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International Journal of Environment and Waste Management

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM)

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International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (144 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Innovative Urban Landscape Design of Riverfront Area in Kembang Jepun, Surabaya   Order a copy of this article
    by Bambang Soemardiono, Murni Rachmawati, Defry Agatha Ardianta 
    Abstract: Surabaya is a growing city of Kalimas river. The emergence of the river as the beginning of the development of the city of Surabaya is possible thanks to its function as a means of communication between up and downstream areas. At some points, the area around the river is used as open spaces that serves as a public space, but in the other points are not yet used optimally. One of them is the river area in Kembang Jepun area. This riverside area in north of Surabaya has several potentials especially related to its function of urban landscape elements and also accessibility and open spaces. Urban landscape is described as socio ecological systems where natural and social processes go together with the ecosystems (Andersson, E, 2006) and in respect of how cities developed over time and their relation to nature (Sherwood, R,). The purpose of this research is to develop urban landscape design innovation in riverfront area in Kembang Jepun. The analysis used in this research approach in sustainable development by giving priority to environmental, economy and social aspect in determining the innovative design for riverfront area. The important analysis tool that will be used is also Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and workshop to capture the aspirations of the community as an ideal riverfront public space.
    Keywords: aspirations; Kembang Jepun area; river; urban landscape.

  • Investigating the relationship of the psychological factor related to inner conflict feeling on littering practice phenomenon using PLS-SEM approach: A survey from Palestine   Order a copy of this article
    by Yasmin G. K. Jaaron, Maram Sayed Ahmad 
    Abstract: One of the most crucial worldwide problems is littering. The severe consequences on the environment insist on finding proactive effective solutions. This study has employed empirical research to investigate the driving factors of littering practice. A sample of 680 cases has been analyzed to test the effect of the inferred variables on littering (i.e. inner conflict, smoking, awareness level, and supervision availability), using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Accordingly, this research recommends that policies can be more effective when proactively control littering attitude; by considering the influence of individuals psychology. Hence, raising awareness and reinforcing internal beliefs, as well as employing supervision and rules, would together cut off this phenomenon. This study will contribute to the theory and policies related to waste management, and to the research methodology of similar concepts using the PLS-SEM approach. Further research is recommended for investigating other psychological factors that can affect littering practice.
    Keywords: littering practice; environment; inner conflict; psychology; smoking practice.

  • Multiobjective Wasteload Allocation: Application to Delhi stretch of the river Yamuna, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Dipteek Parmar, Ashok Keshari 
    Abstract: Waste load allocation (WLA) models are developed as multi-objective models with conflicting objectives in terms of cost, equity and assimilative capacity. A total of four models consisting of one single and three multi-objective waste load allocation models are formulated. These are: 1) least cost model (LCM); 2) cost-equity model (CEM); 3) cost-assimilative capacity model (CAM); 4) cost-equity-assimilative capacity model (CEAM). The performance of these models is demonstrated on the 22 km long Delhi stretch of the river Yamuna, India. Optimal solutions of the models are obtained using the web-based interactive NIMBUS software. The cost functions in the optimisation models is developed as power functions of BOD removal using the regression module of the SPSS10 (1999) software. The response of waste loads on the water quality is quantified in terms of transfer coefficient calculated using the QUAL2E water quality simulation model. The results reveal that amongst all the models, LCM achieves the best practical solutions. In fact, LCM and CAM yields more or less similar results. The CEM does not yield very practical and optimal solution.
    Keywords: waste load allocation; WLA; multi-objective; equity; assimilative capacity; effluent; decision maker; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10045111
  • Calculation of combustion air, flue gases composition and heating values from burning process of biomass, wastes and composts   Order a copy of this article
    by Metodi Kirilov Mladenov 
    Abstract: The possible solutions to the problems related to the generated waste are to raise the prices of all goods so that they can offset the cost of treating the generated waste. Energy is one of the key elements in the idea of achieving sustainable development, especially when it comes from clean and easily accessible alternative sources, and waste can also be considered as such. The result from done survey show, a clear relationship is established between the carbon content of the initial material and the amount of oxygen and dry air required for combustion. Such connection was also confirmed in the sulphur dioxide content in the generated gases and the sulphur content of the initial material. Calculations show that the energy generated by burning 20,000 tons of material per year would result in energy savings from conventional sources needed to meet the needs of between 50,000 and 60,000 households.
    Keywords: waste to energy; combustion; heating value; compost; RDF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10036949
  • Review of influence of the animal breeding complexes’ activity on the ecological status of the territory   Order a copy of this article
    by Inna O. Rozhkova-Timina, Victor M. Kuznetsov 
    Abstract: Nowadays, the Earth's population is growing and an increase in food production becomes necessary. This is achieved, among other ways, through the development of livestock and poultry farming. The entire production cycle is accompanied by emissions, wastewater disposal and waste generation. The main types of waste include animals’ and birds’ faeces and feathers. Faeces contain organic and inorganic substances, bacteria and microorganisms, traces of medications, which can affect soil and vegetation. Bird feathers hardly decompose in the environment; feather meal production or artificial decomposition is possible. Emissions of various substances into the air exist at all stages of the production and consumption process. When exceeding the threshold limit value, they are dangerous to human health. Wastewater disposal contains elevated concentrations of biogenic elements, organic and inorganic substances, pathogens, viruses. All the stated negative aspects must be taken into account when planning waste management of the animal breeding complexes.
    Keywords: animal breeding; poultry; waste; faeces; feather; emission; wastewater; ecology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10037063
  • Geo-Environmental and Human Health Impact of Spent Lithium-ion Battery Waste and its Recycling: A Critical Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Sayali Apte, Preeti Mishra 
    Abstract: The world is witnessing an exponential growth in electric vehicle stock and registration and there will be millions of electric vehicles on road by 2030. This increase in electric vehicles (EVs) would lead to increase the bulk of e-waste generated through the end-of-life (EoL) lithium ion batteries. This paper covers various aspect related to EV battery waste related to the present status of research in form of bibliometric survey, increase in EV numbers statistics, effect of EV battery waste on soil, ground water and effect of recycling Li-ion batteries on environment and human health. The study indicates that there is a need for the development of sustainable battery chemistry from an environmental perspective. The systematic review indicates a need for research in the area of developing sustainable waste management and recycling technique for EoL lithium-ion batteries from the perspective of soil, groundwater contamination, and human health impact.
    Keywords: electric vehicles; lithium-ion batteries; waste flows; landfills; end-of-life; EoL; recycling techniques.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10037666
  • Profile Modeling of Solid Waste Generation of Non-household Establishments in Butuan City   Order a copy of this article
    by Jan Nino Tinio, Breix Michael Agua 
    Abstract: This study focused on the solid waste generation of establishments in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte. It aimed to determine some factors affecting the total solid waste daily generation of establishments in the city. Sex of the owner, his/her educational profile, his/her age, civil status, years in the business, type of establishment, and total number of employees were the selected variables considered in this study. It used correlation and Chi-square analyses to determine whether or not the variables are related to or associated with the total daily waste generated by the establishments. The results show that the total number of employees and the type of establishment have a significant relationship/association with the generated waste. This study recommends that the local government of Butuan City should specifically develop a policy to address the amount of trash generated by medium-scale and high-scale establishments.
    Keywords: solid waste generation of non-household establishments; commercial solid waste; factors affecting solid waste generation; policy implications.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10046388
  • Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Treatment   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Shrivastava, Sayak Adhikari, Sayanti Das, Shaba Khan, Shilpi Shaw, Sneha Jyoti 
    Abstract: The entire water treatment and management process is a challenging and time consuming process. Traditional methods, if continued to use for the next ten years it might never lead to improvement in the water scenarios. Therefore, a smart water quality measurement and its treatment is utmost important. The proposed model suggests the use of latest and advanced technological equipment to detect the abnormalities at a faster rate and carry out the treatment with equal efficiency and speed. The main aim of the proposed system is to determine the physical parameters of impure water such as temperature and turbidity and treat these parameters to its standard values to make the waste water suitable for reuse. The encouraging results obtained using proposed system demonstrate that it is able to measure the temperature and turbidity of impure water and bring the values of these parameters to its desired level in real time.
    Keywords: water quality monitoring; treatment; temperature; turbidity; IoT; sensors; microcontroller; cloud computing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038274
  • Experimental investigation of lab scaled sink & float based segregation process for mixed municipal solid waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Prashant Shukla, Pankaj Sharma, Shyam Pandey 
    Abstract: Segregation of municipal solid waste at source lies at the heart of good waste management. Source segregation improves collection and processing efficiency of municipal solid waste management system. But ensuring segregation at source requires better infrastructure and strict compliance systems. That is why most of the urban local bodies of the different developing countries are struggling to manage their solid waste. Such scenario project a need to intervene a segregation approach which can minimise the dependency over source segregation practice. Hence, for inspecting an economical approach for MSW segregation, an experimental investigation has been done to analyse the effect of sink and float separation process on varied sample quantity of mixed MSW. This paper presents the experimental observations and the performance analysis of the segregation process, which will help to check the feasibility of approach and bring out the optimised working model of the lab scaled setup.
    Keywords: segregation of municipal solid waste; sink and float-based segregation; solid waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038276
  • Use of advanced oxidative processes (O3/H2O2) for the treatment of wastewater coming from an anaerobic process   Order a copy of this article
    by Vicente Elicio Porfiro Sales Da Silva, Adriana Guimarães Costa, Hugo Leonardo De Brito Buarque 
    Abstract: The work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of disinfection using ozone with hydrogen peroxide. Firstly, the affluent was characterised. Next, the behaviour of each constituent of peroxone was compared to the peroxone itself. Finally, was defined the optimal operating conditions of oxygen flow, ozone dosage and H2O2/O3 ratio. It was observed that the disinfectant efficiency of the peroxone is greater than the efficiency of its constituents individually. In addition, there are significant removals of 76% turbidity, 50% ammonia, and 70% COD and SST. After the completion of the three experimental plans, it was found that the optimal ozone dosage is 9.8 mg/L and the optimal H2O2/O3 ratio is 2.2 mol/mol. Thus, it is observed that the real time application of use of ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide is promising in the treatment of effluents, especially those treated anaerobically.
    Keywords: experimental plans; faecal indicators; peroxone; sewage disinfection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038277
  • Human Resource Factor in Waste Management Practices in Construction Industry for Sustainability   Order a copy of this article
    by KAVULURU VENUGOPAL, Abhilasha Ambatipudi 
    Abstract: This paper intends to emphasise the existing problems of construction material waste and its management that occurs in the process of construction. The study deals with how human resource development interventions manage waste with its tools of reduce, reuse recycle and recover (4Rs). The reason for on-site waste is mishandling of material by unskilled work-force at ground level; result of ineffective regulation of the concerned managers. Failure of beforehand estimation of material requirement, methods and motivations is a reason for waste. Apt inventory of building material management and advanced pro-environmental construction designs adaptation that minimises loss of material and time prevail in traditional construction methods are the function of effective human resource factor. A thorough assimilation is drawn from literature reviews to consolidate the necessity of human resource factor. Hence environmental sustainability depends on 4Rs with human interventions. The study is purely conceptual one at managerial level.
    Keywords: construction industry; environmental sustainability; four R’s; human resources; managers; methods and motivations; waste-management practices; work-force.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038278
  • The Significant Variables Of Effluent Constructed Wetlands Treated Domestic Wastewater By A Subset Regression Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Amjad Hussein, Ali Sadig 
    Abstract: Domestic wastewater with/without petroleum was treated by vertical flow constructed wetlands under different set-up designs and operation conditions. These conditions include different aggregate diameters, contact time, resting time, and chemical oxygen demand. The physical and chemical measurements of effluents were obtained. These measurements are total petroleum hydrocarbons; chemical oxygen demand; biochemical oxygen demand; ammonia-nitrogen; nitrate-nitrogen; ortho-phosphate-phosphorous; suspended solids; turbidity and pH. This research aims to find out which measures are significantly effective by using the subset selected regression model. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand; biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen have significantly effective (P < 0.05), and they have a direct effect on selection, which filter is the best choice.
    Keywords: environment; wastewater; constructed wetlands; subset regression; chemical oxygen demand; COD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038285
  • Landfill site selection using GIS and multi-criteria decision-making. Case study of a region in Morocco   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdellah OUIGMANE, Otmane Boudouch, Aziz Hasib, Reda Elkacmi, Omar Ouhsine, Mohamed Berkani 
    Abstract: In Morocco, landfilling is the most common method of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. The first step in a controlled landfill project is a site selection in order to minimise the impact on the environment and health. Almost all of the waste generated in the Agadir Ida Outanae and Inezgane-Ait Melloul prefectures is buried in the Tamelest landfill, which has several problems as under-sizing of leachate storage ponds and olfactory nuisance. It becomes necessary to find a new site to implement a new controlled landfill. In this study, the selection of the new site of sanitary landfill is obtained thanks to development of a geographic information systems (GIS), assessment of free surfaces and a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). A field visit confirmed the results of the study; the site is located in the municipality of Amsekroud, which is part of the Agadir Ida Outanane prefecture. The results of the multi-criteria analysis were confirmed by the VIROK method.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; site selection; geographical information system; GIS; multi-criteria decision-making; MCDM; landfill; Morocco.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038515
  • Waste Management and Private Sector Participation- Operational and Behavioural Perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajiv Shah, Samapti Guha 
    Abstract: Municipal bodies in developing countries are largely occupied with management of solid waste. These municipal bodies are unable to deal effectively with the waste and are unable to recover maximum energy from the waste. In India, the participation of private sector in solid waste management (SWM) has not been widespread. This study tries to explore the perceived reasons for this lack of participation. Using the case study method, four cases of SWM firms in two different cities in India, Ahmedabad and Bangalore are studied and analysed. Six semi-structured and in-depth interviews of key persons in these firms are conducted using open ended questions and themes are generated from this data. Three major reasons for reduced private participation in the waste management activities as perceived by these respondents are: 1) lack of awareness of the value of waste; 2) absence of segregating behaviour; 3) low prioritisation by governing bodies.
    Keywords: waste management; solid waste management; environmental policy; urban local bodies; ULBs; waste segregation; private sector participation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038521
  • Current status of municipal solid waste in medium-sized Brazilian cities through integrated management   Order a copy of this article
    by Valdir Eduardo Olivo, Pedro D.M. Prietto, Eduardo P. Korf 
    Abstract: Impacts related to inadequate waste management have been extensively studied and it is important to know the current situation of municipalities regarding the execution of public waste management services. In this context, this work aimed to present an overview of integrated solid waste management in Brazilian medium-sized cities. A total of 176 municipalities with a population of 100,000 to 250,000 inhabitants were evaluated, and eight indicators were considered to assess the integrated sustainable waste management. The average generation of municipal solid waste in medium-sized municipalities was 0.91 kg/person/day. The waste collection covers 95% of the urban population and 70% of the cities destine their waste to landfills. The rate of recovery of recyclables was 2.56%. In conclusion, municipalities need to develop an integrated waste management plan to address local difficulties, the plan must consider the social, environmental, economic and political aspects.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; waste management; current status; medium-sized cities; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038699
  • A Study of Barriers in Healthcare Waste Management Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek Raj, Cherian Samuel 
    Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) identified healthcare waste as highly infectious and a threat to the environment and human health. Indias current healthcare waste management system has certain limitations, which lead to ineffective waste handling practices. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to: first, identify the critical barriers that hinder Indias healthcare waste management (HCWM) systems. Secondly, define all barriers into four quadrants depending upon their driving and dependence power and at last classified them as cause and effect. HCWM system barriers were identified through the literature, field surveys, and brainstorming sessions. The hierarchal and contextual relationships among the barriers were analysed using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). Using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), barriers are classified as cause and effect. In total, 15 HCWM system barriers were identified and placed in seven different ISM model hierarchy levels, and eight barriers are found as the cause. The model will help hospital managers and pollution control boards to make policies and find out the mutual relationship and interlinking among the barriers.
    Keywords: barriers; DEMATEL; healthcare; waste management; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; MICMAC analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10038700
  • Removal of phosphate from simulated domestic waste water using sorbents under constructed wetland   Order a copy of this article
    by Felicia Danso, Eric Kwesi Nartey, Gabriel Nii Noi Dowuona, Daniel Amoako Darko, Thomas Aquinas Adjadeh, Kofi Budu Laryea 
    Abstract: As an affordable method of removing phosphorus from wastewater, a vertical flow wetland was constructed in pots using a kaolinitic rich Rhodic Kandiustalf as a basal soil and rice variety, KRC Baika, as the wetland plant to remove P from a 300 mg P/L laboratory prepared waste water. Charcoal, corncob and bagasse were added as sorbents to improve the wetlands phosphorus removal ability. The effluents were analysed weekly for phosphorus and pH. The capacity of the wetland in phosphorus removal was on the average improved by about 6%, 25% and 27%, respectively, when charcoal, bagasse and corncob were added. The P removal abilities of the components of the wetland were in the order of rice plant > substrate-sorbent > basal soil. The bagasse amended wetland is the preferred choice as in addition to significantly reducing the concentration of P in simulated waste water, effluents pH after treatment were within acceptable standards for discharge into natural water bodies
    Keywords: bagasse; charcoal; corncob; phosphate; sorbents; wetland.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056345
  • Estimation of primary and secondary waste field capacity in an arid and semi-arid region: a case study of Aradkouh, Tehran   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahdi Ghasemi, Hossein Ghiasinejad, Majid Hosseinzadeh 
    Abstract: In this study, a developed model is established to estimate the landfill leachate quantity in arid and semi-arid regions. Based on a similar model that has been developed in Germany, a new model is proposed with regards to the weather conditions and waste characteristics in Iran. The calculated values were compared with real data that is obtained by the construction of two anaerobic test cells (32 x 50 m2 ) in Aradkouh landfill (longitude = 51°20', latitude = 35°27' degrees). In the northern cell, there was no leachate recirculation, whereas, in the southern cell, 430 m3 leachate was injected that lead to 16 m3 leachate production due to recirculation. The results show that although both cells have the same area and waste characteristics, the waste field capacity of each cell differed, due to the secondary waste field capacity which emerges thanks to recirculation, and was calculated at 32.5% and 45% in southern and northern cells, respectively.
