Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM)

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International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (120 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Total Ammonia and N2O Emission Characteristics from Alcaligenes sp. LS2T Cultures and Its Application on Laying Hen Manure Associated with Different pH Condition   Order a copy of this article
    by Aldyon Restu Azkarahman, Yuny Erwanto, Lies Mira Yusiati, Widodo , Nanung Agus Fitriyanto 
    Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate the Alcaligenes sp. LS2T characteristics in total ammonia and N2O emission under different carbon sources and C/N ratios in the synthetic media. Observation of the strain application potential to suppress ammonia emission was also performed on laying hen manure with different initial pH conditions. The total ammonia emission was observed by Nesslers reagent photometry method followed by Lide and Frederikse equation, while the N2O emission was measured by gas chromatography. The result showed that the least emitted total ammonia was seen in acetate medium C/N 28, emitted 12.77
    Keywords: Alcaligenes sp. LS2T; aerobic denitrification; total ammonia; N2O emission; pH condition; laying hen manure.

  • Statistical Analysis for the Removal of Crystal Violet using Bacterial Cellulose Powder via Response Surface Methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Khairul Azly Zahan, Nur Sofiah Zamri, Norhani Jusoh, Mahfuzah Mustapha, Suzana Wahidin 
    Abstract: Statistical analysis for the removal of crystal violet (CV) using bacterial cellulose (BC) powder was evaluated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to observe the interactions between BC powder size (
    Keywords: Statistical analysis; Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Crystal violet; Bacterial cellulose; Adsorption.

  • Economic viability and analysis of wastewater treatment processes in Kuwait   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasem Alhumoud, Ibrahim Alhumoud 
    Abstract: A full and comprehensive economic analysis of wastewater treatment is a prerequisite for ensuring long-term economic, environmental, and social sustainability. The aim of this study is to improve the economic evaluation of treated wastewater reuse. In 2001, the Government of Kuwait built an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Sulaibiya. This plant is designed to treat up to 375 million imperial gallons (IG) of water, but the volume can be extended to 600 million IG. This WWTP is the first of to be built in the Middle East and is the largest plant worldwide that uses a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for water purification. The UF step removes all suspended solids and promotes a substantial reduction in microbiological contaminants. We identify and compare the advantages and costs between using treated wastewater and desalinated fresh water. We show that while treatment costs are highly dependent on the incoming effluent quality and plant size, the benefits and advantages are reasonably high.
    Keywords: Economic; cost; wastewater reuse; RO; UF; WWTP.

  • Towards a Model for Effective e-Waste Management: A Study of Software Industry in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajeev Srivastava, Tarun Dhingra 
    Abstract: In last few years information technology has seen tremendous growth all over the world. This growth has also brought a new kind of waste known as electronic waste or e-waste. The amount of this electronic waste is growing rapidly due to fast change in technology, reducing prices of electronic devices, low recycling rate of e-waste. This growing volume of e-waste is not only very harmful for human health and environment but also lead to resource depletion. So, its important to manage this e-waste effectively. The study was designed with an objective to identify the variables responsible for the growing volume of e-Waste in Software industry and to arrive at a research model for effective e-Waste management. A total of 200 Software Developers of Software industry participated in the survey. A multiple regression analysis was employed and the, Collection and Recycling appeared as the best predictor, followed by Awareness:, and Regulations. Which shows that proper collection of e-waste by authorized collection centers and recycling of e-waste by authorized e-waste recycling centers are required to reduce e-waste in software industry. Secondly, people need to be aware about the hazardous nature of e-waste. The regulations related to e-waste management need to be implemented properly to manage that e-waste effectively. The policy implication is that policy makers of Software industry can use so developed model for developing policies related to e-Waste management.
    Keywords: Recycling; e-Waste; Reuse; Collection; software industry; WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment).

  • Comparison of landfill leachate generation and pollution potentials in humid and semi-arid climates   Order a copy of this article
    by Taher Abunama, Faridah Othman 
    Abstract: Climate conditions e.g. rainfall water are highly affecting landfill leachate generation and characteristics. This article aims to assess leachate generation and pollution potentials from landfills in different climate conditions, e.g. humid and semi-arid regions. Leachate volumes have been estimated by Hydraulic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model, and the main water quality parameters and heavy metals were in-situ and laboratory analyzed. Results of annual leachate generation rates per one ton of waste in humid and semi-arid landfill were 0.148 and 0.079m3 respectively. However, leachate pollutants from humid landfill showed lower concentrations comparing with semi-arid landfill. This was reflected in LPI results of 25.1 and 29.5 for both landfills, respectively. These results concluded that semi-arid leachate gave lower generation rates and higher pollution potential than humid leachate, which can be revealed to the dilution effect of high rainfall levels in humid climates.
    Keywords: Landfill leachate; Humid and semi-arid climates; HELP mode; Leachate pollution index (LPI).

    by Ravanbakhsh Shirdam, Behnam Sadeghi, Mohammad Rezaei Rad, Nematollah Bakhshi, Hossein Ali Mirzaei 
    Abstract: The main objective of the present research is to reuse red mud (RM) and low grade bauxite for brick manufacturing. Red mud is a waste product of a well-known method for alumina production called Bayer process. To optimize brick production, experimental design was used. According to ASTM for brick manufacturing, pressure resistance was regarded as response. It was found out that using RM for brick causes deteriorating brick quality but it has positive effects on reducing temperature of furnace and retention time of brick in furnace. After response analysis, experimental design suggested a mathematical model for predicting the compressive strength of bricks. To validate the model and producing bricks by optimized properties, three specimens with two replicates were produced. Different measurement including Compressive strength, XRD, density, and water absorption, TCLP and ICP were carried out on the optimized specimens. Using RM in brick manufacturing reduces clay consumption and makes retention time of bricks in furnace shorter. Hence, the proposed method for brick making can considerably reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission in comparison with the traditional manufacturing process. Furthermore, by reducing the content of RM piled up behind a tailing dam, the environmental implications will be decreased.
    Keywords: Red mud; brick manufacturing; bauxite; experimental design; waste reuse.

  • Sludge Management in Water Treatment Plants: Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Luay Qrenawi, Fahid Rabah 
    Abstract: Due to the increased environmental concern; there is a considerable pressure on the water authorities for the safe treatment and disposal of sludge. It is very important to choose a suitable sludge treatment and disposal system, which is both economical and technically feasible. In this article, sludge characteristics, quantities and sources will be outlined. A detailed sludge management and treatment methods will be presented. Sludge reuse, incineration, landfilling and disposal were also considered. The study concluded that sludge management should be considered when designing and operating WTPs, adopting beneficial reuse options of sludge will become very essential and it is necessary to investigate the appropriate options for formulating long term sludge management plans under strict environmental regulations. The study recommended that sludge must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effective manner. Great emphasis is to be enforced to minimize the quantity of generated sludge, more studies should be conducted to develop suitable sludge management plans, when applying sludge reuse in agricultural purposes it is highly recommended to investigate the long term effects of sludge reuse, and finally the environmental impacts of different of sludge disposal methods should be evaluated.
    Keywords: Sludge; Management; Treatment Plants; Environmental; Disposal; Characteristics; Quantities; Sources; Regulations; Reuse; Long Term Effects.

  • The Threatening Effects of Open Dumping on Soil at Waste Disposal Sites of Akure City, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Fidelis Ajibade, Bashir Adelodun, Temitope Ajibade, Kayode Lasisi, Christiana Abiola, James Adewumi, Christopher Akinbile 
    Abstract: Soil pollution, a direct consequence of open waste dumping, has ceaselessly gained public attention. This study examines the influence of uncontrolled deposition of MSW disposal on soil in four selected dumpsites across Akure city, Nigeria. Physicochemical and microbial laboratory tests were carried out using standard procedure. Soil samples were randomly collected using soil auger from the major dumpsites (Igbatoro and Iju-Itaogbolu), and the minor dumpsites (Ijare and FUTA), at depths (0 - 10 cm), (10 20 cm), (20 - 30 cm), and control samples taken at a distance 20 m away from each dumpsite. The physicochemical parameters measured include pH, total organic matter, total organic carbon and particle size distribution. Results show that samples were predominantly acidic (4.12
    Keywords: Soil pollution; Solid wastes; Dumpsites; Indiscriminate disposal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10030610
  • Valorization of phosphogypsum waste as K2SO4 fertilizer and portlandite Ca(OH)2   Order a copy of this article
    by Hanan El Alaoui-Belghiti, Ilham Zdah, Yassine Ennaciri, Rachida El Ouatib, Mohammed Bettach 
    Abstract: Series of experiments were performed to follow the reactivity of Moroccan phophogypsum with KOH in order to valorise this environmentally harmful solid waste. The experiments were carried out in aqueous solution under different conditions: with excess of reagent KOH or in stoichiometric proportions and by varying reaction duration at room temperature. The complete decomposition of phosphogypsum (PG) waste into portlandite Ca(OH)2 and arkanite K2SO4 was evidenced by X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optimum decomposition was obtained with stoichiometric mixture using 0.6 M phosphogypsum and 1.2 M KOH. The full decomposition of phosphogypsum was achieved at room temperature in one hour. The results show how phosphogypsum can efficiently converted to valuable products with high purity and in mild conditions.
    Keywords: Phosphogypsum; Industrial waste; Wet process; Conversion; Portlandite; Arkanite.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10029039
  • Effect of the poultry droppings waste on the different life stage of Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadia ZEGUERROU, Adjroudi Rachid 
    Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the effect of poultry droppings waste on the different life stage of Eisenia fetida earthworm to protect them from hazardous doses. Adults, juveniles and cocoons were exposed during 90 days to increased doses of poultry droppings (0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 g), added to 250 g of culture substrate. The biological parameters, like mortality, body length, fresh biomass, and cocoons hatching were affected by the organic waste doses and the exposure time. Both poultry droppings doses 10 g (4%) and 20 g (8%) were the less toxic to the cocoons hatching and to the adults and juveniles growth. While the two doses 50 g (20%) and 100 g (40%) had a negative impact on the cocoon hatchability and a toxic effect on the juveniles and adults. Otherwise, the poultry droppings dose 100 g was lethal for the all life stage of E. fetida.
    Keywords: organic waste; effect; poultry droppings; pollutant; Eisenia fetida; life stage; mortality; biomass; body length; cocoon hatching; physico-chemical parameters.

    by Luz Etcheverry-Boneo, Cristian Ishiguro, Georgina Wigdorovitz, Nicolás Pourtale, Judith Lacava, Valentina S. Vela, Melisa S. Olivelli 
    Abstract: Diatoms are able to enhance their lipids production when subjected to stress factors as pollutants. In this study, diatoms were isolated from two sampling sites: a pristine site and a highly polluted river. This work aims to assess differences in biodiversity of diatoms samples and to isolate strains from different environments to compare the amount and characteristics of lipids with potential in enhanced biodiesel production. Biodiversity was compared qualitatively; strains were isolated and assessed for lipids production and profile; and frustules after lipids extraction were studied by SEM and BET. Five genus were isolated and cultured for lipids production: Nitzschia sp., Frustulia sp. and Diadesmis sp from R

  • Utilisation of fish waste bones ash for struvite precipitation in actual landfill leachate   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Darwish, Azmi Aris, Mohd Hafiz Puteh, Aeslina Abdul Kadir 
    Abstract: Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O, MAP) precipitation is an effective method for the pre-treatment of landfill leachate. Recently, research trend is directed to introduce new sources of phosphorus (P), in order to improve the sustainability of MAP technology. The current study investigated the effectiveness of fish waste bones ash as an alternative source of P for MAP recovery in actual landfill leachate. The P-rich solution, extracted from fish waste bones ash, was mixed with magnesium oxide (MgO) before applying the Mg-P mixture to leachate samples. The experimental results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), colour and turbidity were reduced with efficiencies of more than 31%, 32%, 51% and 37%, respectively. In addition, around 70% of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) was recovered in the form of struvite. The presence of struvite crystals in harvested precipitates was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) test. Furthermore, utilisation of Mg-P mixture was considerably competent compared to conventional reagents.
    Keywords: Phosphorus; leachate; ammonium nitrogen; suspended solids; struvite.

  • Treatment of Equine Beds for Composting and Vermicomposting Processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Flávia Gonçalves, Pedro Henrique Presumido, Andressa Vitoria Duarte Souza, Jaqueline Santos Silva, Marcelo Hidemassa Anami, Kátia Valéria Marques Cardoso Prates, Tatiane Cristina Dal Bosco 
    Abstract: Equine breeders seek alternatives to properly allocate saturated beds produced during the confinement and composting and vermicomposting can be viable alternatives. However, it is not elucidated what material used as bed provides better conditions for the treatment of waste. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the performance of five equine beds during composting and vermicomposting made of: T1 - coffee hull; T2 - sawdust; T3 - sawdust and brachiaria; T4 - rice straw; T5 - rice straw and brachiaria. The waste was pre-composted in pile for 42 days. After this period, 15 vermireactors (triplicate) were mounted and the rest of the material remained in piles, to continue with the process of composting for 58 days. Vermicomposting of T1 is not recommended because it was not tolerated by the earthworms but showed good compost quality in composting. Equine beds with brachiaria improve the conditions for waste treatment, as it increases aeration, provides easily degradable carbon and assists in the mineralization of nitrogen.
    Keywords: Eisenia foetida; treatment of farming waste; coffee hull; sawdust brachiaria; rice straw; solid waste; earthworms; composting; vermicomposting; equine beds.

  • Sustainability Assessment of Chemical Processes Via Sustainability Evaluator (SE) In Conjunction with Aspen HYSYS   Order a copy of this article
    by Aliff Radzuan Mohamad Radzi, Nor Zalina Kasim, Talha Ahmad Faisal, Norfazilah Abdul Halim 
    Abstract: Problem in the industry now is engineers are not dealing with sustainability in designing a chemical process. The objectives of this study were to simulate two routes of dimethyl ether (DME) processes, evaluate, and select the most sustainable DME process. The simulation of DME processes comprises of two reaction routes namely via methanol and natural gas. Both processes were simulated in HYSYS with the same production rate and purity level. Costs and mass and energy balance from Aspen HYSYS for both processes were imputed to a tool that evaluates the sustainability of chemical processes namely the Sustainability Evaluator (SE). The impact score calculated by the SE is ranging from 0 (sustainable) to 1 (not sustainable). Results of the SUI produced from the SE revealed that DME production via methanol was more sustainable process for DME compared to via natural gas with a value of 0.13 and 0.31, respectively.
    Keywords: DME; Simulation; Sustainability.

  • Organic waste management: A review of practices from selected Asian countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Nisansala Abeysinghe, Sunil Herat 
    Abstract: Organic solid waste has become a global crisis especially in the developing countries of Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries consisting of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka face very similar problems as with other developing countries in South Asia. If not managed effectively, organic waste leads to disastrous human and environmental health issues. Hence, this study is carried out with objectives of understanding the existing organic waste management methods in the SAARC region and to identify potential improvements for managing organic waste. According to the available literature, recycling, incineration, refuse-derived fuel, anaerobic digestion and land filling are practiced throughout the region. Furthermore, researchers have developed several improved methods to enhance the organic waste management procedures in Asian countries.
    Keywords: Asia; organic solid waste; waste management.

  • Mining Environmental Laws and Regulations: Mexican Experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Jaime-Paredes 
    Abstract: A discussion is made on how to include the environmental variable in the early stages of planning and design of mine waste storage facilities. The environmental impact assessment must be integrated into the planning process to decide the best alternatives for mining exploitation. In other words, in the planning of the work or activity, the environmental variable should be included with the same importance as the economic and technical variables. It must also be included in the analysis, design and construction of the project and in its decommissioning. In the design of an engineering work, the environmental service limit states are dictated by the rules in the matter. This is precisely the reason for studying environmental regulations. To know for what and with what limits to design a mining storage facility. It covers Mexican Environmental regulations, environmental assessment, the effects of mine waste storage facilities on the environment and some principles of geoenvironmental engineering.
    Keywords: Environmental Geotechnical Engineering; Mine Waste; Contamination; Recycling; Environmental Impact; Environmental Legislation.

    by Tetiana Shevchenko, Yuriy Danko 
    Abstract: In a circular economy the material and products value maintenance implies providing a unique way for their multiple transformations in an economy. This study is based on the assumption that preserving the value of a material and product in the economy for as long as possible is the result of the development of the structure of total resource cycles of a territory in terms of closing and slowing of material loops. Development of a resource cycles structure occur due to the reconstruction of the already existing cycles as well as the formation of new ones. In order to measure the improvements in the structure of resource cycles of a territory, that are the consequence of closing and slowing of material loops, the segmentation of resource cycle as a tool could be applied. The paper attempts to develop the methodological approach in measurement of materials and products circularity based on the segmentation of resource cycle. The findings contribute to the extension of the metric apparatus to measure the circularity that, as a phenomenon, is continuously changing in space and time.
    Keywords: circular economy; zero waste; circularity potential; measurement; metrics; circularity indicator; resource cycle; closing loop; slowing loop.

