International Journal of Environment and Waste Management
These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.
Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.
Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.
Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues are published online.
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (95 papers in press)
Abstract: This case study increases our understanding of Lean implementation in which value stream mapping (VSM) is used to create an action plan at a small dairy and cattle farm in southwest Sweden. The researchers, the farmer-owner, and farm employees followed a step-by-step approach that resulted in ideas for operational improvements for the dairy activity. Data were collected in interviews with the farmer/owner, researcher participation in workshops, and researcher observations. The results reveal that VSM is an effective way to create a culture of collaboration among the farm staff and to better define their roles and responsibilities as well as improve routines, communications, and task completion. In the two-to-three year period following the VSM project, specific improvements were observed in milk production/quality and animal health. The results also reveal that while Lean principles are relevant given the repetitive nature of agriculture routines and tasks, the VSM element of lead-time reduction is less relevant owing to the unique value adding biological processes in the agriculture sector.
Keywords: Lean; value stream mapping; agricultural production; productivity; farmers.
Physicochemical treatment of industrial wastewater using Moringa. Peregrina as a coagulant for flocculation: A comparative study
by Muhammad Saleem
Abstract: Optimum conditions for applying M. Peregrina as a natural coagulant to treat pharmaceutical wastewater are determined and compared with that of alum coagulation. In both cases, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, was followed by slow sand filtration and activated carbon adsorption treatment. Alum reduced COD, BOD5, TSS and turbidity by 48.6%, 34.8%, 79.6%, and 69.2% respectively. Alum coagulation followed by slow sand filtration reduce the studied parameters by 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. Activated carbon was used to further reduce these parameters to 99.9%, 99.1%, 94.3% and 81.3% respectively. While using M. Peregrina excellent reduction in studied parameters was found as 81.7%, 83.2%, 78.6% and 94.2% respectively. Further physicochemical treatment reduced by 99.8%, 99.7%, 99.1%, and 92.3% respectively after SSF. The performance of M. Peregrina found to be superior to that of alum coagulation and can bring wastewater quality up to the standard allowable limits for reuse.
Keywords: physicochemical treatment; industrial wastewater; M. Peregrina; BOD5; COD; turbidity.
Domestic biowaste drying as a pretreatment method to produce a stabilized biological resource
by Aggelos Sotiropoulos, George Xydis, Mishel Yard, Stergios Vakalis
Abstract: The results of the use of the domestic biowaste drying method for the effective dehydration of the OFHMSW and the production of lignocellulosic biomass from this waste fraction are presented within this article. It presents the methodology and results produced from the first laboratory operation of a prototype household waste dehydration unit for the drying of household biowaste at source through the effective removal of its water content by using the heated air-drying process. The use of domestic dehydration technique revealed the substantial mass reduction that reached a maximum of 78 %w/w, while the final products carbohydrate content, suggests its further use to produce biobased chemicals and bioenergy. 39.99 %w/w of the target material, more than 40%w/w of the material may be converted into sugars through fermentation and from there to ethanol. Moreover, 36.11 of the already existing sugars have the potential to be directly fermented to ethanol. Finally, considering a cost of 0.071 Euro/kWh which is the mean value cost per kWh for the Greek household and energy consumption of 1001-1200 kWh which is also the average consumption of the Greek household, the maximum monthly cost for a family and a 24h operation was calculated to be 7.2 Euros.
Keywords: biowaste; biobased; drying; bioeconomy; lignocellulosic biomass; resource efficiency; biomass; waste treatment.
Collision of Emotional Intelligence and work centrality on Work-life balance- a supportive work environment for working professionals
by R. Dr. Jothikumar
Abstract: This study examined the differences among working professionals of nurses atrnvaried levels of emotional intelligence and work centrality on work-life balance and itsrndimensions. One way Anova was the statistical tools applied in this research for analysis.rnAnalysis demonstrated that, significant differences were found between workingrnprofessionals of nurses with low, average and high emotional intelligence and work centralityrnon the dimensions of work interference with personal life, personal life interference withrnwork, work personal life enhancement and work life balance.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence; work centrality; work-life balance.
Global Analysis of Electronic Items with Remanufacturing to control E-waste
by Nita Shah, Moksha Satia, Bijal Yeolekar
Abstract: E-waste is electronic items that have become useless or have reached to the end of their life-span. The maximum e-waste is produced by electronic industry in comparison to vendor and customer. E-waste contains many harmful chemicals which can be absorbed by humans and landfills and floats in the environment. The best solution to control e-waste is re-manufacturing. Re-manufacturing preserves natural resources, saves landfills, reduces greenhouse gas emissions and consequently controls pollution. It also consumes less inventory so that it pays less cost. To investigate this e-waste problem and advocating re-manufacturing, we have developed a mathematical model of three compartments viz. manufacturing unit, vendor and customer comprising of remanufacturing at players ends. To examine the stability of e-waste model, the local and global stability is considered. Threshold and numerical simulation is carried out.
Keywords: E-waste remanufacturing; System of non-linear differential equation; Threshold; Local stability; Global stability.
Chemistry of terephthalate Derivatives
by Asmaa Fahim, Ahmad M. Faragb, Galal A. M. Nawwara, El Sayed M.A. Yakouta, Eman A. Ragabb
Abstract: This review presents a systematic and comprehensive survey of the synthesis and reactions of terephthalate derivatives
Keywords: Poly (ethylene terephthalate); terephthalic acid; terephthaloyl dichloride; terephthalic dihydrazide.
Accelerated leach test for low-level radioactive waste forms in the Hungarian NPP Paks
by Gyorgy Patzay, Otto Zsille, Jozsef Csurgai, Gyula Vass, Ferenc Feil
Abstract: An accelerated leach test method was used for low-level radioactive waste forms in the Hungarian NPP Paks. These experiments were performed using cylinders prepared form Hungarian cement type CEM I 32,5 LH and CEM III/B 32, N-LH/SR. Each cylinder was made using cement or cement plus additive using radioactive waste water. The cemented radioactive material was evaporator bottom residue or sludge as well as evaporator cleaning acid solution, spent ion exchange resin, decontamination solution from NPP Paks, containing 134Cs, 137Cs and 60Co as main radioactive components. Leach tests were performed according to ASTM C 1308-08 standard. A computer program (ILT15) associated with the accelerated leach test was developed based on the ASTM C 1308-08 standard. Literature test and measured leaching data were analyzed to assess whether the model for diffusion from a finite cylinder describes leaching from cement based waste forms. In this paper some of the experimental and modeling work used to validate the test method are presented.
Keywords: radioactive waste; leach test; cement; computer program; diffusion.
Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting Wastewater Parameters of a Common Effluent Treatment Plant
by Monika Vyas, Mukul Kulshrestha
Abstract: This paper employs Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to evolve a framework wherein advance prediction of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) performances can be made using process variables such as BOD, TSS, and pH. To illustrate the efficacy of the framework, ANN models were applied to the case of a CETP having designed treatment-capacity of 900 m3/day. The data was collected over a period of 5-years from the influent and effluent streams for the CETP wherein eight industries discharge their wastewaters. rnIt was observed that multilayer perceptron with online back-propagation algorithm having hyperbolic-tangent function for both hidden and output layers gives excellent results. All ANN models learnt rapidly with training speed as high as 500 iterations/second. Thus, ANN-based models proved efficient and robust modelling tools, giving R values upto 0.98. The evolved models were then used to prepare input importance Tables to delineate contributions of load of individual industries into the CETP for evolving a sustainable financial mechanism to charge industries in accordance with their respective loads. Such forecasting may also be beneficially used to curtail the need of continuous monitoring of the CETP, thereby resulting in significant savings besides reducing perpetual dependence on operator-based real-time monitoring.
Keywords: ANN; CETP; wastewater; modelling; forecasting.
Synthesis and DFT Calculations of Aza-Michael Adducts Obtained from Degradation Poly(methyl methacrylate) Plastic Wastes.
by Asmaa Fahim, Ahmad M. Faragb, Galal A. M. Nawwara, El Sayed M.A. Yakout, Eman A. Ragab
Abstract: Aza-Michael adducts are obtained in excellent yields by the conjugate addition of nucleophilic reagents with α,β-unsaturated substrates such as methyl methacrylate (MMA), which were obtained from degradation poly(methyl methacrylate) plastic wastes using green energy source and were used as usuful precoursors for the synthesis of novel heterocycles, such as pyrazole, isochromene, quinolone, and amino isoxazole. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G level of theory have been carried out to investigate the stability of isochromene and quinolone. Moreover, HOMO and LUMO energy, total energy, and atomic Mulliken charges were calculated. The dipole moment and orientation of the two p-isoelectronic isochromene 15 and quinolone 20d have been also measured and their interactions with aromatic aldehydes to form isochromene 15 and quinolone 20d have been studied.
Keywords: Poly(methyl methacrylate); methyl methacrylate; aza-Michael addition; heterocycles; DFT calculations.
Fuzzy Inference System for deciding the appropriate Feedstock for Waste to Energy and Compost Systems
by Neena Ahuja, Dipali Bansal, Khwaja M. Rafi
Abstract: This paper is a revised and expanded version of the paper entitled Fuzzy computing for feedstock selection in biogas plantpresented at IEEE supported 2015 International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Implementations (ICSCTI), Faridabad, India on 9th October, 2015. A Fuzzy Inference System is proposed here towork as a decision support model for evaluating theappropriateness of the feedstock being introduced into the Waste to Energy anaerobic digester. Methane yielddepends upon the nature of the feedstock and the pH environment within the digester. At the moment the Waste to Energy industry and Compost Facility utilizes years of experience and practice to prepare feedstock within the approved C:N ratio.This poses a challenge to the widespread acceptability of the technology across cities, villages, towns, communities, institutions due to lack of experienced personnel resulting in underutilization of the waste, bulkier systems for the same amount of energy production and variable quality of compost generation. To replicate the experience and knowledge of the human expert softcomputing using Fuzzy Inference system was designed here using elevensamples from a database of 15 kitchen waste items and calculating their theoretical methaneyield with the help of Busswell Equation. Mamdani style Fuzzy Inference Systemwith six linguistic rules and centroid as the defuzzification method was designed to select therange of samples that would yield optimum methane under anaerobic conditions within the C: Nconstraints of the system. The feed to the biogas plant was approved if its theoretical methaneproduction was at least 50% in the produced biogas and its C: N ratio figured in the 22.3-33.7range; else it was disapproved. The Fuzzy Inference system classified the best feedstock in the24-30.5 C: N range with over 62.5% methane producing potential.The concept could well be utilized for selection of feed for compost facility and in future highly user friendly and interactive software modules could revolutionize the waste to energy technology making it simple and hassle free for implementation across all scales.rnrn
Keywords: C: N Ratio; biogas; Fuzzy Inference System; %CH4; feedstock; methane; softcomputing.
Knowledge and Practice of a Water Village Community in Household Waste Management: Appraising Current Problems and Future Recommendations
by Hukil Sino, Maznah Ibrahim, Mohd Hasamizi Mustapa, Zurina Mahadi
Abstract: Unsystematic household waste management in water villages could have adverse effects on the surrounding marine ecosystem. This study is conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practices regarding household waste management in Tanjung Aru Water Village, Sabah, Malaysia. Using a survey approach, data was obtained from the use of a guided questionnaire administered to 62 respondents. The average score of knowledge is 8.35
Keywords: knowledge; practice; household waste; waste collection; water village; recycling.
