khulna City, Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire has been used to seek households’ WTP and willingness to accept (WTA) behaviour, accordingly, analyse its determinants using different econometric models. The most significant factors influence WTP include age, sex, education, profession, location, awareness of river pollution, and household earning member; whereas, sex, availability of vendors, selling of plastic bottle, and reuse option have significantly influenced households’ WTA behaviour. Estimation infers that Eastside households are willing to pay US$ 0.49 more for improved waste management than the Westside households. This study recommends that dustbin provision, initiate waste collection service, and fair price of the plastic bottle might help to solve the ongoing problem of waste management in the study area.
    Keywords: household; waste; disposal behaviour; Rupsha River; willingness to pay; WTP; willingness to accept; WTA; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10057094
  • Seasonal variation in composition and characteristics of solid waste and its potential environmental hazard: a study in Silchar, Assam, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Mausam Kumar Paul, Mithra Dey 
    Abstract: The waste management practices in India are in very poor condition. Several studies on the waste management scenario of the country depict the improper and unsatisfactory waste management practices in cities and towns. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to observe seasonal variation in physicochemical characteristics of solid waste along with the possible environmental hazard from the open dump yard. The paper presents that organic fraction is the major burden of the dump yard in all seasons. The PI was recorded in the range of 0.28-0.81. Igeo value of Pb (9.28 ± 1.59), Cu (10.36 ± 0.12), Mn (17.31 ± 0.33), and Ni (10.60 ± 0.42) was recorded a high potentiality of accumulation in the surrounding environment. However, the Igeo value of As (-2.66 ± 0.24) and Cd (-1.82 ± 0.63) was evaluated negatively.
    Keywords: open dumping; organic waste; pollution indices; contamination; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10057424
  • Awareness, disposal behaviours, willingness, and inflow of electronic waste in Faisalabad, Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Arslan Aslam, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sheharyaar Farid, Safeerul Islam Hashmi 
    Abstract: This study examines electronic waste awareness, disposal behaviours, and willingness to manage e-waste in Pakistan. Surveys, field visits, and questionnaires were used to collect data from consumers and businesses from February 2022 to April 2022. Findings show that 75.2% of participants were unaware of electronic waste, with 82% lacking knowledge of its hazardous effects. Around 45% sold their waste to informal recycling sectors. However, 91% expressed willingness to engage in e-waste management schemes. The research emphasizes the urgent need for an awareness campaign in Pakistan to educate the public about the risks associated with e-waste. Implementing legislation to prevent e-waste inflow is crucial. To tackle these challenges, the government should establish and enforce policies for proper disposal and recycling, support the growth of formal recycling industries, conduct public awareness campaigns for sustainable e-waste management.
    Keywords: waste electric and electronic equipment; WEEE; e-waste; awareness; behaviours; inflow; recycling; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10057512
  • An innovative sludge management: reuse of biowaste and sewer sediments for fired bricks   Order a copy of this article
    by Hoa Nhan Nguyen, Huyen Thi Thanh Dang, Lan Thi Ngoc Pham, Huan Xuan Nguyen, Kien Ton Tong, Thuy Thi Pham Pham, Khai Manh Nguyen 
    Abstract: This study partially replaced the clay with sewer sludge (SS) and rice husk (RH-SS) to make fired bricks. The brick samples were examined in terms of shrinkage, water absorption, and compressive strength. Besides, they were analysed via XRD and metal extraction to determine the heavy metal residuals in the products. The results showed that it was possible to fabricate fired bricks using sewer sludge or rice husk-blended sludge with up to 30% by weight. These brick samples complied with the technical standard for clay brick production, in which the compressive strength was more than 10 MPa, water absorption was from 11-16%, and the linear shrinkage was all less than 5%. The rice husk addition helped mitigate the heavy metal residuals in the bricks and leachate, in which all the values were lower than the US-EPA maximum concentration of contaminants for toxicity characteristics.