    Keywords: Aradlouh landfill; leachate recirculation; arid and semi-arid regions; waste field capacity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055803
  • Compliance of E-Waste (Management) Rules in the Government of Assam Offices at Dibrugarh, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Himadri Barman, Debjani Deb 
    Abstract: Like the rest of the world, e-waste is growing at a fast pace in India. Unfortunately, e-waste in India is largely handled by the unorganised sector which adopts crude practices to dispose and recycle the e-wastes. The result is damage to the environment as well as health hazards for the people handling them. Taking cognisance of the situation, the Government of India notified the E-waste (Management) Rules, 2016 for scientific and environmentally responsible management of e-wastes in India. These rules were amended further in 2018 to be called the E-waste (Management) Amendment Rules, 2018. Government establishments are expected to comply with the Rules. This study attempts to understand the compliance of the Rules in the Government of Assam Offices at Dibrugarh, India. The study reveals that the compliance of the E-waste (Management) Rules in the Government of Assam offices at Dibrugarh is nothing to write about and much needs to be done.
    Keywords: Assam; bulk consumer; compliance; Dibrugarh; electric and electronic equipment; environment hazard; e-waste; government; India; rules.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10039071
  • Assessing the disposal practices and urban mining potential of e-waste among the ranked engineering institutions in India to achieve sustainable developments   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Kiran, S. Prasanna Venkatesan, Sahil Pramod Jagdhane, K. Nalini 
    Abstract: Engineering institutions in India contribute significantly to the rapidly growing e-waste. E-waste management within higher education institutions enables to achieve the goal of becoming a sustainable organisation. The objective of this research is to assess the disposal practices, in-use, and hibernating stocks of mobile phones and information technology (IT) equipment among the students of National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) ranked engineering institutions in India. An online survey was conducted among the students, and the number of devices (million units) in hibernation and the materials (metric tons) presented in them are estimated. From the results, it is found that nearly 0.37 million devices are in hibernation, of which mobile phones account for 38%. The quantity of common metals, precious metals, and plastics present in the hibernating stocks is estimated to be 385, 3.2, and 203 metric tons, respectively. Suggestions to exploit urban mining in engineering institutions to promote sustainability are also provided.
    Keywords: e-waste; in-use and hibernating stocks; mobile phones; information technology equipment disposal; awareness; sustainable waste management; national institutional framework; NIRF; ranking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10039173
  • Multi-headed CNN-GRU Model for Particulate Matter(PM2.5) Prediction in Smart Cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpa Sonawani, Kailas Patil, Prawit Chumchu 
    Abstract: Air pollution is becoming a major concern these days considering the increased number of vehicles on roads and industrialisation. This is creating a higher impact on human health. To deal with pollution levels and control it in smart city environment, predicting pollution level at a higher accuracy is very important. This will help monitor air quality and take measures to prevent pollution occurrence and avoid its effect. The objective of this work is to propose a novel multi-headed CNN-GRU model which has a higher accuracy. This model is comprising of multiple convolutional neural network (CNN) models for capturing the features of multiple variables of air pollutant concentration data. Information is then concatenated and transferred to the gated recurrent unit (GRU) layers and then to dense layer for single output as a next hour pollution concentration prediction. The model gives best performance when compared to other deep learning models.
    Keywords: air pollution; air quality; multi-headed CNN-GRU; deep learning; PM2.5; particulate matter; time series forecasting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10039181
  • Application of Arachis Hypogaea as Natural Coagulant for Turbidity Removal   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdallah Bader Roshdy Owaidhah, Gasim Hayder Ahmed Salih, Yung-Tse Hung 
    Abstract: Natural water systems are contaminated by various point and non-point sources because of industrialisation, urbanisation and other developmental activities. Pollutants that enter the water changes the water physical, chemical and biological properties. In addition, most of the materials used in the water treatment during coagulation are chemicals. However, the long and short-term effect of chemical encouraged researchers to look into other options for natural coagulants. In this study, Arachis hypogaea was used to remove turbidity from synthetic wastewater. During lab experiment, synthetic wastewater was adjusted to different initial turbidity of 5.02, 50.4 and 150 NTU, and jar test was used to define the optimum type of stock solution. The results obtained from the study shows that the Arachis hypogaea decreased the turbidity from 150 to 5.87 NTU. This implies that Arachis hypogaea can be used as a natural coagulant in replacement of chemical coagulants to improve water quality.
    Keywords: natural coagulants; pH; colour; jar test; water treatment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10039634
  • Study of Issues of ELV management in India: a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: In todays developing world most of the industry is lagging due to scarcity of materials and facing challenges in meeting that demand. The demand for resources increased in the automobile industry also. The end-of-life vehicle (ELV) can meet the demand by renewing and recycling the material. Previous researchers identified the issues related to ELV recovery in India. In this paper, we analyse the issues for an automobile company that focuses on product recovery activities. In this study, we used the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process method to prioritise the issues based on the experts opinion. The findings of this paper help to take necessary steps to remove the boundaries of ELV recovery management of automobile sector in India.
    Keywords: ELV management; fuzzy AHP; automobile industry; product recovery.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10039804
  • GIS-Based tools for optimizing municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes   Order a copy of this article
    by Samra Fatima, Zulfa Hanan Ash’aari, Firuz Muhammad Ramli, Amir Hamzah Sharaai, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry 
    Abstract: The selection of optimal routes can save time and cost in handling the waste. Thus, the current study was designed to optimise the waste disposal routes with the possible shortest travel time using geographic information system (GIS). The collected data were analysed through statistical tools, including Pearsons correlation and regression analysis, using SPSS, version 20. The explanation from the linear regression analysis indicated that 67.4% of the variables selected for the regression gave reasonable indications for the analysis of waste transportation time in the study area. In addition, the other independent variables such as population and number of stops also have a positive and significant impact on the travel time. The resulted predictive model showed the best suitability that could be implemented to resolve the basic solid waste problems in other cities of Pakistan. Furthermore, it can be used to capture data from different fields to resolve transport problems.
    Keywords: waste management; geographic information system; GIS; network analysis; regression analysis; shortest routes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10039859
  • Analysing the circular economy implementation in the European countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohit Panchal, Anju Singh 
    Abstract: This is a comprehensive study on registered good practices, strategies, extent of commitments of European circular economy stakeholder platform, and circular economy implementation in European countries. Good practices, strategies and commitments are mapped against circular economy principles and indicators. Further, the study gives a detailed analysis of European countries, key areas, scope, and stakeholders involved in implementing circular economy. Furthermore, in terms of the stakeholders involvement in implementing circular economy initiatives, the focus has primarily been on European cities that are in turn primarily governed by businesses. Notably, based on our analysis, we note that the most resourceful country is the Netherlands; and its dominant area of the circular economy includes waste management. Herein, the main principle is recycling, followed by reuse, repair, and remanufacturing. The study would be helpful for European countries in implementing circular economy principles.
    Keywords: circular economy; assessment; indicator; review; Europe; circular economy stakeholder platform.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055296
    by Samra Razaq, Muhammad Khalid Bashir, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Hassan Mahboob, Asad Afzal Humayon, Mustafa KAN 
    Abstract: The objectives of this study were assessment of information level of households regarding waste management, perception regarding recycling benefits, and assessment of willingness of households to participate in waste management. Data were collected through a well-prepared questionnaire from eight areas of Faisalabad. A stratified random sampling technique was used for this purpose. A sample of 240 respondents was selected and 30 respondents from each area. Descriptive statistics were applied to assess information level and perception about recycling benefits. Moreover, they were well aware of its use in recycling. Path analysis was applied to assess the willingness to participate in waste management. Results showed that space and price had a significant and positive impact on waste separation at a 5% significance level. The government needs to make new laws regarding waste management and public participation must be focused during making these laws.
    Keywords: waste; recycling; environment; WTP; Faisalabad.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10040362
  • E-waste related statutes in Bangladesh and the negative impacts of e-waste on the environment and human health: An Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kudrat-E Khuda 
    Abstract: Technology has made the life of Bangladeshi people very flexible with new inventions. Here the people depend on technological devices. These devices, along with various facilities, have also invited a series of problems mostly due to the lack of proper management. The Bangladeshi citizens often leave electronic devices that went bad or became unusable, in landfills, rivers, canals, and open spaces. As these devices possess a variety of toxic substances, dumping huge amounts of electronic waste can pollute the environment and threaten human health. As a result, it is important to take the required measures to prevent potential e-waste-related problems. In spite of the alarming levels of e-pollution in Bangladesh, the concerned authorities are yet to take any effective step or formulate any legislation to prevent the existing e pollution. Moreover, the prevailing environmental laws are not adequate to address the issue and its application is still largely absent.
    Keywords: approach; Bangladesh; e-waste; environment; policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10040363
  • Management and Disposal of Sanitary Solid Waste: An Obscured Menace in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Saikat Dutta, R.S.S. Alekhya, B. Chakradhar, Sasi Jyothsna Tadinada 
    Abstract: India is one of the most populous and vast countries of the world with around 1.39 billion people (January 2021) contributing around 17.7% of the total world population. Of this, female population is around 662.90 million making up to 48.03% of the total population covering with different age groups. The most significant age group which contributes largest quantities of sanitary solid waste falls between 1147 years, which is approximately around 359 million Indian women, contributing around 9,000 tonnes of sanitary wastes. For a society it is important to have healthy girl child and women hence maintaining a proper menstrual hygiene is interlinked. Sanitary waste disposal is a worldwide problem due to the complexity of material used in the products and their improper ways of disposal causing threat to health, hygiene and the environment. This paper focuses on creating awareness on generation and handling of sanitary waste in India and the latest technologies available for handling such wastes.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; sanitary waste; feminine products; landfill; Swachh Bharat Mission.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10043792
  • Distribution, Human and Ecological Risks of Microplastics in African Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ababo Workineh Tadesse  
    Abstract: The presence of microplastics in the environment is progressively increasing and becoming an environmental concern in Africa. Despite the production and use of plastics, there is dearth of information and knowledge about negative impacts of these new emerging pollutants. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation activities increase the rate of various pollutants in the environment. The main objective of this review was to summarise and discuss the current status of microplastics pollution in African environment. In addition, this review highlights the knowledge gaps that exist on microplastics pollution in African countries. To assess and discuss some information about microplastics in the environment, the published articles, reviews and other online materials were revised. Different papers were critically reviewed and provide an overview of the current, distribution, knowledge gap and abundance of microplastics in African environment. The obtained data indicated that microplastics are highly found in African environment. Few studies were carried out in aquatic environment and there is lack of research on the presence of microplastics in African terrestrial environment. Therefore, this review recommend, more studies on the presence of microplastics in African environment.
    Keywords: microplastics; risks; emerging pollutants; human health; Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10040687
  • Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of e-waste among dental students: a cross sectional survey.   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Environmental crisis and health risk due to improper e-waste management is a growing concern in India. The majority of the e-waste reaches the unorganised and informal recycling sector mainly due to a lack of awareness of proper disposal methods. This study aimed to assess the levels of knowledge, attitude, and practices of e-waste and its management among dental students. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted using a self-made and pre-tested questionnaire in a dental school in Kerala, India. The questionnaire has 16 questions to assess knowledge, nine questions for attitude, and three questions for practices. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied using SPSS software. A total of 221 participants were included in the analyses. The mean age of participants was 22
    Keywords: e-waste; dental; students; cross-sectional; questionnaire; knowledge; attitude; practice.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10041332
  • Mini plasma waste plant: a solution to COVID-19 biomedical waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Mukesh Kumar, S.K. Singh 
    Abstract: World environmental health is threatened by biomedical waste. The plastic footprint is increasing by the day due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Biomedical waste (BMW) due to COVID-19 is creating a problem for the survival of human beings. The high survival rate of the COVID-19 virus in the human body, air, and on any material is a matter of concern. The problem of management of BMW disposal gets aggravated due to increasing waste volume and shortage of waste treatment plants. The waste management technologies such as incineration, autoclaving, chemical treatment, dry heat technologies, and plasma-based technology can also deal with such infectious waste. In this paper artificial intelligence equipped with a mini plasma waste plant model for waste volume reduction and as well as a waste-to-value solution with zero infection risk has been discussed. The proposed waste power plant model with a tunnel and Vent webs shall be a better alternative approach for COVID-19 BMW management.
    Keywords: bio-medical waste; COVID-19; Covid-19 waste; plasma waste technology; artificial intelligence; risk minimisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055297
  • Fabrication and characterisation of epoxy-based composite utilising PET waste plastic and bamboo   Order a copy of this article
    by Debendra Kalita, Ayush Srivastav, Pura Ressang, Tarh Kiba, Vinod Yadav 
    Abstract: Bamboo grows abundantly in most parts of the world and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is ubiquitous in our day-to-day lives in the form of water bottles, plastic containers, food packing, etc. The environmental pollution caused by waste PET disposal is an urgent environmental issue which can be addressed by reusing the disposed PET in construction and decoration. The aim of this work is to fabricate a composite using three components viz., raw bamboo, PET waste plastic and resin that can be used in manufacturing and construction; thereby reducing the PET waste contributing to environmental pollution. Four tests viz., impact, tensile, compression and centre-point bending are performed with two replicate specimens in each case to calculate the mechanical properties of the proposed composite. The results presented are shown that the proposed composite methodology requires scientific and holistic approach to make a sustainable alternative material for infrastructure development especially in rural areas.
    Keywords: bamboo; PET waste plastic; resin; composite; plastic waste management; sustainable development; polyethylene terephthalate; PET.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055298
    by M. Fernanda Gazulla, M. Jesús Ventura, Marta Rodrigo, Mónica Orduña, Cristina Andreu, Eulalia Zumaquero 
    Abstract: Co/Al blue ceramic pigment has been synthesised using a Co3O4 of high purity recovered from the active cathode material of spent lithium-ion batteries. The synthesised pigment showed equal technical and aesthetic characteristics to those of the standard one, prepared using commercial Co3O4. Active cathode material was obtained using a physical semiautomatic separation process designed to minimise the contamination of the desired material. As a result of this study, not only the recycling of lithium-ion batteries for environmental protection is addressed but also the resource conservation as cobalt is considered a critical raw material by the European Commission. The different active cathode materials were analysed using different analytical techniques to know the concentration of the element of interest (Co) and the presence of impurities, such as Al, Cu, F, P, etc., as these can reduce the quality of the product recovered.
    Keywords: spent lithium-ion battery; active cathode material; recycling process; cobalt recovery; blue ceramic pigment; waste management; environment protection; secondary raw materials; resource conservation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10041786
  • Challenges in Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Patna: A case study of Patna Municipal Corporation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sneha Swarup, Usha Verma, Ravish Kumar 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a part of public health and sanitation which is an obligatory function of urban local bodies (ULBs) of all districts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of quality and quantitative analysis of solid waste of Patna Municipal Corporation (PMC), which incorporates to identify the sources and quantity of solid waste generation. The objective of this paper is to analyses the financial assistance and infrastructural facilities available for SWM in PMC. The study has been carried out to evaluate the current challenges faced by PMC for the proper management of solid waste. The adopted strategies of PMC are critically reviewed with the help of both primary and secondary data sources. The major findings of this paper are that the shortage of financial supports, lack of infrastructure and inefficient policies regarding waste management are the major challenges faced by PMC today. The study drives the researcher to suggest some measures to eradicate the challenges and opt for a sustainable SWM plan for PMC.
    Keywords: infrastructural constraints; financial impediments; inefficient policies; solid waste management; SWM; Patna Municipal Corporation; PMC; urban local bodies; ULBs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047216
    by Nik Nor Rahimah Nik Ab Rahim, Jamal Othman 
    Abstract: Environmental impacts from poor landfilling practice have been a long-time concern in Kota Bharu, a populated city in Peninsula Malaysia. This requires a sustainable disposal solution, a sanitary landfill, but such a project can turn into a failure without household demand side information. This study investigated the willingness of households to pay for a sanitary landfill by employing a survey-based method known as choice modelling. This is used to obtain the willingness of households to pay towards the environmental benefits of a sanitary landfill described by attributes of controlled leachate discharge, reduced intensity of bad odour, reduced disease vector and promotion of a scenic view. The resulting estimates show positive willingness to pay for each attribute (ranging from RM2.12 to RM12.61) and for the sanitary landfill (ranging from RM7.62 to RM10.41). The gathered information benefits policymakers to make decisions that match the demands of households so as to avoid the likelihood of opposition and project infeasibility.
    Keywords: non-market valuation; choice modelling; sanitary landfill; solid waste disposal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042085
  • Novel Poly (3 - hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production using Bacillus subtilis NG220 and watermelon derived substrates   Order a copy of this article
    by Sudad Dayl, Rawa Yousuf 
    Abstract: Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a typical microbial bio-polyester reserve material; known as green plastics, which produced under controlled conditions as intracellular products of the secondary metabolism of diverse gram-negative/positive bacteria and various extremophiles archaea. Although PHB has properties allowing being very attractive, it is too expensive to compete with conventional and non-biodegradable plastics. Feasibility of this research to evaluate the suitability of using a watermelon-derived media as an alternative substrate for PHB synthesis under stress conditions was examined. Results, include the most nutrients extraction, indicated that the watermelon seeds contain a high content of nutrients makes them a promising candidate of substrate material for microbial cell growth. As well as a considerable quantity of PHB granules can be accumulated without adding any nutrients subjunctive. The total carbon concentration was 11.8 g/l, giving the highest PHB content of 65% and PHB concentration 4.5 g/l and total biomass 6.65 g/l.
    Keywords: Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate); PHB; watermelon seeds; Bacillus subtilis NG220; agricultural waste.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042086
  • Socio-Technical Transformations of Indore’s Waste Management Infrastructure   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankit Tiwari, Pritee Sharma 
    Abstract: Today the problem of waste is the focus in the planning agenda of the Indian government. With the aim of improved waste management, sanitation, and hygiene in 2014 the Swachh Bharat Mission was launched. This Mission has created a behaviour change in the MSW perspective and changed the scope and scale of privatisation into waste management systems. The waste in India, not simply a material, but it is associated with a complex negative connotation of the class and caste. Traditional waste management provides employment and low entry-cost opportunity for deprived people struggling for their livelihood. The privatisation of SWM services increases the penetration of formal or private into the domain of the waste pickers. This paper takes the case of Indore city which shown a positive response in MSW management as compared to other cities of the country. This paper highlights how the waste pickers and Informal sectors of Indore city are affected (positively or negatively) by the formal rights-designation system with an institutional policy change, previous an open-access regime. The key finding highlights the traces and dynamics of transformation. This paper also highlighted that the city has the potential for becoming environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable with possible changes.