Watch Dog System for Water Management
by R. Jothikumar, Siva Shammugam G, Susi S
Abstract: Water has been one of the greatest measures in the human kind since the medieval era and will be until the existence of the human, animal and plant lives. But, it is seen that only a small content of water is now available for human use and said that within a few years there will be a vast need for water in different regions of the world. Due to the improper use and many external factors the remained water is being polluted by one or the other way. It is the basic need of people to take utmost care of water for present and future generations. This project is an important step to be taken for prevention of precious natural gift called water. This paper presents a design and development for low cost monitoring of water quality check in IoT (internet of things). To address the issue of water necessity, its dissemination and quality check, a novel drew nearer is proposed which depends on IoT (Internet of Things). The proposed framework comprises distinctive sensors like water flow sensor to measure the water flow, pH sensor to check the pH level of the water, ultra sonic sensor to measure the level of the water and PIC microcontroller as a core controller which coordinates the sensors. A water control valve is controlled through web interface in view of water flow sensor incentive to guarantee equivalent and satisfactory water dissemination to every association. There is an implant pump in the model which is used to get an adequate flow of water through flow sensor. Zigbee high level communication protocol is used to access the sensors and retrieve the data from sensors which are implanted in a river or a lake or even in tanks and pipes. The threshold limits of the sensors are accessed in through pc and can be changed based on the atmosphere of the location with a reasonable cause. The data is stored in the database and the history is recorded for future comparisons whenever needed. The main aim of the project is to provide a accurate check on the water with different parameters and provide the measurements so that people can take proper measures on the water within their area of use for all their external and internal uses of water with this low cost real time water monitoring system.
Keywords: pH sensor; Flow sensor; Ultra-sonic sensor; IoT (Internet of things); Zigbee; PIC microcontroller.
Site Selection Model for Urban Solid Waste Disposal Management Using GIS and Remote Sensing: A Case of Gulu Municipality
by Patrick Okot, Patrick Job Ogao, Jackson Abandu
Abstract: The management of solid waste disposal is an issue that features in urban planning due to population rise and hence build-up of solid wastes. Planners are forced to use suitable disposal means to minimize damages that may occur to ecosystem and population. This study sought to develop a site selection model for urban solid waste disposal management. The aim of the study was attained by assessing the current system of: waste collection; transportation; disposal and monitoring to identify model requirements before its design and validation. A total of 38 respondents based in Gulu Municipality were purposively sampled and managed with the help of questionnaires and interviews. The methods of: GIS and remote sensing; Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation and Analytical Hierarchy processing were used in the study. The determined sites were classified by aggregation based on criteria weights. Possible sites were identified and the best one selected using a sizing procedure.
Keywords: Model; Site Selection; Waste disposal; GIS; Remote sensing; Urban.
Shaping and Delivering Tomorrows Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management System: Proposal for a Structured Data Management Infrastructure
by Macbeda Uche Michael-Agwuoke, Jacqueline Whalley, Love Chile, Philip Sallis
Abstract: The monitoring and collection of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) data have been a daunting task. The development of a digital mapping, data collection, and data reporting system, allows for ease of data management and creation of a standardized system. This study develops a waste mapping and tracking system based on a structured ontological framework for an improved waste management system. The ontology is based on a four-levels data framework in a zoned waste management system within a municipal area, regional or national boundaries. The waste flow system within the zonal boundaries is designed to connect all facilities and activities in the zone and flexible to allow inter-zonal access to facilities that are existing outside a zone. Data tagging and collection strategies are developed to provide the vocabulary and standard for data encoding and recording of all knowledge-based information to help in the decision-making rules.
Keywords: Structured data management; Sustainable municipal solid waste management; Waste management system flows; Waste mapping and tracking system; Ontological framework; Activity nodes; Four-levels data framework; Waste management Zones; Zoned waste management system; Data encoding and recording; Knowledge-based information; Decision-making rules.
Value addition of cotton stalks through enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides
by ASHIS SAMANTA, Jayaram Chikkerur, Sohini Roy, Atul Kolte, Arindam Dhali, Kandalam Giridhar, Manpal Sridhar, Swaraj Senani
Abstract: The present work focuses on the value addition of cotton stalks through xylan extraction and enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS); a pentose based prebiotic. Chemical analysis revealed that cotton stalk contains neutral detergent fibre 87.66 %, acid detergent fibre 72.81 %, hemicellulose 14.85 %, cellulose 53.08 %, and acid detergent lignin 19.73 %. The xylan yield from cotton stalks was ranged from 1.75 to 7.36% when recovered with lithium hydroxide, while it reached up to 14% by using sodium and potassium hydroxides. The maximum recovery of xylan was attained at 4 % NaOH together with steam and 8 % KOH under overnight incubation. Commercial xylanase enzyme was used for enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan to produce XOS. The XOS concentration was ranged from 0.83 to maximum value of 2.19 mg/ml in the hydrolysate at pH 5.0, enzyme dose of 5 U, for 4 h of hydrolysis time. The findings substantiated the potentiality of cotton stalk as a raw material for xylan extraction vis a vis production of XOS.
Keywords: Cotton stalk; Enzymatic process; Xylan; Xylooligosaccharides.
An optimal solid waste collection fee based on area characteristics using hedonic pricing approach
by Komwit Siritorn
Abstract: To extract an optimal willingness to pay for a waste collection service from an expected house price was the goal of this paper. The data were collected from households in Songkhla and Hatyai cities representing cultural and commercial characteristic areas, respectively. They were analyzed by hedonic pricing method (HPM) in a form of Box-Cox model framework based on area characteristics. The findings indicated that the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for a waste collection service is about 45 baht/month for Songkhla and is about 55 baht/month for Hatyai. Moreover, an inverse demand for the service showed that people living in commercial area would tend to pay less than those in the cultural area even though they gain more benefits from a higher house price in the commercial area. This could reflect an important role of area characteristics on determining willingness to pay of residents.
Keywords: willingness to pay; pay as you throw; hedonic pricing method; municipal solid waste; waste collection fee.
Oil Removal from Produced Water by Agriculture Waste Adsorbents
by Abdalrahman Alsulaili, Asmaa M. Fahim
Abstract: Petroleum oil extraction produces large quantities of produced water (PW), which contains both dissolved and dispersed oil as well as suspended molecules that adversely affect human health and the environment. The removal of petroleum pollutants from OPW is important to use in industrial application. In this investigation, oil was removed from PW using adsorbents prepared from agri-culture waste (Date pits or Walnut shells) packed in filter beds. Several parameters were deter-mined, such as the contact time, oil content, total suspended solids (TSS), conductivity, total dis-solved solids (TDS), turbidity, and pH. Laboratory experiments showed that both the walnut shell and date pit filters performed well. Furthermore, methylene blue adsorption on the carbonized date pits and crushed walnut shells with different concentrations was investigated. The maximum ad-sorption capacities of oil content for walnut shell or date bits was 87% , 80%; respectively at the optimum conditions. The oil adsorption on both filters was conformed for Three isotherm models: Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson models. The Redlich-Peterson three-parameter equa-tion was more applicable for both date pits and walnut shells rather than the two-parameter equa-tions (Freundlich and Langmuir). Furthermore, the Redlich-Peterson correlation coefficients showed high R2 values at 0.999890 and 0.991701 for the walnut shells. In addition, the Freundlich model was more applicable to the walnut shells than the date pits because its R2 coefficient was 0.950756 for walnut shells.
Keywords: Oil produced water (OPW); Agriculture waste; Langmuir; Freundlich; Redlich-Peterson; Adsorp-tion thermodynamics.
Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of groundwater pollutants in east coastal region from Bamban to Thiruvanmiyur of Tamilnad, India
by Umarani P, Ramu A, Babu Ponnusami A, Dhanasekarapandian M
Abstract: The present investigation is focused on seasonal variation and spatial distribution of the groundwater pollutants in the study area during post monsoon (January), summer (May), pre monsoon (August) and monsoon seasons (November). Geologically, the study area comprises quaternary alluvium made up clay, silt and sandstone deposits. Water quality parameters (WQPs) such as pH, EC, TDS, TA, total hardness, chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, nitrate were chosen. GIS technique was used to find out the spatial distribution of the soluble pollutants. The WQPs were compared with the standard guidelines values as recommended by the WHO for drinking and public health. The abundance of major ions groundwater was found in the following order: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3- > NO3- > SO42- > F- during all seasons. The strong positive correlation between sodium and chloride was observed high, confirming the influence of seawater intrusion into the groundwater aquifer. Sampling location (Kottaipattinam) showed abnormal EC, TDS during summer and pre monsoon seasons. In these places, the groundwater aquifers were found to be contaminated which may be occurred from sewage effluents and excess use of fertilizers and pesticides for agriculture.rn
Keywords: Groundwater; Seasonal variation; GIS; Correlation; Linear regression; East coast.
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of Sorption of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solution by Moringa oleifera Pod Wastes.
by Haleemat Adegoke, Folahan Adekola, Oluwaseun Arowosaiye, Gabreal Olatunji
Abstract: Equilibrium sorption of Pb (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solution by Moringa oleifera pods waste was conducted under batch conditions. Effects of operating variables such as initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature on the sorption of these heavy metals have been studied. The optimum pH for the adsorption was found to be 5.0 and the adsorption process was found to be exothermic for both metal ions. The competitive adsorption characteristics of the combinations of binary mixtures of aqueous metal ion species, Pb2+ (aq) and Cd2+ (aq), on the adsorbent were also investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models were used to analyze the equilibrium data. Kinetics data evaluation showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second order model. A solution of 0.05M HCl has been found to be sufficient for the regeneration of spent adsorbent with up to 90% recovery for the two metal ions.
Keywords: Adsorption; lead and cadmium; Langmuir isotherm; Moringa oleifera Pod Wastes; Aqueous solution.
The Lab-scale and Thermogravimetric Analysis of the Catalytic and Non-catalytic Co-pyrolysis of Oak and Canteen Waste Mixture
by Gábor Nagy, Ágnes Wopera, Tamás Koós
Abstract: Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process used for the production of utilisable materials of various phases solid, liquid and gaseous. The energy efficiency of the canteen waste pyrolysis can be increased with the addition of oak wood, so a 2:1 ratio mixture of oak and canteen waste was pyrolysed. In order to examine the efficiency of catalysts on the co-pyrolysis, the mixture was pyrolysed both with and without catalysts. The used catalysts were some of the most often used catalysts for pyrolysis: calcined dolomite, calcined zeolite and NaCl, in 5 wt%. The process was examined with laboratory experiments and thermogravimetric (TG) method. It can be concluded that the used catalysts increased the base material conversion and the gas yield. There was no significant change in the H2/CO ratio, which is an important factor for chemical industrial use. However, the high heating value of the samples with NaCl and calcined dolomite significantly improved, which is advantageous for energy purposes. The quantity of the residual carbon of the samples with catalysts is decreased, compared to the original mixture. As the TG analysis results implied, the effects of calcined zeolite and NaCl can be observed at relatively low temperatures but the effects of calcined dolomite appear only at 650
Keywords: canteen waste; wood; co-pyrolysis; lab-scale; TGA; catalyst.
The effect of biochar and nutrients on efficiency of anthracene remediation in soil by Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces sp.
by Vahdat Jahed, Farhad Jahed, Sumayyah Najirad, Manoochehr Farjaminezhad
Abstract: Biochar has been found to be effective in the uptake of a variety of organic contaminants including PAHs and pesticides. Bioremediation is affected by different factors. Therefore, the current study investigates the efficiency of biochar for remediation of anthracene in the presence and absence of two microorganisms named Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces sp. A sandy loam soil was taken and mixed with biochar (10% w: w). The lack of nutrients as the food source for the studied bacteria was compensated by the addition of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and ammonium nitrate to the soil. Anthracene extraction from the samples was accomplished using the Soxhlet extraction method, Anthracene degradation was quantified using gas chromatography. A completely randomized design with three replications was used in this study. The analysis of the data showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between treatments with and without biochar and nutrients. The significant difference (p < 0.05) was also observed between the inoculated and non-inoculated treatments. The highest rate of removal was observed for the incubation of Bacillus sabtilis with the addition of biochar and nutrients. Bacillus sabtilis had decreased the soil Anthracene by 92%, and Streptomyces sp. bacteria with the same condition could degrade by 90.71% after 90 days. Moreover, the results of this research showed that the addition of biochar and nutrients could increase the Anthracene bioremediation by 11 and 7 percent respectively.