    Keywords: sewer sediments; biowaste; fired bricks; heavy metals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10057829
  • Benchmarking of integrated sustainable waste management in medium-sized Brazilian cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Valdir Eduardo Olivo, Eduardo Pavan Korf, Pedro Domingos Marques Prietto 
    Abstract: Integrated and sustainable solid waste management (ISWM) is a key factor in ensuring environmental protection and the quality of services provided by municipalities. This study aimed to establish a set of benchmark indicators for evaluating the ISWM in medium-sized Brazilian cities, through the analysis of five municipalities that stood out in management practices. The research method was based on the use of twenty-three indicators, which contemplate the sociocultural, environmental, and economic dimensions of waste management. The selected cities showed a higher level of engagement in both social and environmental areas. Some improvement opportunities have been identified since only two cities present economic sustainability and none has an information system for local waste management. Practices focusing on reducing waste and, also on governance were highlighted and used as a reference for replication in other municipalities and to establish the exchange of experiences among different cities.
    Keywords: sustainability; indicators; best practices; governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10058246
  • Moderating role of environmental awareness on the relationship between greening practices and environmental performance of Nigerian public university   Order a copy of this article
    by Olaoluwa Paul Aasa, Olalekan Aquila Jesuleye, Adeyemi Oluwaseun Adepoju 
    Abstract: The functional areas of the university system - training, research, campus operations, and community service - make them centres of excellence for environmental management decisions. This study analysed the moderating role of environmental awareness on the relationship between greening practices and environmental performance in Nigerian public universities. The study used Participatory Action Research, with a sample of 386 respondents comprising staff, students, and commercial service providers selected through a purposive technique. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire, and the environmental awareness index, relative effectiveness index, relative performance index, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were used to achieve the study’s objectives. The results indicated that greening practices contribute positively, and significantly to environmental performance, and awareness improves the influence of greening practices on environmental performance. The study suggests that universities should have an appropriate mechanism for improving knowledge and skills for environmental management.
    Keywords: environmental awareness; environmental performance; environmental management; greening practices; hierarchical multiple regression; HMR; public university.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10058320
  • Facemask usage and disposal challenges: a survey on safe and user friendly mask for regular practices   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijayaraghavan Gopal, Sivamani Sivalingam, Keerthana Sureshkumar, Vinod Kumar Gangadharan 
    Abstract: The present study focus on extensive use of facemask (FM) and survey on eco-friendly material. The various types of masks including cloth mask, surgical masks, and respirators (class N, P, R) with their leakage, filtration, and penetration characteristics were analysed. This study helps the users to identify the specific applications of different types of mask and their safe disposal. Hence, a survey was conducted as masks preferred, how frequently they were changed, and the challenges faced while wearing the mask-like difficulty in breathing, fogging of lens, etc. The survey was conducted through a quantitative method with a set of questionnaires. It is observed that the majority (40.5%) of the population considers the N95 mask to be relatively safe and effective. The improper disposal of FM causes of diseases, forbids free aeration, clogs the waterways, severe sewage problems. Therefore, a proper disposal method needs to be followed to reduce environmental pollution.
    Keywords: N95 facemasks; COVID-19 pandemic; waste disposal; surveys.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10058992
  • Hotspots of illegal dumping of solid waste along the Mthatha River   Order a copy of this article
    by Lazola Bangani, Hlekani M. Kabiti, Oseni Amoo, Motebang D.V. Nakin, Zendy Magayiyana, Simbarashe Ndhleve 
    Abstract: Solid waste illegal dumping is becoming a major problem as there are numerous illegal dumpsites observable along the Mthatha waterbodies. This paper aimed at mapping the hotspots of illegal dumpsites along the middle-course of Mthatha River, to suggest proper waste management strategies that can be applied. To achieve this, several field surveys along the river were conducted to identify and classify the illegal dumpsites. GPS coordinates were recorded to identify the locations of the dumpsites, which were later coded to QGIS for visual presentation. This study revealed seven hotspots of illegal dumping along the middle-course of the Mthatha River. Varied domestic waste compositions which included organic, and inorganic waste were identified as major pollutants from the informal and formal settlements. The study recommends the establishment of monitoring systems around hotspots, watercourse protection measures, frequent waste collection, environmental mass education, and law enforcement as an immediate remedy to curb the problem.