    Keywords: informal waste sector; municipal solid waste; privatisation; urban commons; Swachh Bharat mission and smart city mission.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042087
  • Aging effect on the bearing capacity of landfills: A field study experiment   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Mozouni, Ali Ghanbari, Gholamreza Asadolah Fardi 
    Abstract: The complete design of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill requires geotechnical parameters of the landfill bed. In the present study, several plate load tests (PLT) with plates 450 mm in diameter were performed on a landfill surface with different ages in the Karaj landfill in Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate bearing capacity, the modulus of elasticity, and the modulus of subgrade reaction with increasing age of burial. The exact design of landfills, slope stability analysis, and drainage system, as well as gas well integrity are contingent upon these parameters. The results of the plate load tests revealed that the bearing capacity, the modulus of elasticity, and the modulus of Subgrade reaction increased considerably with MSW age. The bearing capacity rose by approximately 14% and 40% in 6 years and 15 years after dumping, respectively. In addition, the modulus of elasticity increased threefold after 15 years.
    Keywords: aging; bearing capacity; field study; landfill; municipal solid waste; plate load test; PLT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042088
  • An In-depth Literature Review of End-of-Life Vehicle Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Rakesh Shrivastava, Gajanan Badwe, R.P. Mohanty, Gunjan Yadav 
    Abstract: The automotive industry has been a major contributor to the economic growth across the globe. However, the industry has struggled to tackle end-of-life vehicle management issues, which have impacted strongly the sustainability aspects of the products. The purpose of this paper is to classify the research papers, identify the research gaps and discover the future research directions in end-of-life vehicle (ELV) management. The study covers an analysis of recent literature published from 2000 to 2020. A total of 261 articles are analysed and classified into themes; such as ELV management practices, ELV legislation, ELV recovery strategies, automotive shredder residue (ASR), environmental impacts, and ELV economics. The study has utility for the auto manufacturers, auto users, academicians and researchers engaged in the field of ELV management to develop a better understanding of the issues and contribute to sustainable development.
    Keywords: end-of-life vehicle management; recycling; environmental impacts; economics; sustainability; automotive industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10042089
  • Influence of fine waste from dimension stone processing on vermicomposting   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirna A. Neves, Rodrigo S. De Faria, Eduardo De Sá Mendonça 
    Abstract: The fine wastes from dimension stone processing, generated when blocks of rock are cut into wall tiles, contain chemical elements essential for mineral enrichment of soil. However, these wastes have macro and micronutrients stocked in the crystalline structure of silicate minerals. The aim of this work was to use the vermicomposting process for increasing the release of these nutrients from dimension stone residues. In laboratory, different percentages of rock waste were mixed with an organic substrate, where worms (Eisenia foetida) were inoculated and maintained for 180 days. Vermicomposting occurred in all the treatments but was more efficient in the treatment with 25% of rock waste mixed into the organic matter. During the vermicomposting process, the rock powder added elements to the substrate, raising the concentration of Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Na and B. The pH-values increased, but remained at safe levels, even in the treatment with 50% of rock waste.
    Keywords: stone meal; recycling; humus; earthworm; Eisenia foetida.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055299
  • Regionalisation studies for municipal solid waste management in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Aline Pimentel Gomes, Pedro D.M. Prietto, Rosa Maria Locatelli Kalil, Adalberto Pandolfo, Sergio Reyes 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) management at the regional level has become increasingly important over the last years. The regionalisation studies evaluate ideal arrangements of municipalities to constitute consortia for sharing infrastructure and management. A document analysis of regionalisation studies for MSW management from 18 Brazilian states was made in order to identify and evaluate the shape of the regions, the criteria and the methods used. The results evidenced a big difference regarding the number of regions proposed, the number of municipalities, the area and population of each region, the environmental, economic, social and political criteria, the hierarchy and the tools used. There is a lack of padronisation in the elaboration of these studies and the development of a consistent method, with the definition of hierarchical criteria, the use of appropriate geospatial tools, as weel as the social participation in the decision-making process can contribute to the elaboration of regionalisation studies.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; waste management; regionalisation for waste management; public consortia; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055300
  • Role of Attitude, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Environmental Knowledge on Behavioral Intentions of Householders Toward participating in Solid Waste Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadia A. Abdulghaffar, Hind A. Bakr 
    Abstract: An individual adopts pro-environmental behaviour that is assumed protective by society for the environment. A series of actions is implied that eradicates the harm majorly done to the environment. Therefore, this study aims to examine the role of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and environmental knowledge on householders behavioural intentions toward solid waste management (SWM) and the extent of householders participation in Jeddah. A descriptive correlational study design has been adopted to determine the relationship between SWM determinants and behavioural intentions of 1038 Jeddah householders. Structural equation modelling using SMART-PLS (partial least squares) has been performed to analyse the data collected. The results have shown a significant and positive relationship between individual attitudes and intentions (r = 0.605, p = 0.00), subjective norms and intentions (r = 0.444, p = 0.00), perceived behavioural control (r = 0.227, p = 0.00), level of awareness (r = 0.320, p = 0.00), environmental knowledge (r = 0.560, p = 0.00), and behaviour of participating (r = 0.604, p = 0.00). Attitude, subjective norms, environmental knowledge, perceived behavioural control, and awareness level positively influence the behavioural intentions of Jeddah householders to participate in SWM activities actively.
    Keywords: behavioural intentions; householders; Saudi Arabia; solid waste management; theory of planned behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042289
  • Process capability study of domestic organic waste composting process a pilot scale case study in rural India   Order a copy of this article
    by G.V.S.S. Sharma, M. Srinivasa Rao, V. Rambabu, M.S. Atchuth Prasad 
    Abstract: This study enlists the different factors controlling the domestic waste composting process and subsequently gives details on the process improvement of identified critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristics of the house hold organic waste composting process. Define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC) approach is adopted for confirming an enhancement in the process capability levels of the CTQ characteristic. Ishikawa diagram is used for finding the potential causes responsible for the process deviation. Prioritisation of corrective actions for causal factors is carried out by means process failure modes and effects analysis (PFMEA). Process monitoring charts are used the study of variations in the process capability index of the process, at the four sigma level, which is equal to the value of 1.33. By employing DMAIC approach, the CP and CPK registered a final values of 3.29 and 2.26 from an initial minimum values of 0.988214 and 0.21496 respectively.
    Keywords: composting; process capability; DMAIC; Ishikawa diagram; PFMEA; critical-to-quality characteristic; CTQ; circular economy; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055301
  • An approach for quantifying the benefits of treating biodegradable municipal solid waste: a case-study from the city of Jambi, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by João Aleluia 
    Abstract: The treatment of solid waste and its processing into resources can result in multiple benefits to society. Many of these are, however, underestimated or simply not taken into account in decision-making processes. This article proposes an approach to support policymakers quantifying these benefits. It focuses on the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste, which usually accounts for more than 50% of waste streams in developing countries. A case-study was adopted to illustrate the application of the approach, with the city of Jambi, Indonesia, selected to this end. The case-study assessed the benefits of adopting biological treatment methods in alternative to the baseline practice of landfilling waste. Composting was the method with the highest level of benefits associated, estimated at 162 USD per ton of waste processed. The case-study also demonstrates the importance of benefit quantification as a basis to properly design public policy instruments in support of waste treatment approaches.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; organic solid waste; anaerobic digestion; composting; developing Asia; Indonesia; case-study; cost-benefit analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042432
  • Efficiency and Performance of Solid Waste Management in Cumilla City Corporation (CuCC), Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Shapan Chandra Majumder, Rupak Dey, Tasfia Zahan Ria, Md. Hasanur Rahman 
    Abstract: Proper management of solid wastes may provide us a healthy life and also a healthy earth. But in recent years in Bangladesh solid waste has become a social problem which is also considered as an environmental hazard because of disposing and managing wastes improperly. This paper aims to assess the efficiency and performance of solid waste management (SWM) in Cumilla City Corporation (CuCC). A structured questionnaire survey had been used for the primary data collection using simple random probability sampling. The findings of the study show that there is not adequate proper management for solid waste in the study area. As a result, the efficiency of CuCC is not satisfactory and the management system is not effective.
    Keywords: Cumilla City Corporation; CuCC; waste management; disposal; environmental impact; health impact; efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042527
  • Performance of a UASB reactor for the treatment of anionic surfactant wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by Matheus Marques Pizzo, Juliana Braga, Renata Piacentini Rodriguez, Lorena Oliveira Pires, Giselle Patrícia Sancinetti 
    Abstract: This study evaluated the biological removal of organic matter (chemical oxygen demand, COD) and surfactant from laundry wastewater (LW) employing an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor at 30
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion; HRT; laundry wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042692
  • Comparative study of Decrease in Direct (CO2) and Indirect Green House Gases (CO, NOx, SO2) Emissions from the Coal fired Thermal power Plants Using Energy from Municipal Solid Waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushma Verma, Indranil Mukherjee, Barun Mondal, Provas Roy 
    Abstract: India is the third largest producer and fourth largest consumer of electricity in the world, with the installed power capacity having reached 330,860.58 GW as on December 2017 with primary contribution being from coal. Undoubtedly the emissions from using coal as fuel are plenty. The solution forward seems to be the use of non-conventional energy in combination with the available conventional. An attempt has been made in the paper to present a case study of six metros Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi and Bengaluru, in terms of their utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) as an alternate energy source for electrical energy (based on combustion) in reducing the direct (CO2) and indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NOx, SO2) emissions from the coal fed thermal power plants in all the six metros. The savings in GHG emissions have been worked out for these six metros considering individual plants for the year 2011 and also for the year 2021. The results obtained show that considerable reduction in GHG emissions can be achieved by using energy from MSW and it can thus indirectly reduce the pollution too.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; direct and indirect GHG emissions; composition of MSW; ultimate analysis; heat value; daily energy potential; per capita generation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042673
  • Improving operations performance in waste pickers organizations using governance tools   Order a copy of this article
    by José C. M. Ramalho, Juliana P. Tackla, Sarina F. A. Lessa, Luciana H. Yamane, Roquemar L. Baldam, Renato R. Siman 
    Abstract: Waste pickers organisations (WPO) divert recyclable materials from landfills, adding value to the waste, while creating employment, and thus having great social importance. Unfortunately, they have very low efficiency, because of dysfunctions that impede their economic sustainability. By using an exploratory survey, data were collected to perform an organisation strategy study, using the following tools: business model canvas, current reality tree and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) matrix. This resulted in a better understanding of the business, the problems that cause the low efficiency, but also the opportunities that can be used to invert this trend. Moreover, the methodology described in this paper is innovative, as a frequency analysis based on the SWOT matrices of 62 WPOs was compiled. This can be applied to any group of WPOs, especially in developing countries, to identify and understand possible dysfunctions that may affect their operation.
    Keywords: waste pickers organisations; WPOs; municipal solid waste; waste collection; recyclable materials; governance tools.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10042810
  • Multi Criteria Decision Analysis for the identification of feasible rubber waste management alternatives for tire manufacturing industry: A Sri Lankan case study with TOPSIS and SWING   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Varuni Jayasooriya, P.D.P Dasuni 
    Abstract: The waste generated from tire manufacturing process can create long term environmental and health hazards. The present study used a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) based approach to evaluate the feasibility of popular rubber waste management alternatives currently available. Based on expert opinions and a literature survey, 16 criteria, and 6 alternative rubber waste management strategies were identified. The technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method integrated with SWING was applied to identify feasible solid waste management alternatives for waste that generate at the end of the production process from the tire manufacturing industry. Based on the results, pyrolysis was identified as the most feasible waste management solution for rubber waste management which is the priority waste type in the tire manufacturing industry, representing greater closeness to the highest-ranked SWING weights on less public health and safety risks, high revenue generation and marketability, and less waste generation.
    Keywords: multi criteria decision analysis; MCDA; technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution; TOPSIS; solid waste; triple bottom line; tire manufacturing industry; rubber; Sri Lankan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10043073
  • Estimation of Infection from COVID-19 in India using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average model   Order a copy of this article
    by SUNIL GUPTA, Durgansh Sharma 
    Abstract: The impact of corona virus (COVID-19) infection is gradually increasing day by day, because of its high transmission ability. The virus has deeply impacted the global economy, including India, and the number of deaths and positive infections around the world still lies unabated. India recorded its first infection on 30th January 2020, as the first patient tested positive in Kerala for COVID-19. Currently, the figure of infected people and the death rate is very high. The situation needs a forecast infected model that helps predict the exact figure. The prediction allows authorities to take a factual prevention for decision making. We have used the Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average model for Predication of Infection in COVID-19. In this paper, an approximate prediction of new confirmed cases and death cases is performed by using ARIMA based model. Closeness in the analytical and the available results shows the correctness of the proposed ARIMA model. By using the proposed model, an approximate estimation of case count, death count and prediction of cumulative cases in future can be done quite easily. The prediction data shows more than 98 percentage of accuracy, when compared to available actual figures.
    Keywords: COVID-19; infected cases; death rate; ARIMA; forecasting; covidify1.3.0; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10043809
    by Aziah Khamis, Nur Allyssa Mohd Zulfakar 
    Abstract: The world is facing a crisis of insufficient energy to support human life, as the worlds energy demand overgrows in parallel with the worlds population rate and will continue to increase in the future. The usage of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a renewable energy tool is a collective solution to this crisis. This project aims to find a new renewable source of energy as well as to prove and demonstrate the generation of electricity from food waste using MFC. Several manipulated variables were selected to test the maximum power density produced using double chamber MFC such as the different type of food waste, the different pH value for the food waste, the different sizes of the electrode, and the different electrode positioning in the chamber. The experimental results indicate that the best performance of MFC can be attained using fruits that quickly release sugar with a more acidic pH level. The MFC should be prepared using small size electrodes with spaces that were arranged in a vertical position. Therefore, it is proved that energy can be harvest from food waste by using MFC.
    Keywords: bioelectricity; microbial fuel cell; MFC; waste-to-energy; food waste; double chamber; electrodes sizing and positioning; pH level.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10043877
  • People’s awareness, behavior, and willingness about solid waste management in Bhopal city   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahul Wadghane, Omprakash Madguni 
    Abstract: The study identifies solid waste management (SWM) problems in Bhopal, India. Awareness of the segregation, daily waste collection, willingness to use non-plastic products, and willingness to reduce waste at the source has a low positive correlation with a willingness to pay. Only 52.15% of respondents know something about SWM. 39.67% of respondents were not happy about the present SWM. The habit of throwing waste from people is the major problem after irregular sanitary work, harmful consumption patterns and governance. 50.27% of respondents segregated waste, and 94% of the respondents are willing to segregate. 65.76% of respondents have a daily waste collection, and 86.41% of respondents are willing to have a daily collection. 66.12% of respondents were willing to pay extra money for improvement in the SWM. Segregated collection with bins and containers (31.45%) and proper disposal of the solid waste (23.92%) were the top-ranked demands in the existing SWM. 89.50% of the respondents were willing to use non-plastic products. 88.17% of respondents said they are willing to reduce waste at the source.
    Keywords: solid waste management; SWM; respondents; willingness to pay; awareness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10043878
  • Application of artificial neural network in environmental engineering a state-of-the-art review   Order a copy of this article
    by Viren Chandanshive, Ashwini Shanbhag 
    Abstract: The concept of an artificial neural network (ANN) was to imitate the nervous system and human brains activity. Comprehensive literature review revealed that ANNs are widely used in environmental engineering and are recognised in modelling of water quality index and waste-water treatment plant efficiency, as well as in predicting air quality index and noise pollution analysis. This study provides a review of various methodologies and applications in environmental engineering. Accordingly, articles were categorised based on methodology, approach employed, release year, authors, research goals, outcomes, discoveries, solutions, and modelling. A decent corporeal sympathetic ANN approach is summarised in this study. The most significant factors were identified and explained in detail, which will be considered while developing a more efficient neural network model. Furthermore, this research may aid civil and environmental engineers, as well as practitioners, in addressing engineering difficulties and comprehending the applicability of ANN against traditional mathematical approaches.
    Keywords: artificial neural network; ANN; water quality index; wastewater treatment; air quality; prediction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055302
  • Assessment of Soil Quality, Modeling in and around Steel City Rourkela, Odisha, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Trinath Biswal, Pratap Kumar Swain, R.B. Panda 
    Abstract: This work was conducted on assessing the soil quality in and around the steel city Rourkela and its prediction modelling by using regression analysis. The analysed data indicate that the soil is acidic (pH 4.26.0), electrical conductivity (EC) is 342.2680 S/cm, total dissolved solids (TDS) is122.5189.2 mg/l, total organic carbon (TOC) is 0.58-1.46mg/l, total organic matter (TOM) is in the range of 0.41-2.0mg/l, the total N is 0.110.34 mg/l, C/N ratio is in the range of 2.259.1. The C/N ratio is <8.0 indicating infertility of the soil, Na and K is in the required range, whereas TDS is more than the permissible limit. Ni, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Fe are higher than the permissible limit. This research work was carried out in 2019 to aware about the degradation of soil quality and future prediction in and around steel city Rourkela.
    Keywords: total organic carbon; TOC; total organic matter; TOM; pH; soil quality; conductivity; total dissolved solids; TDS; sustainable biological productivity; soil fertility; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10044171
  • Corona Pandemic and Plastic Pollution: A Way Forward   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehjabin Tishan Mahfuz, M. Sarwar Jahan, Shakhawat Hossain, Mubarak A. Khan 
    Abstract: COVID-19 is a corona virus with high rate of human-to-human transmission and mortality. One major consequence of COVID-19 pandemic is the increased use of personal protective equipment (PPE), an essential component for the protection against COVID-19 and other transmissible diseases for healthcare workers and general population. Most of the PPE and biological wrapping materials are made of a petroleum-based polymer, which is non-biodegradable and leads to environmental pollution. This article discusses the preparation and characterisation of a completely biodegradable hybrid biopolymer, made of jute-cellulose derivative with oligo-chitosan. Physico-mechanical, thermal, and degradable properties of cellulose-chitosan biopolymer (CCBP) were studied. The tensile strength of the CCBP is 45 MPa, soluble in normal water, and soapy water within seven days and three minutes. It degrades in soil with 23 months. This technology is aimed to lessen the environmental burden of plastic pollution through accumulation in landfills and air pollution through incineration.