Keywords: Keywords: Anthracene; Bioremediation; Bacillus subtilis; Streptomyces sp.; Biochar; nutrients; Gas Chromatography.
Use of Wood Ash Waste to Stabilise Soils
by K. Divya Krishnan, P. Kiruthika, Ravichandran P.T
Abstract: The stability of the structure constructed over an expansive soil becomes questionable when it comes in contact with water. The existence of the Montmorillonite clay minerals causes for the expansiveness of the soil and this volume change will leads to the generation of cracks on the structure. Thus the soil may undergo differential settlement which brings the failure in the structural foundation. In order to overcome this failure problems and to improve the strength characteristics of the soils various methods are proved successful. Among the various techniques, stabilization with additives which reacts chemically can contribute more effectives in improving the properties of expansive soil. In this view, this study was carried out with two soil samples of clay exhibiting high expansive nature is treated with Wood Ash of varying percentages of 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11%. The response of the treated soils were studied through the Unconfined compressive strength test at different curing periods of 3,7 and 14 days. Improvement in micro structural behavior of soil with Wood Ash binder is also examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. From the experimental results of the untreated and treated soil samples it was observed that, increasing percentages of Wood Ash content, exhibits an increase in the strength values. Thus the employment of Wood Ash in the fragile soil will leads to the improvement in the soil bearing strength and which in turn suggesting an effective utilization method of this waste.
Keywords: Wood Ash; SEM; Stabilisation.
Sequential methodology for the selection of sanitary landfill sites: a comparison with a traditional method
by Giulia Guillen Mazzuco, Natália Da Costa Souza, Vinícius Gustavo De Oliveira, Caio Augusto Rabello Gobbo, Emerson Ribeiro Moreira, José Augusto De Lollo, Reinaldo Lorandi, Luiz Eduardo Moschini
Abstract: The present work proposes a sequential methodological approach to analyze the attributes involved in selecting sanitary landfill sites. To achieve this goal, spatial data were processed in a GIS platform using multi-criteria decision analysis (Analytic hierarchy process, boolean, fuzzy, and weighted sum). A traditional weighted sum method was compared to the sequential method proposed herein. Using the tradicional weighted sum method, 57.98% is classified as propitious for the implementation of a landfill project, whereas in the sequential method, this value decreases to 8.98%, a remarkable disparity. Strong variation also occurs in the restrictive use areas, which increases from 0.60% to 26.01%. The most significant differences occurred in the neighboring urban areas and areas of high slope with rocky outcropping substrate, situations of strong restriction to the implantation of sanitary landfills. Once traditional method results average classes, it can results the usage of areas with strong restriction for one attribute. In the sequential method, the overlapping of the environmental, legal and operational information yields results more consistent with the assigned intervals, resulting more conservative in the socio-environmental scope, reducing the need of environmental impacts mitigation and decreasing the management risks and general enterprise costs.
Keywords: sanitary landfill; sequential methodological; weighted sum; multi-criteria analysis; analytic hierarchy process; geographic information system; sites selection; method comparison; hydrographic basin; Rio Claro Hydrographic Basin.
Lead removal by a spiral-wound woven wire mesh rotating cylinder electrode: optimization using Taguchi Design Method
by Ali Abbar, Angham Hamzah, Hind Kadhim
Abstract: Lead removal from a simulated wastewater was achieved using a spiral-wound woven wire mesh rotating cylinder electrode. The operating parameters for the cathodic deposition of lead were optimized by Taguchi approach. Three operating parameters were considered as control variables. These are: initial lead concentration (25-125ppm), rotation speed (200-1000rpm), and current (0.1-0.5A). Removal efficiency was considered as a response for the optimization process. The results indicate that the current has the most significant influence on the removal efficiency than the other parameters. The optimum operating parameters were a current of 0.5A, rotation speed of 600 rpm, and Pb (II) initial concentration of 100 ppm, in which the initial lead concentration was deceased from 100ppm to less than 5ppm resulting in a removal efficiency of 95.65% within 30 min of electrolysis while a complete removal was achieved at 50 min. Taguchi methodology was proved to be successful for optimizing lead removal process.
Keywords: lead removal; three-dimensional electrodes; rotating cylinder electrode; woven wire mesh; Taguchi method.
Process optimization for saccharification and fermentation of wheat straw for the production of single cell protein
by Neha Mishra, Vikas Kumar, Jaspreet Kaur, Yogesh Gat, Ashwani Kumar, Basista Rabina Sharma, Garima Yadav
Abstract: Saccharification of wheat straw is required to convert lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars for its further utilization in SCP (single cell protein) production. Present study demonstrates the application of acidic and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw to get high yield of fermentable sugars and its utilization for the production of SCP. Wheat straw was washed, dried and ground to powder form, which was used as raw material for the production of hydrolysates. Different concentrations of sulphuric acid (0-1.25%) was used at different temperatures (1000C for 2 hours, 1210C for 15 min and 1210C for 30 min) to obtain high yield of fermentable sugars. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the different variables i.e., crude enzyme concentration (2.5-7.5%), pH (4.5-5.5), temperature (45-550C) and time (4-12 hours) for the enzymatic saccharification of the hydrolysates produced using acid saccharification. The isolated fermentable sugars were used as fermentation media for production of SCP using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the process of fermentation was optimized using different starter culture concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) and incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours). Among the acid saccharification, 0.75% sulphuric acid at 1210C for 30 min resulted in highest amount of fermentable sugars whereas; among the enzymatic saccharification, 3.78% crude enzyme concentration, 4.59 pH, 450C temperature and 6.93 hours incubation time resulted in highest yield of fermentable sugars. Highest concentration of biomass (SCP) 22.3x107 cells/ml was observed using 2.5% starter culture concentration for 20 hours incubation. The developed conditions for the saccharification and SCP production can be efficiently utilized for SCP production at pilot scale.
Keywords: Wheat straw; acid saccharification; enzymatic saccharification; single cell protein.
Small scale bioreactor studies for sustainable municipal solid waste landfilling management in developing countries
by Tamru Tesseme, Sumedha Chakma
Abstract: In this study, an investigation was undertaken to solve reliable data simulation problems in the real landfill. Testing reactors were designed in prismoidal shape and loaded waste in different lifts. A control reactor was designed in circular shape and loaded with only fresh waste. All reactors were operated under the typical circumstance of the developing countries about 9 months and monitored leachate quality, the gas production and surface settlement. The results showed in the early stage of waste degradation, leachate quality and gas production were found significantly varied based on the waste pretreatment and pattern of placement. The settlement was also found seems to depend mainly on shape and scale of reactors. Therefore, the small-scale bioreactors should be designed in a prismoidal shape with appropriate scaling and run 250300 days for a rough simulation of the waste degradation pattern and mechanisms of the real landfills in the developing nations where the concept is still new.
Keywords: Small-scale bioreactors; prismoids shape; real landfills; developing countries; waste degradation mechanisms; solid waste management.
Remediation of Expansive Soils using Mango Kernel Ash and Calcium Carbide Residue
by Varaprasad B J S, Joga Jayapraksh Reddy, Joga SuryaPrakash Reddy
Abstract: To improve the Geotechnical Engineering properties of expansive soil, investigations were made by studying the suitability of Mango Kernel Ash (MKA) as an industrial waste as it is a cheap and satisfactory stabilizing agent for sub-base and base course. Although its performance can be improved by combining it with other bonding materials such as Calcium Carbide Residue (CCR). In the present study, a series of experimental tests on Atterbergs limits, compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Free Swell Index (FSI) and consolidation were conducted on the untreated and treated soil samples with MKA (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) and CCR by 4% in the Geotechnical Engineering laboratory. The soil properties were changed significantly, by adding MKA and CCR, as a result of reducing plasticity, increasing UCS value and improving soaked strength to make the soil more workable. It was observed that at 15% of MKA alone the UCS value was increased by 70%. Also at 4% of CCR with 15% MKA as optimum values, the UCS value was increased up to 95%. CBR value got improved by 85% compared to virgin samples. The FSI value also got reduced from an initial value of 140% to 35%.It is observed that all mixes show a decrement in their percentage volume change as compared with virgin soil. Thus, the addition of MKA and CCR to soils has proved to be cost-effective and an eco-friendly alternative to conventional materials to reduce the construction cost of the road, particularly in the rural areas of the country.
Keywords: Mango Kernel Ash; Calcium Carbide Residue; California bearing ratio; Standard Proctor; Unconfined compressive strength; Expansive soil; Stabilization agent.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF USSD-BASED SYSTEM FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
by Faiza Babakano
Abstract: As the world population grows so are the wastes that are produced. Most of these wastes are hazardous and are poses health challenges to the environment. Proper waste management is key towards ensuring that the human environment is preserved for the good health and well being of its inhabitants. Unfortunately, municipal solid waste disposal practices in most Nigerian cities fall short of the minimum standard expected. This research therefore, designed a novel ICT-based framework for waste management and consequently developed a simulation of USSD-Based communication and payment processes between the different stakeholders involved in waste management. Based on the performance of the simulated system, it is obvious that waste management can be made easier, transparent, more organized and sustainable.
Keywords: Solid Waste; Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD); Smart Systems; Charge As a Service (CAAS); Mobile Operations; Waste management; Framework; Simulation.
ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA WASTEWATER FOR VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS (VFA) PRODUCTION
by Mirian Niz, Edineia Formagini, Marc Boncz, Paula Paulo
Abstract: The acidogenic fermentation (AF) of cassava wastewater was investigated with adapted and unadapted inoculum sludge with and without methanogenic inhibition techniques to enhance accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in batch tests. Subsequently, the possibility of VFA chain elongation for the production of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) by means of addition of ethanol to the fermentation broth was evaluated. The unadapted sludge lead to 84.1% and 66.1% acidification for thermally inhibited and non-inhibited conditions respectively. These results are 10% and 45% higher than the degrees of acidification obtained under the same conditions with adapted sludge. Results show that neither sludge adaptation nor heat treatment were relevant to enhance VFA production. The pH of the fermentation broth seems to be the most important parameter for acidification. The optimum pH range for VFA production was 5.5 to 6, and the main product formed was butyric acid (87% of total acid produced). The addition of ethanol to the fermentation broth promoted MCFA formation.
Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; acidogenic fermentation; cassava wastewater; volatile fatty acids production; VFA; acidification degree; methanogenesis inhibition; heat shock; acidification; chain elongation; medium chain fatty acids; MCFA; ethanol.
Waste Management Perceptions of Aegean Islands Residents: A footprint due to Refugee Inflows
by Aristea Kounani, Constantina Skanavis, Kalliopi Marini, Valentina Plaka
Abstract: One of the greatest todays challenges, the planet is being confronted with, is that of mass refugee movements. Since March 2011, when the Syrian uprising turned into civil war, the extreme exodus of civilians made its strong appearance in the Aegean Sea. The present questionnaire-based research was conducted during the spring and summer of 2017 at the Greek Aegean islands, Lesvos and Skyros. The aim of the research was to reveal the locals general environmental awareness, their attitudes towards waste management, recycling and management of special wastes. As special wastes are considered the lifejackets and the inflatable boats, which could lead to calamitous situations when they are not managed in a sustainable manner. This study sought to answer mainly the following research questions; a) whether there were statistically significant differences between residents of the two Aegean Islands with regard to their views, and b) whether there were statistically significant correlations between the attitude towards waste management, the attitude towards recycling, the attitude towards the management of special wastes and their environmental awareness. This research was designed and implemented having the motivation to create an environmental awareness raising campaign for Greek residents concerning the great issue of waste management Greece is dealing with due to mass refugees arrivals.
Keywords: Waste Management; Migration; Environmental Awareness; Syrian Refugee Crisis; Greece.