    Keywords: illegal dumping; Mthatha River; solid waste; management strategies; water pollution; waste dumping; waste mapping; waste management; waste hotspots.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059110
  • Phyto-remediator effect of Phragmites australis specie (region of Algeria) to the total organic load of wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelhakim Sellal, Rima Belattar 
    Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the pollution degree in total organic matter of Oued K'sob (region of Bordj Bou Arreridj Algeria) waters using the dosage of the organic matter and their auto-purifying capacity using chemical oxygen demand parameter for one year at five stations distance. Phragmites australis (Pa) proposed as a solution by studying their phyto-purifying capacities to reduce the organic load. The results obtained show an important organic load in the Oued, especially in hot periods where values that greatly exceed the Algerian standard for surface water intended for irrigation and the limit value for discharges of industrial liquid effluents and also exceed the Algerian limit value for organic matter in surface waters which leads us to classify these waters as bad quality. In parallel, the results also show that Pa has a strong COD reducing capacity of 89.97%.
    Keywords: organic pollution; commun reed; Phragmites australis; bioremediation; phytoremediation; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059437
  • Implementation of smart dustbin - a CNN-based intelligent waste management   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Yuvashri, S.K. Varsha, M. Vijayalakshmi 
    Abstract: Waste generation across the globe is adversely increasing and the classification of waste has become tedious affecting the process of recycling and increasing the environmental risks so we devised a simple way to classify waste as biodegradable and non-biodegradable economically using an Arduino-embedded smart dustbin. Our automatic waste sensing smart dustbin is introduced as a revolutionary marvel of technology! Meticulously designed to revolutionise waste management, this innovative smart dustbin incorporates cutting-edge programming. With this advanced technology, our dustbin ensures that its lid is exclusively opened by biodegradable waste, delivering a seamless and eco-friendly dumping experience for our users. The classification is done using our CNN-based residual network model and the accuracy of our metrics turned out to be 95.6% for a random sample batch of 32 images.
    Keywords: waste management; smart dustbin; garbage classification; machine learning; object recognition; image processing; CNN model; computer vision; internet of things; IoT; ResNet model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059451
  • Water loss in agriculture and loss of social welfare: evidence from pistachio production in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Alireza Alipour, Ali Yousefi 
    Abstract: This study aims to use a partial equilibrium model simulation for welfare analysis in the Iranian pistachio market. For this purpose, the pistachio supply and demand sides and their welfare surplus were evaluated. Based on the results, the unadjusted social welfare in the pistachio market is estimated at around 6,143,539 US dollars. Considering the economic value of water loss, it was found that $884,670, equivalent to about 14.4% of social welfare, is caused as an adverse side effect of pistachio production in Iran. The interpretation of the last figure is that every 10% reduction in water loss in pistachio production in Iran leads to an increase of about 3% in social welfare. Government investments to modernise the components of Iran’s agricultural irrigation system as a strategy with long-term effects and provide low-cost facilities to farmers for better water management are discussed as the most operational recommendations.
    Keywords: agricultural water loss; social welfare; partial equilibrium model; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059938
  • Indiscriminate disposal of waste challenges and implication for urban flooding and property values in emerging cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Peres Ofori 
    Abstract: The study examined the indiscriminate disposal of waste in Ghana relative to the flooding and devaluation of properties in urban Kumasi and Tamale. Adopting the waste management theory coupled with survey design, the study investigated the types of waste produced in these cities. Using SPSS, the regression was utilised to analyse the relationship between proximity to flooding and flood prone areas and residential rental values. In both Kumasi and Tamale no tenant was willing to pay higher rent for a house located at a flooding or flood prone area irrespective of the architectural designs. An R of 0.54 and a P value 0.0000 at 0.5 significant levels indicating a fairly strong relationship between the two variables tested. The study found it dangerous for an emerging city like Ghana to have higher percentage (82%) of households practicing open dumping as the favourite method of waste disposal and treatment.
    Keywords: approach; disaster; flooding; rent; reuse; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10059993
  • Researching factors affecting consumers’ behaviour to reduce plastic bag use in Danang: applying expanded theory of planned behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Tinh Luong, Minh Duc Tran, Huu Nguyen Xuan Nguyen, Hoang Hien Nguyen, Hoang Manh Trung Vu 
    Abstract: This research applies the expanded theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to explain consumer behaviour to reduce the use of plastic bags in Danang. The statistics were collected between the 20th of June and July 15th, 2021. The analysis result shows that perceived risks of the environment and health, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norms (SBJ), moral norms (MON), intention, consumption habits, and perception of convenience all influence consumers’ behaviour to reduce the use of plastic bags. Two new observations of perceived benefits and convenience (PBEC) factors, including ‘I find that the quality of plastic bags is increasingly getting better’ and ‘I find plastic bags to be cheaper than other bags’, and an observation of consumption habits (CPH) factor ‘the plastic bags are always available in shops in markets or supermarkets that are very convenient for consumers’, are also statistically significant. Based on these discoveries, this paper suggests some implications for regulators and consumers.