    Keywords: coronavirus; SARS CoV-2; COVID-19; chitosan; oligo-chitosan; jute polymer; personal protective equipment; PPE; plastic pollution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10044178
  • Residents’ Satisfaction of Urban Solid Waste Collection Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown Period in Ede, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Lateef A. Adeniyi, Adewale M. Olayiwola, Sakariyau A. Ademola 
    Abstract: This paper examined the activities of municipal waste collector (MWC) and assessed the satisfaction of Ede residents to the services of MWCs during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were collected from 259 respondents randomly selected from three residential zones in the study area. Data were analysed using residents satisfaction index (RSI). Results indicated that the activities of MWC were irregular during the lockdown period. Furthermore, results showed that residents level of satisfaction with the activities of MWC during the period were core area (RSI = 2.36), intermediate (RSI = 2.03), and transition (RSI = 2.0), while the aggregate was 2.12. The study showed that level of satisfaction derived from services rendered by MWC during the lockdown period was low. Hence, the study concluded that solid waste collection in Ede during the period was poor; majority of the residents rarely felt their impact at a period when their service was mostly needed.
    Keywords: residents’ satisfaction; municipal waste collector; MWC; alternative strategies; urban solid waste collection; COVID-19 pandemic; lockdown; Ede; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051058
  • Effectiveness of cow dung and effective microorganisms on composting of napkins and diapers   Order a copy of this article
    by Namasivayam Vasudevan, Greeshma Odukkathil, Gomathi Ravi 
    Abstract: Absorbent hygiene products (AHPs) have become an indispensable feature of modern-day living for all humans. Absorbent hygiene products (AHPs) are the products designed to absorb excreted body fluids at various stages of a consumers life and are popularly known as diapers, napkins, or sanitary pad. The AHP wastes are not biodegradable under composting conditions unless they are pre-processed. Based on the survey, the total quantity of napkins sold in Chennai was calculated to be approximately 253 tonnes per year. Based on the composition, most of the brands constitute biodegradable material as major component. The napkin contains 60%70% of biodegradable materials and diapers contain 85%92% of the biodegradable materials. In the present study, composting was carried out using amendments like cow dung and effective microbes for composting AHPs (napkins and diapers). The duration of composting was 60 days. pH, moisture, C/N ratio, phosphorus, sodium and potassium were monitored periodically. The final compost characteristics were pH 78, moisture 50%, C/N ratio 1520:1, and phosphorus 23 g/kg. About 70% to 85% of volume and weight reduction were observed during composting.
    Keywords: absorbent hygiene products; AHPs; sanitary pads; diapers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055303
  • Application of Graphene oxide for Fluoride removal: Kinetic and Isotherm study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ram Konale, Nilesh Mahale, Sopan Ingle 
    Abstract: In the present study, graphene oxide (GO) is utilised as an adsorbent for defluoridation from synthetic sample as well as fluorite mine water. A modified Hummers method was adopted for the GO synthesis. The physico-chemical characterisation of the GO was done with FTIR, XRD, FESEM and EDX. The various parameter viz. adsorbent doses (100250 mg/L), contact time (590 min.), pH (210), temperature (298318 K) and initial concentration of fluoride (132 mg/L) were optimised for by GO. The maximum 98.34% fluoride adsorption was achieved by 100 mg/L GO dose in 30 min at pH 6. The adsorption process obeys the pseudo second order kinetics (R2= 0.995), Langmuir (18.86 mg/g) and defluoridation Freundlich isotherm (6.15 L/mg). The ionic interference was found negligible on fluoride removal from the fluorite mine water sample.
    Keywords: fluoride adsorption; graphene oxide; kinetic equation; adsorption isotherm model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10044501
  • Characterization investigation on organic compost of municipal solid waste using Physico-chemical, spectroscopic and thermal methods at different stages   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasir Mushtaq, Abdul Qayoom Dar, Naved Ahsan 
    Abstract: An experimental study was performed on the organic compost produced from municipal solid waste (MSW). In this study, the characterisation of organic compost was carried out by using physico-chemical and sophisticated spectral methods (SEM-EDS, FT-IR and XRD) at four different stages of the decomposition process. The findings of organic compost on the 60th day depicted heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr) were within the prescribed standard limits of Fertilizer Control Order (FCO), 1985, India. The SEM micrographs showed the disintegrated final product of compost material on the 60th day. Further, X-ray diffraction exhibited the reduction of sharp to mild peaks, which represented the change of compost material from crystalline to amorphous material and FT-IR spectra depicted the intense broad peaks on the 60th day of the decomposition, respectively. Eventually, it was concluded that the above techniques were helpful to know the maturity and in-depth characteristics of organic compost.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; compost; scanning electron microscopy; SEM; X-ray diffraction; XRD; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; FT-IR; thermogravimetric; TG.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10044745
  • Waste management during COVID-19 pandemic: could it be time-bomb?   Order a copy of this article
    by Yudha Gusti Wibowo, Bimastyaji Surya Ramadan, Machmudin Fitra Miftahadi, Indriyani Rachman, Nurani Ikhlas 
    Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 has severe problems in the world with both public and economic health aspects. Therefore, the potential for virus transmission through various media needs to be anticipated in various ways, such as IoT-based monitoring systems, quarantine/lockdown and social distancing policies. These policies have an impact on waste conditions in the right region. This article is intended to find out how to transfer SARS-CoV-2 through domestic and non-domestic waste media. Besides, study the policies taken from an area at the SARS-CoV-2 meeting on their waste management. The results of literature studies that have been carried out related to the use of online media increased following the implementation of social distancing policies. Approved, disposable plastic and cardboard waste that is often used as food wrappers are increasing. Disposable medical waste as personal protective equipment also increases the incineration capacity to stabilise the infectious waste. Various countries have issued various waste management strategies during the pandemic. However, future studies are needed to evaluate the management systems effectiveness that is free of viruses and does not become a time-bomb in the mass spread of viruses through waste.
    Keywords: personal protective equipment; PPE; SARS-CoV-2; single-use plastic; SUP; social distancing; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055304
  • Performance evaluation study of effluent treatment plant of polyester textile dyeing industry: a case study of SIDCUL, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Sangeeta Madan, Richa Madan, Athar Hussain 
    Abstract: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of an effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a polyester textile dyeing industry with 150250 m3/day average inflow in Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. The raw effluent was analysed for 18 physico-chemical parameters and eight heavy metals for a period of one year. The study revealed that raw wastewater has high chemical oxygen demand (COD) (2,461.0±48.45 mg/L), colour (892 Pt-Co), sulphate (6,620.0 ±7.22 mg/L) and electrical conductivity (EC) (2,906.0±5.77 μS/cm) respectively. The treated effluent from ETP showed a significant reduction in colour (71.28%), EC (75.71%), alkalinity (76.04%), biological oxygen demand (BOD) (53.34%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (53.53%). However, colour, BOD and COD exceed the standards by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India for safe discharge of industrial effluent in inland surface water and based on the results it is recommended that pollutant level in polyester textile dyeing effluent is of major concern requiring regular monitoring and further advanced treatment.
    Keywords: heavy metals; physico-chemical; polyester textile dyeing; ETP performance; Haridwar; Uttarakhand; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055347
  • Environmental costs management and profitability of small and medium scale poultry farms in Nigeria. Evidence from Osun State   Order a copy of this article
    by Dolapo Faith Sule, Idowu Emmanuel Olubodun, Kehinde Adebola Adewa, Olabisi Damilola Omodara 
    Abstract: This study determined the impact of environmental costs management on the profitability of poultry farms in Osun State. Using a multistage sampling technique, the study administered questionnaires to 74 poultry farmers and results showed that poultry farmers were not well-trained in environmental costs management. In furtherance, the farmers had good knowledge of heat control, bio-security, disease management but little knowledge of environmental pollution management. Also, dumping, compost, and flushing methods of waste disposal were prevalent among sampled farmers. Budgetary analysis revealed average gross margin of N1,947,035.09 (US$5,408.43); gross margin ratio of 1.01/production cycle and environmental costs alone constituted 9.8% of the total variable costs. In addition, regression result showed that environmental costs influenced the profitability of poultry farming. The study concluded that environmental costs affected the profitability of the poultry industry and manifested significantly in the cost of poultry waste generated. Thus, continuous emphasis should be placed on the need to manage waste profitably by earning additional income from poultry waste sales via integrated farming and environmental regulations for poultry farms should be reviewed for effective compliance in the industry.
    Keywords: waste management; disposal method; pollution; community development; poultry policy regulation; government; budgetary analysis; environmental cost; gross margin; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055305
  • Forest fire mitigation by social economic development of local communities using pine needle as potential fuel   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Verma, Kushal Sharma, Abhay Mahajan, Rishi Sharma 
    Abstract: Presently around the globe, bush fire is becoming a severe problem for the forest and its ecology. Countries like Australia has faced major bush fire accidents in the beginning of 2020, in which estimated 18.6 million hectare area has been effected causing damage to 5,600 homes beside the tree lines and destroyed forest cover which requires decades to heal. One of the major causes of these bush fire accidents is biomass present on the floor of the forest. To prevent forests from fire caused by dry pine needles, dry leaves and all the waste products of trees need to be removed from the forest floor. The study has been taken to investigate a possibility to develop an environment in which local communities utilise produced biomass as an instrument of livelihood by converting it into a suitable product through waste to energy route.
    Keywords: biomass; pine needle; forest fire; briquette; ecology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055805
  • To dispose or not to dispose? When risk perception in decision-making impacts teaching and research laboratories environmental management   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernanda Cristina Romero, Luciana Aparecida Farias, Luiz Omir De Cerqueira Leite 
    Abstract: The environmental management systems of universities and research institutes must include waste management and, according to the hierarchy, they must prioritise prevention of the generation of these materials. The purpose of this paper is to identify, analyse and understand the perception of risk regarding radioactive waste among students at a Brazilian nuclear research institute. The study was exploratory qualitative and conducted with the participation of 104 individuals. For data collection, a structured questionnaire was applied, and a participant observation was carried out. It was found that despite the students receiving the same knowledge base in disciplines offered in graduate school, they had different perceptions regarding the risk of radioactive waste that interfered with their behaviour on the disposal of materials in their laboratory practices.
    Keywords: radioactive waste; hierarchy; minimisation; green chemistry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055306
  • What strategic actions for an urban cleanliness policy? Case of the City of Constantine (Algeria)
    by Mehdi Kaghouche, Houria Ariane 
    Abstract: The improvement of citizens standard of living and change of their consumption habits generates a large production of waste in the city, causing several types of pollution, namely visual, olfactory, etc., which, in turn, significantly contribute to the degradation of the urban life, urban image and the environment. This article investigated the concept of urban cleanliness and its evaluation in Coudiat-Aty, one of the well-known, colonial neighbourhoods in the city centre of Constantine. The study used a survey and an observation grid to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the cleanliness of the neighbourhood through the calculation of several soiling indicators. The study findings showed that the Coudiat-Aty neighbourhood is considered unclean and has a mean indicator of soiling 3.02. This result can be explained by the highly busy neighbourhood. Thus by the presence of many administrations and schools which receive a lot of people.
    Keywords: city; environment; neighbourhood; pollution; soiling indicators; urban cleanliness; urban image; waste; Algeria.

  • Profile modelling of solid waste generation of non-household establishments in Butuan City
    by Jan Nino G. Tinio, Breix Michael G. Agua 
    Abstract: This study focused on the solid waste generation of establishments in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte. It aimed to determine some factors affecting the total solid waste daily generation of establishments in the city. Sex of the owner, his/her educational profile, his/her age, civil status, years in the business, type of establishment, and total number of employees were the selected variables considered in this study. It used correlation and Chi square analyses to determine whether or not the variables are related to or associated with the total daily waste generated by the establishments. The results show that the total number of employees and the type of establishment have a significant relationship/association with the generated waste. This study recommends that the local government of Butuan City should specifically develop a policy to address the amount of trash generated by medium-scale and high-scale establishments.
    Keywords: solid waste generation of non-household establishments; commercial solid waste; factors affecting solid waste generation; policy implications.

  • An in-depth literature review of end-of-life vehicle management
    by Rakesh Shrivastava, Gajanan Badwe, R.P. Mohanty, Gunjan Yadav 
    Abstract: The automotive industry has been a major contributor to the economic growth across the globe. However, the industry has struggled to tackle end-of-life vehicle management issues, which have impacted strongly the sustainability aspects of the products. The purpose of this paper is to classify the research papers, identify the research gaps and discover the future research directions in end-of-life vehicle (ELV) management. The study covers an analysis of recent literature published from 2000 to 2020. A total of 261 articles are analysed and classified into themes; such as ELV management practices, ELV legislation, ELV recovery strategies, automotive shredder residue (ASR), environmental impacts, and ELV economics. The study has utility for the auto manufacturers, auto users, academicians and researchers engaged in the field of ELV management to develop a better understanding of the issues and contribute to sustainable development.
    Keywords: end-of-life vehicle management; recycling; environmental impacts; economics; sustainability; automotive industry.

  • Influence Of Geo-Environmental Factors On Landfill Fugitive Biogas Emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Barreto, William De Paiva, Fernando F. Vieira, Daniel E. Bezerra, Marcio Melo, Veruschka Monteiro, Marcus Vinicius Melo De Lyra 
    Abstract: Geo-environmental parameters play the main role in fugitive gas emissions through landfill compacted soil cover layer. Many factors affect biogas emissions, like landfill temperature, external temperature, gas concentration (CO2, O2, and CH4), and local weather conditions. This study aims to identify the intervening factors in the fugitive emissions of biogas through the layer of compacted soil cover of the landfill through the statistical method of principal component analysis (PCA). The measurement of gas flux through the landfill cover layer was made by combining the static flow plate test methodology, gas concentrations, and regional rainfall measurements. Among the factors studied, weather conditions, landfill temperature, and external temperature were the most significant on gas emission through the cover layer. Besides, carbon dioxide and methane flux had independent behaviours. The results highlighted that the mean soil compaction degree and the landfill cell cover layer thickness affect positively the layer gas retention properties.
    Keywords: environment; field testing and monitoring; landfills; renewable energy; statistical analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047075
  • Performance and Emission Analysis of Karanja Biodiesel using Variable Compression Ratio Engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry  
    Abstract: In the present work, transesterification is used to synthesise biodiesel. The biodiesel has been tested in variable compression ratio (VCR) Engine. The experimental investigations have shown the compression ratio of 17.5 as the most favourable compression ratio because it provided accurate results of the emission and performance analysis. The performance analysis was measured by changing the load in relation to the mechanical efficiency, brake thermal efficiency and brake specific energy consumption. The volumetric efficiency and brake thermal efficiency were found to be 79.17% and 25.97% at compression ratio of 17.5. The emission analysis has been studied for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbon and smoke. The results were found comparable with diesel fuel.
    Keywords: analysis; biodiesel; efficiency; emission; engine; experimental investigations; Karanja oil; load; performance; transesterification; variable compression ratio; VCR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047077
  • Abundance and mortality of Eisenia foetida (earthworm) using potato peel as a substrate in vermicomposting process   Order a copy of this article
    by Angel Canales-Gutiérrez, Germán Belizario-Quispe, Heber Nehemías Chui-Betancur, Edilberto Huaquisto-Ramos, Alfredo Calatayud-Mendoza, Ivon Rocio Gutierrez-Flores 
    Abstract: Earthworm abundance and mortality level are rarely reported during vermicomposting process. The objectives were: 1) to evaluate the effect of pre-composting on the mortality of adult earthworms; 2) to determine the abundance of adult and juvenile earthworms using potato peel. Wooden cells of dimension 0.25
    Keywords: potato peel; vermicompost; raising worms; pre-composting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10054282
  • Integrated assessment in municipal solid waste management: a discussion from models to indicators   Order a copy of this article
    by Carolina Xavier Ferreira, Marcelo Seleme Matias, Armando Borges De Castilhos Júnior 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) has a wide range of stages and technologies for application in different social and economic contexts. With the complexity involved in the process, decision making also gradually becomes more difficult. There is currently a plurality of models, tools and indicators that seek to evaluate and represent the performance of these different arrangements under different approaches. The models have evolved from a purely economic approach to dynamic and integrated assessments. This work, supported by a bibliographic review, presents a discussion on the evolution of the models of performance evaluation of MSWM systems and describes the dimensions commonly used in the decision-making process in the form of indicators: economic, environmental and social. This research was carried out through a literature review of the last 20 years (2000-2020) and it was noted that the development of evaluation and optimisation models are still being improved.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste management; performance evaluation models; decision support tools; indicators.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055307
    by Mehdi Kaghouche, Houria Ariane 
    Abstract: The improvement of citizens standard of living and change of their consumption habits generates a large production of waste in the city, causing several types of pollution, namely visual, olfactory, etc., which, in turn, significantly contribute to the degradation of the urban life, urban image and the environment. This article investigated the concept of urban cleanliness and its evaluation in Coudiat-Aty, one of the well-known, colonial neighbourhoods in the city centre of Constantine. The study used a survey and an observation grid to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the cleanliness of the neighbourhood through the calculation of several soiling indicators. The study findings showed that the Coudiat-Aty neighbourhood is considered unclean and has a mean indicator of soiling 3.02. This result can be explained by the highly busy neighbourhood. Thus by the presence of many administrations and schools which receive a lot of people.
    Keywords: city; environment; neighbourhood; pollution; soiling indicators; urban cleanliness; urban image; waste; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047081
  • Estimation of thermal efficiency of dry leaves with dairy scum pellets and comparative study on their thermal disintegration under TGA apparatus and cook stove   Order a copy of this article
    by NIVEDITA IYER, NIVEDITA IYER, Velmurugan B, Velmurugan B, Jignesh Makwana, Jignesh Makwana 
    Abstract: Garden wastes comprising leaves are often considered as unresourceful and usually discarded in the environment without testing its potential. The yard waste consisting leaves of mangifera indica, manilkara zapota, azadirachta indica, ficus benghalensis, polyalthia longifolia, eucalyptus and tamarindus indica were optimised to produce 8 mm pellets using dairy scum as binder in 5%, 10%, 25% scum to biomass ratio and without scum was considered as control. Physical and chemical properties such as particle size, bulk density, true density, moisture, volatile matter, ash, energy density, calorific value, pH, lignin, metals, and tensile strength were observed and analysed for all pellets. Estimated thermal efficiency from combustion analysis of produced pellets were 40.74%, 43.51%, 44.77% and 46.73% for leaves with 5%, 10%, 25% dairy scum and control respectively. Comparative study of thermal behaviour of produced pellets using TGA/DTA and cook stove showed similar isotherms of combustion. The present study also manifest the significance of using dairy scum as binder for biomass pelletisation as an added scope of utilisation of dairy industrial waste in contribution towards renewable energy.