A high-alkaline protease from Bacillus pseudofirmus SVB1: potential tool for green tannery
by Shampa Sen, Veeranki Venkata Dasu, Diptesh Mahajan
Abstract: Tannery industries at present widely employ conventional processes which generate a huge amount of pollutants. Despite recent advances in development of commercial enzymes capable of being used as substitute for physico-chemical production methods, various obstacles hinder their popularity in industries. Hence, pursuit of greener production processes as well as efficient ways to remediate the pollutants produced is still on-going. The objective of this study was to develop an eco-friendly alternative to the traditional physico-chemical processes carried out in tannery industries, by using alkaline protease isolated from Bacillus pseudofirmus SVB1 in tannery industries. The isolated protease was used for dehairing goatskin and its efficiency was compared with that of other commercially used alkaline proteases. SEM studies of de-haired goatskin revealed that the epidermis was completely removed and the uprooted hair left empty follicles in the skin. Mechanical properties of the dehaired skin also established the superiority of this method. A parallel attempt was made using this enzyme as a tool to facilitate bioremediation. The tannery effluents were treated using both crude and partially purified form of this protease. A significant drop in the levels of TS, COD and BOD was observed in comparison to other commercially used alkaline proteases.
Keywords: Alkaline protease; Skin dehairing; Tannery effluent; Bioremediation; BOD.
Current State of E-waste Management in India
by Pankaj Kaushik, Sunil Herat
Abstract: Electronic Waste, or E-Waste in common parlance, is increasingly becoming a cause of concern in developing countries like India, due to environmental and human health hazards associated with it. Ironically, constituents of e-waste can be valuable, at the same time being toxic. The practices involved in managing and treating the electronic waste in India have limitations that need to be identified and resolved. The waste management can be properly executed if there are proper collection and disposing methods adopted. This can be possible only if there is proper awareness related to the ill-effects of e-waste among common people. This paper highlights the status of e-waste in India and the various techniques used for recycling and their limitations. The indicators assessing e-waste can be utilized as basic parameters for analysis in any nation. The valuable constituents present in e-waste can be used in creating business opportunities if properly treated and recycled.
Keywords: e-waste; management; recycling; business opportunities.
ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONS OF A CAPITAL CITY DUMPSITE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRY: CURRENT PRACTICE, MANAGEMENT AND EFFECTS
by Folahan Ayodele, Benjamin Alo
Abstract: This research paper evaluated the current standing of Igbatoro dumpsite- the most active and largest state-managed dumpsite in Akure, Nigeria, its effects on the people and groundwater quality. In this study, questionnaires were administered to obtain responses from dwellers around the dumpsite. Some index property test were conducted on the underlying soil of the dumpsite. Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Dissolved Solids of leachate were determined. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses were conducted on three samples collected from three wells adjoining the dumpsite. It was found that the underlying soil are predominantly silty-sand and cannot prevent leachate migration. The water samples are contaminated with microbes. The views of dwellers within the dumpsite vicinity are that the dumpsite is of great concern to them and that the management of the dumpsite is poor. The results indicated the need for clear departure from unsafe open dumping to engineered landfill.
Keywords: Developing Countries; Dumpsite; Effects; Engineered landfill; Environment; Groundwater quality; Open dumpsites; Solid waste management; People; Waste Management.
MEASURING IMPACT OF INDIAN PORTS ON ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF REMEDIAL MEASURES TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
by Eliza Sharma, Subhankar Das
Abstract: As the Indian port sector flourishes through a boom in external trade, it becomes crucial to look into the environmental impact it creates on the coastal seas. Research aims to determine the environmental consequences of a rising port sector in India and checks the effectiveness of measures taken to curb growing pollution caused by port operations. Researchers have offered a comparative perspective of the green performance of major ports vis-
Keywords: Ports; Pollution; Environment; Major ports; Minor ports; India.
REDUCING THE AMMONIA CONTENT OF HOSPITAL LIQUID WASTE BY ACTIVE CARBON PLASTIC ORE ADSORPTION
by Tati Ruhmawati, Teguh Budiansyah, Elanda FIkri
Abstract: Considerable visits from patients increases the content of ammonia within the liquid waste of the hospital which, in turn, results in water pollution. Adsorption of active carbon is an alternative technology in reducing the ammonia level of liquid waste. This research aims at revealing the contact time of active carbon plastic ore towards the degression of ammonia level of liquid waste. This research was an experiment designed by Pretest-Postest design with control. The population of the research was all the liquid waste taken from the influent of RSUD Al Ihsan Bandung, while the sample of the research was taken from the population by time combining collection technique. The collected data was then analyzed using anova. The results of the research show that the average of the degression percentage for contact time of sixty minutes is 1840%, 90 minutes 35.07%, dand 12o minutes 48.77%. The value of t acquired from anova testing is 0.001, smaller than 0.05 (α 5%). There is significant influence of the variations of contact time of active carbon plastic ore on the degression of ammonia level of liquid waste. The results of the research could be utilized by the hospital to manage its liquid waste.
Keywords: Ammonia; Liquid Waste; Adsorption; Active Carbon; Plastic Ores.
Site selection of a waste incineration plant using integrated Fuzzy-ANP and Weighted Sum-ANP in Qazvin Province, Iran
by Naghmeh Mobarghaee Dinan, Mostafa Keshtkar, Zahra Mokhtari
Abstract: An incineration plant is one of the most efficient method to cope with municipal solid waste and simultaneously to convert the waste into energy. Undertaking site selection process is highly demanding to reach the utmost adaptability with the environment. Primarily, the authors of this paper faced three main tasks: identifying the criteria in site selection, weighting the importance of the criteria, and choosing an appropriate multi-criteria model which fitted in with the study. After identifying multiple criteria, an integrated Fuzzy Logic and Analytic Network Process are used to select a suitable place for incineration plant in Qazvin province. Calculating weight of the layers, then the weights was implemented in ANP method. Further, overlaying multiple layers, Weighted Sum and Fuzzy overlay were applied. The results of this research revealed that Fuzzy-ANP method provides more definite area in comparison with Weighted Sum-ANP. It was concluded that Fuzzy-NAP technique may be an applicable model in incineration plant siting procedure.
Keywords: Incineration plant; Site Selection; Analytical Network Process; Fuzzy Logic; Weighted Sum; Fuzzy-ANP; Municipal Solid Waste Management; Environmental management; Multi-criteria Decision Makingrnrn.
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION POTENTIAL COMPARISON OF SUCROSE AND CRUDE GLYCEROL USING DIFFERENT INOCULUMS SOURCES
by Maria Cristina De Almeida Silva, Luiz Olinto Monteggia
Abstract: The hydrogen production potential from crude glycerol was evaluated using a batch test, at four different food microrganisms ratios (F/M) and the results were compared with sucrose, a substrate considered a degradation model. It was used two different inoculums, one generated by natural fermentation of the used substrates and the other by direct inoculum, using pretreated anaerobic sludge. The obtained results indicated low hydrogen potential production using natural inoculum, mainly when sucrose was used as substrate. The predominant volatile fatty acids (VFA) were acetic and butyric acids, reaching acidification degree of up to 50%. The volumetric productivities were close to and even higher than those obtained with sucrose, with direct inoculum. It is believed that high concentrations of glycerol may have an inhibitory effect on hydrogen production, possibly due to the presence of impurities contained in this substrate.
Keywords: Hydrogen; Volatile fatty acids; Crude glycerol; Sucrose; Natural and direct inoculation.
Biodegradation of Purified Terephthalic Acid Manufacturing Effluent from a Petrochemical Industry
by Josephine Antonette Sophia Amalorpavanathan, Yamini Shah, Chandraprakash Gocher, Sunil Soni, Kalpana Gopalakrishnan, Rakshvir Jasra
Abstract: Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) is the raw material for polyester fibers, plastics, coating and adhesives. Its manufacture generates large volume of effluent with high concentration of Terephthalic acid (500-600 ppm), a critical pollutant. In this study a mixed culture made up of five types of bacteria, derived from the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) sludge was used to aerobically treat the PTA effluent, removing all the benzoates [4-Carboxybenzyl alcohol, Isophthalic acid, Terephthalic acid ,4-Carboxy Benzaldehyde (4-CBA), Benzoic acid, p-Toluic acid and Trimellitic acid] which contribute to its Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The study included optimization of pH (6-9), pH neutralizers and biomass concentration (≥2000 ppm Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids) for achieving 94-95% COD removal in 72-96 h, the results being supported by HPLC analysis. Metals (Co, Mn & Mg) reduced significantly (88%, ~100% & 83%, respectively), being utilized for growth or getting sequestered in the biomass. Characterization of the five pure cultures was carried out.
Keywords: Purified Terephthalic acid; wastewater; biodegradation; ETP sludge; COD; HPLC; pH neutralizer.
Hydraulic and Volume Change Characteristics of Compacted Clay Liner Blended with Exfoliated Vermiculite
by MUTHUKUMAR MAYAKRISHNAN, Sanjay Kumar Shukla
Abstract: Clays are used for the construction of waste containment barriers, because of its low hydraulic conductivity. Due to the difficulty in obtaining the natural clay satisfying the essential requirement as a liner material; commercially available bentonites are being used for the construction of clay liners. Bentonite undergoes large volume changes upon saturation. Various physical and chemical stabilization techniques are in practice to stabilize the bentonite. Previous studies reported that contaminants with high concentrations attack clay minerals leading to increase in their permeability. Exfoliated vermiculite, finds several applications in construction industry, also found to be good absorbent material. Hence, this study has been carried out to find the optimal percentage of vermiculite that can be added to the bentonite so that it satisfies the essential requirements of clay liners and absorb the heavy metals from contaminants. Several index properties and engineering properties tests on bentonite-vermiculite mixtures were performed. From the studies, it was found that 30% of vermiculite can be added to bentonite, so that the essential requirements of liner can be maintained.
Keywords: clay liner; exfoliated vermiculite; stabilization; sand-bentonite mixtures; waste containment system.
Estimation of fate of sulfamethoxazole in soil by adsorption test and diffusion cell test a comparative analysis
by Neelancherry Remya, Ankit Singh
Abstract: The present study investigated adsorption of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), one of the antibiotics of sulfonamide group, in three soils by adsorption and diffusion cell test. The removal efficiency of SMX by adsorption in soil-1, -2 and -3 were 80.16%, 23.39% and 15.51% when the organic matter (OM) content was 6.05%, 9.22% and 11.10% respectively. The respective maximum adsorption capacities estimated by adsorption test in the three soils were 3.31, 3.13 and 2.47 mg/g. On the other hand, the corresponding adsorption capacity obtained by the diffusion cell test was 0.016, 0.010, 0.008 mg/g, which showed 15 to 30 times decrease compared to the estimated values by adsorption test. The adsorption results showed a weak interaction and negative correlation of SMX with OM. The retardation factor of SMX in the three soils-1, -2 and -3 were respectively 181.32, 47.26 and 34.04. At SMX concentration greater than 10 mg/L, leaching of SMX increased with increase in pH due to increased hydrophilicity resulted by speciation of SMX.
Keywords: sulfamethoxazole; soil; adsorption; isotherm; adsorption capacity; central composite design; response surface methodology; diffusion coefficients; organic matter; pH; retardation factor.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF IMPACTS DUE TO IRREGULAR OCCUPATIONS AT THE MARGINS OF THE CAPIBARIBE RIVER, CITY OF S
by Maria Julia Holanda, Diogo Paz, Kalinny Lafayette, Marcia Silva, Tiana Ximenes
Abstract: Disorganized urban occupation in the surrounding river regions has had many negative impacts on natural systems and human populations. The Capibaribe river in the city of S
Keywords: irregular occupation; environmental impacts; permanent preservation areas.