    Keywords: theory of planned behaviour; TPB; behaviour; plastic bag; consumer; Danang; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060204
  • Biostimulation of oily sludge - contaminated soil using organic and inorganic additives   Order a copy of this article
    by Amina Benchouk, Kahina Ighilahriz, Meryem Khellouf, Mohamed Khodja 
    Abstract: In this work, five microcosms containing polluted soil and the organics and inorganics stimulants were set up and undergone during five months. The sample was originated from an oil refinery located in the south of Algeria with 77. 15 ± 0.1 g/kg of TPHs. We have evaluated the performance of the biostimulation by: residual TPHs, composition of hydrocarbon residues by GC, microbial growth and eco-toxicity using Hordeum vulgare. Three bacterial were isolated from contaminated soil and characterised by MALDI-TOF. At the end of the experimental, we obtained a reduction of TPHs to 30.66 ± 1.15 g/kg. The results from GC showed the disappearance of major hydrocarbons pics within the treated microcosm. In the uncontaminated medium, the germination rate was higher than in the contaminated soil. A remarkable increase in the rate was observed in the seeds put in the treated medium to reach a percentage higher than 80%.
    Keywords: oily sludge; biostimulation; camel dung; solanum tuberosum peels; eggshells; bentonite.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060205
  • Sentiment analysis and word cloud analysis on e-waste news headlines using Python   Order a copy of this article
    by Shalini Wadhwa, Ananya Shukla 
    Abstract: E-waste or electronic waste is described as the waste electronic goods such as computers, smartphones, TVs, etc. Due to rapid technological advancement, e-waste or electronic waste has been increasing on a much faster rate. Electrical and electronic waste in India is increasing at an alarming rate of almost 3 million tons annually, out of which only 17.4% was recycled sustainably. India ranked third in producing e-waste globally after China and the USA. The ever-growing market of electronic equipment has also generated an ever-growing problem of e-waste. E-waste has become one of the issues for both the environment and human health. Therefore, it has become important to analyse the effect of e-waste on living beings especially in India. This report analyses the sentiment analysis and word cloud analysis on the e-waste news headlines generated by Indian news media.
    Keywords: e-waste; sentiment analysis; wordcloud; opinion analysis; electronic waste; environment; sustainability; business; consumer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060266
  • Review study of e-waste management and resource recovery system for controlling environmental pollution   Order a copy of this article
    by Santosh Walke, Manoj Mandake, Makarand Naniwadekar 
    Abstract: This study investigates the escalating challenges of electronic waste (e-waste) disposal, highlighting its environmental and public health implications. It underscores the need for sustainable e-waste management by exploring diverse resource recovery methods and analysing environmental risk assessment and pollution control strategies. Methodologically, the research reviews a decade of literature, revealing e-waste generation trends, regulations, and laws. Emphasising issues with the informal recycling sector and limited environmental awareness among stakeholders, it offers a comprehensive overview of e-waste treatment technologies, advocating for resource-efficient practices. The article highlights challenges in organised e-waste management, considering unorganised recycling and environmental unawareness. An essential discovery underscores the immediate need for a strong recycling framework that adheres to ethics and laws. This framework would tackle the environmental and health risks associated with unregulated e-waste disposal. The study stresses the importance of accessible policies and collaborative efforts to combat e-waste proliferation, contributing to the discourse on sustainable resource management.