    Keywords: leaves; dairy scum; garden/yard waste; thermal efficiency; thermo gravimetric analysis; TGA; biomass pellets combustion; differential thermal analysis; 8 mm pellets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10047082
  • Investigation of Methylene Blue Adsorption on Alum Sludge using Full Factorial 2k Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandyanto Adityosulindro, Fairuz Nabila, Annisa Marlin Rus, Djoko Hartono, Setyo Moersidik 
    Abstract: Alum sludge (AS) wasted from water treatment plant (WTP) was prepared by a simple drying method and tested as an adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from water. Laboratory batch experiment was conducted using full factorial 2k experimental design in order to investigate the influence of experimental factors including adsorbent dose (0.51 g/L), dye concentration (0.050.15 g/L), pH (48), and temperature (3060
    Keywords: adsorption; alum sludge; sludge reuse; methylene blue; full factorial design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048053
  • Evaluation of the productive and environmental potential of closed-loop manufaturing process   Order a copy of this article
    by Flavio Numata Junior, Helena V. G. Navas 
    Abstract: Nowadays the energy is considered, and in the future, the main factor for manufacturing. Therefore closed-loop production processes can reusing waste or by-products, but it has high electricity consumption and generates high rates of pollutants. This scenario is contradictory when looking for the eco-efficiency of the production plant. In this sense, this article aims to develop a theoretical model that optimises solutions to raise the productive and environmental performance of manufacturing. The modelling made compatible the improvements of the system through the inventive principles (theory of inventive problem solving TRIZ) with environmental analysis (life cycle assessment LCA) for the generation of systematic innovations in the manufacture. The experimental results present an architectures of results for the use of thermochemical routes and alteration of the composition of the productive resources for generation of clean energy and reduction of the environmental impacts.
    Keywords: process improvement; TRIZ; LCA; environmental impacts; closed-loop production.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048089
  • Remediation of Heavy Metal Ions from Mining Wastewater using Azadirachta Indica Bark Adsorbents   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The Azadirachta indica bark was powdered and activated with HCl (AIP-H) and NaOH (AIP-N) before being dosed into 50 ml of MW at proportion of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g. The effects of adsorbent dosage, agitation rate, contact time, pH, and temperature on the removal of selected heavy metals (Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Cr3+, and Co3+) from the MW were studied using batch adsorption studies. The dosage of adsorbent required to achieve 100% removal efficiency for the selected heavy metals was found to be less than 2 g for both adsorbents. For both adsorbents, the optimal agitation rate, contact time, pH, and temperature values were 150200 rpm, 60100 minutes, 68 and 30, respectively. Pseudo second ordr kintic modl was followed by all heavy metal models. Thus, using Azadirachta indica bark adsorbent to remove heavy metals from wastewater before it is discharged into water bodies is highly recommended.
    Keywords: Azadirachta indica bark adsorbent; batch adsorption studies; environmental management; heavy metals’ remediation; isotherm model; kinetic model; mining wastewater; removal efficiency; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048091
    by Jonathan Engelmann, Everton Hansen, Marco Antonio Siqueira Rodrigues, Patrice M. Aquim 
    Abstract: Water is an essential natural resource for the survival of species. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques that reduce water consumption and losses in production processes. Water is the main input used in the manufacture of beer and its use varies from the incorporation in the final product, operations that use water as an auxiliary fluid and cleaning operations. The objective of this study is to analyse the use of water within the production process of a microbrewery and to propose alternatives to optimise the use and reuse of water, aiming at reducing consumption. The methodology proposes a survey of water uses and water losses in the microbrewery, a research of water reuse alternatives and an evaluation of the feasibility of the proposed alternatives. The results showed 80% reduction in the amount of cooling water used in the process.
    Keywords: water reuse; microbrewery; cooling water; wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048094
    by Oluwadare OYEBODE 
    Abstract: Engineering assessment, strategic design and interventions are essential for solid wastes management in most nations of the world. This study assessed solid waste management practices at Karimo area of Abuja, Nigeria. Reconnaissance survey and questionnaires were used in gathering of data; 150 questionnaires were administered. Simple random sampling without replacement was used to explore the heterogeneous population of the study area. Households and shops were selected at random from various streets, crescents and close in the study. Descriptive statistics frequency distribution was used for the analysis of the data. The estimated per capita waste generation is 0.65 kg/day. The volume of recyclable waste, potentially hazardous waste and agricultural waste was estimated to be 62.6 m3, 1.22 m3 and 2.45 m3, respectively. Estimated total waste generated per day is 13,505 kg/day for 17,700 people. Based on this data, a system is setup for sustainable environment and effective solid waste management in the community for sustainable environment.
    Keywords: solid waste management; engineering assessment; sustainable environment; Karimo; design and interventions; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048098
  • Consequences of anthropogenic pollutants on the quality of nutrients in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822) from Qua Iboe River, South Eastern Nigeria.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarah Ekanem, Akaninyene Joseph, Eno Iwok 
    Abstract: The impact of anthropogenic pollutants on the nutritional quality of Clarias gariepinus was studied. Samples of C. gariepinus were obtained from fishermen on landing. The collected fish samples were analysed for proximate composition, total petroleum content, and heavy metals levels. Increased levels of the contaminants were recorded in the intense activity stations compared to the control station (UAC beach). Metals and nutritional composition of fish varied between stations. The mean Cr and Ni in fish were above WHO acceptable limits for food, while moisture content was not within FAO acceptable limits. Cluster analysis and PCA plots revealed that Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and THC levels in the fish were introduced from intense anthropogenic activities within the study area, thereby influencing its ash and lipid content. We recommend that Government enforce against indiscriminate discharge of anthropogenic substances into the river, so as to restore the environment back to normal.
    Keywords: consequences; total hydrocarbon content; THC; heavy metals; anthropogenic; pollutants; nutrients; quality; Clarias gariepinus; proximate composition; Qua Iboe river; South-eastern Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048099
  • Performance evaluation of an extended aeration treatment plant (EATP): A case study in Sarawak, Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid, Mohamad Ezad Hafez Mohd Pahroraji, Amira Shazlin Adnan, Juferi Idris, Albright Jeffary, Baxley Jinuin Victor, Nurdiana Wakimin, Muhammad Firdaus Abdullah, Rafidah Husen 
    Abstract: The extended aeration system is a sewage treatment plant for domestic and industrial wastewater. This study evaluates the performance of an extended aeration treatment plant (EATP), located at Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak Branch which has operated for more than 20 years. The evaluation consists of the temperature, pH, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of influent (raw wastewater) and effluent (treated wastewater). The results show that the temperature, pH, turbidity, TSS, COD, and BOD5, of the effluent were in the range of 29.0 to 30.5
    Keywords: biochemical oxygen demand; chemical oxygen demand; COD; extended aeration treatment plant; EATP; performance evaluation; pH; total suspended solid; TSS; turbidity; wastewater; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048100
  • Turn Disaster into Valuable Product   Order a copy of this article
    by Bimastyaji Ramadan, Nurani Ikhlas, Dimastyaji Nurseta, Ika Ulfindrayani 
    Abstract: A hot mud eruption [often called Lapindo volcanic mud (LVM)] that occurred in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, since 2008 has harmed the environment. However, utilising this mud is essential to reduce the financial losses from the disaster. LVM can be utilised as advanced material and valuable product with high economic value. This paper discusses the LVM preparation method and the potential of material recovery extracted from LVM constructively. This desk study showed that LVM could be used as an alternative to making innovative and low-cost construction materials such as cement binders, raw materials for bricks, concrete blocks, and concrete composers; cheap adsorbents; and catalysts both for wastewater treatment and solar cells assembly. Various innovations and development of other materials and valuable products such as ceramic, geopolymers, and nano-adsorbents are still being studied extensively. This paper is expected to fill the gaps in mud recovery and utilisation.
    Keywords: advanced material; Indonesia; Lapindo volcanic mud; LVM; mud recovery; valuable product.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048101
  • Solid waste collection efficiency among South African municipalities   Order a copy of this article
    by Genius Murwirapachena, Nqobile Mpala 
    Abstract: In most developing countries, municipalities are an effective vehicle for local economic development. They are commonly responsible for providing public services to local communities within their jurisdictions. Evidence exists that municipalities are mostly inefficient in providing these services. The worst reality is that municipal efficiency is not commonly measured in developing countries and proper performance benchmarking is rarely done. Using municipal data for the years 2013 and 2014, this study examines efficiency in solid waste collection and its determinants in South Africa. The study uses the stochastic non-parametric envelopment of data method to estimate efficiency. Further, the generated municipal-specific efficiency scores are regressed against selected variables using the pooled ordinary least square and random effect models to establish the determinants of efficiency. Four key findings are reported, and some policy implications deduced. Municipal efficiency in emerging economies like South Africa is important because efficiency gains are useful in transforming communities and living standards.
    Keywords: efficiency; performance benchmarking; solid waste collection; StoNED.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048102
  • An Improved Strategy for Solid Waste Management based on Programmable Logic Controller   Order a copy of this article
    by Thaeer M. Sahib, Rosmiwati Mohd-Mokhtar, Abbas F.H. Alharan, Nabeel Salih Ali, Ali A. Kadhum 
    Abstract: Environmental concerns have been raised in various research and technology development. Advanced technology plays a crucial role in diverse aspects of environmental discipline such as monitoring, tracking, observing, controlling, and so on. The article aims to propose a system to manage and dispose of solid waste to prevent pollution from the main and sub streets. The controller device named LOGO 230RC is utilised to control the system operations by depending on the control actions which were written in the functional block diagram. The simulation experiments were run using the LOGO Soft Comfort software, in which, based on the three flowcharts, the system work logically. The system objectives have been achieved successfully via testing five baskets distributions as a suggestion over the street and have been analysed based on the reduced time to transferring the waste from the source to the target. Based on the results, there is a reduction of waste collection time from 4.06% to 17.87% for all five test cases.
    Keywords: solid waste management; programmable logic controller; function block diagram; municipal solid waste; sensors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048103
    by Thais G. Carpanez, Jonathas B. G. Silva, Mayara De O. Gonçalves, Vanessa R. De Paula, Marcelo Otenio, Samuel R. Castro 
    Abstract: The present study evaluates chemically the soil after an application of treated wastewater originated through anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle wastewater in the cultivar Pennisetum purpureum (BRS Capia
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion; fertigation; waste; soil; treated wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048104
  • Comparative assessment efficacy of yield maximization of recovered used lubricating oil by Ca(OH)2-Iso-butanol/KOH-1-butanol extractive-flocculative process by Central Composite Design approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sayantan Sarkar, Deepshikha Datta, K.S. Deepak, Bikash Kumar Mondal, Bimal Das 
    Abstract: The waste lubricating oil produced after prolonged use creates a threat to the environment, health, and economy. Proper disposal method and treatment of this waste oil is required for the development of a sustainable environment. The present work emphasises on extraction flocculation process for reclamation of used engine oil. Comparative assessment and optimisation study was done using two different solvents (Iso-butanol,1-butanol) and flocculants (Ca (OH)2 and KOH) by central composite design approach to achieve the maximum percentage recovery of refined oil. The optimise parameters evaluated were extraction time: 30 minutes and 80 minutes, extraction temperature: 60
    Keywords: waste lubricating oil; response surface methodology; central composite design; CCD; extraction-flocculation; yield.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048105
  • Potential application of the by-product Ammonium Nitrate from Uranium Purification Facility as a Nutrient Enriched Fertilizer   Order a copy of this article
    by S. MEHETRE, Shrishma Paik, S.K. Satpati, M.L. SAHU, S. Penna, V.P. Venugopalan 
    Abstract: Ammonium nitrate is obtained as a by-product from the nitrate effluent generated during uranium purification process. This is a traditional nutrient source and has a proven potential for application as a fertiliser for increasing the productivity of crop plants. In the present study, biogas manure was amended with ammonium nitrate and tested with Maize and Mungbean crops for increasing yield to enable a gainful utilisation of the Nitrate effluent towards agriculture purposes. Results showed increase in the yield and biomass with the application of ammonium nitrate amended manure in both the crops and it helped in enhancement in soil carbon and other microbial parameters too. Thus, the enriched manure played dual role of increasing the crop yield as well as improving the soil fertility. This novel study has opened up the possibility of fruitful utilisation of ammonium nitrate effluent generated in uranium refineries for improving production of different crops.
    Keywords: ammonium nitrate; manure enrichment; nutrient; plant growth; uranium extraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048107
  • Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management : A Case Study of Srinagar Municipal Corporation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jasmeena Bashir, Mohammad Younus Bhat, Md. Sarfaraz Equbal 
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to estimate the willingness to pay for solid waste management (SWM) improvement in Srinagar. Further to find the effect of socio-economic determinants on willingness to pay of the residents. The present study is an endeavour to discuss the demand side issues which will be important for policy makers to design appropriate waste management service given the preference of residents. To accomplish the objectives of the present study and for testing the hypotheses a contingent valuation (CV) study was designed and executed by randomly selected households in the study area. The logistic regression model results revealed that 90.6% of the total respondents are willing to pay for better solid waste management service. The mean willingness to pay of the respondents in Srinagar is Rs. 162.72 per month. Willingness to pay is significantly affected by socio-economic variables like income, education, gender, position of the respondent, and households receiving collection service. This information can specifically help in providing better solid waste management services to the residents of Srinagar and in general is also helpful in improving the quality of environment.
    Keywords: solid waste management; SWM; contingent valuation method; CVM; logistic regression model; willingness to pay; WTP; Srinagar Municipal Corporation; SMC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048360
  • Life cycle sustainability assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis: selection of a strategy for municipal solid waste management in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by RITIELLI BERTICELLI, ADALBERTO PANDOLFO, Rodrigo Fernando Dos Santos Salazar, Robson Evaldo Gehlen Bohrer 
    Abstract: The objective is to develop a model to support decision-making in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA). The methodology consists in the creation of alternative MSW management scenarios, evaluating environmental sustainability throughout the life cycle assessments (LCA), economical sustainability throughout the life cycle cost (LCC) assessment and social sustainability throughout the social life cycle assessment (SLCA). The analyses were integrated through the LCSA and a three-dimensional weighting and analysis of the indicators was carried out through the multicriteria analysis. The model can assist in the decision support process for sustainable management of MSW in Brazilian municipalities.
    Keywords: sustainable development; life cycle; municipal solid waste; MSW; multi-criteria analysis; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048361
  • Designing a framework for managing municipal waste through utilizing WtE conversion technology: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul Sattar Safaei, Faezeh Bagheri, Mohammad Mahdi Paydar, Sahar Sharifi Barforooshi 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste management has always been an inevitable challenge for governments to overcome. This study proposed a new framework for managing waste by exploiting it as an endless resource for generating energy. The suggested framework establishes a comprehensive waste management plan in two stages. The first stage determines the optimum waste-to-energy (WtE) technology based on key criteria by employing TOPSIS. These criteria are not restricted to sustainable dimensions and consider technical dimensions as well. The second stage designs a supply chain structure based on the installation of a WtE power plant, with the goal of maximising profit while minimising CO2 emissions. The proposed adaptive model allows the decision-maker to choose a WtE technology in the first stage and accordingly outline the supply chain structure. A municipal solid waste management case study provided insights into how the proposed framework.
    Keywords: municipal waste management; waste-to-energy power plant; technology selection; multi-objective optimisation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048362
  • Converting Fruit Waste into Biogas: A Waste to Energy Strategy for Urban Markets in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Taiwo Hammed, Sridhar Mynepalli, Adenike O. Majekodunmi 
    Abstract: This study aimed at producing biogas, an alternative source of energy, from selected fruit wastes generated in markets in Ibadan, Nigeria. Slurries of five varieties of fruit waste viz: orange slurry (OS), pineapple slurry (PS), watermelon slurry (WMS), banana slurry (BS) and tomato slurry (TMS) were fed into 1 m3 biogas digester in batches and monitored for their biogas yield potentials. Physicochemical analyses of the fruits, feedstock slurries and spent slurries were carried using standard methods. The TMS had the highest potential of biogas generation (6.52
    Keywords: biogas digester; energy generation; carbon nitrogen ratio; fruit waste; methane concentration; spent slurry; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048419
  • A Graphical Method to Determine the Incinerability of Municipal Solid Waste   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Incinerability index (i-Index) is a recently developed multi-dimensional indicator which quantifies the incinerability of municipal solid waste (MSW) incorporating the 3-E concept. However, a limit/range of values needs to be defined within which MSW can sustain incineration autogenously. This article showcases a graphical method to determine the incinerability, called incinerability plot or i-Plot. i-Plot consists of a plot constructed using normalised parameter values. Three incinerability zones are subsequently defined, viz. central non-incinerable zone, followed by incinerable and autogenously incinerable zone. As the distance from the centre of the plot increases, incinerability increases, until it attains self-sustained combustibility towards the outer boundary of incinerable zone. The corresponding i-Index values are used to establish an incinerability range. MSW with i-Index > 45 is hence incinerable, whereas i-Index > 89 is autogenously incinerable for energy recovery. Based on the position of MSW in the plot and the composite indicator value, assessment of incinerability may be made. i-Plot also illustrates the variation in individual parameter scores besides identifying the contribution of individual parameters to the incinerability.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; waste to energy; WtE; feasibility assessment; decision-making; incinerability; i-Index; waste management; incineration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048445
  • Estimate of landfill leachate generation by the water balance method   Order a copy of this article
    by Willian Fernando De Borba, José Luiz Silvério Da Silva, Pedro Daniel Da Cunha Kemerich, Ericklis Edson Boito De Souza, Gabriel D`Ávila Fernandes, Mateus Guimarães Da Silva 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to estimate the generation of leachate in a landfill area without the use of a geomembrane liner. The generation of leachate was estimated by the water balance method from 2007 to 2017. Information on underground water quality was obtained through monitoring of historical series in four monitoring wells. The results indicated an average generation of 0, 31 L.s1. The electrical conductivity of the well water monitored changed during the analysed period, mainly in the wells located in the smallest topographic dimensions. These results found that even with the presence of a low permeability clayey soil, the absence of the waterproofing system in this disposal cell, allows the leachate to percolate to the water level of the non-continuous temporary suspended groundwater. This was evident by changes in groundwater quality parameters. Thus, additional studies are recommended, aiming at on-site monitoring of the leachate flow and quality.