Assessment of Heavy Metals in Simulated Leachates and Ashes of End-of-life Tyres
by Adebola Adeyi, Peter Oladoye
Abstract: Tyres are rubber-based materials with a complex structure. The chemical raw materials used in the manufacturing of tyres make recovery and disposal very difficult. During use, storage and disposal of end-of-life tyres, it constitutes a source of environmental pollution with potential threat to humans and the entire ecosystem. This study assesses the levels of heavy metals in simulated leachate of end-of-life tyres and its ashes. Two passenger car and motorbike tyres each and the ash generated when burnt were subjected to Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedures (TCLP), Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedures (SPLP) and DIN Batch test to simulate their environmental impacts when co-disposed with municipal solid wastes. Heavy metals in the simulated leachates were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion of the samples. Heavy metals concentrations varied with the types and quality of the tyres. Zinc concentrations were the highest among the heavy metals determined in the simulated leachates and ashes of all the tyres when the three leaching procedures were used. The concentrations of heavy metals in the TCLP leachates of end-of-life tyres ranged from 0.02-0.06 mg/L Cu, 3.13-5.86 mg/L Zn, 0.004-0.03 mg/L Cd, Not detected (ND)-0.04 mg/L Cr, and 0.08-0.13 mg/L Pb while it was 0.02-0.08 mg/L Cu, 153-262 mg/L Zn, 0.01-0.02 mg/L Cd, ND-0.86 mg/L Cr, and 0.13-0.29 mg/L Pb in the ashes. The highest concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb obtained in the SPLP leachates of end-of-life tyres were 0.06 mg/L, 3.05 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L and 0.08 mg/L, respectively. This showed that end-of-life tyres are potential source of heavy metals loading in the environment with the tendency to contaminate soil, surface water and groundwater. Thus, the need for their appropriate management is imperative.
Keywords: End-of-life tyres; environmental pollution; leachate; heavy metals; waste management.
Decolourization of malachite green dye by potassium carbonate-treated kernel shell adsorbent
by Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini
Abstract: The present study attempts to utilize potassium carbonate-treated kernel shell adsorbent for the decolourization of malachite green solution. The adsorbent was characterized using FESEM, surface area analyzer and FTIR. The bottle-point-technique was used to evaluate the adsorptive characteristics of kernel shell adsorbent. Results show that the equilibrium data are better represented by the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum malachite green removal of 15 mg/g. The pseudo-first-order model fitted well to the kinetics data, suggesting the diffusion-type adsorption of malachite green onto the kernel shell adsorbent. The chemically-treated kernel shell adsorbent is a potential candidate for the decolourization of cationic dye in water.
Keywords: Adsorbent; chemical treatment; decolourization; malachite green; palm kernel shell.
A comparative study of grey water generated from commercial and residential building
by Shamim Khan, Shifana Kaafil
Abstract: A comprehensive study is undertaken to compare the characteristics of grey water (GW) samples collected from the kitchen line of a commercial and residential building located in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The various characteristics of the samples analyzed in this paper are pH, conductivity, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness, temporary hardness, permanent hardness, chloride and biological oxygen demand (BOD). This study is useful to determine the type of treatment process for kitchen line GW because it depends largely on its characteristics in terms of the pollutant strength.
Keywords: Grey water; Pollutant strength; Commercial and Residential building.
Analysis of volumetric variation and specific deformation of municipal solid waste in experimental lysimeters
by Romulo De Medeiros Caribe, Libania Da Silva Ribeiro, Claudio Luis Araujo Neto, Raul Batista Araujo De Sousa, Breno Moura De Araujo Nobrega, Marcio Camargo De Melo, William De Paiva, Veruschka Escarião Dessoles Monteiro
Abstract: Problems involving operations, stability and deformability are common in landfills. In most cases, they occur due to high content of organic matter present in the waste mass. The objective of this research was to study the volumetric and specific deformation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using experimental lysimeters at different scales, with high and low concentrations of organic waste. The MSW sample was obtained from the city of Campina Grande-PB. Three experimental lysimeters were manufactured: two bench-scale lysimeters and one pilot-scale lysimeter. The monitoring of settlements was carried out by in situ measurements. The top layer of the pilot lysimeter showed the greatest loss of volume (0.45m3) over the period of 91 days. The bench lysimeter BL-OW provided massive volumetric deformation over time insofar as it had high concentrations of organic waste. Through this study, it could be inferred that small scale lysimeters can improve degradation.
Keywords: vertical deformation; gravimetric composition; volumetric composition; MSW.
STUDY OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER COMPOSITE
by Prashanth S P, Ananthayya M B
Abstract: Efforts are made throughout the world to develop an eco-friendly construction material, which will minimize the utility of natural resources and also green house gas emissions. In this regard, Geopolymer plays a vital role. Geopolymer is synthesized by fly ash, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. This report presents the experimental investigations carried out by varying ingredient quantity to study mechanical properties for geopolymer binder and mortar under ambient curing. In this trail mixes, the ratios of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate are taken 1:2, 1:2.25, 1:5, 1:2.75 and 1:3 with the varying ratios of (60%flyash+40% ggbs) percentages of 6,7,8 and 9. Similarly for all the above ratios, the water content is varied by 15%, 16%, 17% and 18% to the total weight of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. The test results show that for geopolymer binder ratios of 1:2.5:8, the maximum compressive strength was obtained.
Keywords: fly ash; GGBS; sodium silicate; sodium hydroxide.
Downstream Market Analysis of Used Oils in Trinidad and Tobago to Inform an Appropriate Waste Management Strategy
by Donnie Boodlal, David Alexander, Sarim Al Zubaidy, Maurissa Charles
Abstract: A Waste Oil Management System can be most effective if it is formulated for Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) based on measured volumes obtained from primary and secondary data. It was found that the annual consumption of base oil in T&T is 15 million litres. The major issues with waste oil management in T&T are the lack of adequate strategies, technologies and collectors, which are addressed in this study. A survey of stakeholders views revealed that most preferred proper recycling and proper disposal and that they are prepared to enter into agreement with collectors to achieve these ends. The eight waste oil dealers in Trinidad collect as well as recycle it, whereas the eight dealers in Tobago only collect the oil. The dealers declare volumes of 72 million litres/pa out of which 4 million litres/pa are exported and the remainder 68 million litres/pa remain in Trinidad. Only one mass disposal site was identified in Guapo, whose capacity is much smaller than the above figure, which suggests one of the following scenarios: the export of waste oil is greater than declared; or there are more dealers than has been uncovered or there is illegal dumping. All three scenarios are possible. Analysis of export data obtained from the Custom and Excise, Ministry of Finance, suggests that the first scenario is most plausible. Export data shows that T&T exports 242 million litres of lubricating oils, which is much higher than the amount of waste oil generated in T&T and also the amount declared by the major waste oil dealers (4 million/pa). The above discrepancy suggests that a more accurate waste oil inventory for T&T is required. Clarification of the gap is confirmed by the Environmental Management Authority (EMA), which cites two cases of illegal export of waste oil in 2014 and 2017. This sophisticated waste oil market remains unregulated. Therefore, market decisions have to be based on the inaccurate volumes declared by the known dealers. Three products are identified with their average global prices: Base Oil (2.90 USD/gal); Fuel Oil (1.2 USD/gal); and Off-specification Diesel (1.80 USD/gal). From data gathered, it is seen that the market volume of Base Oil in T&T is limited to 15 million litres/pa as this is the amount used in the nations sole blending facility. It was also found that the Fuel Oil market is saturated at 2.2 billion litres, which represented exports from Petrotrin in 2016. The market volume for Off-Specification Diesel could not be estimated as the only possible consumers and retailers of this product in T&T is disinterested in this product.
Keywords: Waste Oil Management; Market Study; Market Survey; Waste Management.
An equilibrium and kinetic study for the removal of reactive red M5B using phosphoric acid treated activated carbon
by Senthamil Selvan Kuppusamy, Meena Sundari Perumalsamy, Madhavakrishnan Sakthivel, Palanivel Muthusamy, Jayakumar Raja
Abstract: The objective of the study is to develop an adsorbent which is abundant with economical and environmental friendly characteristics to remove reactive dye from its aqueous solution. The municipal solid waste modified by H3PO4 activated carbon (MSWAC) was prepared and characterized. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was tested towards Reactive Red M5B, a representative of industrial effluent at varied operational conditions by using batch method. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the characteristics of adsorption behavior. Kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The virgin characteristics of MSWAC were studied using BET surface area, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The result indicated that MSWAC as a low cost adsorbent and it can be effectively used for treating textile industry effluent.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Langmuir; Freundlich; Temkin.
Lean Manufacturing in Pharmaceutical Closed-Loop Supply Chain
by Anup Kumar, Kampan Mukherjee
Abstract: Waste control has become the key focus in the global pharmaceutical supply chain. Waste viewing and control is a skill according to lean ideology. This paper presents a model that could map the pharmacy supply chain and able to project waste. Further waste can be again channelized through remanufacturing or disposed of through the proper process. Several models have been developed in the literature where the aim is mostly to optimize cost or profit and to find the optimal order quantity for integrated production and remanufacturing system. In this study, a lean approach has been adopted to explore the waste using system dynamics as a tool to model an inventory control system for remanufacturing and disposal of the pharmaceutical closed loop supply chain.
Keywords: System Dynamics; Lean remanufacturing; Inventory control; closed loop supply chain.
An eco-friendly novel technique for power generation utilizing municipal waste water and sludge recycling
by Harendra K. Sharma, Mudit Singh, Gajanan Pandey
Abstract: Presently world is in need of more energy and drinking water due to the increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. Conventional sources of energy are limited, nonrenewable, and health hazardous. There are verities of power plants, like thermal, hydro, wind etc, running all around the world, however they cause health hazards, need large infrastructure, create ecological imbalance and waste a lot of energy in form of heat, sound etc. The present work aims to combine various power plants in a single unit system, utilizing the waste energy loss, resulting augmentation in the efficiency of plant. It reduces the energy losses and provides pure drinking water from the municipal waste water. It solves the problem of solid waste treatment, because the domestic solid waste materials have been utilized to generate valuable products like oil, charcoal etc. along with power. It works continuously throughout the year, reduces infrastructures, as well as economical and eco-friendly too. The present work is centered on increasing wind velocity from 21m/s to 50 m/s, which does not fluctuate. Moreover, it works in the absence of sunshine efficiently, and produces power of more than 10,000 GWh/year. The hydro power plant (HPP) can produce energy up-to 367 MW, biogas power plant (BPP) can generate power more than 54750000 KWh/year while solar power plant can generate power according to installation. Hereunder designed solar aero power plant (SAEP) can produce 14.5 times more power than the hydro power plant, utilizing same amount of water.
Keywords: Sewage Water Treatment; Hydro Power Plant; Solar Power Plant; Biogas Power Plant; Pyrolysis; Solar Aero Power Plant.
Eradicating poverty among the waste workers through waste collection? A case study of Dhaka city
by Mehe Rahman, Chamhuri Siwar, Rawshan Begum
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the factors affecting the waste collection to poverty reduction among the waste workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Particular interest is on the question whether the contribution of some determinants actively plays a role in reducing the possibility of being poor. This issue is particularly significant since it has been argued in various relevant literature. There is potential for the waste picking sector to play an important role in alleviating poverty of the waste workers. This research provides the empirical evidence for answering this question by estimating a logistic regression model using primary data gathered within Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Research results showed that the education of the respondent, number of the dependent in family , training, and collection of recyclable items were significant negative predictors at 5% level of significance. Framing policy to develop skilled waste workers could be an effective strategy towards implementing a sustainable waste management system in Bangladesh. The findings of this study imply that promoting organized and systematic waste management activities, such as intensifying urban industrialization with formal sector, will have a positive impact on efforts to reduce poverty.
Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Poverty Reduction.
Modeling and appraisal of cadmium removal from water by sustainable biowaste of hen egg shells
by Aliya Fazal, Uzaira Rafique
Abstract: Hen egg shells powder is investigated as adsorbent for the removal of cadmium (Cd) from water with and without chemical modification. Batch sorption studies were performed at different biowaste dose, metal ions solution initial concentration, pH, particle size and agitation. Optimal removal efficiency of Cd is noted in 45 minutes, quantifying 86 % removal by 2 g optimized dose at 100 rpm. Maximum adsorption occurred at pH 7. The kinetic data is modeled with the help of reaction based equations; the data is well fitted with pseudo second order model. Hydrolysed and oxidised egg shells revealed enhanced remediation of cadmium possibly due to increased lactonic sites. The use of egg shells as value added adsorbent will be thoughtful endeavor of turning waste into commodity.