  • Removal of rhodamine B cationic dye using activated carbon   Order a copy of this article
    by Ana Lucia Denardin Da Rosa, Andre Azevedo Machado, Calina Grazielli Dias Barros, Elvis Carissimi, Dison Stracke Pfingsten Franco, Guilherme Luiz Dotto 
    Abstract: The optimum conditions for the removal of rhodamine B (RhB) dye present in wastewater was tested using commercial activated carbon (AC). Adsorption tests were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of pH, contact time and temperature; the kinetics of adsorption was studied for dye concentrations ranging from 20 to 500 mg L1 using pseudofirst order and pseudo-second order models. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips models. Results showed that the AC had the highest adsorption capacity at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 25
    Keywords: Adsorption; Dye removal; Rhodamine B.

    by Azimmatul Ihwah, Ika Atsari Dewi 
    Abstract: Betel nut (Areca catechu L.) fiber is regarded as waste containing of 70.2% cellulose, 10.92% water, and 6.02% ash. In direct utilization of areca nut, certain innovation is required, one of which is to make handycraft paper. Handycraft paper can be utilized further in making products having artistic and economic value as well as reducing waste and if managed properly, it will give financial value as well. In order to get the expected physical quality of good handycraft paper, the manufacture of handycraft paper from areca fiber requires the addition of used paper, such as used cardboard. This research aims to determine the proportion of raw materials which are suitable in the process of handycraft paper making to produce optimal physical quality. The research was conducted by applying the Response Surface Methodology using two factors, which are the proportion of areca nut and used cardboard paper, involving the 13 treatments with responses, such as: gramatur, tensile strength, tear strength, and water absorbency. The optimal results chosen are handycraft paper formula with 55.74% proportion of areca fiber and 50% of used cardboard with desirability value of 0.807 and 240 g / m2 gramatur value, 26.0589 kN / m2 tensile strength, 498,401 gf tear strength, and 28,935% water absorbency. The most desired result of handycraft paper will be utilized as material for greeting cards or invitation cards.
    Keywords: Handycraft paper; Optimization of Raw Material Proportion; Betel nut; Response Surface Methodology; Used Cardboard.

  • Formulating Landfill Gas Emissions Model for Forecasting Methane Generation from Waste under Iranian Scenario   Order a copy of this article
    by Somayeh Golbaz, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh, Abbas Norouzian Baghani 
    Abstract: This study aimed to determine the methane productions potential from municipal solid wastes based on two setups; Firstly, based on waste composition and secondly based on using the landfill gas emissions model(LandGEM). The results showed that based on the first step, the methane generation rate was found in the range from 1687.7 to 2062.6 mega cubic meter/year(Mm3/year) in the whole of studied regions. From developing LandGEM model, the maximum methane production rate in a landfill would be calculated equal to 2803.2 Mm3 in 2025. Also, the results showed that the methane generation rates have been at variance in five regions of Iran(p<0.05). In the northern regions of the country, the methane generation rate was increased due to the availability of sufficient moisture for microorganisms. Based on the theoretical computational quantities, it can be concluded that the volume of methane produced from municipal solid waste, which contains biodegradable materials (73%), was found very high.
    Keywords: Waste management; Renewable energy; Methane emission; Greenhouse gases; LandGEM model.

  • Estimation of Methane and landfill gas emission from an open dump site   Order a copy of this article
    by George Ngusale, Michael Oloko, Frankline Otiende, Peter Kabok 
    Abstract: Globally, an inventory of methane (CH4) emissions from human related activity is needed by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Waste discarded, herein referred to as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), is a major source of anthropogenic emissions. In Kenya, MSW generation in major cities is ever increasing due to rapid urbanization. The MSW mostly disposed in open dumpsites decomposes (aerobically and anaerobically) releasing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The open dumpsites are normally shallow and unmanaged thus posing direct and indirect environmental hazards to surrounding populace. Kisumu city, the third largest city in Kenya, was used as a case study in determining the total methane and landfill gas emission in Kachok open dumpsite from 1998 to 2018. LandGEM model version 3.02 was used to estimate the gas emission with volumetric methane percent of 50%, production potential of 19.099 m3/Mg and methane generation rate of 0.05 year-1. Results show that in the year 2018, 1.164 *106 m3 and 2.329*106 m3 of methane and landfill gas, respectively, were produced. These values are very significant in planning to upgrade the open dumpsite into a landfill for energy production and other related landfill gas applications
    Keywords: Methane (CH4); Greenhouse gas (GHG); Open dumpsite; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); Kisumu; Kachok.

  • Treatment of Petroleum Wastewater Using a Sequential Hybrid System of Electro-Fenton and NZVI Slurry Reactors, Future Prospects for an Emerging Wastewater Treatment Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirmehdi Seyyedi, Bita Ayati 
    Abstract: In this study, treatment of a 750 mL petroleum wastewater sample was evaluated using a hybrid system consisting of Electro-Fenton and Nano Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI) slurry reactors in sequence. In both systems, effective parameters were optimized by One-Factor-at-a-Time (OFAT) method considering energy consumption and treatment efficiency. For the slurry reactor, nanoparticles were first synthesized and then used in the reactor to treat the wastewater. Both systems were first optimized separately and the hybrid complex was designed based on the sub-systems optimum conditions. As for the Electro-Fenton reactor, maximum COD removal efficiency of 92.78% was achieved in 75 minutes once having optimum initial pH and current values of 3 and 0.5 A respectively. In the slurry reactor, COD removal efficiency of 86.94% was achieved in 60 minutes while having 0.1 g/L of NZVI concentration and neutral initial pH as components of optimum parametric condition. Finally, in the hybrid system, a higher COD removal efficiency of 93.46% was achieved in only 47 minutes. Moreover, consumed energy for achieving the mentioned efficiency was 12.672 KJ being 40% less than that of single Electro-Fenton system.
    Keywords: Advanced Oxidation; Electro-Fenton; NZVI; Petroleum Wastewater; Hybrid System; Wastewater Treatment.

  • Assessment of the logistics to handle the solid waste generated by seaports operation: a Brazilian case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Thiara Gomes, Rodrigo Rosa, Gisele Chaves, Jessica Prata 
    Abstract: Based on Brazilian law, the solid waste generated by the maritime terminals must be must be managed appropriately. In this sense, this paper proposes a reverse logistics network structure with three levels, introducing the idea of handling terminals, to allow the seaports to accomplish the law. A mathematical model to plan it is proposed aiming to maximize seaports financial results. A Brazilian case study was realized based on Rio de Janeiro seaports, 15 scenarios were assessed. Results indicates that transport costs represent up to 80% of the total costs and smaller trucks lead to smaller costs. The financial result was positive at all times indicating that selling waste for recycling could be profitable.
    Keywords: Recycling waste. Reverse Logistics. Maritime terminals. Brazilian Solid Waste Policy. Facility Location Problem.

  • Optimisation of Malachite Green Dye Removal on Spent Tea Leaves Bio-char Using Response Surface Methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Mardawani Mohamad, Rizki Wannahari, Nur Ir Imani Ishak, Rosmawani Mohammad 
    Abstract: Malachite green (MG) is a common dying agent used in various industries although it had brought detrimental effect towards the ecosystem. Thus, removal of malachite green from waste water is crucial to prevent environmental pollution. In this study, spent tea leaves (STL) bio-char was investigated to adsorb of malachite green dye in aqueous solution. The adsorption parameters were optimised by a combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD). Three independent process variables namely adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were selected as input parameters while the percentage of MG removal was considered as response. The most important effect on the bio-sorption performance was found to be the adsorbent dosage followed by the contact time. The effect of initial dye concentration was negligible within the experimental range. Quadratic model was chosen and studied using central composite design (CCD). The correlation coefficient, R2 for the quadratic model of MG removal (%) is 0.9854. The effect of the operating factors was investigated by analysing the 3D response surface graph. The optimum operating conditions for the removal of MG dye using STL bio-char were determined at 0.18 g adsorbent dosage, 46.92 mg/L of initial dye concentration and contact time of 56.16 minutes. At this optimum conditions, the percentage of MG removal up to 98.92 % with desirability of 1.000. The most significant factors affecting on MG removal were adsorbent dosage and contact time. Physical characterizations of MG dye, STL powder and STL bio-char were studied using FTIR analysis and SEM analysis. Thus, it can be concluded that STL bio-char can significantly be an alternative for the removal of MG dye from aqueous solution.
    Keywords: Spent tea leaves (STL) bio-char; Adsorption; Malachite green (MG); Respond Surface Methodology (RSM).

  • Adsorption efficiency of activated carbon produced from waste rubber tyres   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratima Jeetah, Karishma Buddynauth 
    Abstract: Activated carbons were prepared through chemical activation method using waste rubber tyres. Sieved rubber tyres were impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at a ratio of 4. The KOH/tyre slurry was carbonised in an inert atmosphere at 500-800 oC for 0-2 hours. The effect of different chemical activation parameters such as pyrolysis temperature and residence time on the surface area, carbon yield and ash content were investigated along with the methylene blue adsorption onto the activated carbon produced. This method could produce activated carbon with a Methylene Blue surface area and Methylene Blue adsorption efficiency as high as 1787 m2/g and 83% respectively and a lowest ash content of 3.26% at 700 oC and a residence time of 1 hour. Carbon yield decreases while ash content and surface area increases with an increase in carbonisation temperature. Methylene blue adsorption onto the activated carbon produced best fits the Langmuir isotherm.
    Keywords: Waste tyre; Chemical activation; Activated carbon; Adsorption Isotherm; Langmuir isotherm;.

    by Adilson Moacir Becker Júnior, Adriane Lawisch Rodríguez, Adan William Da Silva Trentin, Ênio Leandro Machado, Pâmela Andréa Mantey Dos Santos, Diosnel Antonio Rodríguez Lopez 
    Abstract: The present study aimed to develop a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of municipal solid waste management in Vera Cruz, RS, Brazil, to evaluate conventional waste management system, sorting of recyclable materials and composting treatment.; integrated waste management with sorting of recyclable and composting facilities; optimized integrated waste management for recyclable and composting assumptions (80% and 85%, respectively). Results show that in the optimized integrated waste management it is possible to reduce impacts in the global warming and acidification categories by 65% and 52%, respectively, whereas intermediate scenarios are projected to reduce these impacts by lesser amounts. Transportation and the final destination of the waste are among the waste management stages with the greatest environmental impacts. This LCA can quantify the magnitude of potential environmental impacts and may be used in decision-making process to identify the best scenario management.
    Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Life Cycle Assessment; Environmental Sustainability; Environmental Impact; Recycling; Composting; Environmental categories; global warming; decision-making; public strategies; Brazil.

  • Methodologies of E-Waste Recycling and Its Major Impacts on Human Health and the Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Nizam Uddin, Kunza Arifa, Eylem Asmatulu 
    Abstract: Each year, hundreds of thousands of consumer electronics, computers, monitors, phones, printers, televisions, and other portable devices become outdated, and were mainly dumped to the landfills or poorly recycled. Recent technological development and growing demands for new and better functioning electronics accelerate the amount of electronic waste (e-waste) worldwide, making it to be one of the fastest growing streams in many countries. The estimated lifespan of electronics is about three to five years because of the increasing rates of consumption, new developments and urbanization. E-waste contains many hazardous substances, such as halogenated compounds, heavy metals, radioactive substances, and micro and nano-size dusts all of which require proper handling during the storage, collection, recycling, and disposal stages. This paper highlights the latest developments on e-waste generation and streams, current recycling technologies, as well as human health and environmental impacts of recycling materials and processes. When e-waste is dumped to different landfills, storage sites and uncontrolled locations, these products are usually degraded and leaked to river beds, reservoirs, pounds, and farmlands where toxic chemicals contaminate the freshwater sources, vegetation for livestock and food products. This e-waste can eventually affect the natural flora, fauna as well as human health. The readers will find the new progress in these fields and protection methods.
    Keywords: Keywords: E-Waste; Recycle; Reuse; Health and Environmental Impacts; Sustainability; Economic Benefits.

  • Comparative analysis for seasonal performance of various sewerage treatment plants (STPs) in Delhi, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Prerna Sharma, Sudipta Mishra, Smita Sood 
    Abstract: Different Sewerage Treatment Plants (STPs) were evaluated for a period of 5 years to verify their performance in Delhi, India. It focuses upon the comparative analysis of the STPs to get the best STP among all in terms of its performance and to foresee the impact of seasonal variations affecting their performance. In order to figure out the seasonal performance of these STPs they were subjected to analytical analysis for pre and post monsoon months. Results revealed that Dr. Sen Nursing home STP have shown the best result out of all. Hence the best STP in terms of performance evaluation is Dr. Sen Nursing Home than Vasant Kunj Phase I than Okhla Phase-I STP.
    Keywords: Seasonal Variations; Sewerage Treatment Plants (STP’s); Densadeck/Biofor Technology; Extended Aeration Technology; Activated Sludge Process (ASP) Technology.

  • Decentralized Composting of Garden Waste in Modified Plastic Drums Waste and Product Characterization   Order a copy of this article
    by M.K. Manu, Rakesh Kumar, A. Garg 
    Abstract: Garden waste (GW) is one of the major constituents of municipal solid waste (MSW). The waste assists in aerobic composting of food waste as bulking agent and its characteristics can affect the MSW composting significantly. Therefore, the degradation pattern of locally generated GW during composting process was studied. Among major parameters, the average values of moisture content, carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and organic matter were found to be 39%, 18.21, and ~83%, respectively. Biological parameters, namely, lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose were found to be ~48%, 22% and 26%, respectively (on dry wt. basis). A lab scale GW degradation was carried out in control and modified composting drums (to facilitate natural air circulation) for 32 days period. Only partial decomposition of GW could be achieved despite modifying the drums. The formation of water-soluble compounds and reduction in aromaticity were confirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses.
    Keywords: Garden waste; Bulking agent; Composting drums; Lignocellulosic components; UV-Vis spectroscopy; FTIR analysis.

  • Recycling capacity through formal and informal activities in six cities in S   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernanda Luz, Marcus Castro, Ladislav Rozenský, Miroslav Hájek 
    Abstract: Sustainability of waste management practices is a multidimensional challenge faced by authorities worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries, where informal sector plays important role. In Brazil, municipal government is responsible for the solid waste management, but formal recycling is promoted by cooperatives supported by government and informal workers and enterprises also act on recycling activities. Effective data on the reality of waste flows within the municipalities are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze indicators for the comprehension of recycling capacity of six municipalities in the interior of S
    Keywords: Waste Indicators; Informal Sector; Recycling Rate; Informal Recycling Services; Solid Waste Management Modernization; Small Cities Solid Waste Management.

  • Medical Waste Management among Healthcare Workers: The Use of Educational Diagnosis Phase in the Precede planning model" among Health Care Workers in south of Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Maryam Changizi, Ahmad Badeenegad, Masomeh Alidosti 
    Abstract: Despite the fact that medical wastes constitute a relatively small part of the total waste produced in a community, management of these wastes is considered as an important issue and a serious problem for public health around the world. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the management behavior and disposal of medical wastes and its relationship with the factors affecting this event. This analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 200 workers in all health care centers and hospitals in in south of Iran, Shushtar city. The data gathering tool was a five-point researcher-made questionnaire that included: personal information, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors, attitude and performance. Data were analyzed using the independent t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics and regression in SPSS version 22. The mean age of the subjects was 35.1
    Keywords: PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model; Medical Waste Management; Behavior; Health Care Workers.

  • Genetic algorithm hybridized by local search to optimize containers cleaning tours of municipal waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Othmane EL YAAKOUBI, Meryam Benabdouallah, Chakib BOJJI 
    Abstract: Collection of municipal wastes is an important logistic activity within any city. After the collection operations a systematic cleaning of the waste containers is important for the public health because the containers become dirty. In this paper, we study the containers cleaning tours as a variant of Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window (VRPTW) which is concerned with finding cost optimal routes for vehicle. As solving approach, the Genetic Algorithm is adopted and then applied on a set of instances from the literature. The experiment results prove the efficiency of the proposed approach.
    Keywords: Municipal waste; containers cleaning tours; VRPTW; Genetic Algorithm.