    Keywords: non-continuous suspended aquifer; contamination; monitoring wells; MW; urban solid waste.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048530
  • Methane production generated by the biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste confined in lysimeters under a tropical climate   Order a copy of this article
    by Gustavo Henrique Tonelli Dutra De Almeida, Renata Lima Moretto, Miriam Gonçalves Miguel 
    Abstract: The generation of methane from municipal solid waste (MSW) confined in sanitary landfills is influenced by several factors, including climatic and operational conditions. This research evaluated the production of methane gas resulting from the anaerobic biodegradation process of MSW, produced in southeastern Brazil, confined in lysimeters for 30 months. The influence of climatic conditions and the effect of the application of saline solution on the MSW anaerobic biodegradation process were considered for methane production. The volumetric concentrations of methane peaks were significant in periods of high temperatures and after high rainfall. Five biodegradation phases were observed, from aerobic to anaerobic methanogenic phases. The methane peaks started in the initial methanogenic phase; however, the highest values were observed in the stable methanogenic phase. The application of the saline solution caused a delay of 100 days in the initial methanogenic phase and an increase of volumetric concentrations of methane over time.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; methane; anaerobic biodegradation; lysimeter; saline solution; sanitary landfill.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048715
  • Prioritization of major industrial wastes using Analytical Hierarchy Process for Micro Small Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Ram Babu Verma, Sanjay Kumar Jha 
    Abstract: The paper deals about the identification of process waste associated with the product manufacturing cycle. Each product has its own production cycle that includes a series of manufacturing operations, starts with the acceptance of the customers order and ends with the delivery of the finished product. Owing to the fact, long-term use of machines and equipments causes wear and tear results process inconsistencies, errors and breakdowns. These Anomalies produce waste in form of man, material, and machine. The manuscript explains about analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for waste identification and prioritisation. The major waste associated with the production process of micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) identified and ranked by using the AHP technique. All of these identified industrial waste categorised under lean seven waste, denoted by acronym TIMWOOD. The waste weightage factor (score) calculated by using the AHP decision matrix revealed that Waiting Time is the most significant waste, contributed 33.2% of total waste. In order to reduce process waste, manufacturing process drastically changed in light of the waste analysis findings.
    Keywords: lean waste; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; MSME; paired analysis; TIMWOOD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048752
  • Evaluation of Dynamic Characteristics and Contemporary Management of Institutional Solid Wastes   Order a copy of this article
    by KULBIR SINGH, Rajesh Lohchab, Anil Nain, Miklesh Kumari 
    Abstract: Unscientific handling of solid waste is not only posing a serious risk to the ecosystem and human health but simultaneously deprives the opportunity of resource recovery. In this study, solid waste collected from the areas of Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar was characterised through personal field investigations, secondary information like population estimation, and using ASTM D5231-92 standard method. The average quantity of solid waste generation was found to be 645.1
    Keywords: composition; generation; university campus; waste management; sustainable.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10048924
  • Treatment of latex processing effluent using aerobic granulation technology   Order a copy of this article
    by B.K. Bindhu, MADHU G, HARITHA M 
    Abstract: Latex processing industries consume large volumes of water and the discharge of wastewater may cause serious and prolong consequences to the environment. Various treatment technologies that currently have been used for the latex processing effluent have many advantages and limitations. Aerobic granulation technology was used for the treatment of latex processing wastewater with a high organic loading rate (OLR) (6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 d)) and short settling time (5 min) in a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Towards the end of five weeks of operation, stable granules of average size of 1.3 mm and average specific gravity of 1.007, with a settling velocity of 45 m/h were developed. Very high removal efficiencies were achieved for COD (97%), suspended solids (93.7%), and nitrogen (90.9%). Aerobic granulation technology is proved to be an excellent option for the treatment of effluents from latex processing units.
    Keywords: aerobic granulation; latex processing effluent; sequencing batch reactor; SBR; organic loading rate; chemical oxygen demand; COD; settling time; settling velocity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049807
  • Household disposal practices of unused and expired medicines: a case study of Guwahati City, Assam, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nandini Chakraborty, Mayuri Chabukdhara, Manashjit Gogoi 
    Abstract: Demand for pharmaceuticals to treat as well as prevent diseases will continue to increase. As such, disposal of unused and expired medicines is a growing challenge faced worldwide. This study focuses on evaluation of disposal practices of unused and expired medicines in Guwahati, Assam, one of the fastest growing cities in northeast India. The study also intended to identify the reasons for unused or unwanted medications in households. About 99.5% of the participants disposed of their unused and expired medicines in garbage bins which may pose threat to the environment. Organised take back programs and proper guidelines for careful disposal of unused and expired medicines may help to reduce the risk to the environment as well as human health. Further, behavioural changes such as completion of prescribed medicine courses, reduced self-medication, and wastage may also help in minimising the medicinal waste burden and their potential impact on the environment.
    Keywords: unused and expired medicines; disposal practices; garbage bins; environmental risk; take back programs; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055811
  • Geospatial techniques in identifying suitable waste dumping sites- A case study of the migrated Rohingya community   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahammed Dayem, Aysha Akter 
    Abstract: Migrated Rohingya community in southeast Cox Bazar in Bangladesh is experiencing poor or absence of waste management. An intensive questionnaire survey covered around 0.85 million migrants to observe the existing waste management practices. The selected area comprises of Ukhia, Kutubpalong mega camp, Gundum, Balukhali Bazar and Phalungkhali. The geospatial technique was applied based on three selected criteria, vis., social, economic, and physical. Physical measures include land use, soil type, geomorphology, slope, and drainage datasets from secondary sources. Secondary and primary data sources cover the social and economic criteria, i.e., population and their residence from both the road and drainage networks. The study’s findings suggested that gender biases exist regarding awareness of poor waste management. Finally, to ensure green community, an overlay weightage approach was adopted using the geospatial technique; the study area was classified based on suitable dumping site as very high (0.09%), high (0.05%), medium (0.34%), low (17.96%) and very low (81.55%). This is envisaged that the acquired suitable waste dumping site map would provide relevant information to the adjacent community and the service provider.
    Keywords: waste management; dumping site; overlay weightage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049808
  • Long-term environmental impact of COVID-19 pandemic: Derailed Single-use plastic ban   Order a copy of this article
    by Mitu Mewada, Susy Albert 
    Abstract: The earth’s climate is encountering positive ecological benefits of the pandemic as clean sea shores, improved air quality and decreased environmental noise have been witnessed. On other hand increase in single-use plastics today may leave the drawn out effect on our biological system. This article covers how COVID-19 pandemic is indirectly affecting the earth. The virus has brought plastic into our lives like never before in form of masks, gloves, personal protective equipment (PPE) coveralls and body bags which is without a doubt leading to increase in plastic pollution and hence triggering health concerns. The plastic boycott in India has been generously postponed because of current needs. Everyday whole world is battling against coronavirus. It is at the same time seething the plastic waste issue which unfortunately cannot be fixed by vaccines and lockdowns.
    Keywords: plastic waste; COVID-19 pandemic; environmental issue; plastic waste management; solid waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049809
  • Sustainable Bio-Ethanol Production from Java Citronella-A Lignocellulosic Residual Biomass   Order a copy of this article
    by Vidyadhar Gedam, Anup Chahande, Pranav Pathak, Swapnil Dharaskar 
    Abstract: The present work investigates the potential of Java citronella lignocellulosic residual biomass for efficient bioethanol production. The study focuses on the physicochemical analysis of Java citronella to explore the % of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, calorific value, ash contents, carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulphur (CHNS) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the physicochemical analysis, the samples were subjected to subsequent acid and alkaline pretreatment along with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) test followed by submerged biological fermentation using commercial yeast. The fermented samples were then distilled, and the distillate was examined by gas chromatography (GC), and the percentage of bioethanol was estimated. The result highlights that the collected Java citronella sample has considerable % cellulose content and alkaline pretreatment was more effective than acid treatment. In conclusion, Java citronella residual biomass has a potential for bioethanol production leading to sustainable energy options.
    Keywords: sustainable bio-ethanol; waste management; biomass; pretreatment; lignocellulosic gas chromatography.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049810
    by Shard Shard, Sapna Koul, Devesh Kumar, Hotniar Siringoringo 
    Abstract: Since a long time, the problem of urban solid waste (USW) has been solved by recycling it into energy. However, there is a difficulty with the conversion technique which limits its application. There are many conversion technologies discussed in this study which include incineration, bio methanation, pyrolysis, and gasification. Each technology was evaluated and compared each other. The indicators used in comparison are physical requirement, chemical requirement, and the sustainable use of the technology to convert USW to energy is given specific consideration. The results of the assessment demonstrate that biological technology is most suited to transforming waste into energy with a minimal environmental impact. Other techniques like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are highly effective and gives efficient output but will contaminate the environment with hazardous gaseous pollutants, which would surely increase global warming and greenhouse effects.
    Keywords: urban solid waste; USW; bio methanation; incineration; pyrolysis; gasification; MCDM; energy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049812
    by Vikram Bali, Sonali Mathur 
    Abstract: Managing waste is an important challenge for the municipal corporations from waste collection to waste disposal. Every day we come across dustbins that are unreasonably full and garbage is spilling out. The spilled garbage results in unhygienic conditions and spreading of various diseases. More resources are consumed while collecting garbage from the public places as garbage collection points are very few and it is difficult to find if the dustbin is empty or full. Through this research paper, we present the use of smart dustbin which helps in monitoring the dustbins thereby also saving fuel and work hours by finding shortest distance for garbage collectors to reach and empty the dustbins. Internet of things (IoT) technology will help the garbage collectors in saving fuel, working hours and money. Thus, constantly monitoring the garbage in the dustbins will help in lending a hand towards keeping the environment clean and green.
    Keywords: waste management; IoT; smart city; smart dustbin; real-time data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049956
  • Public-Private Partnership and Urban Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Lagos State, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Oluwaseun Kugbayi, Adeleke Adegbami 
    Abstract: The persistent increase in the volume of solid wastes generated resulting from the steady increase in population, industrialisation, rural-urban drift, and general economic growth have become one of the major challenges confronting Nigeria, like many other developing countries. The successive government in Nigeria have continued to take various measures at managing the generated wastes in other to achieve safe, inclusive, and sustainable cities in line with the United Nations sustainable development goals. Using a mixed research method, the study investigates the extent to which public-private partnership has helped in managing waste in Lagos State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that the privatisation of waste collection services has contributed immensely to effective waste management in Lagos state. The study concluded that challenges faced by the private sector operators notwithstanding, their involvement in waste management have brought about effectiveness in waste collection and management in the state.
    Keywords: privatisation; solid waste; waste management; public-private partnership; urban centre; Lagos.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049998
  • Determination of Waste Collection and Transport Routes with Exact and Heuristic Methods, A Case Study of Kampung Cipare, Tenjo   Order a copy of this article
    by Harummi S. Amarilies, Ezra Denia, M. Aulia Budi Santoso, A.A.N. Perwira Redi 
    Abstract: The people of Kampung Cipare, Tenjo, Indonesia, still practice backyard burning and have no waste management system. To increase awareness of waste management, we conducted research to compute the shortest waste collection and transportation route using exact method and heuristic approach. The shortest route provided by exact method was landfill T1 T3 T6 T8 T9 T10 T7 T5 T4 T2 landfill with total distance of 1.25 km and computation time of 0.015625 minutes. While the shortest route produced by the heuristic method was landfill T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 T9 T10 T7 landfill with total distance of 1.37 km and computation time of 0.000254 minutes. Compared to heuristic approach, exact method provided a shorter route by 120 metres.
    Keywords: exact method; heuristic method; nearest neighbour; waste transport route; optimisation; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10049999
  • Taguchi-grey relational based multi response optimization of diesel- Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends fuelled diesel engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Anant Nagpure, Walmik S. Rathod, Supriya B. Chavan 
    Abstract: Experimental investigation was done on a single cylinder, four stroke, VCR diesel engine using diesel and diesel-Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends for performance optimisation. This paper explores the combined effect of three input parameters, viz. compression ratio, blend proportion, and load, in controlling three main response variables, viz. brake power (BP), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The experiments were conducted using the design of experiments proposed by Taguchi. Using signal-to-noise ratio and grey relational analysis, data obtained with the L9 orthogonal array was analysed to find the optimum combination by transforming the multi-response problem into a single response problem using grey relational grade (GRG). By means of experiments, the optimum combination of input parameters was further confirmed. The results of this study revealed that, at a compression ratio of 16, with a blend proportion consisting 10% of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel at 75% load, gives the best possible performance.
    Keywords: variable compression ratio; diesel-Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel; diesel engine; Taguchi method; L9 orthogonal array; grey relational analysis; ANOVA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050000
  • Evaluation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus inactivation in a healthcare waste treatment by autoclaving   Order a copy of this article
    by Amanda Oliveira, Valdir Schalch 
    Abstract: Healthcare waste can lead to environmental impacts, even when treated and disposed in landfills, since it may show some hazard indicator. This study aims at optimising the autoclaving process in view of the lack of data on the optimal exposure time, temperature, and steam pressure for microbial inactivation, and analyse possible interferences of the fraction occupied by healthcare waste in the autoclave. Tests were performed at 116
    Keywords: healthcare waste; Geobacillus stearothermophilus; autoclaving; infectious waste; waste treatment; microbial inactivation; inactivation fraction; sterilisation; disinfection; hazardous waste management; solid waste management; endospores.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050002
  • Collection and transport of municipal solid waste in a developing Country: the case of Greater Beirut Area in Lebanon   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbas E.L. Toufaili, Gabriella Pacheco, Luca Toneatti, Dario Pozzetto 
    Abstract: Waste generation has increased globally due to the fast-economic development and urbanisation. In developing countries, many factors are contributing in increasing its generation. In this paper, different methodologies to adopt a better action plan into the solid waste management system in Greater Beirut Area in Lebanon were applied. The main objectives were to: 1) provide a geographical mapping distribution of the solid waste bins in Greater Beirut; 2) select the best solid waste collection route; 3) perform cost calculation of the collection phase; 4) calculate the greenhouse gases emissions. SWOT analysis, QGIS software, Euclidean traveling salesman problem method were employed. For a proper solid waste management system, 7,127 bins are needed to be distributed in Beirut, 52 trucks to collect the waste. Application of Euclidean traveling salesman problem yielded for choosing a shorter solid waste collection route. Circular economy should be adopted in Lebanon to achieve zero waste.
    Keywords: solid waste collection route; municipal solid waste transport; developing countries; Euclidean travelling salesman problem; ETSP; Greater Beirut Area; GBA; quantum geographic information system; QGIS; solid waste management; SWM; solid waste management costs; SWOT analysis; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050057
  • Recent development of metal-organic framework 5 (MOF-5) adsorbents for organic dye removal from aqueous solution   Order a copy of this article
    by Irvan Dahlan, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Yung-Tse Hung 
    Abstract: The development of novel materials is critical for the sustainable improvement of adsorption of organic dye contaminants. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently gained a lot of attention due to their unique features. One of the most representative MOFs is MOF-5 [Zn4O(BDC)3]. This study compiles the recent research on the adsorptive removal of different organic dyes from aqueous solutions using pristine and modified MOF-5. The history and background of MOFs together with synthesis methods and characterization were briefly discussed. The development of MOF-5-based materials and their effectiveness under various process parameters in organic dyes adsorption were briefly highlighted. The discussion related to the characterizations of MOF-5 was also included. This review also outlined several challenges that the scientific community should investigate further to improve MOF-5 applications in organic dye adsorption. This review provides a valuable resource for researchers intending to use MOF-5 to remove organic dye from aqueous solutions.
    Keywords: adsorption; organic dyes; wastewater; metal-organic framework; MOF-5; organic linker; 3D framework; porous materials.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050059
  • Energy Access Gaps, Biomass Power and sub-Saharan Africa: A Remediation Model for Policy Development   Order a copy of this article
    by JUNE LEVI-OGUIKE, Diego Sandoval, Vishwas Vidyaranya 
    Abstract: This paper extends the drivers-pressures-state-impact and response (DPSIR) model to the context of current energy access and waste management challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective is to highlight opportunities for decentralised biopower adoption, while considering the multifaceted environmental and economic challenges exacerbated by the global pandemic. The model is applied to a biopower-related case study and the outcome suggests amongst others, that the presence of requisite infrastructure, environmental legislation, strategic public-private partnerships, policy advocacy, intervention and implementation, all contribute positively to successful waste valorisation and renewable energy-recovery schemes. The DPSIR model is adopted in this context, to advance renewable energy, environmental and specifically solid waste management policy efforts in the region, while promoting the use of biomass resources in electricity generation.
    Keywords: energy access; Africa; sustainability; biomass; DPSIR; policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050119
  • Exploring household recycling participation e-wastes management: An application of TPB and NAM models   Order a copy of this article
    by Idrees Waris, Shahzad Khalil, Malik Dad 
    Abstract: The rapid use of electrical and electronic appliances has endangered the sustainability of the environment. Although the role of households is paramount in the management of e-waste, the studies provide little information regarding the proper disposal and recycling of e-waste in developing countries. This study has used an integrated framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and norm action model to study e-wastes recycling intention in Pakistan. The findings reveal that awareness of consequence, subjective norms, and personal norms are the key predictors of e-wastes recycling intention. Awareness of the consequence was a key predictor of households e-wastes recycling intention. Further, the results depict that attitude, perceived behavioural control and recycling habit have an insignificant influence on e-wastes recycling intention. Further, the study provides useful implications to policymakers and marketing strategists to enhance the awareness of e-waste recycling, and measures to cope with the issues of e-waste in developing countries.
    Keywords: awareness of consequence; personal norms; subjective norms; perceived behavioural control; recycling habits; recycling intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050226
  • Strategies for Promoting Integrated Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Ghana.   Order a copy of this article
    by Emmanuel A. Iyiegbuniwe 
    Abstract: We examined the challenges of Ghanas municipal solid waste (MSW) management which is of significant environmental health importance. The main study objective was to review MSW challenges and recommend proven strategies, policies, and practices for sustainable waste management. Resource limitation, inadequate budgets, and knowledge gaps were key challenges identified as preventing the implementation of sustainable MSW management. Consistent lack of data and inadequate MSW information prevented comparisons across municipalities. Proven strategies and practices for promoting integrated MSW included engineered landfills, recycling, material recovery, and waste-to-energy generation. Stakeholders commitment and sound knowledge of MSW collection and tracking are required for cost-effective management programs. Education and communication are key to promoting sustainable waste management that includes environmental awareness and implementation of culturally-appropriate messages that target perceived barriers, benefits, and threats. Effective and sustainable MSW management must consider environmental impacts, economic and financial benefits, socio-cultural and political factors, sound institutions, and proactive policies.