Keywords: adsorption; biowaste; kinetic; modification.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND METAHNE GENERATION IN KOTA CITY
by Shikha Saxena
Abstract: Solid Waste Management is a Challenge both at the global level and the local level. Solid wastes must be properly managed by determining that they are hazardous wastes. Methane is the major Greenhouse Gas, which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHGs from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfill areas in India are not planned. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from the MSW landfill areas of Kota city.
Keywords: Solid Waste Management;Green house gases;Methane Generation.
Managing Eco-design for Reverse Logistics
by Kuan Siew Khor, Thursamy Ramayah, Hamid Reza Panjeh Fouladgaran
Abstract: Multifaceted design and manufacturing activities play a major part in reducing the volume of e-waste within retired consumer electronics. The green supply chain management framework puts together green practices in support of sustainable production and consumption. This study aimed to explore the structural paths of eco-design, reverse logistics, design for disassembly, and business performance outcomes (environmental outcome and profitability). The variance-based partial least square (PLS) structural equation modelling was applied to empirically test the survey data collected from 89 electrical and electronic (E&E) manufacturing firms which have received IS014001 certification for their environmental management system. Data analyses revealed that design for disassembly influenced eco-design, which in turn influenced the implementation reverse logistics. Further analyses suggested that reverse logistics is positively associated with environmental outcome and profitability while eco-design did not appear to derive similar outcome. The finding of this study clarified the importance of life cycle thinking to improve the recovery of valuable subassemblies, component parts and materials within end-of-use electrical equipment, which would otherwise be classified as e-waste.
Keywords: Eco-design; Reverse logistics; Environmental outcome; Profitability; Design for disassembly; E&E.
SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES RELATED TO MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT BY TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION A SUSTAINABLE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: REVIEW ON ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS
by Ritielli Berticelli, Adalberto Pandolfo, Geraldo Antonio Reichert, Rodrigo Fernando Dos Santos Salazar, Rosa Maria Kalil
Abstract: The Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), which encompasses the Life Cycle Cost Assessment (LCC), the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) and the LCA (with environmental factors), were adopted to change this situation. The aim of the present study is to present the theoretical aspects and practical applications of the LCSA to help better understanding the integrated approach scope (economic, environmental and social) in municipal solid waste (MSW) management studies. The development of sustainable MSW management systems is essential and should be based on a multidimensional approach. Research in this field must substantiate the decision-making processes through systemic processes and justify them through alternatives focused on environmental effectiveness, social acceptance and on economic accessibility.
Keywords: Sustainable development; Life cycle; Municipal solid waste.
Adoption of ICT-Based Education System to Protect Environment and Improve Present Education System
by SHIV RATAN AGRAWAL
Abstract: This study is unique in nature that focuses the waste characterization by the present education system and its effects on the general environment as well as the education system itself. Therefore, to cope up with an issue, the study explores the concept of information and communication technology (ICT) based education system to the protection of the environment as well as improving present education system itself from students perspective. A total of 356 usable responses was gathered from engineering, management, and computer application students of 4 main cities of Madhya Pradesh, India. The AMOS 22.0 and SmartPLS 3.0 statistical programs were used for measurement validation and to test the structural model. The study identified the key constructs within this domain and indicated that all the paths are significant which implies that ICT-based education system significantly contributes to protect the environment and improve the present education system. Therefore, the findings of the study would help policymakers and academicians.
Keywords: Information and communication technology; protection of the environment; the education system.
Risk Assessment due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsites and Geo environmental Measures for Closure
by Himanshu Yadav, V.P. Singh
Abstract: Open dumping of solid waste can cause various environmental and human health issues. Various literatures have reported groundwater contamination, bad smell and surface water contamination etc. due to presence of dumpsites. Planning of rehabilitation and closure of dumpsites will require risk assessment through various routes due to presence of MSW dumpsites. Information about the nearby area and human receptor will play a significant role. Various systems from developed countries do not work in India because site conditions in India are different from developed countries. In present study, some existing systems are modified by including some parameters derived from literature. The improved system is proposed to assess groundwater, surface water and odour risk indices. The study results better efficiency in determining risk index due to groundwater contamination, surface water contamination and air contamination. The system evaluates the scores from 0 1000. Suitable geo environmental measures for closure is determined based on risk index values. The system is applied to two dumpsites of Prayagraj city, based on the values of risk index Phaphamau site is found to be suitable for option II (MSW cover) and Bakshi Band site is found to be suitable for option VI (HW cover with gas recovery and GW extraction).
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Risk Index; Groundwater; Surface water; Odour; Closure; Risk Assessment.
Household Characteristics and Waste Generation Paradox; What Influences Solid Waste Generation in Bolgatanga?
by Pawin Joseph Sachi, Esi Akyere Mensah
Abstract: Municipal solid waste is recognized as an obnoxious local development challenge in many developing countries. The continuous struggle to ensure sustainable waste management in Ghana is a challenge of inadequate data on waste generation and the factors influencing generation. It is in this light that this paper examines waste generation rate and the influence of household socio-economic characteristics on waste generation in Bolgatanga, an urban city in Northern Ghana. The study utilized a regression technique based on Ordinary Least Squares approach to empirically test the relationship between household variables and waste generation. The findings indicate; education, household size and fuel sources are significant but differently influenced waste generation. For effective waste management, the paper suggests a priority focus be given to education and recommends for future studies further analysis of the influence of income on waste generation.
Keywords: Keywords; Solid Waste generation; Socio-economic Variables.
ASPEN PLUS PREDICTIVE SIMULATION OF SOFT AND HARD WOOD PYROLYSIS FOR BIO-ENERGY RECOVERY
by Adewale Adeniyi, Joshua Ighalo
Abstract: Thermochemical process such as pyrolysis is one of the most developed option for energy recovery from lignocellulosic biomass sources. A steady-state simulation model was developed for the energy recovery from biomass via pyrolysis using ASPEN Plus v8.8. The biomass feedstocks were beech, Ailanthus and spruce wood. Beech is a hardwood, Ailanthus is a soft hardwood and spruce is a softwood. The pyrolysis reactor was modelled by a combination of the yield-shift reactor and the Gibbs reactor. The product yield and composition was calculated by the software via the minimisation of Gibbs free energy method. The simulation was run at atmospheric pressure and 5000C temperature. A bio-oil yield of 62.8% for beech wood, 58.3% for Ailanthus and 54.2% for spruce wood was obtained. Model yield and product composition was validated and considered adequate. The simulation model can be considered as truly predictive for the pyrolysis of soft and hardwood samples in the domain of product yield and product composition.
Keywords: Bio-oil; ASPEN Plus; Wood; Pyrolysis; Beech; Spruce; Ailanthus; Simulation.
Removal of color from hospital wastewater with activated nanobiocarbon derived from the pit of the Olea woodiana (forest olive): kinetics and isotherms study
by Hanie Ahmadpour Kacho, Hossein Ali Asghar Nia, Pezhman Farhadi
Abstract: One of the most effective technologies for the colored wastewater treatment is the use of biosorbents. The surface adsorption process is preferable to other methods for reasons such as low cost, the ability to perform more easily and insensitivity to toxic substances.Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics, isotherms and parameters affecting the decolorization of hospital wastewater using activated nanobiocarbon derived from the pit of the forest olives. This experimental and in-vitro study evaluated the parameters such as initial color concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, temperature, and isotherm and kinetics analysis in a Batch system and morphology characteristics of the adsorption was investigated using FESEM technique. The results of this study showed the efficiency of removal of 99% color from effluents with adsorbent dose of 0.5 G, pH =7 and temperature of 35
Keywords: Activated nanobiocarbon; wastewater; color; adsorption.
Financial Feasibility of a Waste to Energy Facility: A Case Study
by Aditya Atul Malwe, Sunith Hebbar
Abstract: The study focuses on analysing the financial feasibility of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plant that has been proposed in the Raipur city of India. The WtE system being highly complex with various subsystem it is critical to understand the interactions among these subsystem for effective decision making. System Dynamics (SD) methodology is one of the modern and comprehensive methodologies adopted for this purpose. In this study a SD model has been developed for the WtE system and simulated for 20 years to check on the financial viability. The influence of tipping fee and electricity selling price on NPV was analysed as scenarios. Also, the capacity analysis was carried for the system. The results revealed that the plant is financially feasible with required return of 12% and 18% (positive NPVs). The capacity shortfall will incur by around 11 years from now. The consideration of dynamic behaviour in the results improves the effectiveness of strategic policies formulated by the decision makers. Appropriate suggestions were made based on these results.
Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Waste-to-Energy; Financial Feasibility; Net Income; Net Present Value; Capacity Shortfall; System Dynamics.
Environmental Literacy of Market Sellers and Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of the Wenchi Old-Market
by Kwabena Agyarko Sarpong, Frimpong Obeng, James Neequaye, Peter Kaba
Abstract: The trajectory of efficiently managing generated solid waste in Ghana and most developing countries has necessitated the demand for holistic ways in management services: achieving this has been a nebulous task due to the incongruity between soaring population growth, increased waste generation and poor management from major waste management stake holders. The Wenchi municipal assembly (WMA) with emphasis on the Wenchi old-market is no exemption to this problem.The aim of this study is to establish the literacy level of market sellers in relation to solid waste disposal and management at the marketplace. This work does so by looking into the concept of environmental education and its four determinants (knowledge, awareness, attitude, and action).The study establishes that despite the high status of awareness and knowledge expressed by market sellers, there is varying attitude in how they go about disposing solid waste.
Keywords: Knowledge; Awareness; Attitude; Environment; Solid waste management; Market sellers.
Estimating Seasonal Variations in Incinerability of Municipal Solid Waste using Incinerability Index
by ROSHNI SEBASTIAN
Abstract: Estimation of incinerability of municipal solid waste (MSW) is crucial, with the emergence of incineration as an integral element of sustainable solid waste management. The composition of MSW tends to vary seasonally, affected by local weather, festivals etc. subsequently affecting its incinerability. This study aims to demonstrate an easy assessment of the seasonal variations in incinerability of MSW in cities falling in different economies, namely Lahore, Kochi, Raipur, Jalandhar and New York using incinerability index or i- Index. It is observed that MSW generated in summer season exhibited relatively high incinerability, and reduced marginally during winter. The high moisture content during monsoon season significantly affected the incinerability of MSW in the study areas, reducing i- Index by almost 25% in Kochi, a city with relatively high average annual rainfall of 1570 mm. In areas with low rainfall like New York and Jalandhar, substantial seasonal variations are not observed.
Keywords: Incinerability; municipal solid waste; waste to energy; composite indicator; seasonal variations.
Characterizing the conversion of Transesterification reaction by modelling of Glycerol-rich phase
by Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry, Kamireddi Venkateswara Rao
Abstract: The preparation of Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) involves different phase changes which are not yet characterized. The reaction media in its initial and final stages form two phases; top phase being FAME/unreacted oil and bottom phase being glycerol/methanol. The exact point when the bottom phase starts forming is not well-defined. Experimental data of the reaction media composition gives an understanding of the formation of the glycerol phase. A model built for its theoretical concurrence showed good agreement with experimental data. From experimentation, the density of the bottom glycerol/methanol phase showed to be a good and simple indicator of the reaction conversion.
Keywords: Fatty acid methyl esters; Glycerol; Phase change; Transesterification.