  • Procedure for economic analysis of projects for selective collection of used PET bottles   Order a copy of this article
    by Darlene Gomes Baêta, Ricardo César Da Silva Guabiroba 
    Abstract: Empty PET bottles after consumption, without adequate disposal, have serious negative environmental impacts. Reverse logistics is a sustainable solution, by reinserting the material in the life cycle. This paper reports the development of a procedure for economic analysis to assess whether it is attractive for scavenger cooperatives to participate in a project for selective collection of used PET bottles, in two scenarios: collection with municipal public schools functioning as voluntary delivery points, and as incentivized exchange points (in return for a reward to the schools). The procedure was applied to evaluate a used PET bottle selective collection project in the municipality of Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The results indicate that the project is economically viable and attractive to the cooperative investigated. The project is also beneficial to the citys public schools when functioning as incentivized exchange points, by generating revenue to sponsor educational activities.
    Keywords: used PET bottles; economic analysis; collection points; scavenger cooperative; selective collection; recycling; reverse logistics; public schools; Rio de Janeiro State; sustainability.

    by Jomata Igben, Celestina Ihayere, Eghosa Igun 
    Abstract: This study aimed to examine solid waste generation and disposal as problems of urbanisation in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data utilized in the study were obtained from questionnaire administered on a sample selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. The questionnaire covered the typology of solid waste, disposal methods and community participation in waste management. This was complimented by physical examination of waste dumps and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with 15 selected community leaders. The study revealed that a variety of solid waste comprising of bio-degradable (68.8%) and non-degradable (32.2%) are generated by households and are disposed in unsustainable ways; manifested by the heaps of refuse in public places and natural features such as riverbanks and forests. In addition, there is a very low level of communal participation in waste management. The study recommends the planning and establishment of dumpsites, and education of the teeming population on the hazards of unsustainable disposal of solid waste.
    Keywords: Solid waste; Dump sites; Communal participation; Sustainability; Delta State.

    by Muhammad Shettima, S.S. Surendran 
    Abstract: Abstract: The study shows an effective and sustainable alternative method of managing the growing greywater problems in Nigeria. Environmental pollution and health related problems as a result of poor greywater management have been a reality in many African countries. Greywater reclamation for non-potable reuse including toilet flushing, landscaping and agriculture is among the options to promote reduction in consumption of potable water and control to problems related to environmental pollution. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the treatment capability and performance of rice husk as an abundant agricultural by-product to develop greywater reclamation system in Gujba local area in Yobe state of Nigeria. The performance of this unconventional reclamation system shows that rice husk material is efficient to treat greywater to non-portable quality for domestic agriculture use in farming and livestock feeding.
    Keywords: Detergents; Grey water characteristics; Natural or waste material; Non-potable uses; Treatment systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10026671
  • A Review on Methods of Assessing Pollution Levels from Landfills in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Joan Nyika, Ednah Onyari, Mergersa Dinka, Shivani Mishra 
    Abstract: As a result of poor MSW management in South Africa, leachate generation has been reported in lined and unlined landfills, which calls for measures to quantify and safely return it to the environment without causing adverse effects on the facilities' vicinity. This paper presents a review of studies on leachate assessment and quantification in South African landfills. The use of pipes is discussed as an intrusive method while lysimetry, WBM, geoelectrical mapping and ICP-OES are discussed as non-intrusive methods. Findings of the review allude to the importance of advanced operations management, rehabilitation and redesigning of landfills for accurate quantification of generated leachate. Additionally, intensive research is necessary in this field to validate findings of existent studies and cover the under-researched areas of the country and sub-Saharan Africa at large. Moving forward, this review recognizes that accurate leachate quantification in landfills is a potential solution to deterring its migration and pollution to the environment.
    Keywords: Leachate quantification; Landfill; South Africa; Solid waste management; Pollution.

  • Management of dental waste in Shahrekord, Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Moayede Taie, Abdolmajid Fadaei 
    Abstract: Solid dental waste is a major contributor to the spread and development of diseases. This study was performed to determine the quality and quantity of solid dental waste and to evaluate management practices in dental offices of Shahrekord, Iran. Thirty general dental offices out of 49 dental centers in Shahrekord were randomly selected. The study was performed through observation, consultation, and evaluation of policies and regulations. Then, the wastes were classified based on their characteristics and hazard potentials. The findings showed that domestic and infectious waste accounted for the highest percentage of dental waste, while toxic and chemical/pharmaceutical waste was responsible for the lowest percentage in all offices. Domestic, infectious, chemical/pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes accounted for 69.7%, 22.5%, 7.2%, and 0.6% of all dental waste, respectively. Overall, no effective measures were taken in dental offices for waste separation, minimization, or recycling. Based on our findings, recycling/reuse is the optimal waste minimization method. Also, it is suggested to hold educational workshops in order to increase the staffs knowledge in dentistry care centers.
    Keywords: Dental waste; Infectious waste; Chemical and pharmaceutical waste; Toxic waste; Shahrekord.

    by Ubanwa Eze, Kola Ogedengbe, Emeka Ndulue 
    Abstract: The main objective of this study was out to characterize and determine the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. A total of 226 households and 4 major dumpsites drawn from 4 different local government areas (LGA) were sampled. Analyses carried out include physical composition, chemical composition, proximate and ultimate analysis on randomly selected samples according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Results obtained showed that waste generation rate in Ibadan metropolis is 0.63kg/capita/day. From the sampled households, through sorting and physical characteristics, the MSW is composed of food waste (53.53%), paper (23.22%), plastics (8.94%), wood (4.35%), rubber (2.22%), polythene (1.66%) and textile (1.66%). Also, the analysis showed a moisture content of 31% and a high percentage of organic matter because of the high proportion of food waste. The calorific value was determined to calculate its energy content and potentials. Calorific value of 12.6 MJ/Kg was obtained using the modified Dulong equation which is greater than the benchmark for assessing electricity potential from MSW. An estimated 1,124.7 tons/day was generated from landfills in central Ibadan in 2013. This translates to an energy potential of 3.6 GWh and 45.5 MW of electrical power potential which can 122.9*106 households outside of the national grid. We conclude that with appropriate technology (biochemical or thermochemical process) on MSW, it can help in waste management and electricity generation.
    Keywords: Energy recovery; Municipal solid waste (MSW); Ibadan.

  • Criteria for classification and destination of healthcare wastes with potential biological risk: comparison between Brazil and Portugal   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcos Mol, Noil Cussiol, Susana Paixao 
    Abstract: Healthcare wastes (HCW) have potential sources of disease spread, however only a small fraction presents a high potential risk. It is important for the scientific community to discuss topics about these risks. This study aims to evaluate the classification and destination of HCW in Brazil and in Portugal, with a particular focus on infectious wastes. A bibliographical research was carried out based on scientific papers and legal instruments about HCW management. Wastes with lower infectious hazard, A4 subgroup in Brazil, do not require previous treatment before final disposal. In Portugal, differences in classification system suggested that the Brazilian A4 subgroup is comparable with some wastes from patients rooms and health assistance areas, considered as high risk. These differences influence the management system, particularly in relation to infectious waste. Both Brazilian and Portuguese standards recommend safety during the management process, aiming at the protection involved workers.
    Keywords: Solid waste; Healthcare waste; Medical waste; Waste classification; Waste destination; Waste segregation; Legislation; Brazil; Portugal; Biological risk.

  • Innovative Urban Landscape Design of Riverfront Area in Kembang Jepun, Surabaya   Order a copy of this article
    by Bambang Soemardiono, Murni Rachmawati, Defry Agatha Ardianta 
    Abstract: Surabaya is a growing city of Kalimas river. The emergence of the river as the beginning of the development of the city of Surabaya is possible thanks to its function as a means of communication between up and downstream areas. At some points, the area around the river is used as open spaces that serves as a public space, but in the other points are not yet used optimally. One of them is the river area in Kembang Jepun area. This riverside area in north of Surabaya has several potentials especially related to its function of urban landscape elements and also accessibility and open spaces. Urban landscape is described as socio ecological systems where natural and social processes go together with the ecosystems (Andersson, E, 2006) and in respect of how cities developed over time and their relation to nature (Sherwood, R,). The purpose of this research is to develop urban landscape design innovation in riverfront area in Kembang Jepun. The analysis used in this research approach in sustainable development by giving priority to environmental, economy and social aspect in determining the innovative design for riverfront area. The important analysis tool that will be used is also Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and workshop to capture the aspirations of the community as an ideal riverfront public space.
    Keywords: aspirations; Kembang Jepun area; river; urban landscape.

  • Remediation of decay tanks for high-activity radioactive waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Josef Babor, Jakub Beinstein 
    Abstract: The paper aims to present the remediation of decay tanks for high-activity radioactive waste in
    Keywords: decay tank remediation; sanitation radioactive waste; liquidation contaminated fluid; solid waste; decontamination surfaces; radionuclide characterization; extraction high activity waste; decontamination; radiation protection; environmental monitoring;.

  • Management of Unused Pharmaceuticals Waste at Governmental Hospitals and Homes in Gaza, Palestine: Empirical Insights for Further Actions   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Tabash, Mosab Tabash 
    Abstract: Unused pharmaceuticals management is highly complex for healthcare facilities. The improper management practices exhibit adverse impacts on the environment as well as on human health worldwide. This study aimed to assess management practices of unused pharmaceuticals at governmental hospitals and homes in Gaza Strip. The study was a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted at five main hospitals in Gaza and 88 interviewed questionnaires were obtained. A survey was carried out among 371 household participants from the community at the largest city of Gaza. The results revealed inadequate management of unused pharmaceuticals at governmental hospitals. There is limited training programs (9.1%) and absence of practical guidelines. Moreover, there is an inadequate segregation practice (33%). The only method used for treatment of hazardous waste is incinerators. Many types of unused pharmaceuticals are disposed in the landfill without any treatment (64.8%). The results from the household survey showed that more than half of the respondents have unused, leftover or expired medicines. Most of them was disposed through the general waste bins; however, 80.9% of respondents felt greater responsibility and willingness to participate in any future household unused pharmaceuticals collection/take back programs. This study clearly highlights the need for appropriate actions and measures for safe disposal of unused pharmaceuticals and planned methods for collecting unwanted pharmaceuticals from households.
    Keywords: Unused; Pharmaceuticals; Health; Environment; Hospitals; Household; Landfill; Disposal; Medicine; Expired.

  • Comparative optimization of biohythane production from starch wastewater by one-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Chakkaphop Warrajareansri, Jaruwan Wongthanate 
    Abstract: Now, energy crisis was the problem in the world. This research was study the biohythane production for renewable energy. The experiment was optimized using starch by one-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. For two-stage, the optimal conditions of biohythane production were pH 7.0, thermophilic temperature, C/N ratio 30 for a first step (hydrogen yield 63.65 mL H2/g COD) and pH 7.5, thermophilic temperature, C/N ratio 30 for a second step (methane yield 184.59 mL CH4/g COD). Furthermore, one-stage was achieved at an initial pH 7.5 under thermophilic temperature and C/N ratio 30 (methane yield 206.47 mL CH4/g COD). At optimal conditions, the maximum COD removal of two-stage (73.75%) was higher than that of one-stage (68.70%). Overall bioenergy recovery of two-stage was more generation than that of one-stage, including utilization of organic matter at the same time.
    Keywords: Biohythane production; Starch wastewater; pH; C/N ratio; One-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion.

  • Treatment Potential and Phytoextraction Capacity of Phramites australis in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Constructed Wetlands   Order a copy of this article
    by Catherine Githuku, Julius Ndambuki, Wanjala Salim, Badejo Adedayo 
    Abstract: Industries and mines are known to dispose wastewaters that contain heavy metals. When accumulated beyond permissible limits in the environment and in living organisms, heavy metals are known to cause toxicity. This study investigated the potential use of Phragmites australis in the removal of cadmium, chromium and lead from synthetic wastewaters using constructed wetlands (CW). CW units made of plastic containers with dimensions of 0.56 m in diameter and 0.70 m deep were set up, each unit containing a bottom layer of granite and a top layer of sandy soil. Phragmites australis was planted separately then intercropped with Vetiveria zizanioides, Typha latifolia and Cyperus latifolius. Water, plants and soil were sampled and analysed for heavy metals to determine metal concentrations and removal efficiencies and kinetics. The removal efficiencies of metals by P. australis were 96.66(+/-)0.76%, 96.22(+/-)1.61% and 76.08(+/-)3.27% for Cd, Cr and Pb respectively over a period of 6 days. The metal accumulation results showed that Cd, Cr and Pb accumulated in the P. australis organs in the order Roots> Stems > Leaves. P. australis can be considered as a good phytostabilizer for Cd, Cr and Pb. Experimental data of the 3 metals in both single- and multi-metal wastewaters fitted better in first order kinetic model compared to second order kinetic model. This study recommends further research into application of P. Australis in treatment of Cd, Cr and Pb polluted wastewaters.
    Keywords: Bioaccumulation factor; constructed wetlands; heavy metal accumulation; kinetic rate equations; Phragmites australis; synthetic wastewater; transfer factor.

  • Operational parameters optimization for simultaneous removal of two drugs in hospital wastewater RSM approach.   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadeem Ahmad Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Izharul Haq Farooqi, Sergij Vambol, Viola Vambol, Volodymyr Koloskov 
    Abstract: This paper addresses to the task of the simultaneous removal of two common types of drugs (Ibuprofen and Ofloxacin) through combined Electro-coagulation, Moving bed biofilm reactor followed with Ozonation treatment process. Using response surface methodology optimization of various operational parameters was observed including: hydraulic retention time; mixed liquor suspended solids; ozone consumption; time of ozone exposure; Manganese oxide concentration and their responses on Ibuprofen and Ofloxacin removal efficiencies. In optimization phase Central Composite Design was used and responses were maximized. From simulation data removal efficiency values of 92.89% and 94.04% were obtained for Ibuprofen and Ofloxacin respectively at Hydraulic retention time of 23.99 hrs., mixed liquor suspended solids of 2999.99 mg/L, ozone consumption of about 5.55 L/hrs with ozone exposure time of 16 minutes having optimum Mangenese oxide dose of 2.02 mg. Finally, the degraded by-products were also identified using gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis.
    Keywords: optimization; operational parameters; drugs removal; hospital wastewater; response surface methodology; antibiotics removal; photo-Fenton process; MBBR treatment; ozonation.

  • Study of the primary compression of fresh Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Léa Beatriz Dai-Prá, Marcelo Oliveira Caetano, Luciana Paulo Gomes, Felipe Gobbi Silveira, Luciano Francisco Flores Rosa 
    Abstract: The study of the compressibility of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an essential factor that contributes for the prediction of consolidation in sanitary landfills. This study researched the primary compression of the fresh MSW, in the laboratory, applying recognized methodologies of soil mechanics. Compression tests were performed on bench scale, using samples with 50.14% (wet weight basis). The average density was 0.68
    Keywords: MSW; fresh Municipal Solid Waste; compressibility; laboratory; wet weight basis; specific gravity; primary compression of solid waste; primary compression index.

  • Efficient Approach for Improving Municipal Solid Waste Management in Oman Towards Sustainable Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed F.M. Abushammala, Wajeeha A. Qazi 
    Abstract: Sultanate of Oman faces the problem of rapid growth in waste generation, and other than limited recycling there are no waste treatment facilities where waste from landfills can be diverted. This situation demands for an optimum waste management plan to divert waste from landfills and to reduce the environmental impacts. In this study, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was utilized to incorporate the priorities of several criteria and four waste management scenarios into the hierarchy structure based on the preferences of experts and stakeholders. Different waste management plans are presented as alternate options to the current municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Oman. This study concludes that the economic and environmental criteria ranks the highest when deciding on the best waste management plan for Oman. The results show that scenario 2, which integrates incineration with the current practice of landfilling, is the optimal approach for the situation of Oman. Scenarios 2 and 3 that involved source separation of waste along with anaerobic digestion and recycling respectively, ranked in the middle; while the status quo presented in scenario 1 performed worst.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste management; analytical hierarchy process; multi criteria decision analysis; Oman waste generation; greenhouse gas; waste treatments; landfill; incineration; anaerobic digestion; recycling.

  • Design and optimization of high rate decentralized vermicomposting reactor for the household organic waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Chandrasekaran Ramprasad, Doppalapudi Alekhya 
    Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in the biggest challenge faced by many of the urban local bodies and other authorities. In the present study, the feasibility of the vermicomposting process in one of the apartments of Class II Indian cities was studied and analyzed to identify the key issues in solid waste management. The study also optimized the parameters like pH, temperature and moisture content for the ways to quicken the vermicomposting process. The household solid waste was characterized by two different economic classes for a period of two weeks. The average solid waste generation rate from the household was 0.339 kg/capita/day and it was composed of organic waste of 50%, inorganic portions like paper and plastic of 48% and household hazardous waste of 2%. The major portion of the household solid waste is the organic fraction and vermicomposting is one of the better options for treating it.
    Keywords: Organic waste; Eisenia fetida; vermicomposting; decentralized vermireactor; Co-processing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10031475
  • The lignocellulolytic effect from newly wild white rot fungi isolated from Colombia.   Order a copy of this article
    by Cristian Javier Zambrano-Forero, Lina Rocío Dávila-Giraldo, Luis Oveimar Barbosa Jaimes, Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga, Gerardo Lucio Robledo, Walter Murillo Arango 
    Abstract: Lignocellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on the earth. It is the main agro-industrial waste component, it has no added value and, in some cases is the main cause of environmental problems. The fungi can be used in the transformation of residues and different biotechnological processes. In the present research, seven strains of white rot fungi collected in Ibagu
    Keywords: Lignocellulose; white-rot-fungi; FTIR; agro-industrial waste; cellulase; ligninase; solid fermentation.