    Keywords: environmental pollution; e-waste management; recycling; waste treatment; resource recovery; risk assessment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060267
  • Examining environmental health risks of indiscriminate solid waste disposal in Kosovo informal settlement, Cape Town   Order a copy of this article
    by Yamkela Jakeni, Thabang Maphanga, Benett Siyabonga Madonsela, Karabo Concelia Malakane 
    Abstract: The indiscriminate disposal of solid waste is detrimental to the environment and health. Given that, whilst the environmental health risks of indiscriminate solid waste disposal are well documented; the contributing factors are mostly overlooked especially within the informal settlement found in metropolitan cities. The study sought to examine factors associated with indiscriminate solid waste disposal that pose environmental health risks in Kosovo’s informal settlement, Cape Town. The current study used qualitative and quantitative research tools in the form of questionnaires and interviews. Collected data were analysed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0 software. The study discovered that 93.85% of households have no access to disposal bins. The results show that 75.4% claim that the alternative municipal waste container is insufficient as it gets locked on weekends. This is an indication that there is not enough information provided by the municipality responsible for Kosovo’s informal settlement about solid waste management.
    Keywords: indiscriminate disposal; informal settlement; illegal dumping; waste management; waste collection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060300
  • Utilising selvedge waste of polyester fabric: weaver’s approach for sustainable fabric development and analysis of basic properties   Order a copy of this article
    by Ambar Shah, Hafsa Jamshaid, Muhammad Shahbaz 
    Abstract: A lot of textile material is wasted at the weaving mill due to the cutting of the selvedge. The aim of present research is to use the leno selvedge without doing any extra process. The selvedge waste of polyester fabric was collected from the weaving mill. This waste was then dyed. Afterwards, samples of plain, 3/2 twill, and 5 end satin weaves were developed. It was revealed that the fabrics made from coarser yarn had greater areal density, greater thickness, greater strength, smaller water absorbency, smaller softness, smoothness, better drape, and greater resilience. Increasing interlacement, in weave, results in an increase in areal density, thickness, tensile strength, drape, and resilience. But it leads to lowering softness, smoothness, and absorbency. The fabric produced from the waste has applications in many kinds of home furnishing like rugs, matts, table runners, bottle covers, laptop covers, etc. The present work is an example of upcycling which leads to conserving the environment.
    Keywords: upcycling; selvedge waste; polyester fibre; home furnishings; recycling; polyester waste; leno selvedge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060481
  • An assessment of literature on construction and demolition waste management barriers in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons and implications for sustainability in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngonidzashe Mangoro, Nzalalemba Serge Kubanza, Mulala Danny Simatele 
    Abstract: This paper discusses the challenges associated with the management of construction and demolition waste and its implications on environmental wellbeing and sustainability. Using existing and anecdotal literature, evidence suggests an increase in the demand for infrastructure for domestic and commercial purposes, and this in turn is exerting massive pressure on the construction industry to absorb and meet increased levels demand. This development has however, been accompanied by the generation of excessive quantities of waste, making it extremely difficult for urban managers in Sub-Saharan African cities to effectively and comprehensively manage construction and demolition waste. A major challenge being that this type of waste exists in forms that require extensive injection of resources for systematic separation far beyond the budgetary positions of many of these cities. In view of this, this paper is an attempt to systematically review and synthesise existing knowledge with a view of creating an inventory of the challenges associated to construction and demolition waste management and suggest possible solutions and approach for transforming this waste into a resource.
    Keywords: construction and demolition waste; urban managers; sustainability; barriers; environment; circularity; challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060718
  • Investigation the monthly effect of the pumping schedule on the groundwater resources in Al-Najaf City, Iraq   Order a copy of this article
    by Hayder H. Kareem 
    Abstract: Groundwater serves as a crucial resource, especially in regions like the Middle East, where water scarcity prevails, particularly in arid areas. Uncertainty in groundwater systems arises due to aquifer parameters, climate change effects on recharge, and pumping rates. This study, utilising the MODFLOW computer model, examines the 2014 groundwater status near Al-Najaf City in Iraq, focusing on recharge, pumping rates, and Euphrates River levels monthly. The model integrates geological data, digital elevation models, and field measurements. Calibration reveals good agreement with field data, while sensitivity analysis highlights the significance of recharge and hydraulic conductivity. Validation displays a west-to-east flow pattern. Results indicate excessive pumping creates dry zones in the city, impacting both top and bottom layers. The Euphrates River consistently loses water due to pumping. This research offers valuable insights for sustainable management of the Euphrates River-groundwater system in Al-Najaf City, crucial for effective planning and resource management.
    Keywords: Al-Najaf City; conceptual modelling; Euphrates River-groundwater system connection; MODFLOW; Iraq.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10060855