Ecological Modelling Using Artificial Neural Network for Macroinvertebrate Prediction in a Tropical Rainforest River
by Joyce ODIGIE, John OLOMUKORO
Abstract: In this study, Artificial Neural Network was applied to predict the benthic macroinvertebrates fauna of Obueniyomo River using 75% of the dataset for model testing and 25% for training, scaled between 0 and 1 and implemented using R statistical. Thirty-nine predictors (physical and chemical variables) served as the inputs from which twenty-five output parameters successfully predicted the presence or absence of macroinvertebrates fauna in the study stations in the visualized neural network model. Sensitivity analysis, an essential test was applied to ascertain the influence of the output parameters in the prediction of the macroinvertebrates fauna and to outline which variables significantly determined the model output. The model showed that depth, flow rate, transparency and pH, appeared uniformly segregated than other selected input parameters, which served as a good predictor. We conclude that ANN constitute a practical model for predicting macroinvertebrates fauna of freshwater ecosystems under alliance with some environmental conditions.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Benthic Macroinvertebrates; Ecological Modeling; Freshwater Ecosystem and Sensitivity Analysis.
Hospital waste: effects on public health and environment
by Ahcène AKNI, Rachid CHAIB
Abstract: Purpose: In this work we are interested in the study of the identification of the origin and impact of waste treatment activities on public health. This study can provide specific lightings, knowledge and new reflections on health impacts. Design/Methodology/Approach: With the spectacular demographic surge in most developing countries today and the opening of the economic market, Algerias case, accompanied by a rapid increase in both public and private health care facilities. These facilities generate significant amounts of miscellaneous wastes containing infectious, pathological, radioactive and toxic elements that are particularly dangerous to public health and the environment. Moreover, their impact is all greater than as the area of activity is important, which is the case of large cities, objective of our study. Now, as the collection of this waste is developed a random manner in different health sectors of cities covered by the study in insufficient institutional and legal framework, special attention is required. Consequently, an actual emergency is needed to understand and learn the nature of this waste for better management. Practical implications: The study concerns the treatment of waste at the facility level two Algerian towns Jijel and Mila respectively. Findings: The study is based on site observation. A difference was found in the quantities of waste generated in each health sector and person. The collection and management of these are badly mastered: results subsequently an environmental imbalance in the environment (air, water and soil). Originality/value: Through this contribution, we try to provide specific insights, knowledge and new reflections on health impacts with the aim of mobilizing public and private services in terms of information, awareness and mobilization for better prevention of risks related to hospital waste within our health facilities. The interested in this work is threefold: to better understand the impact of waste on public health and the environment, identify improvements and practical paths to the concerned to ensure now better prevention. Through this research work we want to open up a national debate on the harmfulness of these wastes.
Keywords: Waste care activities; Public health; Management and treatment; municipal solid waste; Environment.
Use of periwinkle shell by-products in Portland cement-based materials: An overview
by Uchechi Eziefula, Gregory Obiechefu, Martha Charles
Abstract: Periwinkle shellfishes are widely distributed in the wetlands of the Niger Delta. Periwinkle shells are often heaped in open fields and landfills which cause environmental problems such as pollution and breeding of disease-carrying organisms. In order to manage periwinkle shell by-products, preserve natural resources and save construction costs, attempts have been made to use periwinkle shell aggregate (PSAGG) and periwinkle shell ash (PSASH) as recycled materials in cement-based products. This paper reviews the influence of PSAGG and PSASH on the properties of Portland cement-based materials. Periwinkle shell has similar calcium carbonate content with limestone aggregate. Using PSAGG as a partial coarse aggregate at up to 50% replacement level can produce normal-weight concrete which possesses over 60% of the control strength. Utilising PSASH as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) will have beneficial functions in cement-based construction where low heat of evolution is needed and early strength is not a major consideration. Further investigations are required including in-depth research on the cost analysis and durability of cement-based products containing periwinkle shell by-products.
Keywords: aggregates; cement based materials; concrete; Niger Delta; periwinkle shells; Portland cement; recycled materials; supplementary cementitious materials; SCM; waste management.
Perspectives of Electrochemical Oxidation Parameters in PRW Treatment
by Alaa Ghanim
Abstract: Electrochemical oxidation as an efficient route of advanced electrochemical oxidation process AEOP had been successfully applied for the treatment of real petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW). The electrochemical oxidation was performed using batch electrochemical reactor with carbon felt anode to be compared with β-PbO2 anode. However, these anodic materials have higher oxygen evolution overpotential and poor electrocatalysts for parasitic reactions with low cost. The experimental work considers a scope of operative and design parameters that influence the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of wastewater of a real national oil refinery effluent. Accordingly, a well-designed reactor accomplished to treat wastewater samples of 500-510 mg/L initial COD to study the effect of anode material, current density, and temperature on COD removal and oxidation kinetic. The results showed that the COD removal efficiency exhibits an exponential behavior with the applied current density of more than 10 mA cm-2 indicating first-order reaction kinetics, and the reaction rate constant accurately estimated. Moreover, the impacts of pH and agitation speed on reaction rate constant were also studied.
Keywords: AEOP; PRW; COD; Hydroxyl radical; Electrodes.
INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TERTIARY HOSPITALS IN MEDELLIN
by Gladis Cecilia Villegas Arias, Alejandra Hoyos López, Ruth Marina Agudelo Cadavid, Mariluz Betancur Vélez
Keywords: hazardous hospital waste; HHW; tertiary hospitals; interdisciplinary analysis; hospital waste management; hospital waste administration; hospital infrastructure; hospital waste logistics; hospital waste control; hospital waste model.rn rn.
Land scarcity as a site selection challenge for the management of municipal solid wastes in Accra, Ghana.
by Francis Atta Kuranchie, Francis Attiogbe, Joseph Tettey Quarshie, Richard Agbo Kwabena Ntibrey
Abstract: Some of the major contributing factors of poor solid waste management and disposal in developing countries are proximity of available land for waste disposal and attitudinal factors. This research used Accra, Ghana as a case study which has a land size estimated to be 3,245 km2 and a population growth rate of 3.1%. The outcome of the research projects that with Accra population of 4,010,054 and waste generation rate of approximately 0.5 Kg/ person / day, land proximity for waste disposal will no more be available by the year 2040. This will worsen the current waste management menace in the municipality if the situation remains unchanged. This research also recommends the contingent valuation method for the determination of adequate compensation for the associated communities to release land for efficient waste management and disposal in the Region.
Keywords: Land scarcity; Municipal solid wastes management; Land valuation; Landfill.
UTILIZATION OF EFFLUENT FROM ILMENITE PROCESSING TO PRODUCE A VALUE ADDED PRODUCT.
by Riyas Sharafudeen
Abstract: Titanium dioxide industries produce anatase grade titania through sulphate route by using ilmenite and sulphuric acid as major raw materials. After the reaction, a mixture of ferrous and ferric sulphate is produced as an industrial effluent. The disposal of this effluent is a major problem for all mineral processing industries. Generally, these effluents are disposed of in to the nearby river or sea causing an environmental issue. In this study, a series of reactions were performed in a research laboratory to find out a method for utilizing the above effluent to make a value-added pigment material. The study revealed that the effluent ferrous sulphate can be converted into an anticorrosive pigment called zinc Ferrite by co-precipitation. The prepared material is characterized by wet chemical and instrumental analysis methods like FT-IR, XRD, Particle size, Surface area measurement, SEM-EDX. The pigmentary properties of zinc ferrite prepared is also evaluated for evaluating its use as a pigment material for anticorrosive paints. The study reveals that the ferrous sulphate industrial effluent from ilmenite processing can be successfully converted to a value-added pigment product called zinc ferrite. The details are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: industrial effluent; zinc ferrite; anti-corrosive; Pigment; co-precipitation; calcination.
A BASELINE SCENARIO OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
by Patrick Aaniamenga Bowan, Sam Kayaga, Julie Fisher
Abstract: The baseline scenarios of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) activities that will expose the specific challenges militating against sustainable waste management in many developing countries, are not properly documented or not understood. This paper established a baseline scenario of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Ghana, through material flow analysis and understanding of MSW handling practices, using the Wa Municipality as a case study. The study was theoretically based on empirical observation and an exploratory design. The findings showed that sustainable waste management has remained elusive because MSWM in the case study area and Ghana in general, consist of some waste collection, transportation and open dumping, where the entire amount of waste is open dumped without pre-treatment. The sorting of waste at the generation sources, and the provision of adequate MSWM infrastructure, through an integrated solid waste management system can ensure sustainable waste management in the country.
Keywords: Baseline scenario; Municipal solid waste; Sustainable waste management; Open dumping; Integrated solid waste management; Wa Municipality; Ghana.
Energy-saving Technology Contributions for Emission Reduction under the Current Climate Change Prospects, Ethiopia
by Solomon Addisu, Ashebir Alemie
Abstract: Abstract The heavy reliance on biomass energy has become a major cause of land resources degradation and greenhouse gases emissions which lead to the local, regional and global climate change. This research was conducted in Zegie aiming to assess the contribution of energy-saving technology for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Data have been collected using systematic random sampling technique and quantified by using descriptive statistical techniques and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change carbon emission quantifying procedures. Accordingly, although all of the respondents have used different energy saving stoves for baking enjera (local food), 38.6% of them have used both mirt midija(efficient wood burning stove) and biogas stove. However, the majority of the respondents have not perceived the contribution of efficient energy-saving technology for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The technology has been used due to its conformability to use and its fuelwood demand reduction. In the study area the total carbon emitted from cow dung (5051.87 tons), fuel wood (1327.10 tons) and charcoal (10,041.89 tons) could potentially be minimized by energy-saving technologies. Standard fuel-saving stoves could potentially reduce fuel wood consumption by 50%; while mirt stove is up to 23% energy efficient, has 50% fuelwood saving potential and 663.52 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent could be reduced. To conclude, using efficient energy-saving technologies in a household has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cow dung, fuelwood and charcoal production and consumption. Distributing efficient and environmentally sound energy-saving technology is the cross-cutting issue of the governments giving priority. The study suggested to improving the efficiency of biomass energy; accelerating off-grid energy access and implementing potential strategies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate change mitigation.
Keywords: Key Words: Greenhouse gas emission; energy-saving technology; fuel-efficient stoves; biogas; Solar lanterns; Climate change; and variability.
Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Waste Management Literature from 2000 to 2015
by Saeid Jafarzadeh Ghoushchi, Shadi Dorosti, Shabnam Hamidi Moghaddam
Abstract: Waste management is one of the significant environmental issues. Its adverse for the human, environment, and health is avoidable. It's notable to say that nowadays investigation in all countries growing dramatically. In this study, the scientific production of waste management (from 2000 to 2015) is assessed in all the journals with all the subjects related to the Science Citation Index which are provided by ISI in Philadelphia USA. The keyword was used in order to search the title is waste management. As the output analysis showed, the revolution of this subject was increased over the last 15 years and the annual paper production in 2013 was about three times 2006-paper production. The number of papers considered in this research is 3557 which have been published from 2000 to 2015. Considerably, there is a distinction among author keywords used in publications. The five high-publish countries in waste management studies are the USA, China, England, India and Italy. In order to evaluate this work, quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were used to consider the development of global scientific production in this specific research field. The analytical results eventually provide several key findings and consider the overview of waste management.
Keywords: Waste management; Environmental; Health; literature review; Bibliometrics.
Kinetic study of oily sludge biodegradation under shaking condition
by Fatemeh Bahmani, Bizhan Honarvar, Zahra Estakhr, Mohammad Ali Mikaili Kherameh
Abstract: In this research, the biodegrade ability of oily sludge was investigated. Two bacterial strains isolated from the oil storage tank were identified as Aneurinibacillus migulanus and Bacillus toyonensis and submitted in the gene bank database National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Three bacterial treatments consisting of identified isolates with the initial concentration of 2 g/L of the sludge were used to find the best treatment in the utilization of the oily sludge under a shaking condition. The results of the oily sludge biodegradation with initial concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 g/L during 150 days showed 72.4, 53, and 43.9% hydrocarbon utilization, respectively. The results of GC chromatograph showed that all hydrocarbon fractions were utilized in nearly the same range. Additionally, Kinetic studies revealed that Contois model can accurately predict the oily sludge biodegradation. Monte Carlo method was used to fit the kinetic parameters of the model to experimental data.