  • Estimating the lifespan of the Bras   Order a copy of this article
    by Francisco Orlando Holanda Costa Filho, Marisete Dantas De Aquino, Francisco Humberto De Carvalho Júnior 
    Abstract: The environmental impact assessment report (EIAR) of the Bras
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste; MSW; Distrito Federal; environmental impact assessment report; EIAR; Pearson correlation; linear regression; simple regression; multiple regression; landfill; socioeconomic indicators; recycling rates; estimates; Shapiro-Wilk test; trend analysis.

  • Removal of 4-Nitrophenol from Aqueous Solution by Using Recycled Carbon Black (rCB) from Waste Tires   Order a copy of this article
    by Umi Fazara Md Ali 
    Abstract: The conversion of industrial waste into useful adsorbent for wastewater treatment is desirable as it promises cost-effective adsorbent and reduces waste productions at the same time. Adsorption of the 4-nitrophenol by recycled carbon black (rCB) and modified rCB (MCB) was investigated in this research to determine their adsorption capacity by varying various parameters: initial concentration, pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage. The surface morphology, surface chemistry, iodine adsorption number and ash content of both samples were also analyzed. The adsorption characteristic of 4-Nitrophenol was determined by equilibrium and kinetic studies. Equilibrium isotherm was tested by using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity of 4-nitrophenol onto rCB and MCB was found to be 7.46 mg/g and 21.83 mg/g respectively. The adsorption kinetic data of both rCB and MCB fit better to Pseudo-Second-Order kinetic model. This study also demonstrated the MCB adsorbent better capability to remove 4-nitrophenol compounds in the neutral and basic environment.
    Keywords: waste tire; carbon black; KOH impregnated; 4-nitrophenol; adsorption.

  • Reuse Potencial of Mature Leachate After Application or Isolated and Combined Advanced Oxidative Processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Samara Teixeira Pereira, Elisângela Maria Rodrigues Rocha, Romildo Henriques Dos Anjos Júnior 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to analyze the reuse potential of leachate from a mature landfill treated by advanced oxidative processes. Where tested three treatment routes: H2O2/UV-C followed by solar photoFenton; H2O2/UV-C followed by Fenton and solar photoFenton isolated. The leachate treated by the three analyzed routes can be reused as nonpotable water for urban, environmental and aquaculture purposes. The treatments improved the quality of the treated leachate with removals of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and thermotolerant coliform 90%, 70% and 100%, respectively. The isolated solar photoFenton route resulted in better quality treated leachate in terms of COD, turbidity, sludge volume, nitrate concentration and residual H2O2. Therefore, it was concluded that leachate reuse can improve urban solid waste management and that isolated solar photoFenton provided better results using a natural radiation source to increase the efficiency of the photocatalytic process, allowing the operational costs of to be reduced.
    Keywords: Recalcitrant effluents. Photo-Fenton. Peroxide. Ultraviolet Radiation. Solar Energy. Reuse.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10031309
  • CFD Simulated model and Experimental tests for Critical Depth and Flowrate Estimation over a Broad-Crested Weir under the Longitudinal Slope Effect   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadiq Muhson, Zainab Al-sharify 
    Abstract: A weir is a small overflow dam used to alter the flow characteristics of river or stream. It can be used as a water measurement device in irrigation canals. This work consists of an experimental approach using rectangular broad-casted weirs having varied edge geometries for investigating the longitudinal slope effect on the relationship between the weir center depth and the critical depth. Based on this relationship, the statistical regression analysis method was used to derive a new and precise formula to estimate the flowrate over square and rounded broad-crested weirs. In all cases, the depth at the center of the weir was considered as the control section. In general, it was found that the longitudinal slope So has a significant effect on the relationship between the critical depth and the depth at the center of the square broad crested weir. Also, the longitudinal slope So has an insignificant effect on the relationship between the critical depth and the depth at the center of the weir. Consequently, the longitudinal slope also has an insignificant effect on the flowrate estimation formula. Computational fluid dynamic model using FLUENT ANSYS version 16 was also designed and operated to simulate the problem based on the VOF method multidimensional two phase flow model and standard k~? method. The model provided a very good simulation of the problem for the new flowrate formula and the existing pressure head at the center of the weir. Comparing the computed flowrate using the new formula with respect to the actual experimental tests and the results of the simulation model gave a very good agreement results.
    Keywords: Rectangular broad-crested weir; Discharge coefficient; Dimensional analysis; Subcritical flow conditions; CFD.

  • Characteristics of sewage sludge and its potential applications in the construction industry: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Kumar. A 
    Abstract: The treatment of wastewater in sewage treatment plants results in a by-product called sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has limited practical applications and hence its disposal is becoming a major environmental problem around the world. Over the years, sewage sludge has been used to recover energy, heavy metals and in agriculture after undergoing various treatment processes. In recent times, sewage sludge is being used in the construction industry to reduce the exploitation of natural resources. Based on the previously published research articles, treated sewage sludge has been used as lightweight coarse aggregate, as a pozzolanic material, in the manufacturing of cement and also in the production of bricks and cement blocks respectively. The applications are economically viable and help in the effective disposal of sewage sludge. Therefore, a critical review of the potential application of sewage sludge in the construction industry is presented in this article.
    Keywords: Sewage sludge; sewage sludge disposal; sewage sludge ash; lightweight aggregate; incineration; sludge ceramics; sludge eco-cement.

  • Separation of Bisphenol A from Aqueous Solution by using Data from Ternary Equilibrium Systems of Bisphenol A -Water - Solvents composed of Butan-1-ol, Cyclohexanol and Cyclohexane   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The present study shows how to remove Bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solution using different sorts of solvents. To do so, liquid-liquid equilibrium data were obtained for ternaries systems of Bisphenol A-Water-Solvents using Butan-1-ol, Cyclohexanol and Cyclohexane as solvents in order to study the possible distribution of Bisphenol A in these solvents compared to water. The mutual solubility curves, tie-lines data, distribution coefficients, selectivity diagram and separation factors were determined for these three aqueous systems. The distribution coefficients show that all the three solvents are suitable to extract Bisphenol A, with a high potential ability for the Cyclohexanol. But regarding the separation factors, Butan-1-ol presents the high value, indicating its potential ability to separate Bisphenol A from water. This has been confirmed by the study of the selectivity diagram. The thermodynamic consistency of the equilibrium tie-lines data was ascertained by Othmer - Tobias and Hand plots.
    Keywords: Bisphenol A; Ternary System; Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data; Separation Factor.

    by Smita Sharma, Naresh Dutt Mathur 
    Abstract: The increased mismanagement of municipal waste has led to the deterioration of the environment in various areas. The smart city of Jaipur is also facing the wrath of failure to manage its ever-increasing municipal solid waste. The present study attempts to assess the ground water quality around open dumpsite at Mathuradaspura. Twenty-five grab samples were collected from the areas around this dumpsite. The study revealed that there were significant deviations of almost all the parameters from standards. The pH levels were found to be in the range of 6.3 to 7.7,Electrical Conductivity (EC)was found to be between 65-287
    Keywords: Open Dumpsite; Mismanagement; Ground Water Quality; Jaipur; Solid Waste Management; Physico-chemical analysis; communities; health hazards.

  • Managing sewage sludge and pine needles through anaerobic co-digestion in hilly terrain: A lost cost approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashish Kumar 
    Abstract: The Pine Needles (PNs) and Sewage Sludge (SS) have a significant amount of biodegradable due to this highly susceptible to pollute the environment. Both the wastes can be managed via anaerobic digestion. However, the low ambient temperature in hilly areas can affect the digestion process. Therefore, to determine their anaerobic digestibility in hilly terrain two digesters were examined: one with mono- anaerobic digestion of SS and another one with co-digestion of SS with PNs. It was found that co-digestion yielded 40.93% more biogas than that mono-digestion of SS. Cumulative methane yield of 158.6 mL g-1VSadded and 268.45 mL g-1VSadded was obtained from SS and co-digestion of SS-PNs, respectively. During the experiment, a reduction of 26.7% and 35% COD and VS for SS and 30 and 34% COD and VS for SS-PNs were reported, respectively. To study the anaerobic digestibility various mathematical models and one kinetic model were also used. This study concludes that PN and SS can be managed through anaerobic digestion however their co-digestion is highly recommended.
    Keywords: Pine needle; sewage sludge; biogas; methane potential; co-digestion.

  • Enhancing climate action at grassroots levels in least developed countries: Unlocking bio-briquetting opportunities for communities in Wajir, Vihiga, Kitui, and Kajiado Counties in Kenya   Order a copy of this article
    by Raphael Otakwa 
    Abstract: This paper reports on the existing opportunities in the arena of bio-briquetting of agricultural waste, for provision of clean energy for use in cooking, increased economic activity, and greater contribution to climate change action for grassroots communities in the Least Developed Countries. Grassroots communities bear the starkest brunt from climate change, but also appreciably contribute to the problem through their activities like deforestation, land-use changes, and cooking using fuelwood. Bio-briquettes from agricultural residues could help to mitigate this. Inadequate data on this, however, hampers informed action on the matter. In this work, feedstock from agricultural residues sourced from Wajir, Vihiga, Kitui, and Kajiado were prioritized based on their ability to produce attractive and competitive bio-briquettes and used to make bio-briquette pellets that were studied to establish their calorific values using a bomb calorimeter. Feedstock sourced from Wajir, Vihiga, Kitui, and Kajiado Counties had calorific values ranging from 32 kCal/kg to 4523 kCal/kg for banana peels and groundnut husks, 2970 kCal/kg and 4381 kCal/kg for banana peels and sugarcane bagasse, 2910 kCal/kg and 4694 kCal/kg for tobacco waste and cotton stalks, and 3110 kCal/kg and 4100 kCal/kg for vegetable waste and wheat straw, respectively. Mixing feedstock that lead to bio-briquettes of low calorific values with those that produce bio-briquettes of high calorific values helped to improve the heating values of the bio-briquettes with low calorific values. These findings are valuable toward improving the heating values of bio-briquettes made out of feedstock that are most common in targeted grassroots communities but which produce bio-briquettes of low heating values.
    Keywords: bio-briquetting; climate action; sustainable development; poverty alleviation; grassroots.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10032336
  • Influence of personal value orientations on pro-environmental behaviour: A case of green shopping bags   Order a copy of this article
    by Asphat Muposhi, Mercy Mpinganjira, Marius Wait 
    Abstract: Limited success has been reported thus far on the effectiveness of government interventions such tax in promoting the use of green shopping bags in developing countries. This study employs the value-belief-norm theory to examine whether personal values influence the use of green shopping bags in South Africa. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from a sample of consumers drawn from South Africans Gauteng province. Structural equation modelling results identified biospheric value as the major predictor of new ecological paradigm. The relationship between altruistic value and new ecological paradigm was found to be insignificant. Awareness of consequences was found to be a significant predictor of ascription of responsibility. Furthermore, personal norm managed to explain a significant variance in the behaviour of using green shopping bags. The findings of this study support the use of personal values in formulating policies aimed at promoting the use of green shopping bags.
    Keywords: single-use plastic shopping bags; green shopping bags; value-belief-norm theory; South Africa.

  • The Municipal Solid Waste Disposal of Okhla Landfill in Delhi: Locating Legal Framework and Institutional Responses   Order a copy of this article
    by Stellina Jolly, Nafees Ahmad 
    Abstract: It is estimated that out of the 9,600 tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated by Delhi only 78% of the waste is collected, 9% is treated by composting, and the remaining gets dumped in one of the three (Okhla, Ghazipur, Bhalswa) open landfill sites located at the outskirts of Delhi. The present article stems out of the assessment of the practice of solid waste management at Okhla Landfill site based on the field study, including survey analysis and primary data collection and investigation. The article looks into the legislative framework and judicial interventions to modernize and organize the waste disposal system on scientific lines. The outcomes of the present study demonstrate that decentralization, capacity building, and access to the sharing of waste management knowledge, holds the crucial driver for sustainable waste management.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste Management; Landfill Waste Disposal; Environmental Justice; Waste Management Legal Framework; Central Pollution Control Board.

  • IoT-enabled Tip and Swap Waste Management Models for Smart Cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Theodoros Anagnostopoulos, Arkady Zaslavsky, Klimis Ntalianis, Christos Anagnostopoulos, S. R. Jino Ramson, Parth Jatinkumar, Sara Behdad 
    Abstract: Current technical advances in sensors, actuators, and wireless networks enable the Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Key features of IoT are the 'smart things, which have significant computational capabilities. In this paper we focus on waste management using dynamic allocation of collection and transfer points with subsequent transporting of waste to processing facilities. Waste management involves a variety of tasks from the collection of the waste in the field to the transport and disposal to the appropriate locations. The proposed waste management system contributes to innovative Smart City (SC) applications with impact in the dynamic allocation management of mobile depots in the SC. We propose a set of models, which advocate for replacing traditional way of tipping waste into larger containers by swapping full waste bins with empty ones. We also propose the concept of mobile depots as intermediate collection and transfer points. Quantitative and qualitative metrics to assess the efficiency of the proposed models are used. We incorporate the CT, TT, L, D and F quantitative metrics and the S qualitative metric. The S metric takes as input the values of the quantitative metrics and gives an output of high or low satisfaction. The models demonstrate their efficiency and potential adoption by SCs.
    Keywords: Smart Cities; Internet of Things; Tip Models; Swap Models; Waste Management System.

  • Smart waste management paradigm in perspective of IoT and forecasting models   Order a copy of this article
    by MOHD ANJUM, Sana Shahab, Mohammad Sarosh Umar 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste management has evolved as a major component of smart city services that encompasses a variety of tasks from household collection to final disposal/recycling. This paper critically discusses, firstly, mathematical and statistical aspect of solid waste management services in the direction of smart city development. Secondly, it proposes novel and intelligent waste management architecture through adoption of state of the art Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Mathematical and statistical aspect covers the comprehensive information of forecasting models. This paper classifies the models on the basis of influencing factors (socio-economic and demographic), planning period (short, medium and long) and ranking methods in order to foresee the amount of waste generated. Moreover, validation of the model is proposed to identify how well a model and associated data accurately forecasts the amount of waste generated for the actual solid waste management system. Accurate prediction of solid waste amount plays a crucial role in waste collection and disposal system planning and serves as a backbone data for municipal solid waste framework designer. The synergetic categorization of models expedites the decision makers and researchers to identify crucial influencing factors that help in developing the mathematical model. Recent research indicates that there is a paradigm shift towards the new era of integration of IoT, intelligent software and web technologies. New intelligent software and highly reliable physical sensing smart devices with versatile functionalities are used to create an efficient integrated platform of desired functionalities. This paper emphasizes on adoption of IoT technologies in proposed waste management architecture and a comprehensive and thorough survey of IoT technologies is also presented to explore their characteristics and applications in waste management system. Further, an intelligent waste management architecture is proposed for real-time monitoring of smart bin, collecting vehicle, dynamic scheduling, and route optimization. This new type of monitoring framework is based on static data, real-time wireless sensor network data and optimization algorithm. Primarily, smart bin has inbuilt sensors to sense status, a GPS module, and a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag for location tracking and authentication. The smart bin coordinates with the server to update status in real-time via general packet radio service module when any change occurs. This real-time information, along with bin static parameters and global information system software, can be used to carry out vehicle route optimization and dynamic scheduling.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Smart bin; Smart vehicle; Work Server; Spatial technology; Internet of Things technologies; Dynamic Scheduling and Routing.

  • Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on sugarcane bagasse to enhance the production of hydrogen and organic acids   Order a copy of this article
    by Lais Americo Soares, Camila Abreu Borges Silva Rabelo, Paulo Seleguim Jr, Maria Bernadete Amancio Varesche 
    Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was characterized as a feedstock to generate value-added products using hydrothermal pretreatments (150-210
    Keywords: Bioenergy; Lignocellulosic biomass; Liquid Hot Water.