    Keywords: Ghana; municipal solid waste; MSW; sustainable waste management; waste recycling; engineered landfills; waste-to-energy generation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050261
  • Influence of environmental factors on evapotranspiration in a peatland ecosystem in Central China   Order a copy of this article
    by Ihab Alfadhel, Jiwen Ge, Sakinatu Issaka, Hasanain Alawadi, Yongxi Sinan, Yaoyao Liu 
    Abstract: Environmental factors affect evapotranspiration and usually cause a serious loss of water content from wetland ecosystems. Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration is vital to determine the amount of water necessary to preserve wetlands, particularly peatlands in Central China. The period studied was 24 months. The highest value (0.157 mm/hr) occurred in first growing season, and the lowest value (0.045 mm/hr) occurred in the non-growing season of 2017. Seasonal differences in evapotranspiration occurred in the active growth seasons June through October. The peak value of net radiation was 369 W.m2 in September 2017. There was a clear relationship between evapotranspiration and air temperature but weak correlation with precipitation; annual precipitation was 19 mm. The Bowen ratio showed no correlation with evapotranspiration. The average rate of evapotranspiration throughout the study period was 80%-95%. The eddy covariance technique was used to determine the effect of certain environmental factors on wetland evapotranspiration.
    Keywords: energy flux; eddy covariance; seasonal variation; environmental variable; wetland ecosystem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055812
  • Screening of potential bacteria from soil sample for methylene blue dye degradation: RSM modelling and Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Shalini Prajapati, Yelamarthi PYDI SETTY 
    Abstract: This study aimed to screen the bacteria from the samples collected from textile dye enriched soil. Twenty-one soil bacteria were isolated and examined for their efficacy for methylene blue (MB) decolourisation. Bacillus cereus found to be the potential microorganism for MB decolourisation, characterised using 16S rRNA sequence technique. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimise the three independent variables like dye concentration (mg/L), pH and glucose concentration (g/L) for decolourisation of MB. The experimental run given by central composite design (CCD) with quadratic model was conducted used in this study to optimise the variables and fit the model. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed; R2 = 0.9992 and R2 adj = 0.9985, which confirmed that experimental and predicted response are in good agreement and the model is highly significant. The optimal values of dye concentration (mg/L), pH and glucose concentration (g/L) proposed by RSM were found to be 70, 7.88 and 3.33, respectively.
    Keywords: decolourisation; methylene blue; Bacillus cereus; response surface methodology; RSM; central composite design; CCD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050941
  • A Review of the Green Approach to the Treatment of Solid Waste Leachate   Order a copy of this article
    by Kasun Wijerathna, F. Sumaiya Idroos, M.M. Pathmalal 
    Abstract: Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation related anthropogenic activities result in significant solid waste generation worldwide. Improper solid waste management practices cause the accumulation of landfill leachate in larger quantities, posing a serious hazard to ecosystems. Current physicochemical leachate treatment options have some drawbacks, including high operational costs, lower efficiency and environmental deterioration. Hence, the application of beneficial microbial communities for waste treatment has become a rapid moving, greener approach. Microbial degradation techniques such as membrane bioreactors, activated slug systems, sequencing batch reactors and lagoon systems are successfully applied to leachate treatments achieving more than 90% removal of COD, BOD and N-NH3. Furthermore, novel studies on the applicability of extracellular enzymes rather than crude microbial biomass are considered a more practical approach for bioremediation. The present review summarises the different microbial technologies for leachate treatment and their recent research findings by evaluating the application feasibility of based on current knowledge.
    Keywords: solid waste landfill leachate; biological treatments; bioremediation; microbial community; extracellular enzymes; organic contaminants.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050942
  • Assessment of Health Care Waste Management in Malaysian Hospital Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali B. Mahdia, Zahraa A. M. AL-Ibraheemi, Chandima Gomes, Abeer H. B. Al-Sultan 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the management scenarios of solid healthcare waste (HCW) and the currently used waste management technologies, intending to highlight the weak links to be strengthened. Unannounced visits were made to two governmental general hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia, each several times within one year. Waste generation, segregation, transportation, storage and disposal of the hospitals were comprehensively analysed. The outcomes highlight that HCW management performances need logistic modifications by increasing internal audits and strict regular monitoring by the hospital authorities and state-appointed statutory bodies. In addition, the 27.6 tonnes and 21.8 tonnes of HCW per month generated at both hospitals, need to be reduced and managed appropriately. These findings pave the way to develop better modules for solid HCW management for medical facilities for safer and more efficient waste disposal.
    Keywords: healthcare waste management; infectious waste; internal transportation; central storage; waste treatment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050944
  • Trends and Contribution of Solid Waste Research in Iran and Comparison with the World: A systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Aram Tirgar, Zahra Aghalari, Hans-Uwe Dahms 
    Abstract: This systematic review study was conducted using a bibliometric analysis for a 12 year period on articles published in five specialised Iranian environmental health journals and three international environmental health journals that are among the top 5% and 10% based on SNIP, emphasising the issue of solid waste. A review of 1679 articles in Iranian environmental health journals and 6,200 articles in international environmental health journals revealed that 9.41% and 0.43% of the articles published here were in the field of solid waste. In Iranian and international journals, the highest number of articles were about municipal solid waste 64% and 63%, respectively. The separation of the included articles were based on the six processes characterising solid waste, with the highest number of articles in Iranian journals about waste generation were 53.7% and in international journals about waste disposal were 34.7%.
    Keywords: solid waste; environmental health; articles; Iranian journals; international journals; content analysis; bibliometrics; systematic analysis; review; contribution; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050947
  • Construction and Demolition Waste Management: A Conceptual Framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Reza Esa, Anthony Halog, Lucia Rigamonti 
    Abstract: In Malaysia, there is still a lack of awareness of the impacts of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes to the environment despite the robust growth of the construction industry. This study was conducted to identify the most suitable waste minimisation strategies to be adopted throughout the construction cycles via obtaining views from the expert panels. A three rounds of Delphi technique were conducted; in which the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was incorporated in the second round. Experts opinions of government agencies, developers, consultants and contractors were gathered to carry out this study. The results reveal that there is needs to integrate the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle at each stage of the construction cycles. Furthermore, it was observed that the most fitting waste minimisation strategies that can be used throughout the construction cycle are modern construction modern, improving and tightening regulation and improve site management. Consequently, a conceptual framework of C&D waste management has been developed based on the inputs from the study.
    Keywords: C&D waste management; Delphi method; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; conceptual framework; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050949
  • Fabrication of Thermal Insulations by Recycling of Rice Straw and Rice Husk Used for Energy Management Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Eman Mohamed Gabr, Enas Arafa Ismail, Aziza El-Sayed El-Tabei 
    Abstract: Energy consumption and environmental protection are strongly connected. Thermal insulation is a poor conducting material. Thermal insulation applications for building and industrial sectors minimise both energy losses and green gases emissions. The objective of this work is the fabrication of thermal insulations by recycling rice wastes (rrw). Fabrication stages are preparation and grinding, adding several binders with different compositions. Then samples are compressed into discs; to test their thermal efficiency, handling, and usability. The best sample composition is (60% grinded rice wastes) and (40% additives of recycled dissolved foam and polyvinyl acetate). Painting the sample with thin protective layer of aerogel or rosin or epoxy improves thermo-mechanical performance of it. Initial estimation of an industrial case study improvement due to apply (rrw) is saving of fuel cost by 1,700,000 $/y and decrease of carbon emissions by 95%. Energy management and wastes recycle technique; have economic benefits and good environmental impact.
    Keywords: rice wastes recycle; binders; heat losses; energy management; environment protection; emission control; thermal insulations; thermomechanical performance; production evaluation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050951
  • Statistical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling of Plackett-Burman Screening Design to Improve the Fuel Properties of Oil Palm Fiber by Torrefaction Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Chokchai Mueanmas, Panadda Indum 
    Abstract: In this study, the two-level Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen the significant variables of torrefaction process of oil palm fibre (OPF). The independent parameters such as temperature, time, oxygen feed, heat rate and OPF size were studied. The %mass yield (%MY) and fuel properties including %moisture content (%MC), %volatile content (%VC), %ash content (%AC), %fixed carbon content (%FC) and heating value (HV) were selected as response variable. The results indicated that temperature, time, oxygen feed rate and heat rate performed statistically significant to the response of torrefied OPF. All obtained mathematical models showed a good fit with high coefficient of determination and their reliability was demonstrated by diagnostics plot. At the maximum experimental result, the %FC and HV of torrefied OPF increased by 13,483% and 27.42%, while the value of %MC and %VC decreased by 93.71% and 42.55%, respectively, as compared with the raw OPF. Thus, the torrefaction seems to be a potential process to improve the quality of fuel properties of OPF.
    Keywords: oil palm fibre; OPF; torrefaction; Plackett-Burman screening design; proximate analysis; heating value.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10050952
  • Solid Waste Characterisation and Recycling Potential for a University Campus in a Developing Nation   Order a copy of this article
    by AMIT KUMAR JAGLAN, Hari Bhakta Sharma, Mansi Vinaik, Brajesh Dubey 
    Abstract: The present study aims to estimate the recyclable potential of the solid waste generated from a University Campus in India through detailed characterisation, quantification, and economic analysis. The study found high fraction of organics (36%) followed by plastic (27%) and paper (17%). The overall recycling potential was 78%. With an efficient integrated solid waste management system in place, it was estimated that the net recyclable waste of 216 tons generated from the university campus could generate revenue of 2.6 million INR (USD $36,500) annually. As a part of the waste management framework, plastic, paper, metal, and glass components were found to have immense potential of sale to local scrap dealers. Organic waste can be recycled directly on-site at the campus in the form of compost and/or biogas. The solid waste management framework proposed in this study for university campuses can be simulated for educational campuses, following circular economy (CE) approach.
    Keywords: university campus; waste management; waste characterisation; recycling potential; economic valuation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051175
  • Impact of Urbanization on Ground Water Resources: Experience from Developing Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by M.T.O.V. Peiris, G.N. Gowshitharan 
    Abstract: Urbanisation is a phenomenon resulted in rural-to-urban migration of people and rapid conversion of lands for development purposes. Ground water resources are threatened by the unregulated land use changes and over exploitation for urban needs. This study aimed at analysing the impact of land use changes driven by urban growth on the ground water resources at Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Over 50% of samples show absolute scarcity levels while Nitrate and Phosphate contributed most to the pollution and reduced the quality of ground water sources. Spatial distribution of water quality and quantity measures suggest that immediate intervention is required to regulate the land use changes while managing the demand and supply within aquifer area. The results suggested the importance of water as a key factor in planning of cities, especially in arid regions and recommendations were provided to integrate sustainable water management practices into urban planning practices in future.
    Keywords: urbanisation; water scarcity; pollution; land use planning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051885
  • Factors affecting community participation in an e-waste recycling program   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong Thi Thu Nguyen, Chun-Hung Lee, Hang Thi Thu Nguyen, Thi Thanh Thuy Phan, Van Viet Nguyen, Rern-Jay Hung 
    Abstract: In the process of moving towards a sustainable society and circular economy, the recycling of e-waste has been an indispensable target for all nations from the perspectives of environmental protection and resource utilisation. As citizens are considered key implementers in the recycling system, the study aims to grasp factors affecting community participation in the e-waste recycling program in Vietnam. The logistic regression model was used to analyse the data of 600 household members collected via face-to-face interviews. The results suggest that abstract norms and conveniences and incentives are the most important indicators in positively explaining recycling participation. It is also detected that only income has a significant influence on residents decision whether to be involved in e-waste recycling. This study is expected to share necessary information to policy-makers, especially, for some countries whose e-waste regulations are under revision, aiming to ensure environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and circular economy.
    Keywords: community participation; e-waste recycling; abstract norms; conveniences and incentives; circular economy; sustainable development goals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10051889
  • Assessing Quality Wastewater for Irrigation in Swaziland (eSwatini) using Multivariate Statistical Analyses: Organics and Nutrients   Order a copy of this article
    by Thabani Mamba, Julius Mosyoka Ndambuki, Williams Kupolati, Ola Olaleye 
    Abstract: Data is sparse on the quality of wastewater (WW) discharged into rivers. The objective was to assess the quality of WW variables (organics and nutrients) using multivariate statistical analyses and compare these with international WW quality standards for irrigation. Samples were collected for 22 months and analyzed in the laboratory. Data were analysed statistically. Results showed WW variables (nutrients) were within the normal standards and guidelines for water quality for irrigated agriculture and aquatic lives. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed four components accounted for about 79.40% of the variations in the properties of the WW effluents. The PC-1 was 31% and associated with coliforms and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results of the cluster analysis showed that the 11 WWTPs can be grouped into four clusters for ease of management. The elevated levels of total coliforms (TC), FC and COD from these treatment plants may pose risks to aquatic lives.
    Keywords: Eswatini; irrigation; multivariate statistics; organics; wastewater treatment; Southern Africa; Swaziland.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10052823
  • Methane generation potential for waste with different landfill ages   Order a copy of this article
    by Tuilly De Fátima Macedo Furtado Guerra, Thiago De Sá Sena, Francisco Auriberto Ferreira Marques Junior, Marcio Melo, William De Paiva 
    Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for methane (CH4) generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) at ages 0, 1, and 2 from the landfill located in Campina Grande, in the State of Para
    Keywords: landfill gas; landfilling ages; semi-arid climate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10052983
  • Public awareness, knowledge and practice towards mandatory waste separation to support recycling in greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Ling Chen, Tapan Kumar Nath, Alex.M Lechner 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine different stakeholders awareness, knowledge and practice toward household waste separation and recycling (HWSR) in Greater Kuala Lumpur to address the paucity of research on the effectiveness of the policy and publics attitude concerning HWSR in Malaysia. Data were collected through: 1) a public social survey carried out using face-to-face interviews and online surveys and 2) key-informant interviews with stakeholders associated with solid waste management (SWM. Pearsons correlation, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-squared tests were carried out to find significant differences between selected variables. Results show that the respondents had good knowledge (mean score of 3.2 out of 4), and 38% of the respondents were practising some form of HWSR. Many respondents (65%) were not aware of the current waste separation policies, but 93% of the respondents would be willing to separate waste at source if necessary facilities were provided. Suggestions are made for stricter enforcement of policies and dissemination of information around HWSR through public engagement by all relevant stakeholders.
    Keywords: household waste; waste separation at source; recycling; social survey; public awareness; human behaviour; policy effectiveness; Greater Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10053038
  • Healthcare solid waste management in south Ethiopia: A case study of Wolaita Sodo referral hospital   Order a copy of this article
    by Shetie Gatew, Bereket Lambiso Wecho 
    Abstract: Healthcare facilities generate wastes that contain potentially hazardous wastes to the public and the surrounding environment. The management of these wastes is an important issue in Ethiopia. Wolaita Sodo referral hospital is one of the hospitals in the country which has critical problems in healthcare waste management. Across sectional descriptive study was conducted between March and November 2019 to quantify, characterise, and assess healthcare solid waste management practices in Wolaita Sodo referral hospital, South Ethiopia. Observational checklists, questionnaires, and weighting scales were used to quantify the generated healthcare solid wastes. The mean generation rate of healthcare solid waste was 0.67 kg/patient/day and 0.74 kg/bed/day. Of this 0.41 kg/bed/day (56.7%) was general waste and the rest 0.34 (43.5%) was hazardous waste. The quantity of total healthcare solid waste generated was positively correlated with the number of beds and patients (rs = 0.57, P = 0.02 and rs = 0.73, P = 0.01). Waste segregation and pre-treatment of infectious wastes were not practiced by the hospital. Solid wastes were stored, transported, treated, and disposed of improperly. Hence, waste management practices need to be improved through periodic training and adequate supplies of materials for the waste handler.
    Keywords: hazardous waste; healthcare solid waste; waste characterisation; waste management; waste quantification; Wolaita-Sodo; Ethiopia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2025.10055253
  • Study on Optimum Utilization of Water Treatment Plant Sludge for Treating Domestic Wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Rishi, D. JUSTUS REYMOND 
    Abstract: The water that is treated in the water treatment plant produces sludge that contains silt, debris, and coagulants that are used for the treatment process. The sludge so produced usually are dumped into waterbodies or landfills. When doing so the chemicals percolate into the soil reaching the groundwater and polluting them. This project mainly focuses on using this water treatment plant sludge in treating domestic wastewater. An aeration tank was set up with air pumps, bottles, measuring jars and glass tanks. The sludge was directly added to the sewage water collected from the wastewater treatment plant in varying proportions with a detention time of 5 days. When tested, it was found that the levels of BOD and COD were reduced drastically as compared to the existing methods of treatment. It was found that when 30% of sludge was added to the wastewater a 67% of reduction in BOD and 6.2% of reduction in COD was observed. A combination of 15% of activated sludge and 5% of water treatment plant sludge was observed with a decrease in 68% of COD and a 38% increase in BOD. Also, it was observed that the formation of froth in the aeration tank was reduced.
    Keywords: water treatment plant sludge; coagulant; domestic wastewater; aeration tank; activated sludge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10054290
  • Economics of Waste Minimization, Recycling and Energy Efficiency Practices for a Final Assembly Automotive Plant   Order a copy of this article
    by Salma Shaik, Matthew J. Franchetti 
    Abstract: The case study investigates the solid waste management infrastructure, energy consumption, and wastewater generation at a large-scale final assembly automotive plant in Northeast Ohio, USA. The study is novel in that it takes a holistic approach in examining solid waste, energy usage, and wastewater generation from an economic perspective at a final assembly automotive plant. Existing records were analysed to identify historical trends and additional data were collected through a comprehensive assessment of the facility. The data analysis indicates that an additional 106.141 metric tons of waste material could be recycled annually. By replacing the existing fluorescent lighting with energy-efficient LED lighting, the electricity savings are approximately 5 million kWh/year with a cost saving of $500,000/year. The paper also discusses waste-water treatment, paint sludge management, and composting opportunities which would help the plant to become more sustainable with improved economics.