  • Environmental, Socio-economic, and Human Health Impact of Illegal Waste Disposal in Katutura Township of Namibia   Order a copy of this article
    by Omotayo Awofolu, Immanuel Zeriapi 
    Abstract: Inappropriate waste management practices such as illegal disposal of wastes can seriously jeopardise the socio-economic dynamics and well-being of people in communities. This study investigated the impact of illegally disposed solid wastes in Katutura, a densely populated township in Windhoek, Namibia. The research was descriptive, using mixed methods that involved qualitative and quantitative analysis. A total of two hundred and thirty-four (234) structured and self-administered questionnaires were received from participants and responses therein were processed and analysed. Results showed that (51.7%) of respondents acknowledged the detrimental impact on illegally disposed wastes on human and environmental health. About (80.1%; 189) further attested to the impact on quality of life and socio-economic activities (119, 53.4%) in the communities. In terms of the attitude of perpetrators of this illegal practice, respondents believed that they simply do not care (38.9%) and that lower educational attainment (49.1%) was also a contributing factor. In order to curtail and discourage the habit of illegal wastes disposal, recommendations include increase in the frequency of waste collection 52 (50.5%), introduction of waste recycling initiatives in communities. Not surprising though, a high number of respondents (172, 73.5%) did not support the privatisation of the solid wastes management process.
    Keywords: Environment; solid wastes; illegal; disposal; Unauthorised; human health; Communities; Katutura; Township; Windhoek.

  • Liquid effluent characterization of laboratory and pharmaceutical industry, a Brazilian study   Order a copy of this article
    by Valeria Camila De Lima Soares, Fabiana Cristina Lima Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Moutinho Pataca, Marcos Mol 
    Abstract: In recent years, concerns about industrial liquid effluents have increasing attention due to the various water crises and depletion of natural resources. Pharmaceutical industry can be highlighted as generating large volumes of liquid effluents with potential for environmental contamination when disposed inadequately. This paper evaluated a total of twenty-seven physical-chemical parameters on liquid effluents generated in a Pharmaceutical Laboratory and Industry located in Brazil. Thirty-six monitoring reports were used covering the period from January 2012 to November 2017 with a bimonthly sampling frequency corresponding to six reports each year. The parameters Surfactants (median 1.93 mg/L, MLA 5 mg/L), Aluminum (median 0.59 mg/L, MLA 3 mg/L), Ammonia (median 17.7 mg/L, MLA 500 mg/L), Sulfide (median 0.1 mg/L, MLA 1.0 mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (median 745 mg/L, MLA 450 mg/L) and Suspended Solids (median 150 mg/L, MLA 300 mg/L) were selected for a detailed analysis, as they presented at least one value above the standards established by the legislation - MLA. In addition to these parameters, biochemical oxygen demand was also studied in detail due to the high values observed (median 362 mg/L). Results suggested a faster management way to control the effluent produced by training employees about procedures of chemical products use, including cleaning equipment and areas with the premises of keep segregation and add barriers in the sinks for solids removal. The continuous monitoring is essential for the management and control.
    Keywords: Industrial Liquid Effluent; Pharmaceutical Industry; Physical-chemical Parameters.

  • Textile Dye Degradation in a Novel Photocatalytic Baffled Reactor Using Immobilized TiO2 Nanoparticles   Order a copy of this article
    by Payam Zanganeh Ranjbar, Bita Ayati, Hossein Ganjidoust 
    Abstract: Herein, a novel photocatalytic baffled reactor(PBR) has been used to degrade the acid orange 52 azo dye. According to the results of the experiments conducted with the aim of maintaining minimum decolourization time as well as minimizing the level of energy consumption, the variables of initial dye concentration (50 mg/L), pH (3), flow rate (14.4 L/h), current length (150 cm), dissolved oxygen (5 mg/L), immobilized TiO2 concentration (20 g/m2), and temperature (25
    Keywords: Azo dyes; acid orange 52; photocatalytic baffled reactor; decolourization; titanium dioxide; wastewater treatment.

  • Management of Household Hazardous Waste: A Review on Global Scenario   Order a copy of this article
    by Nisansala Abeysinghe, Sunil Herat 
    Abstract: Generation of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) has become a challenging problem due to rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes. Even though the fraction of HHW is very low compared to the main residential waste stream, it has the potential to create severe impacts on environmental and public health. Hence, the proper management of HHW is essential. Currently, most countries in the world do not have proper mechanisms or legislation to manage HHW. A small proportion of HHW is separated and recycled whereas the majority is disposed of together with other municipal waste. Main drawbacks for HHW management are lack of awareness, lack of infrastructure and absence of defined legislation. Studies are carried out throughout the world to find measures such as using new technologies to mitigate the impacts of HHW.
    Keywords: Household hazardous waste; waste management.

  • Household solid waste quantification, characterization and management practices in Mthatha city, South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Vuyayo Tsheleza, Simbarashe Ndhleve, Hlekani Kabiti, Motebang Nakin 
    Abstract: Mismanagement of solid waste is a rising environmental malpractice within fast growing cities. This paper provides estimates per capita waste generation and quantity of different waste types generated by inhabitants of formal and informal settlements in Mthatha in order to inform city waste management plan. Data on household waste characteristics, management behavior and practices were gathered through questionnaires and direct waste measurement technique. Waste generated by households was collected and subjected through a waste composition analysis. Collected household waste was physically hand sorted into a number of predetermined categories. Each waste category was then weighed and the results were collated to provide a breakdown of the total composition of waste. Sampled households generated 2.84 kg/capita/week. On average, the rate of solid waste generation per capita was 0.40 kg/day for a person living in informal settlement and 0.56 kg/day person living in formal settlement. Proportion of food waste accounted for the most generated waste at 22.7%, followed by disposable nappies at 17.9%. The study proposed a waste channel flow which can be considered for growing cities. Study findings provide input for designing appropriate waste management strategy and landfill site for Mthatha city.
    Keywords: settlement types; growing city; recycling; waste characterisation; waste management flow chart; Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM).

  • Laccase Mediated Bioremediation of Industrial Dyes by a potent strain of Arthrographis sp.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheena Devasia, A. Jayakumaran Nair, Seema Anand 
    Abstract: Water pollution is one of the major problems faced by the humanity worldwide. The major route of water pollution is factory effluent, which includes organic and inorganic nutrients, infectious agents and toxic organic and inorganic compounds. Dye processing industry produces effluent which contains color compounds, suspended solids, acids, chlorine dyes, chromium, phenolic substances and comprise high BOD. Around 15% of the dyes originally introduced into the fiber-dyeing bath are discharged into the effluent system and ultimately reaches water bodies. A number of microorganisms are extensively investigated for dye degradation. The present study deals with the biodegradation of coir dyes using Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MTCC 787), Trametes hirsuta (MTCC 136), Arthrographis KSF2 sp (MTCC 8880) and Enterobacter cloaceae KSB4 (MTCC 9145). Arthrographis KSF2 sp was found to be the most efficient organism in dye degradation. The degradation was primarily by adsorption to the biomass and gradual degradation thereafter. The present study confirmed that microbial degradation of dyes could be vital for the success in detoxification of hazardous pollutants of water.
    Keywords: BOD; biodegradation; coir dye; detoxification.

  • Residents participation and perception of environmental sanitation programme in Ogun East Senatorial District, Nigeria: A mixed-method approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayodeji Ifegbesan, Isaac Rampedi, Taiwo Odumosu 
    Abstract: This study investigated residents participation and perceptions of the monthly environmental sanitation programme in three local government areas, located in Ogun East Senatorial District, Ogun State, Nigeria. The research employed both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Structured and unstructured questionnaire-based interviews and participatory observations were the main methods used. A total of 640 households were selected from thirty-two wards through a stratified random sampling procedure. The results indicated moderate participation (50%) of residents as well as mixed attitudes and perceptions regarding the success of this government intervention. The activities associated with this programme are not well planned and executed as domestic waste is often dumped indiscriminately along streets and open spaces, without any prior sorting and separation at sources. Another major challenge is that such waste is not evacuated timeously by municipal vehicles to sites where it must be finally disposed of, thus reflecting inherent institutional weaknesses at local government level. The study recommends improved adherence and implementation of relevant and applicable policies and laws as well as the introduction of systematic public environmental awareness campaigns designed to help inform and improve current public attitudes and perceptions towards the sanitation programme.
    Keywords: Participation; Perception; Environmental sanitation; Nigeria.

  • Farmers Viewpoints about using Wastewater in Farmlands in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi, Jalal Gholipour, Jahangir Abedi-Koupai 
    Abstract: Iran with an average rainfall of 250 mm per year, is one of the arid and semi-arid the regions of the world. In recent years due to the limitation of exploitable water resources, increasing urbanization in addition to the drought, planning for water has been faced with many challenges. The present study aimed to investigate the views of farmers about using wastewater in agriculture, in Iran. The study was done by a descriptive-surveying method including field and documentary data. The validity of research tool was obtained by the idea of experts and for the reliability of questionnaires a pilot test was conducted. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient of higher than 0.7 showed that research tool was reliable. The result of research showed that farmers believed using of wastewater has created health issues such as: infectious diseases, skin and emissions of bad odor in the region. Results of regression analysis showed that wastewater health awareness by farmers can have a great impact in encouraging them to use wastewater in agriculture. Also the result of factor analysis showed that the 48% of the total variance of the farmers viewpoint of using wastewater were: healthy, ecological and social-economic factor, so that half of it depends on the risk and problem on health issue for using wastewater in this region.
    Keywords: wastewater; agriculture; farmers; Iran.

  • Role of informal sector in dynamics of municipal solid waste compositional change from household to dumpsite   Order a copy of this article
    by Meena Deswal, Jitender Singh Laura 
    Abstract: The study was undertaken to understand the changes occurring in the composition of the municipal solid waste as it moves from the waste generating households to dumpsite via the secondary storage community bins. Waste was sorted into compostable and non compostable fractions (plastics, paper, glass, leather, textile, metal, and inert). At the household level the 48.20% of compostable fraction was higher than components of non compostable fraction, in household of low income group colonies. The reverse was observed for household of high income group colonies. At community bin level a 46.94% decrease in the components of non compostable fractions (except inert) was observed in both low as well as high income group colony bins this trend was repeated in case of the dumpsite, however a drastic change was observed in percentage composition of plastic and inert in the MSW from colony to Dumpsite. Plastic decreased from 36.75% in colony to 4.59% at dumpsite, the changes occurs due to waste segregation and collection by the informal sector. Inert increased from 3.63% in colony to 46.34% at dumpsite this result from deposition of construction waste and non compliance to the Municipal Solid Waste Rule, 2016. The paper highlights the extant of influence of the informal sector in the segregation of recyclable materials from different levels of unsegregated waste storage.
    Keywords: Municipal waste; waste composition; informal sector; dumpsite.

  • Elimination of Hexavalent Chromium from Polluted Water Using Specific Type of Bentonite Clay as Adsorbent   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Ali Rashid Hameed, Mohammed Jaafar Ali Alatabe 
    Abstract: Specific bentonite clay was studied to remove Cr+6 from polluted waters of different concentrations using adsorption phenomena at different temperatures. Synthetic samples were prepared with Cr+6 concentrations of 5, 15, 30, 50, and 100 mg/L. Samples were divided into two sets; the first was mixed with 0.5 g bentonite per 100 ml, the second with 1 g per 100 ml. Some samples were mixed for 1 hr, and others for 2 hr to reach equilibrium at temperatures of 20, 40, and 60 0C, and pH 7. Then the absorbent was separated, and acetone dissolved 1,5-diphenylcarbohydrazide solution and acid were added to the treated filtered water to determine Cr+6 remaining concentration by light absorption technique using UV-visible spectrophotometer for a light wavelength of 540 nm, and 1 cm. Very high Cr+6 removals were obtained (95.4%). Using bentonite dosage of 0.5 g per 100 ml, the removals ranged from 10 to 93.2% at 20 0C for mixing time of 1 hr. But increased substantially when Cr+6 initial concentrations were increased, as well as when mixing time increased to 2 hr (5295.4%). The temperature rises to 40 0C, improved removals for low Cr+6 initial concentrations (?30 mg/L), but harmed the higher range. Adsorption capacity (Me) ranged from 0.52 to 19.08 mg/g. Using bentonite dosage of 1g per 100 ml, improved removal efficiency substantially than did previous dosage, much for low Cr+6initial concentrations (?30 mg/L) but less for high ones. Freundlich adsorption model was checked if represented the results, good values of statistical correlation coefficients were obtained (R2= 0.88 to 0.988). Bentonite clay was very efficient in removing Cr+6and could be used for pre- or main treatment of industrial waste.
    Keywords: Hexavalent Chromium; Bentonite Clay; Adsorption; UV-visible; spectrophotometer; Freundlich isotherm model.

  • Eco-friendly extraction of Mosambi (Citrus limetta) essential oil from waste fruit peels and its potential use as a larvicidal, insecticidal and antimicrobial agent   Order a copy of this article
    by Tripti Kumari, Nandana Pal Chowdhury, Ritika Chauhan, Nawin Kumar Tiwary 
    Abstract: An increase in citrus fruit peel and pulp waste across the world poses severe waste management issues and an approach to reuse these industrial and domestic wastes can resolve many environmental and waste management problems. Here, we report the extraction of essential oils from waste Mosambi (Citrus limetta) fruit rinds and its potential use as a larvicidal, insecticidal and antimicrobial agent. The novelty of the study is the use of a household pressure cooker and the extraction has been facilitated outside of a laboratory, using the rinds of waste Mosambi (Citrus limetta), a raw material that has been seldom used for extraction purposes. We have adopted the steam distillation technique followed by solvent extraction using n-hexane. The reported method of extraction produces zero waste, is energy efficient and gives a good yield. The extracted essential oil was found to have larvicidal and insecticidal properties. It also possesses antibacterial activity against non-pathogenic strains Bacillus subtilis and Rhodococcus equi. Fungal strains, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria carthami were also inhibited by the oil, indicating its antifungal nature.
    Keywords: Essential Oils; Steam distillation; Mosambi (Citrus limetta) peels; Limonene; Antimicrobial; Insecticidal.

    by Elizabeth Damoah, Sunil Herat 
    Abstract: The sustainable management of mining waste continues to be of global concern and a key part of this is the associated environmental and social costs. The paper discusses the issue of mine waste management and what constitutes sustainable management. A comprehensive literature review and synthesis of existing mine-waste management practices was undertaken, and results further discussed and analysed in relation to ecological, social and economic sustainability. The review revealed that sustainable mine-waste management practices are those that apply techniques to reduce and prevent mine waste prior to its generation; reprocess to further extract valuable materials or recover minerals that may have been previously overlooked; downcycle remnant bulk material for a low purpose; and responsibly treat and dispose after all possible uses for the materials have been considered. Poor mine waste management has ecological, social and economic implications with rippling effects on ecological and human systems lingering on for many generations.
    Keywords: mining sustainability; mine-waste generation; mine-waste management practices; mine-waste review.

  • Municipal Solid Waste Management: Analyzing the Principles of the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy   Order a copy of this article
    by Liana Santana, Seimor Walchhutter, Tiago Slavov, Paschoal Russo 
    Abstract: Research in municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been conducted in various areas of knowledge to identify good practices considering gaps in our understanding. This study aims to identify the MSW management practices of the 38 largest Brazilian cities (municipalities with a population higher than 500 thousand inhabitants). For this purpose, a quantitative study is proposed based on a statistical treatment of 13 indicators presented in the Brazilian National System of Information on Sanitation for Solid Waste of the period 2010-2015. The result of the analysis suggests low compliance with the principles of the Brazilian National Policy on Solid Waste. The difficulty and opportunities for MSW management discussed. For example, the municipalities that generate large volumes are directly proportional to the consumption of the population. Regarding the practices, we observed a positive effect of the adoption of street sweepers on the total recovered, recycled materials.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Brazilian National Waste Solid Policy; Environmental Management Accounting; PNRS; SNIS-RS.

  • Biosorption of Divalent Copper from aqueous solution using Mallet Flower Leaves Powder as Adsorbent   Order a copy of this article
    by Devarapalli Venkata Padma, Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry 
    Abstract: The presence of heavy metals like copper, chromium, lead etc. poses a serious problem for the aquatic bodies. Biosorption has been used as an important method for removing heavy metals. In this paper, Mallet Flower Leaves Powder (MFLP) is used as an adsorbent for removal of Copper ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments were conducted in Batch mode using MFLP establishing it as a good adsorbent. The paper explores the effect of agitation time, initial concentration of copper, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature on the removal of Copper ions. Highest metal removal was observed at an agitation time of 40 minutes, adsorbent size of 74
    Keywords: Biosorption; Copper; Heavy metals; Mallet Flower Leaves Powder (MFLP); SEM.

  • Process contributions to life cycle impacts of municipal solid waste management options in Harare, Zimbabwe   Order a copy of this article
    by Trust Nhubu, Edison Muzenda, Charles Mbohwa 
    Abstract: This study is a life cycle based assessment that seeks to determine the process contributions to global warming, terrestrial acidification, eutrophication and human health impact potentials of six developed municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options for urban environments within and surrounding Harare metropolitan province. Identification of the contributions of the various MSW life cycle stages to life cycle impacts could possibly assist in designing corrective MSW management measures as well as identifying alternative MSW life cycle stages that could possibly minimize the impacts. Results show that waste collection contributes to increased acidification, eutrophication and global warming of 0.012, 0.0002 and 0.065 species.yr respectively as well as human health impact potential of 34 DALYs across all the MSWM options. Anaerobic digestion of biodegradable MSW generated in urban areas within and surrounding Harare contributed to increased acidification, eutrophication and global warming impact potentials of 0.053, 0,008 and 0.043 species.yr respectively and 52 DALYs under MSWM options A3 to A6. AD only contributes less potential impact increases than waste collection and transportation with regards to global warming. Overall, incineration is environmentally sustainable compared to landfilling despite it contributing slight increases in acidification and eutrophication impacts. The recovery of 20% of the recoverable materials for reuse and recycle contributes to impacts reductions of -0.05, -0.004 and -0.26 species.yr with regards to acidification, eutrophication and global warming and -156 DALYs under MSWM options A5 and A6. Therefore, strategies earmarked at reducing the positive contributions need to be developed.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste management; life cycle assessment; life cycle impacts; life cycle stages; eutrophication; global warming; human health; acidification; sustainable; Harare; Zimbabwe.

  • Water treatment waste: Comparison between sedimentation and flotation for sludge thickening at a Brazilian Water Treatment Plant   Order a copy of this article
    by Keila Fernanda Soares Hedlund, Manoel Maraschin, Ivo Homrich Schneider, Beatriz Stoll Moraes, Ezequiel Somavilla, Elvis Carissimi 
    Abstract: Water treatment plants (WTPs) are essential for the production of potable water. However, they produce large amounts of waste that must be treated and disposed of properly. Thickening is the prior step and most important phase for sludge disposal or even reuse. This study evaluated the thickening of the sludge of a WTP by sedimentation and dissolved air flotation (DAF), using anionic, non-ionic, and cationic polymers, with dosages ranging from 0 to 5.5 mg polymer/g TSS. The parameters evaluated after thickening were: turbidity of the clarified water; concentration of solids and filtration resistance, of thickened the sludge. DAF thickening resulted in lesser turbidity in the clarified water (23.3 NTU) when compared to sedimentation (46.3 NTU). The highest solids concentration was found in the sludge thickened by sedimentation (7.10%). Sedimentation thickening resulted in sludge with a smaller filtration resistance (9.0E+12 than flotation (10.9E+12 In comparison with thickening, sedimentation proved to be a more promising alternative, showing better results regarding solids concentration and filtration resistance, thus being a good treatment alternative to avoid undue disposal of this residue.
    Keywords: polymers; sulfate sludge; thickening by flotation and sedimentation; sludge treatment; sludge disposal.

  • Extraction of precious metals from Electronic Waste by using Supercritical Fluid Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Mohammad Fayaz, Dr Mohammad Ali Abduli, Majid Baghdadi, Abdolreza Karbasi 
    Abstract: Electronic and electrical wastes are types of special wastes that are toxic, pathogenic and stable in the environment, even in the animals’ body, corrosion and the like. Disposal management of these materials is challenging due to the difficulty of separation and insufficient research into their recycling process. Selection of appropriate collection, separation, processing, and recycling and disposal methods based on scientifically-acceptable principles will help to effectively control. In this study, the development of an innovative method for recovering valuable metals from electronic solid wastes has been studied and the results show that the use of supercritical extraction method in extracting its metals has high efficiency and superiority over the methods. Traditional and conventional extraction is more commercially satisfactory. Benefits such as reduced process time, fluid-like solubility and penetration power such as gases, high selectivity, no environmental problems, reduced solvent utilization in this method, complete and easy solvent recovery.
    Keywords: Precious Metals; Electronic Waste; Supercritical Fluid Technology; Environmental Friendly Process.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10030064
  • A Pollution Assessment of Grossly Polluting Industries in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Parul Baranwal 
    Abstract: Due to exponential economic growth, industrialization and urbanization is increasing day by day in the country and simultaneously the number of key environmental problems arising. In order to rationally plan pollution control strategies, adequate knowledge of nature and magnitude of pollution load contributed by different sectors of industries is a pre-requisite. In this paper we quantified the pollution potential and their reduction with and without control device from grossly polluting industries in the country. As the large & medium scale industries have their treatment plants and emission control equipments for control of water pollution and air pollution respectively assuming that these treatment plants or control devices are working to their full capacity, pollution load estimation has been done according to their performance and treatment. The Central Pollution Control Board identified the seventeen grossly polluting industries and their total numbers have been obtained from various states as 6192.These are: (1) Sugar, (2) Distilleries, (3) Caustic Soda, (4) Fertilizer, (5) Oil refinery, (6) Iron and steel, (7) Pulp and paper, (8) Pharmaceuticals, (9) Pesticides, (10) petrochemicals, (11) Thermal power plants, (12) Dye stuffs, (13) Tanneries, (14) Cement, (15) Aluminum Smelter, (16) Copper Smelter, (17) Zinc Smelter. The paper revealed the volume of wastewater and air pollution generated per day and pollution potential (pollution load) in terms of important pollutants were then calculated on the basis of production and their numbers in the country. The total contribution of Biochemical Oxygen Demand load from 17 sectors of industries are estimated as 22974 t/d and overall reduction due to control measures adopted are 20479 t/d and percent reduction is estimated as 89%. The contribution of particulate matter load generated by different categories of industries is estimated as 3,85,588 t/d and reduction due to control strategies adopted is estimated as 1729 t/d, thus their percent reduction is estimated as 99%.
    Keywords: Air pollution; Water pollution; Assessment; Industries.

  • Associated factors of medical waste management practices in developing countries: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Timothy Kurannen Baaki, Mohamad Baharum, Michael Pitt, Samantha Davies 
    Abstract: The heterogeneous composition of waste from healthcare facilities has historically been a significant challenge with management efforts concentrating primarily on treatment and disposal solutions. This has left a legacy of issues with the management of this type of waste, especially for developing nations. This paper has examined the associated factors of medical waste management (MWM) practices in healthcare facilities in developing nations. Medical waste (MW) definitions have been examined, and factors associated with its management, from regulation and policy formulation to disposal, have been identified through desk research of existing studies. This paper found that in some countries where MWM legislation and policies exist, some are either poorly formulated or are an offshoot of general environmental waste management regulations. More specifically for developing countries, this study found that training, segregation, handling and disposal practices and implementation of MWM programmes were often at a poor standard. Poor regulatory frameworks, poor risk awareness and training, poor financing, influence of social factors such as cultural norms, poor infrastructure and technological advancement were some of the factors identified as key issues. This paper viewed the challenges of MWM practices in developing countries to be much more of a management issue than a technological issue and has identified advanced routine management approaches within an integrated sustainable MWM framework as a tool to drive improvements in MWM programmes.
    Keywords: developing countries; healthcare facilities; medical waste; sustainable medical waste management; waste management practices.

  • The use of artificial neural networks to predict furfural degradation in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Yasmen Mustafa, Sinan Mohammed, Ghaidaa Majeed, Raid Omran 
    Abstract: In this study, the wastewater polluted with furfural was treated by advanced oxidation processes. Both batch and continuous systems were used. Different variables in batch experiments, Fe+2, H2O2, pH, furfural concentration and the relation with the mineralization of furfural were examined. The results indicate that a 30mg/L concentration of Fe+2,a 1300 mg/L concentration of H2O2, a pH of 3, and an irradiation time of 60 min at 30oC, were required to complete the mineralization of 300 mg/L of furfural. In the continuous system, different flow rates were used. The results show that at a furfural concentration of 300mg/L, a flow rate of 20mL/min, and an irradiation time of 60 min, only a 64% mineralization of furfural is achieved. The study examined the implementation of artificial neural networks (ANN) for the prediction of furfural degradation in aqueous solution. A correlation coefficient of 0.97-0.99 was obtained between experimental and predicted output values.
    Keywords: Advanced oxidation process; Furfural; Fenton process; photo-Fenton; Artificial neuron network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10030309
  • Leachate Analysis of Two Waste Dumpsites in Pretoria, South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Senzeni Nyathi, Joshua Olowoyo 
    Abstract: Background and Objective: Lack of proper waste management practices may increase the concentration of noxious chemicals found in leachate. This present study analysed the levels of trace metals in leachate collected from two waste dumpsites in Pretoria, South Africa. Method: An open ended questionnaire was designed in order to obtain information on management options from the two waste dumpsites used for the study. Managers were interviewed on their management options. Leachate samples were collected in triplicates from leachate ponds and stored below 10 degrees Celsius. Trace metal contents were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-7700 (ICP-MS-7700). A student t- test was used to check the significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals from the two waste dump sites. Results: The result showed that both sites lack leachate collection and treatment systems and there are no official recycling programmes in place. The levels of lead(Pb), manganese(Mn), chromium(Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and nickel(Ni) were all above the recommended limits. There were significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals obtained at the two waste dump sites. Conclusion: Waste management methods are not up to the required standard. The concentration levels of Pb, Mn, Cr, Hg, As and Ni at both waste dumpsites were found to be higher than values recommended by the World Health Organisation(WHO),and South African National Standards (SANS), there is need for better waste management in order to reduce environmental contamination.
    Keywords: Waste management; Dumpsites; Leachate and Trace Metals.

  • Attitude and cultural level of the health staff on hospital waste management system: a case study of UHC Constantine-Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Rabeh KHARZI 
    Abstract: Purpose: This work is an opportunity to trigger a sustainable development strategy in an Algerian hospital. Its purpose is to provide strategic decision support for risk management related to healthcare waste faced by our hospitals all based on knowledge of the attitude and cultural level of health staff regarding the hospital waste management system. Thus, to be able to improve working conditions by technical, organizational and human solutions, which allow preserving the health and improve health and safety at work of employees while engaging in a continuous improvement process. As a case study, we chose Dr. Benbadis University Hospital Center (UHC) of Constantine, to highlight an action plan that meets the sanitary and hygienic requirements of healthcare waste on public health. Conception / methodology / approach: The study is based on an in situ observation. The methodology consists of developing a questionnaire based on dependent variables and their indicators, which are related to hypotheses and the objectives of our work. It includes open-ended, closed-ended and direct questions to gather information that allows testing hypotheses. This questionnaire aims to verify this statement and point precisely to the difficulties encountered. The participants in our study are made up by the agents of the hospital. The sample size was determined using a sampling technique, which advocates a sample of 1 to 50% of the targeted population recommended by WHO. Conclusion: Healthcare activities help to preserve health, healing patients and saving lives. Unfortunately, the waste generated by these activities generates crucial economic, sanitary and ecological problems and represent a real threat to public health and to the environment especially of which are the contagious. Henceforth, the proposed approach will allow to analyze the cultural level of the actual safe hygiene in terms of waste management and to put in place effective actions to improve the identified weaknesses. These elements provide ways for prioritizing improvement actions as part of a global program. This approach can be generalized for other care facilities. This management is essential for a sustainable development. Practical implication: This work is an information, awareness and mobilization tool for a better prevention of contagions in our hospitals. The results of this work will make it possible to impose a discussion and open negotiations on this subject. This work will open a national debate about the hospital waste management file. Originality: It is first of its kind that this work has been done in our hospitals, as the management of healthcare waste is taking more and more importance in the field of the public health and the environment. All the actions carried out up to now have been proved defective and disparate. Through this contribution, we try to evaluate the cultural security level in order to adapt the most appropriate techniques and measures on the one hand and attract the attention of managers on the other hand.
    Keywords: Hospital waste; impacts; management; public health; survey; UHC of Constantine.

  • Chemical Characteristics of Biochar Derived from Bamboo Waste and Cow Dung for Energy Purpose and Environmental Restoration   Order a copy of this article
    by Made Gunamantha, Nyoman Dantes 
    Abstract: Biochar is a product produced after biomass is converted thermochemically in conditions with limit or no oxygen with characteristics more dependent on its raw materials other than its operating conditions. This study evaluated the characteristics of biochar in the potential of function as solid fuel and soil amendments. Biochar were obtained from carbonization of bamboo waste and cow dung. Composite biochar were prepared with a combination of bamboo waste and cow dung derived biochar in 21 variations. The characteristics were determined based on their proximate and ultimate analysis and their calorific value. Data proximate analysis of biochar obtained in the Mc range from 5.29 to 7.62%, Vm from 11.88 to 19.69%, ash from 20.99 to 66.63%, and fixed carbon from 15.87 to 54.44%. Data ultimate analysis of biochars obtained in the C range from 19.63 to 59.98%, H from 1.97 to 3.50%, O from 10.83 to 16.08%, N from 0.31 to 0.79%, and S from 0.25 to 0.29%. Whereas the HHV of biochar in the range from 6.64 to 21.66 MJ/kg. Ratio of H/C and O/C increase with the increasing of cow dung composition, ratio C/N decreasing with increasing of cow. This study showed that the more proportion of waste bamboo, biochar obtained was increasingly potential as solid fuel and the more proportion of cow dung, biochar was increasingly potential as a soil amendment. In other words, biochar from pure bamboo waste is more potential as solid fuel and from pure cow dung is more potential as soil amendment. This indicate that the potential utilization of biochar is determined by the feedstock
    Keywords: Biochar; bamboo; cow dung; fuel; soil amendments.

    Abstract: Remediation of contaminated sites requires the knowledge of contaminant transport processes and their rates which are modeled considering the Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) and requires software assistance to be performed using iterative calculations. This paper presents the utilization of various software tools to solve the equation. These include analytical method and Finite Layer technique which are implemented by using MATLAB and POLLUTEv7 software tools respectively. Different schemes of the Finite Difference method are tested using software tools viz., MATLAB and Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. An Excel spreadsheet solution is created for reactive solute using the Finite Difference method. This paper demonstrates the use of column leaching tests and MATLAB programs for selecting the suitable chemical solution and the quantity required to leach out the contaminants from the contaminated sites. These studies also help in the design of liners for waste containment facilities.
    Keywords: Column test; Dispersion coefficient; Distribution coefficient; Soil washing; Breakthrough curve; Elution curve.

  • A Survey on Solid Waste Generated at a South Indian University Campus   Order a copy of this article
    by SANJITH S. ANCHAN, Shiva Prasad H C 
    Abstract: Due to the rapid growth of population and standard of leaving the Solid waste management has become a worldwide problem. The improper management of Solid waste can cause a hazard to living being and environment. The problem of solid waste management is at the initial stage at South Indian University campus. A detailed survey was done regarding the method of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage and treatment and disposal of solid waste in South Indian University, campus. The data were obtained from field visits, interacting with people and questionnaire. The survey data reveals the existing system of solid waste management practices followed in South Indian University campus.
    Keywords: solid waste; management; biomass; energy conversion; feasibility.

  • Sewage water from a hospital and its impact to microbial profiles: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramabele T. Katleho, Benad Omondi Abong'o, Sissay Mekbib 
    Abstract: Waste generation and its management present universal challenges related to negative impacts on the environment. Hospital sewage due to its high concentrations of antimicrobials, it exerts pressure on microorganisms that leads to the development of resistant strains. The current study sought to determine microbial diversity and antibiotic profile of isolated strains from St. Josephs hospital sewage water disposal ponds, Roma, Lesotho. The antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the most commonly applied antibiotics viz. ampicillin amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, norfloxin, streptomycin and vancomycin in the region. Following EUCAST 2012 standard procedure, a total of six dominant bacterial isolates, of which E coli, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Streptococcus spp and Pseudomonas spp were identified. Some isolates were found 100% resistant against ampicillin, amoxycillin and vancomycin, while others were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and norfloxin. The effect of other antibiotics was found to be at intermediate and susceptible percentage fractions against some isolates. The study prevails that the presence of resistant microorganisms in hospital sewage water need stringent waste management policy to study periodically the antibiotic profile of hospital sewage water to avoid the development of potential risks by nosocomial contaminants.
    Keywords: antibiotic profile; antibiotic resistance; hospital sewage; microbial diversity; treatment; impact; microbial profile; nosocomial.

  • Mollusk Shell Waste: Alternatives for Reuse in Construction   Order a copy of this article
    by Ariane Cardoso, Thayse Delmiro, Juliana Mocock, Emilia Kohlman Rabbani, Sergio Peres, Gabriel Filippelli, José Vitor Da Silva Macedo, Eliana Cristina Barreto Monteiro 
    Abstract: Waste from the cultivation of bivalve mollusks has become an environmental issue in many parts of the world due to its irregular disposal. In Brazil, according to a diagnosis by the Secretariat for Sustainable Development and Environment, the Ilha de Deus fishing community, located in Recife - Pernambuco, produces about 408 tons of charru mussel shell waste annually. This waste is deposited directly into mangrove areas, producing serious environmental and social impacts. Seeking suitable ways to dispose of this waste, this study proposes possible uses for mollusk shells, identifying benefits, losses, and difficulties in the use of this waste through a systematic review of the literature. A chemical and thermogravimetric analysis of the mussel shell waste was carried out and several possible uses were proposed, mainly as a raw material for civil construction, taking into account local needs. The shells can be used as aggregate for mortar and concrete for various purposes and as filters for the treatment of effluents.
    Keywords: bivalve mollusks; construction; recycled aggregates; solid waste; sustainable development.