    Keywords: recycling; automotive assembly plant; waste minimisation; solid waste; energy management; economics; lighting; wastewater; composting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10054291
  • Environmental and Economic Modelling for Municipal Solid Waste Management Strategies: A Case Study in OH, USA   Order a copy of this article
    by Zonghua Xu, Lakshika Kuruppuarachchi, Alex Spivak, Matthew J. Franchetti 
    Abstract: Management strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) have been conducted concerning greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for cities and large geographical regions, but few have been conducted related to GHG emissions from a single facility. This study fills that gap by evaluating economic cost, and social cost of CO2e for the treatment of MSW streams for a single large facility in Ohio, USA moving towards a zero waste to landfill strategy. A total of eight scenarios related to varying IWM strategies at the facility were studied. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Waste Management Model (IWM) to find the best potential integrated MSW management strategy. The results indicated that the economic cost and social cost of CO2e decreased by 49.05% and 2.25 times respectively compared with the current scenario by increasing the recycling rate for the facility by 50%, diverting 30% of food waste to AD processing (from 0%), incinerating the rest of the waste for energy, and sending little to zero waste to landfills.
    Keywords: zero waste to landfill; GHG emissions; CO2e social cost; municipal solid waste; life cycle assessment; LCA; integrated waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2024.10054292
  • To assess the dynamics of emission effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by using the flux chamber technique at Titardi (capped) and Balicha (uncapped) landfill sites of Udaipur, Rajasthan   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Dwivedi 
    Abstract: To evaluate the efflux of CO2 and CH4 gases by the application of static flux chamber (SFC) method at Balicha landfill site (BLS) and Titardi landfill site (TLS) situated in semiarid region of Rajasthan for a period of 2018 and 2019. The geometric mean flux of CO2 and CH4 fluxes at BLS during the studied period was ranged from 0.522 to 0.787 gm/m2 /day and from 0.175 to 0.252 gm/m2 /day, respectively. Whereas; the geometric mean fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at TLS was straddling from 0.272 to 0.472 gm/m2 /day and 0.087 to 0.134 gm/m2 /day sequentially in the same given period. The carbon footprint generated from the BLS and TLS was approximately 0.156 Gg/yr and 0.0135 of CO2 equivalent. The results, were statistically quantified using the coefficient of variation, demonstrated that the considerable temporal fluctuation in the CO2 and CH4 gas emanation fluxes at BLS and TLS was noticed so, mitigation needed.
    Keywords: static flux chamber; SFC; landfill efflux; greenhouse gas; GHGs; carbon footprints.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055814
  • Determinants of waste generation and segregation behaviour among the educated communities in the Western and the North-Western Provinces of Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by R.N.K. Soysa, Asankha Pallegedara, Ajantha Sisira Kumara, Dissanayake M. Jayasena, M.K.S.M. Samaranayake 
    Abstract: Solid waste, especially municipal solid waste, is a growing problem in Sri Lanka, and this problem has become intensified due to the absence of proper waste management systems in the country. At-source segregation could be practised at the household level as one of the solutions to this problem. The study intends to identify the factors influencing the waste generation and segregation behaviour of households of educated communities who have received tertiary education in Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire through an online survey and responses from 402 respondents were analysed by employing logistic and OLS regression analysis. The study identified that family income level, local governmental authorities involvement in waste collection, age of the household head, and house type significantly affect the waste segregation behaviour of households of educated communities. Further, age of household head, family size, attitude, land area, household ownership, family income and involvement of local governmental authorities in the waste collection significantly affect the household solid waste generation. Implementation of policies and effective strategies in the local government authority levels would be an effective practise to encourage proper waste management practises in Sri Lanka.
    Keywords: waste management; waste segregation at source; waste generation; households; recycling; municipal solid waste; logistic regression; multiple regression; educated community; Sri Lankan; Sri Lanka.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055247
  • In-sight into microbial structure and function of an Eastern Obolo estuarine water using metagenomics   Order a copy of this article
    by Uwem Edet, Ini Bassey, Iniobong Ebenge Andy, Rose U. B. Ebana, Udotong Ime Rufus 
    Abstract: Estuary microbes play several crucial roles that are not fully understood. We utilised metagenomics, a culture-independent technique to evaluate microbial composition and functions in an estuary. Sampling and physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard techniques. Extracted metagenomic DNA was sequenced using next-generation sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform. In addition to taxonomic analysis, functional genes assessment was carried out using several pipelines for a robust analysis. The result of the physicochemical analysis showed anthropogenic influence on the estuarine water. Structural composition revealed two kingdoms (bacteria and archaea), and the dominant phyla to be firmicutes and proteobacteria. All three pipelines combined showed genes associated with energy metabolisms, post-translational modifications, and environmental information processing. Interestingly, these functions were linked to either proteobacteria (alpha and gamma proteobacteria) or firmicutes. The wide array of energy metabolisms and environmental information processing pathways confirm microbial versatility in an estuary. Evaluation of microbial structure and function as done in this study can infer the status of an ecosystem.
    Keywords: metagenomics; bioinformatics; Niger-Delta; estuary; microbial function.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055256
  • Dual step synthesis of chromium removal from tannery industry wastewater with photocatalytic effects of TiO2   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Vinicio Masabanda, Vicente Delgado, E. Rajasekhar, Naga Raju Maddela 
    Abstract: In this paper, results presented were about photocatalytic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the removal of chromium (Cr) from tannery industry wastewater collected in tungurahua province in Ecuador. The primary source of the oxidation process (OP) is the method of photocatalysis. In this investigation, a prototype cylindrical collector (PCC) was designed to treat the wastewater. According to the results, a linear relationship was obtained between the dual step synthesis (DSS) of chromium removal from tannery industry wastewater with photocatalysis and solar energy. Photocatalysis effects showed highest removal of chromium at different concentrations and short periods of reaction time. The low-cost photocatalysts acted as functional capacity for the treatment of wastewater. The method of dual step synthesis of chromium removal from tannery wastewater with photocatalytic effects of TiO2 could be a sustainable and green synthesis approach. Dual step synthesis (DSS) method coupled with photocatalysis is effective in the production and generation of green energy. The degradation of organic pollutants in wastewater treatment is extensively engaged with titanium dioxide. The activation of the catalyst is necessary for solar radiation.
    Keywords: chromium; photocatalysis; solar radiation; titanium dioxide; wastewater.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055732
  • Effective organic fertiliser through a novel approach of biocatalyst activated from biochar   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadun S. Gunasekara, Renuka T.K. Ariyawansha, B.F.A. Basnayake 
    Abstract: Instead of simply mixing biochar into compost, it was decided to activate the biochar. Aqueous biocatalysts were produced in the aerobic reactor (AR) and anaerobic reactor (ANR), containing water, shredded market waste, and rock phosphate (RP) by adding biochar intermittently to reach neutral pH. AR surpassed pH 7 to reach 9.07 but the ANR could only attain 5.92 on 44th day. In AR, available P content increased from 55.24 mg/L to 2,196 mg/L and ANR from 113.86 mg/L to 2,183 mg/L. Aerobic and anaerobic biocatalysts were mixed separately into two piles of shredded garden wastes of 1 kg each with the third as the control. Total P contents of aerobic, anaerobic, and control compost were 2.45 mg/g, 1.93 mg/g, and 0.78 mg/g. respectively. Slightly less total N in biocatalysts but converted to organic acids while increased available K compared to control. Aerobic biocatalyst is the best because enzyme kinetics reveal competitive inhibition existed in ANR in forming the catalyst and noncompetitive inhibition manifested when aerobic catalyst was added to garden wastes.
    Keywords: aerobic; anaerobic; biochar; biocatalyst; composting; market waste; organic fertiliser; solubility of rock phosphate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055734
  • Investigation of the effect of water treatment plant effluent on river quality: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahram Moradi, Narges Raeisi, Darshan Mehta, Saeid Eslamian 
    Abstract: The influx of human sewage and effluent from most industries causes numerous pollutions in rivers, and the consequences of these pollutions may endanger human health and river ecosystems. In order to determine the effect of effluent on Karoun water quality, five sampling stations were considered. The first, third, and fifth stations were determined on the river, i.e., from Sheyban (upstream) to the Daghagheleh (downstream) treatment plant, on the other hand, the second and fourth stations were specified at the entrance of the treatment plant effluent to the river. Sampling was done monthly in four seasons from January 2020 to December 2020. Based on the values measured at the stations, the seasonal and annual quality index was calculated for each station, and then the different stations were classified based on the water quality index (WQI) system. According to the results, the annual quality index in different stations ranged from 524.79 to 648.93 (fourth group). On the other hand, comparing the results between the stations located on the river also shows that the water quality from the first to the fifth station is almost declining.
    Keywords: water treatment plants effluent; quality index; Karoun River; urban uses.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10056374
  • The state and management of hazardous waste discarded by beauty salons of the central business district of Musina, Limpopo Province, South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Happy Andani Nematshavhawe, Marubini Reuben Ramudzuli, Marthienus Johannes Potgieter 
    Abstract: Beauty salons treatments use products that are hazardous, and if not properly discarded, can cause environmental and human health problems. The study examined the state and management of hazardous waste (HW) discarded by all eight salons located in the central business district of the town of Musina in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Nail varnish bottles were the most discarded HW product per week by all salons. Shop managers make use of municipal refuse bag for temporary storage, which are then transported to the municipal landfill site for final disposal. None of the participant's separate waste: the main reasons being a lack of awareness of separation management. Shop owners and employees' attitude towards HW management was neutral, while their level of knowledge on the impact of HW on the environment and human health was rated low. 75% of respondents were unaware that the products they discard constitute HW.
    Keywords: beauty salon; central business district; hazardous waste; Musina; South Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10034892
  • Soil contamination with heavy metals release from e-waste management activities in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Jokotade Owoso, Oladele Osibanjo 
    Abstract: This study assessed the levels of heavy metals contamination of soil of four different e-waste management activity sites in Lagos, Nigeria where open burning, dismantling/disposal, stockpiling and dismantling/stockpiling of e-waste were ongoing. Soil samples were collected seasonally during dry and wet seasons, for two years from each site. The samples were analysed for selected metals using atomic absorption spectrometer after aqua regia digestion. The soil at the open burning site was observed with the highest concentrations of all the metals with mean values (mg/kg) of 24.8 (Cd), 69.3 (Cr), 108 (Ni), 4,380 (Zn), 15,200 (Pb), 41,700 (Cu) for the wet season. The extreme values of contamination factor (> 6) obtained for the open burning site indicated very strong contamination by Pb and Cu. Sequential extraction showed higher proportions of Zn, Pb and Cu in the non-residual soil fractions with mobility factors suggestive of high mobility and bioavailability of the metals.
    Keywords: soil contamination; heavy metals release; e-waste management activities; Nigeria; open burning; dismantling; stockpiling; contamination factor; sequential extraction; mobility factor; bioavailability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055961
  • Household solid waste management strategies in a metropolitan community at Orile-Agege, Lagos, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by A.Y. Olatubosun, P.O. Ogungbile, M.K.C. Sridhar, A.Y. Sangodoyin 
    Abstract: The study sampled 357 residents in three communities in Orile-Agege for comprehensive data. A semi-structured questionnaire was used which assessed waste storage practices, disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Predominant among generated wastes in the community are plastics and food wastes. Wastes are preferably stored in plastic bags (53.5%) than in closed bins (15.4%). Waste disposal methods were by registered private service providers using trucks (60.1%), dumping in canals (2.8%), drying and burning (3.4%), informal composting (1.4%) while 2% is segregated for recyclable components. Majority of respondents (61.6%) exhibited ignorance of the effect of waste generation on natural resources depletion, but 81.1% and 72.8% were willing to try separation and composting respectively after explanation. Some respondents (47.62%) still hold the wrong belief that waste management is the sole responsibility of government while 45.93% did not accept it as a priority.
    Keywords: household waste; waste generation; waste separation; waste disposal; Lagos Metropolitan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10055733
  • Municipal solid waste characteristics and segregation efficiency of in-house direct sampling in Kuwait   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad A. Alolayan, Abdullah H. Alsanad, Latifa I. Aljallal, Abdirashid Elmi 
    Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) composition, generation rate, and segregation efficiency were estimated using direct sampling of houses in Kuwait. Additionally, public willingness toward in-house waste segregation was investigated through one-on-one interviews. The study randomly selected 61 houses and 293 respondents. The sampling was conducted for three consecutive weeks. The recyclables were manually sorted into 17 subcategories. The estimated generation rate is 0.77 kg/person/day, of which 13% were recyclables. Paper, plastic, glass, and metal respectively contributed 6%, 3.7%, 2.3%, and 0.9% to the generation rate. The interview results showed that 82% of the respondents were willing to segregate their waste into recyclables and non-recyclables in-house if a recycling bin were placed in front of their house. Half of them were willing to pay a fee of more than 3 KWD/month (~ 10 USD). An additional 10% agreed to segregate if the proceeds would go to charity.
    Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; recyclables; segregation; willingness; waste; sorting; Kuwait.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10035171
  • Synthesis of guar gum-g-coconut husk (SnO2-SiO2) nanocomposite for removal of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) from wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by Shivangi Omer, Ajay Singh 
    Abstract: A new sorbent material namely 'guar gum-g-coconut husk (SnO2-SiO2) [GG-g-CH(SnO2-SiO2)] nanocomposite' was synthesised by preparation of coconut husk metal oxide nanoparticles and grafted into acrylamide modified guar gum (GG) base with the help of crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde. Its adsorption capacity was evaluated for the adsorption of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) metal ions from wastewater and factors affecting variables such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and concentration were extensively investigated. It was found from the study that the maximum percent removal achieved was 99% for Cu (II) and 92.74% Cr (VI) at a pH of 8.3 and 7.2 respectively with an optimum adsorbent dose of 250 mg/l in 120 mins. The sorption data obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but Freundlich isotherm was better mathematical fit than Langmuir model. The Langmuir sorption capacity (qmax) was found to be 105.26 and 98.03 mg/g for Cu (II) and Cr (VI) respectively. Freundlich constants, KF values obtained for Cu (II) was 1.135 and for Cr (VI) was 1.11 while 1/n values obtained for Cu (II) was 0.647 and for Cr (VI) was 0.656, respectively.
    Keywords: guar gum; coconut husk; silica; tin; copper; chromium; adsorption; nanocomposite.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10036122
  • Effect of design parameters of magnetic separator on recovery of metal values from slag waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Barun Harichandan, R. Venugopal 
    Abstract: Slag generated during the metallurgical processing of iron and steelmaking is principally a mixture of metallic oxide along with silica and other compounds. Although slag is an end waste generated during iron and crude steel production, it comprises a significant amount of metal values. The prime objective of this study is to recover the valuable metals present in the slag waste to minimise the waste generation as well as the adverse impact of disposal on the environment. This study focused on the recovery of magnetic material from steel slag by a magnetic separator based on its mineralogical characteristics and chemical composition. A full factorial experiment was designed for this investigation, and the obtained results were analysed by a mathematical model to validate the effect of process parameters on metal recovery. The optimum conditions were identified, and a confirmation test was also performed at that condition. Recovery of magnetic metal values over 93% was obtained, and the linear regression analysis indicated that the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental results.
    Keywords: steel slag; magnetic separator; waste minimisation; recovery; metal values; optimisation; mineral processing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2022.10035108
  • A modern waste management strategy for reducing urban air pollution in Taif, Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdullah Alsaluli 
    Abstract: Urban air pollution is a global problem and poor air quality has a negative impact on health. Existing waste management practices in Taif, Saudi Arabia, significantly contribute to increasing levels of air pollutants and steps must be taken to reduce air pollution levels. The purpose of this study was to develop effective modern waste management strategies to reduce air pollution in Taif based on a circular economy of prevention, reuse and recycling. The city's current waste collection, sorting and recycling practices relative to population density and pollution exposure were evaluated and found to be inadequate. The study used correlational hospital studies and community time series analysis to highlight the relationship between respiratory diseases and air pollutants. To achieve better air quality in Taif, solid waste collection in densely populated areas must be improved by increasing the number and use of on-street recycling containers and specific waste collection sites.
    Keywords: air pollution; circular economy; respiratory diseases; Saudi Arabia; Taif; waste management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10034498
  • Monitoring and modelling of water quality parameters using artificial intelligence   Order a copy of this article
    by Dayang P.M.A. Omar, Gasim Hayder, Yung-Tse Hung 
    Abstract: Rapid population growth leads to an increase in demand for water and spikes levels of water pollution. In this study, a low cost and innovative internet of things (IoT) device was used in the monitoring of water quality parameters. The monitoring system implemented used consists of maker-UNO as the core controller, SIM7600-GSM module as the Wi-Fi module and the water quality parameters sensors (total dissolved solids (TDS), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), temperature and turbidity). This study applied five different artificial intelligence (AI) techniques models to predict the water quality parameters. The data were collected from phytoremediation treatment system and modelled by using artificial neural network (ANN), regression trees, support vector machine (SVM), ensemble trees and the Gaussian process regression (GPR). A satisfying prediction models were achieved indicating that early prevention of contamination in the treatment system can be achieved through the application of monitoring and artificial intelligence modelling tools.
    Keywords: monitoring; water quality; prediction model; artificial intelligence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10037667
  • Improving performance of independent smallholders towards the principles of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil Certification in Riau Province: prospective scenario approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Novia Dewi, Syaiful Hadi, Rosnita Rosnita, Yeni Kusumawaty 
    Abstract: Certification is increasingly important to ensure sustainability. However, certification is a challenge for palm oil farmers. This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the application of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) standards by independent smallholders; 2) analyse the lever attributes; 3) formulate strategies for successful ISPO implementation. This research applied survey method towards 270 independent farmers and key respondents. Data analysis was performed descriptively and by prospective analysis. The results showed that the application of ISPO indicators by independent smallholders is still low and there are many indicators that have not been applied. The critical determinants of the implementation of ISPO are the benefits of ISPO, guidance, documentation, financial assistance, partnerships, stakeholder roles, human resources, and legal certainty. The best strategy to implement the ISPO standard is through synergy between the government and stakeholders in terms of government policies that support the enhancement of human resource capabilities, capital capabilities, farm management capabilities and marketing capabilities.
    Keywords: independent smallholders; determinant attributes; strategies; prospective; Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil; ISPO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2023.10036729