  • An Engineered Production Formula for Enhanced Artificial Stone Utilizing Stone Cutting Slurry   Order a copy of this article
    by Arine A. Nassereldine, Tasneem Y. Ashhab, Maher Al-Jabari 
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates the technical feasibility of utilizing some of the local industrial waste (stone cutting wastewater and marble) in manufacturing artificial stone and enhancing its quality, with the addition of a superplasticizer. The paper reviews the previous work and presents new experimental work. Artificial stone samples were casted according to two starting formulas obtained from local production facilities. Later on, an engineered production formula was developed and tested, based on product quality. The investigated experimental parameters included: compressive strength, water absorption, and workability of fresh concrete. The experimental results indicated that high compressive strength and a low water absorption for artificial stone is technically feasible. In term of the compressive strength of artificial stone the marble dust contributed better than limestone wastewater.
    Keywords: artificial stone; stone cutting; marble dust; waste; recycling; compressive strength; water absorption.

    by Mithun Ray, Phiban Khamti Ryngnga, Pompi Chetia 
    Abstract: Unplanned urban growth and extension of slums due to a desirable industrialization and an undesirable population explosion have produced growing public concern with exponential increase in sanitation and environmental problems in India. Improvement of worsening environmental state is not only necessary for better life quality but also a moral duty to preserve the environment for upcoming generations. This study attempt to find out the probability of willingness to pay for an improved system to manage solid wastes generated in Cooch Behar Municipality, West Bengal, India using the contingent valuation method. A total of 304 respondents were interviewed using stratified random sampling through survey-questionnaire. To determine the socio-economic factors that affect the probability of willingness to pay, binary logistic regression was applied. Most of the residents are willing to pay extra money in form of direct donation or tax to get better waste management facilities and services. Although it is found that year of effective schooling, income, awareness of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and distance of community bin from households have positive and statistically significant effect on residents willingness to pay while gender played a negative and significant role in determining willingness to pay. Age, place of residents and marital status of the respondents also had positive effect, but they do not significantly influence decisions on willingness to pay for improved solid waste management. The findings of this study could contribute to design a more sustainable system for residential waste management in the Cooch Behar Municipality and other areas that have similar conditions.
    Keywords: Willingness to pay; improved solid waste management; binary logistic regression; Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

  • Development of environmentally friendly nanofluidic detergents from TiO2 and palm oil-based primary alkyl sulphate surfactant   Order a copy of this article
    by Slamet -, Isnanda Nuriskasari, Miranda Hasanah, Muhammad Ibadurrohman 
    Abstract: An environmentally friendly nanofluidic detergent from TiO2 and palm oil-based primary alkyl sulphate (palmPAS) surfactant has been developed as a cleaning agent to remove dirt and leftover surfactants. The structural properties of palmPAS were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) while the stability of newly developed nanofluidic detergent was characterized by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Zeta Potential Analyzer. Detergency test was done by examining various components of the nanofluidic detergent through spectrophotometer using Methylene Blue (MB) as the model of dirt. The experimental results revealed that the optimum composition of nanofluidic detergent to remove MB is 0.1% TiO2 - 0.7% palmPAS, reaching 89% of detergency. In terms of leftover surfactant removal, the nanofluidic detergent can eliminate up to 14% by photodegradation. The output of this study is expected to provide an alternative solution for minimizing the use of harmful components from chemical-based cleaning agents.
    Keywords: cleaning agent; environmentally friendly detergent; methylene blue; nanofluidic detergent; palmPAS; photodegradation; renewable surfactant; TiO2; waste management; water treatment.

  • Evaluating Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Shear Strength Parameters to Assess Landfill Slope Stability   Order a copy of this article
    by Nader Hataf, Seyedali Mousavinezhad 
    Abstract: Due to the economic growth, the rapid process of industrialization, and urban population increase, Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management problems are of great concern to the governments, especially in developing countries. Besides the environmental issues, several landfill failures have been reported in recent decades caused irreversible damages for human health and imposed financial burdens on the governments. To avoid such geotechnical failures having a thorough understanding of mechanical characteristics of MSW is crucial. To this end, we conduct standard compaction tests, direct shear tests, and consolidated undrained (CU) triaxial shear tests to obtain the mechanical properties of Shiraz MSW. Besides, using Slide 2D, we perform a back analysis to examine the geotechnical extents of the Shiraz landfill failure that occurred in 2013 during a firefighting operation. It was shown that the back analysis results have a better correlation with the data gathered from direct shear tests. Model results show that MSW water content increase due to the firefighting operation led to MSW shear strength decrease and slope failure. Considering the complex components of MSW, it is necessary to increase case study research on understanding MSW mechanical properties to design landfills more precisely and prevent such potential disasters in the future.
    Keywords: municipal solid wastes; shear strength; slope stability; back analysis; Slide 2D.

  • Use of Municipal Solid Waste in Co-processing in cement kilns in India a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Sorabh Singhal 
    Abstract: Co-processing of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in cement kiln can reduce the use of conventional fuels like coal, oil etc. It would also help in reducing the associated greenhouse gas emissions that emerges due to combustion of the conventional fuels. In a country like India where the amount of waste generated is humongous which can cause both environmental and social issues, co-processing could be a win-win situation for all the stakeholders. This would help in both proper waste disposal and management by the municipal cooperation and reducing the emissions and adoption of alternative fuel by the cement manufacturers. This paper review the possibility of using MSW for co-processing in cement industry and the problem that are being faced while using this method of waste management. Few models are also explained which are currently adopted in different cities of India which further analyse the situation and issues in the country for the use of MSW.
    Keywords: Co-processing; Environment; Greenhouse Emission; Health Issues; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); Refused Derived Fuels (RDF); Waste Management; Waste Segregation; Waste Models.

  • The Optimization of Delignification In the Pulping of Areca Catechu L. : The Study of NaOH Concentration and Cooking Time   Order a copy of this article
    by Ika Atsari Dewi, Susinggih Wijana, Elce Velenia Rembet 
    Abstract: Areca betel plant (Areca catechu L.) is a palm family plant that is wide-spread in Indonesia. One part of the areca betel plant that has not been widely used is its fiber. Thus, it is necessary to do further research, such as using the fiber as material in making pulp for handicraft paper. The pulp is the result of the fiber separation process from fibrous material. In the pulping process, there is a delignification reaction where lignin is degraded by solvent. NaOH concentration and cooking time need to be examined in making pulp since the higher the NaOH concentration and the longer the cooking time, the more hydrolyzed lignin increases automatically. However, higher NaOH concentration and longer cooking time cause cellulose to hydrolyze, resulting a decrease in pulp quality. This research aimed to find out the optimal NaOH concentration and cooking time in making pulp from areca betel fiber in terms of the cellulose and lignin content produced. This research used the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The experiment was designed based on Central Composite Design (CCD) with two types of treatment factors, namely NaOH concentration and cooking time. The first factor used an upper limit of 25% and lower limit of 15%, while the second factor used upper limit of 150 minutes and lower limit of 90 minutes. The responses examined were lignin and cellulose content using Chesson method. The results of the research showed the optimal condition from NaOH concentration was 25% with a cooking time of 90 minutes which resulted in the response of cellulose and lignin contents of 46.6% and 7.6%, respectively. Therefore, the optimal solution was chosen as the best solution and can be used as material for making handicraft paper.
    Keywords: Areca Betel Fiber; Cellulose; Lignin; Pulping; RSM.

  • Electrochemical Oxidation of Methyl Orange Dye by Stainless Steel Rotating Cylinder Anode   Order a copy of this article
    by Anas Salman 
    Abstract: Electrochemical oxidation of methyl orange dye from simulated wastewater by stainless steel rotating cylinder anode in a batch mode was investigated. Effects of initial MO concentration, supporting electrolyte concentration, applied current, PH, and rotation rate were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency decreases with the increase in the initial MO concentration, increases with the increase in the supporting electrolyte concentration, increases with the increase in the applied current, increases when PH increases up to PH is 7. The rotation rate of the anode significantly enhances the removal percentage of methyl orange. The reaction kinetics was studied and the reaction rate was calculated for different operating conditions.
    Keywords: Methyl orange; Electrochemical oxidation; rotating cylinder anode; stainless steel.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10030830
  • Factors affecting rice wastage in Mazandaran Province, Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Ebrahim Ebrahimi 
    Abstract: The objective of the present quantitative-qualitative research was to identify and analyze the main factors influencing rice wastage in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Rice wastage was estimated by a combination of the Delphi technique and interviews. The statistical population was composed of all rice growers in Mazandaran Province in Northern Iran. The sample size was determined as 258 farmers by Cochrans formula. They were selected by multi-stage random sampling. It was the first research ever done in the region on recognizing the main factors influencing rice wastage by the Delphi technique. Nineteen experts were sampled by snowball sampling for the Delphi technique. The main factors affecting the wastage and discriminating the paddy growers were identified by using ordinal logistic regression in STATA Software Package. According to the results, 12 local factors influencing rice wastage (at planting, cultivating, and harvesting stages) were derived among which pests (Chilo suppressalis, Ephydra afghanica Dahl, etc.), accounting for 5% of the wastage, was found to be the most important cause of wastage in the region. The findings of the ordinal logistic regression and marginal effects revealed that among the independent factors, six factors - including age, educational level, farm area, mean crop yield, number of machines owned, and rice waste management knowledge - had significant and positive impact on increasing the wastage and discriminated the paddy growers in four groups, i.e. farmers with low, relatively low, relatively high and high wastage. Finally, most of respondents (59.3%) suffered high wastage at different stages of rice production.
    Keywords: Rice wastage; rice growers; Delphi technique; Mazandaran.

  • Recycling behavior of people in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Raymond Oriebe Anyasi 
    Abstract: In this paper the behaviour of households towards recycling as a sustainable means of waste management was studied. The whole essence was to establish the impact of such behaviour in limiting the success of recycling practises. 400 randomly selected households in the suburb of Claremont in the city of Cape Town, South Africa, were used in the study. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire targeted at the head of each household in the area. Analysis of the results showed that 67.3 % of the sampled households do not recycle waste, meaning that more effort should be geared towards awareness creation for people to understand the benefits of recycling. There was lack of basic recycling education and guidance and inadequacy in infrastructure and services which negatively deter the interest for recycling. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant and positive relationship (r = 0.89, p = 0.003) (significant level at p ? 0.05) between waste management interests and the recycling ability of individual households. SWOT analysis shows increase in environmental awareness as the strength, insufficiently developed recycling collection infrastructure as weakness, development of convenient recycling collection infrastructures and incentives such as tax reduction as opportunities, while threats is that recycling may not be financially rewarding in short run. It was recommended that government should install more convenient recycling depots, as well as raising environmental awareness campaigns.
    Keywords: Recycling survey; Household Waste management; Upper Claremont; Peoples behaviour; SWOT analysis.

    by Naveen BP 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites are potential contamination sources of human and environmental hazards. Leachate generated from MSW landfill sites is heterogeneous and exhibits huge temporal and seasonal variations. Leachate pollution index (LPI) indicates an overall pollution potential of MSW landfill sites. The parameters necessary to estimate LPI from an MSW landfill site are debated in terms of their variations sometimes, and their significance has been highlighted in the context of LPI. The LPI values of five major cities in India has been calculated in this study. The landfill leachate samples from these sites have been assessed using leachate pollution index to implement appropriate leachate treatment techniques for reducing the adverse effects on the environment. The result shows that the Pallikkaranai landfill site for the Chennai city and Mavallipura landfill site for Bangalore city is highly deteriorating and may increase human health risk for nearby dwellings. It is concluded that LPI value can be used to assess the leachate pollution potential from landfill sites, particularly at places where there is a high risk of leachate migration and pollution of groundwater. This study also aims to serve as a guideline for implementing appropriate leachate treatment techniques for reducing adverse effects on the environment.
    Keywords: Environment; Solid Waste; Landfill; Leachate Pollution Index.

  • Toxicity of Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent on the Bioremediation Activity of Saprophytic and Nitrifying Microorganisms   Order a copy of this article
    by Harshit Mahandra, Asim Ahmad 
    Abstract: In this work, initially, the effluent of pulp and paper industry was subjected to physicochemical characterization and determination of the concentration of heavy metals The effect of varying concentration of effluent on the biological activity of saprophytic and nitrifying bacteria has been studied An optimized concentration of 5 0 mg/L glucose was used as control An increase in percentage inhibition has been observed with the increasing concentration of the effluent in the proposed systems The kinetic parameters i e , rate constant and ultimate biochemical oxygen were used to analyze biological activity of microorganisms with increasing percentage effluent concentration and were determined using Thomas method for different systems Overall study resulted in the high resistivity of nitrifying bacteria than saprophytic bacteria to the pulp and paper industry waste.
    Keywords: Pulp and paper industry; Thomas method; Microorganisms; Biochemical oxygen demand; Rate constant; Effluent.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10031102
    by Marcelo Matias, João Alberto Fereira, Lisete Lange, Isabella Pincelli, Armando Castilhos Jr. 
    Abstract: In 2010 the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP) was established to promote better solid waste management practices. This article evaluates the NSWP influence on generation, collection, sorting and treatment of household solid waste (HSW), health care solid waste and construction & demolition (C&D) solid waste. It was perfomed a segmented regression analysis to historical data series trying to identify a statistically significant influence of NSWP on solid waste management in Brazil. Some results showed a possible positive influence of the policy but the implementation of the NSWP has not shown optimistic advances in recent years. Solid waste management in Brazil still lacks regionally and nationally integrated actions to improve its management.
    Keywords: Solid Waste Policy; Municipal Solid Waste Management; Household Solid Waste Generation Rate; Segmented Regression; Recyclable Materials; Disposal and Treatment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10031433
  • A Smarter and Greener Model of Energy Production in Thermal Power Plants   Order a copy of this article
    by Abed Inan Chowdhury, M. Nahin Mahmood, Akash Talapatra 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the efficacy of an environmentally friendly and sustainable energy production model which has the ability to reduce Carbon dioxide emission from thermal power plants. The fundamental cycle of the model consists of five chemical reactions that include Hydrogen Production, Fuel Cell, and Sabatier Reaction in a cycle. In this study, some of the principles of the precedent model has been modified to enhance its performance and a twenty years production forecast has been undertaken to check the applicability of the proposed model. The study reveals that Carbon dioxide emission and Methane consumption can be considerably reduced using this model. On the other hand, the oxygen concentration of air can be increased significantly. The results demonstrate that the model can prevent 15000 Liters of Carbon dioxide emission per Watt capacity in a year at the exchange of only 3% of the production capacity of a typical plant.
    Keywords: Air Pollution · Performance Analysis · Power Plant · Sustainable Energy · Emission Control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10031631
  • Biomedical waste management in Sri Lanka: a scientific and a legal perspective of the legislation and policies   Order a copy of this article
    by Ranil Kularatne 
    Abstract: This article reviews the Sri Lankan legal framework and policies regarding biomedical waste management. All healthcare facilities require an Environmental Protection License and a scheduled waste management license from the Central Environmental Authority (CEA) under the National Legislation. Conditions on radioactive waste management stipulated in the licenses issued by the Sri Lanka Atomic Energy Regulatory Council (SLAERC) of the Sri Lanka Atomic Energy Board (SLAEB) must be fulfilled. The national policy remains in draft since 2001 and has some serious loopholes. There is no clear institutional arrangement for policy formulation and implementation. Therefore, National Policy has to be re-formulated and legitimated as a command and control policy. Compliance monitoring by relevant authorities is essential for proper enforcement of the legislation and policy decisions.
    Keywords: Biomedical wastes; healthcare facilities; legislation; policy; radioactive wastes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032024
  • Soil contamination with heavy metals release from e-waste management activities in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Jokotade Owoso, Oladele Osibanjo 
    Abstract: This study assessed the levels of heavy metals contamination of soil of four different e-waste management activity sites in Lagos, Nigeria where open burning, dismantling/disposal, stockpiling and dismantling/stockpiling of e-waste were ongoing. Soil samples were collected seasonally during dry and wet seasons, for two years from each site. The samples were analysed for selected metals using atomic absorption spectrometer after aqua regia digestion. The soil at the open burning site was observed with the highest concentrations of all the metals with mean values (mg/kg) of 24.8 (Cd), 69.3 (Cr), 108 (Ni), 4380 (Zn), 15200 (Pb), 41700 (Cu) for the wet season. The extreme values of contamination factor (>6) obtained for the open burning site indicated very strong contamination by Pb and Cu. Sequential extraction showed higher proportions of Zn, Pb and Cu in the non-residual soil fractions with mobility factors suggestive of high mobility and bioavailability of the metals.
    Keywords: soil contamination; heavy metals release; e-waste management activities; Nigeria; open burning; dismantling; stockpiling; contamination factor; sequential extraction; mobility factor; bioavailability.

  • Effect of rice husk ash on physical properties of soft soil   Order a copy of this article
    by Duong Nguyen Thanh  
    Abstract: Rice husk ash (RHA) is a waste material from burning rice husk which is abundant in Vietnam. The utilization of RHA in soil improvement has been widely investigated. However, the effect of different RHA types on the physical properties of soft soil such as Atterberg limits has not been clarified yet. In this study, two types of RHA obtained from open burning and burning in a furnace will be used to investigate their effects on the physical properties of soft soil such as specific gravity, water content, and the Atterberg limits. The RHA contents from 0 to 15% by the dry weight of soil were used to mix with soft soil. The research results showed that the types of RHA have little effect on the change of water content and the Atterberg limits. Nevertheless, the RHA with low silica content (high carbon content) will result in a higher decrease in specific gravity. Regarding the change in soil particles, the addition of both RHA types can lead to an increase in the silt content of treated soil.
    Keywords: rice husk ash; soft soil; burning conditions; specific gravity; water content; liquid limit; plastic limit; plasticity index.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032103
  • Biosynthesis of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles Using the Residual of Ducrosia Anethifolia   Order a copy of this article
    by Maryam Haghighi, Reza Abolghasemi, Mousa Solgi 
    Abstract: Plant wastes, including the residues of medicinal plants, have recently become one of the significant environmental problems in some countries. Zinc sulphide nanoparticles with crystalline structure were synthesised well with the help of the green synthesis method by using the residues of medicinal plant moshgak (Ducrosia anethifolia). The N-H, C-O, C=O, sulphide (S2), C-H, and phenolic groups existing in Moshgak are responsible and involve in the stabilisation of Zn2+ and the formation of Zn-S bond. XRD patterns and SEM images verified the cubic structure of ZnS nanoparticles. The FTIR studies confirmed that C-O, C-N, C-H, N-H, N-S and S-O groups of Moshgak could bind to ZnS nanoparticles. The results of this work demonstrated the synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles by using the wastes of Moshgak can be a good alternative for chemical synthesis methods.
    Keywords: Green synthesis; Moshgak; Nanoparticles; Medicinal plant; Ducrosia Anethifolia; Zinc sulfide.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10032104
  • Production of Nesquehonite, a Magnesia Precursor, by Carbonation of Synthetic Mine Waste Water   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamsyn Grewar, Bongo Mabusela, Dheepak Maharajh 
    Abstract: Nesquehonite is considered a valuable product since it is the preferred precursor to the high value product magnesia. Magnesia is used extensively in the mining industry for the hydrometallurgical recovery of metals. The mining industry produces large volumes of mine-impacted water that could be used as a low-cost resource for producing the magnesia precursor. This work aimed to optimize the first phase of a low cost magnesia production process, by carbonation of a synthetic solution simulating a liquid mine-waste. A three-factor (pH, Mg and CO2 concentration), two-response (product yield and NaOH consumption), Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM) design was used to determine the optima for the process. The optimal factor settings were: pH 9.5, [Mg] 1.5 g/L and [CO2] 20 %. Tests established that the target product, nesquehonite, was preferentially formed in the majority of the experiments.
    Keywords: Mine impacted water; beneficiation; water treatment; carbonation; nesquehonite; MgO; response surface methodology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032105
  • Physicochemistry and microbial diversity of a municipal solid waste dumpsite leachate revealed by metagenomics   Order a copy of this article
    by Uwem Edet, Ini Bassey, Iniobong Ebenge 
    Abstract: In this study, the description of microbial diversity of dumpsite leachate was done using metagenomics in addition to physicochemistry. Sampling of leachate, physicochemical analysis, metagenomics DNA extraction and NGS were all done using standard techniques. Results of physicochemical analysis showed that heavy metals (lead, cadmium and zinc) were higher than levels permissible in potable water by WHO. In decreasing abundance, the kingdoms classified were, protozoa, bacteria, archaea, unknown. Phyla analysis showed 14 microbial phyla of which, the top 5 were Unknown, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Ciliophora, and Proteobacteria. Class analysis revealed 18 classes A total of 34, 59 and 126 orders, families and species were classified, respectively. Amongst the classified species, medically importance ones were Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium sp, Propionibacterium acnes and Shigella sonnei. Furthermore, novel and industrially important species namely Ignatzschineria indica and Bacillus licheniformis, were also identified.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Leachate; Metagenomics; Dumpsite; Microbial community.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032159
  • Fabrication and Characterization of Functionalized Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes / Polysulfone Nanocomposite Membranes for Fouling Mitigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Al-Furaiji, Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed, Inmar N. Ghazi, Amer N. Al-Naemi 
    Abstract: Nanocomposite membranes were developed from mixed oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (OMWCNTs) / polysulfone (PSU) using a phase inversion method. A dope solution containing polysulfone PSU (17 wt %) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; 5 wt. %) of the solution was modified with different concentrations of added carbon nanotubes (1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 wt% relative to the weight of PSU). The results indicated that MWCNTs have been successfully oxidized and that their presence in the mixing membrane has been an important factor affecting membrane morphology and membrane permeability properties and making the membrane surface more capable of binding with water molecules (hydrophilic), thus reducing the fouling of membranes. Enhanced nanocomposite membranes showed that the freshwater flux was maximum when the OMWCNTs / PSU blend membranes were (2.5 wt. %). For the rest of the modified membranes, the flux gradually decreased but was better than the bare membrane.
    Keywords: Polysulfone; Carbon Nanotubes; Water Flux; Ultrafiltration; Nanocomposite Membranes; Fouling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032160
  • Physico-chemical characterization and quantification of municipal solid waste in high-altitude Srinagar city of North-Western Himalayas.   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasir Mushtaq, Abdul Qayoom Dar, Naved Ahsan 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) management in low-lying cities has been extensively studied, but in high-altitude regions, it lacks behind due to many constraints. The present study was conducted in the high-altitude Srinagar city, Kashmir, during (2018-2019) for physicochemical characterization and quantification of MSW. A total of 2000 kg of MSW samples were analysed for two seasons (winter and summer) with 40 samples (n=5) for each category. The average generation of MSW was assumed (0.48 kg capita-1 day-1), it was estimated that 868 Mt day-1 of MSW generated with a population of 1.81 million during 2019. The findings of MSW characterization of all the socio-economic groups showed a high bulk density in winter (490.42 kg m-3) and summer (463.75 kg m-3), respectively. Further, results revealed organic waste 54.30%, followed by 23.75% of inert content, and recyclable waste 16.65%.
    Keywords: High-altitude; Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); Calorific value; Greenhouse gas (GHG); Compositing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032248
  • Recycling of plastic waste as coarse aggregate in concrete for sustainable development   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramakrishna Bag, Subham Agarwal, Subham Subhasish Baral, Aman Kuamr Singhal, Kishor Biswas 
    Abstract: This paper presents a detailed experimental investigation to use plastic waste in concrete. Construction work uses a wide range of raw materials, most of which eventually ends up as landfill. That makes the construction industry one of the largest contributors to landfill waste and greenhouse emission like CO2 worldwide. Experimental investigations were carried out to determine strength characteristics of concrete by replacing coarse aggregate with 10, 15 and 20% processed plastic waste. Tests were conducted on concrete specimens to understand its behavior under tensile, compressive and flexural loading conditions. It was noted from the experimental results that the optimum strength at 10% replacement of coarse aggregate by plastic waste. The concrete mix prepared using plastic waste can be used for mass concreting and low load-bearing structures.
    Keywords: sustainable development; solid waste; non- biodegradable; plastic waste; concrete.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032323
  • Diclofenac Removal by bimetallic Benjamina nZVIron/Copper Particles from Aqueous Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Hossam Mohammed Abdel-Aziz  
    Abstract: Bimetallic zero-valent Iron/Copper NPs were successfully prepared by Green synthesis approach using Ficus Benjamina leaves extract (FB-nZVFe/Cu). Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM], Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy [FT-IR], and Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy [EDAX] indicating the synthesizing of bimetallic Ficus-ZVFe/Cu nanoparticles. The removal efficiency of Diclofenac Sodium (50 mg L-1) reached 95 % under the condition [0.5 g L-1, 45 min, and pH 4]. The adsorption data are more appropriate by the Langmuir model [R2 = 0.9983] with qmax = 155.6 mg g -1. Results of adsorption kinetics indicate that DFS uptake on FB-Fe\Cu nanoparticles is following the pseudo-second-order. Overall, FB-Fe/Cu nanoparticles are a committed green substance to remove DFS. Operating parameters effect was investigated using Linear regression analysis SPSS, they were found to account for more than 98 % of the variables that affect on the removal process.
    Keywords: Diclofenac; Bimetallic; nZVFe/Cu; Ficus Benjamina; Green Synthesized.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032353
  • Impact of oil spillage on the levels of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in millipede and soil from Ikot Ada Udo, Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria.   Order a copy of this article
    by Akaninyene Joseph, Udeme Udofia 
    Abstract: The impact of oil spillage on heavy metals and hydrocarbons levels was studied. Millipede (Sprostreptus assiniensis) samples were hand-picked, while soil samples were collected using hand auger, and then analysed for heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) using a spectrophotometer. Levels of heavy metals, TPH in millipede, soil samples were higher in the study site compared to control. Mean metals concentration in soil were 0.748 (Pb), 0.754 (Cd), 1.577 (Ni), 0.274 (Cr), 4.749 (Fe), 0.020 (V), 0.103 (Co), 0.181 (As), 5.544 (Mn) and 5.187 mg/kg (TPH); while that of millipede were 1.290 (Pb), 0.524 (Cd), 0.683 (Ni), 1.278 (Cr), 2.283 (Fe), BDL (V), 0.023 (Co), 0.001 (As), 3.016 (Mn) and 3.011 mg/kg (TPH). Mean Ni, Cr, Mn (in millipede); Cd, Cr, Fe, V, As (in soil) were above WHO limits. Thorough clean-up is recommended for the total restoration of the environment.
    Keywords: impact; crude oil; oil spillage; heavy metals; hydrocarbons; millipede; soil; Ikot Ada Udo; Akwa Ibom State; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032447
  • Perceptions of residents toward e-waste reuse and recycling in selected villages in Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, and China   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Liang 
    Abstract: The perceptions of residents toward e-waste management systems were studied by questionnaire surveys in two villages selected in each of Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, and China. Analysis of the responses from the villages with and without practicing e-waste management systems showed that the villagers in China were most optimistic toward the conditions of their environment as opposed to those in Thailand. The villagers in Japan, however, were most knowledgeable about e-waste containing precious metals. Also, a comparison of the responses from villages with practicing e-waste management systems showed that a higher number of the villagers of Hong Ren Old Village (China) demonstrated more positive perceptions than Village #3 (Thailand) and Kamikatsu (Japan) toward the concern over their respective environmental conditions, the relationship between the increased use of electrical and electronic equipment and its effects on the environment, and the knowledge about e-waste laws and rules adopted.
    Keywords: Perception; e-waste; reuse; recycling; questionnaire survey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10032504
  • Degradation of azo dye in ozonation by noble metal supported mesoporous catalyst   Order a copy of this article
    by Santosh Ghuge, Anil Saroha 
    Abstract: The mesoporous catalyst was prepared by impregnating Ru metal on SBA-15 material and its performance was studied in catalytic ozonation reaction for degradation of reactive orange 4 (RO4) azo dye solution. The operational variables such as Ru (%) loadings on SBA-15, initial pH and ozone concentration are optimized to get maximum degradation efficiency. The reaction mechanism for catalytic ozonation was analyzed by introducing t-butanol as radical scavenger. The colour of RO4 azo dye solution was completely removed after 21 min of catalytic ozonation reaction. The COD removal of 61 1 % was achieved at optimized conditions of Ru loading of 0 25 % on SBA-15, initial pH 9 0 and ozone concentration of 5 g/m3. The addition of radical scavenger t-butanol in catalytic ozonation reaction indicated that the decolourization was mainly occurred through direct ozone molecular mechanism whereas degradation of non-colourful groups and intermediates were occurred through hydroxyl radical mechanism.
    Keywords: Catalytic ozonation; Ru/SBA-15; RO4 azo dye; Hydroxyl radical.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032506
  • The potential use of waste glass powder in slag based geopolymer concrete-An environmental friendly material   Order a copy of this article
    by Manikandan P., Vasugi V 
    Abstract: This paper mainly focused on the potential use of waste glass powder in a slag based geopolymer concrete. Waste glass powder is used as a source material and slag replacement in geopolymer concrete at a replacement percentage from 20% to 80 %. In total, sixteen geopolymer concrete mixes were prepared by varying the proportions of waste glass powder and Molarities (M) of NaOH solution. Experimental analysis based on mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete and prediction of properties with the application of Artificial Intelligence through Neural Network was done. The experimental outcomes indicated that the mechanical (Compressive, Split-Tensile and Flexural) properties of geopolymer concrete yield better results from Alkaline to Binder (A/B) ratio of 0.55 and a proportion of 80% of slag: 20% glass powder with 12M from the sixteen mix proportions. The predicted mechanical property of geopolymer concrete with the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was observed to agree with the experimental strength values.
    Keywords: Geopolymer concrete; Waste Glass powder; Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS); Alkali Activated Solutions (AAS); Artificial Neural Network (ANN).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032507
  • Photocatalytic degradation of organic dye using FexOy -TiO2 and powered by solar cells   Order a copy of this article
    by Amel BENHADJI, Rokia YOUCEF, Haithem Bel Hadjltaief, Sameh Ben Ameur, Mania Terki, Mourad Benzina, Mourad TALEB AHMED 
    Abstract: The main objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of novel semiconductor FexOy-TiO2 under visible lamp and the use of the photovoltaic panel as a direct energy source. The results showed that 91.81 % occurred by using lamp of 20 W under the condition of [FexOy-TiO2] =0.5g/L, [BBF] =20 mg/L, [H2SO4]=0.1M, pH=3.8, P=18 W and 3 hours of reaction. It was also found that the presence of PO43- and S2O82- (3g/L) increase the rate of degradation to 97.72 % in about 1.5 h. The second part of this work was dedicated to choose a lamp with the best intensity of irradiation. The maximum of current intensity generated by solar cells reaching the values of 3400 mA at 11.08 h and 2260 mA at 13.83h by using lamps of 20 W and 75W respectively.
    Keywords: Solar cells; FexOy; FexOy-TiO2; photocatalysis treatment; illumination intensity; Brilliant Blue FCF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032557
  • Changes in physical, chemical and biological variables of the leachate generated from municipal solid waste subjected to saline solution application   Order a copy of this article
    by Miriam Gonçalves Miguel, Rafael Lourenço Thomaz Favery 
    Abstract: The main characteristic of Brazilian municipal solid waste (MSW) is the high organic matter content that can accelerate the biodegradation process. This study aims to analyze the physical, chemical and biological variables of the leachate generate from a Brazilian MSW confined in five lysimeters over 1022 days. In three of the lysimeters the MSW was subjected to application of saline solution to evaluate its effect on the leachate characterisation. As a result, the anaerobic biodegradation process of the MSW subjected to saline solution remained in the anaerobic acid phase for almost the entire monitoring period, delaying the methanogenic phase in 350 days; however not completely inhibiting the biodegradation process. Moreover, the application of saline solution resulted in a decrease of the nitrogen ammonia concentrations in the leachate, nonetheless, it increased the values of electrical conductivity and total solids, and provided the slowest and gradual decrease in chemical oxygen demand.
    Keywords: anaerobic biodegradation; lysimeter; municipal solid waste; saline solution; leachate; nitrogen ammonia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032558
  • Trash to Cash Through Permaculture for Sustainable Island Tourism: The Case of Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by May Ling Siow, Sridar Ramachandran, Kamarul Ariffin Maizan 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to employ an evidence-based intervention through permaculture practices on island tourism in Mabul, Semporna Sabah. Through the trash to cash initiative conducted over a span of two years in Mabul, this paper aims to identify the best practices and limitations of permaculture practice on an island, as well as to uncover lessons for future pursuits. This intervention was conducted in the Borneo Jungle River Island Tours Sdn. Bhd company for two years to identify usable permaculture methods for island-based lodges. A case study design was chosen for this purpose as it allows numbers of small in-depth cases conducted throughout the course of two years. These cases were studied in a real-life context, applying permaculture principles while observing how they influence and are influenced 2 M.L. Siow et al. by users. Using permaculture principles, a total of ten different initiatives were coined and tested on-site. Top initiatives included: 1) collection of air-conditioner water; 2) composting; 3) environmental education. The major managerial challenges found were: 1) receptiveness of the initiative by workers; 2) change of mindset; 3) top-down initiatives. Borneo Jungle successfully reduced its costs and waste through this initiative.
    Keywords: up-cycle; circular economy; backpackers lodge; ecotourism; sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10032752