Keywords: Oily sludge; Biodegradation; Concentration; Contois kinetic model; Optimization.
Utilization of Jarosite in Cement Concrete - A Review
by Tanvi Gupta, S.N. Sachdeva
Abstract: With increased industrialization, production of industrial by-products has increased significantly. Numerous types of waste materials are generated from manufacturing processes. Jarosite is one of the by-products generated from zinc manufacturing industry and its disposal is of major concern because of its hazardous nature. The construction industry needs to be transformed into sustainable and environmental friendly from being consumption based. Therefore, jarosite is very useful in design and development of cement concrete and other composites. This paper presents a detailed and comprehensive review about physical, chemical and geotechnical properties of jarosite waste. It also covers properties of fresh concrete containing jarosite, its compressive and exural strength, leachate characteristics, chloride resistance and water absorption of cement concrete mixed with jarosite.
Keywords: Jarosite; Concrete; Compressive strength; Leachate characteristics.
Estimating Methane Gas Generation Rate from Kerman City Landfill Using LandGEM Software
by Najmeh Amirmahani, Shahram Sadeghi, Ghazal Yazdanpanah, Aida Tayebiyan, Alireza Nasiri, Mohammad Malakootian
Abstract: Methane gas is one of the important greenhouse gases, which has the highest effect on global warming. One of the main methane emissions sources is landfills. Predicting the amount of methane gas collection from the closed landfills can justify the merits of installing required facilities for this purpose. Potential methane gas production from Kerman, Iran wastes was measured by using LandGEM software. The results showed that methane gas in this landfill in 2015, 2021, 2027 and 2033 will produce roughly 72, 2540, 3914, and 5015 m3 h-1, respectively. Therefore, the amount of methane gas production in the Kerman landfill with the capacity waste production between 355200 to 622845 tons annually will be 72 to 5015 m3 h-1.The results of this study could be used for the design and estimation of the methane gas systems and as a plan for the control management of methane emissions in Iran's landfills.
Keywords: Greenhouse effect; LandGEM model; Methane; Municipal landfill; Waste products; Demography.
Utilization of agro waste in the development of fired clay bricks- A Review
by Arti Sorte, Ajay Burile, Archana Chaudhari, Animeshchandra Haldar
Abstract: Bricks are one of the most basic building materials used in construction field. To overcome the environmental issues related to pollution and energy problems, it is necessary to find out alternative material to replace clay in brick development. it is also required to reuse and recycle the products at the end of their lives. Use of agricultural waste as an alternative raw material in the manufacturing of fired clay bricks is attracting attention due to sustainability issues. This paper reviews the investigations carried out by various researchers on the use of agricultural residue as a partial replacement in the manufacturing of fired clay bricks. This study also emphasizes on the economical value of utilization of agricultural waste into useful products. The basic aim of this study is to review the various possibilities of utilization of waste materials for the production of fired clay bricks in particular.
Keywords: Agro bricks; agricultural waste; clay bricks; compressive strength; ecofriendly; fired bricks; oat husk; rice husk; sustainable; sugarcane bagasse ash.
Method Verification on Decomposition Study of Oxo-Biodegradable Polymers
by Khaliesah Abbas, Robert Thomas Bachmann, Siew Kooi Ong, Soh Kheang Loh
Abstract: Oxo-biodegradable polymers are gaining popularity in response to environmental concerns. However, soil burial respirometric methods such as the Chiellini et al. (2003) jar test need to be verified independently to confirm that these polymers are truly metabolised to CO2 and H2O as claimed. The aim of this study therefore is to confirm the suitability and repeatability of Chiellinis biodegradation method using four different oxo-biodegradable polyolefins from supermarket shopping bags, commercial compost as negative and a cellulose tissue paper as positive control. A 9-week incubation trial was conducted in triplicate at 55
Keywords: soil burial test; oxo-biodegradable plastics; polyolefin biodegradation; biometer flask; respirometric test.
Total Ammonia and N2O Emission Characteristics from Alcaligenes sp. LS2T Cultures and Its Application on Laying Hen Manure Associated with Different pH Condition
by Aldyon Restu Azkarahman, Yuny Erwanto, Lies Mira Yusiati, Widodo , Nanung Agus Fitriyanto
Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate the Alcaligenes sp. LS2T characteristics in total ammonia and N2O emission under different carbon sources and C/N ratios in the synthetic media. Observation of the strain application potential to suppress ammonia emission was also performed on laying hen manure with different initial pH conditions. The total ammonia emission was observed by Nesslers reagent photometry method followed by Lide and Frederikse equation, while the N2O emission was measured by gas chromatography. The result showed that the least emitted total ammonia was seen in acetate medium C/N 28, emitted 12.77
Keywords: Alcaligenes sp. LS2T; aerobic denitrification; total ammonia; N2O emission; pH condition; laying hen manure.
Statistical Analysis for the Removal of Crystal Violet using Bacterial Cellulose Powder via Response Surface Methodology
by Khairul Azly Zahan, Nur Sofiah Zamri, Norhani Jusoh, Mahfuzah Mustapha, Suzana Wahidin
Abstract: Statistical analysis for the removal of crystal violet (CV) using bacterial cellulose (BC) powder was evaluated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to observe the interactions between BC powder size (
Keywords: Statistical analysis; Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Crystal violet; Bacterial cellulose; Adsorption.
Economic viability and analysis of wastewater treatment processes in Kuwait
by Jasem Alhumoud, Ibrahim Alhumoud
Abstract: A full and comprehensive economic analysis of wastewater treatment is a prerequisite for ensuring long-term economic, environmental, and social sustainability. The aim of this study is to improve the economic evaluation of treated wastewater reuse. In 2001, the Government of Kuwait built an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Sulaibiya. This plant is designed to treat up to 375 million imperial gallons (IG) of water, but the volume can be extended to 600 million IG. This WWTP is the first of to be built in the Middle East and is the largest plant worldwide that uses a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for water purification. The UF step removes all suspended solids and promotes a substantial reduction in microbiological contaminants. We identify and compare the advantages and costs between using treated wastewater and desalinated fresh water. We show that while treatment costs are highly dependent on the incoming effluent quality and plant size, the benefits and advantages are reasonably high.
Keywords: Economic; cost; wastewater reuse; RO; UF; WWTP.
Towards a Model for Effective e-Waste Management: A Study of Software Industry in India
by Rajeev Srivastava, Tarun Dhingra
Abstract: In last few years information technology has seen tremendous growth all over the world. This growth has also brought a new kind of waste known as electronic waste or e-waste. The amount of this electronic waste is growing rapidly due to fast change in technology, reducing prices of electronic devices, low recycling rate of e-waste. This growing volume of e-waste is not only very harmful for human health and environment but also lead to resource depletion. So, its important to manage this e-waste effectively. The study was designed with an objective to identify the variables responsible for the growing volume of e-Waste in Software industry and to arrive at a research model for effective e-Waste management. A total of 200 Software Developers of Software industry participated in the survey. A multiple regression analysis was employed and the, Collection and Recycling appeared as the best predictor, followed by Awareness:, and Regulations. Which shows that proper collection of e-waste by authorized collection centers and recycling of e-waste by authorized e-waste recycling centers are required to reduce e-waste in software industry. Secondly, people need to be aware about the hazardous nature of e-waste. The regulations related to e-waste management need to be implemented properly to manage that e-waste effectively. The policy implication is that policy makers of Software industry can use so developed model for developing policies related to e-Waste management.
Keywords: Recycling; e-Waste; Reuse; Collection; software industry; WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment).
Comparison of landfill leachate generation and pollution potentials in humid and semi-arid climates
by Taher Abunama, Faridah Othman
Abstract: Climate conditions e.g. rainfall water are highly affecting landfill leachate generation and characteristics. This article aims to assess leachate generation and pollution potentials from landfills in different climate conditions, e.g. humid and semi-arid regions. Leachate volumes have been estimated by Hydraulic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model, and the main water quality parameters and heavy metals were in-situ and laboratory analyzed. Results of annual leachate generation rates per one ton of waste in humid and semi-arid landfill were 0.148 and 0.079m3 respectively. However, leachate pollutants from humid landfill showed lower concentrations comparing with semi-arid landfill. This was reflected in LPI results of 25.1 and 29.5 for both landfills, respectively. These results concluded that semi-arid leachate gave lower generation rates and higher pollution potential than humid leachate, which can be revealed to the dilution effect of high rainfall levels in humid climates.
Keywords: Landfill leachate; Humid and semi-arid climates; HELP mode; Leachate pollution index (LPI).
REUSING RED MUD WASTE AND LOW GRADE BAUXITE AS RAW MATERIAL FOR BRICK MANUFACTURING BY EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TECHNIQUE
by Ravanbakhsh Shirdam, Behnam Sadeghi, Mohammad Rezaei Rad, Nematollah Bakhshi, Hossein Ali Mirzaei
Abstract: The main objective of the present research is to reuse red mud (RM) and low grade bauxite for brick manufacturing. Red mud is a waste product of a well-known method for alumina production called Bayer process. To optimize brick production, experimental design was used. According to ASTM for brick manufacturing, pressure resistance was regarded as response. It was found out that using RM for brick causes deteriorating brick quality but it has positive effects on reducing temperature of furnace and retention time of brick in furnace. After response analysis, experimental design suggested a mathematical model for predicting the compressive strength of bricks. To validate the model and producing bricks by optimized properties, three specimens with two replicates were produced. Different measurement including Compressive strength, XRD, density, and water absorption, TCLP and ICP were carried out on the optimized specimens. Using RM in brick manufacturing reduces clay consumption and makes retention time of bricks in furnace shorter. Hence, the proposed method for brick making can considerably reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission in comparison with the traditional manufacturing process. Furthermore, by reducing the content of RM piled up behind a tailing dam, the environmental implications will be decreased.
Keywords: Red mud; brick manufacturing; bauxite; experimental design; waste reuse.
Sludge Management in Water Treatment Plants: Literature Review
by Luay Qrenawi, Fahid Rabah
Abstract: Due to the increased environmental concern; there is a considerable pressure on the water authorities for the safe treatment and disposal of sludge. It is very important to choose a suitable sludge treatment and disposal system, which is both economical and technically feasible. In this article, sludge characteristics, quantities and sources will be outlined. A detailed sludge management and treatment methods will be presented. Sludge reuse, incineration, landfilling and disposal were also considered. The study concluded that sludge management should be considered when designing and operating WTPs, adopting beneficial reuse options of sludge will become very essential and it is necessary to investigate the appropriate options for formulating long term sludge management plans under strict environmental regulations. The study recommended that sludge must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effective manner. Great emphasis is to be enforced to minimize the quantity of generated sludge, more studies should be conducted to develop suitable sludge management plans, when applying sludge reuse in agricultural purposes it is highly recommended to investigate the long term effects of sludge reuse, and finally the environmental impacts of different of sludge disposal methods should be evaluated.
Keywords: Sludge; Management; Treatment Plants; Environmental; Disposal; Characteristics; Quantities; Sources; Regulations; Reuse; Long Term Effects.
The behaviour and attitudes of Kempton Park communities with reference to reusing domestic waste
by Samantha L. Lange
Abstract: The reuse of domestic waste is an integral part of the domestic waste minimisation process to remove waste from the waste stream. The main objectives of this study were: to determine whether or not households participate in domestic waste reuse activities and the type of activities involved; where they receive information on waste reuse; the behaviour and attitude towards reuse and recommendations based on the findings of the study. This study adopted a quantitative approach describing suburban communities' attitudes and behaviour towards waste reuse. The investigation was non-experimental, cross-sectional and descriptive. Structured questions were used through a simple random sampling method. Results indicated that respondents reused domestic waste, their domestic reuse information was obtained from the media and internet, reusing of waste was a positive activity that would help future generations and it could help save money. Recommendations were made that formal programmes would assist residents to reuse waste efficiently and that government departments and environmental health practitioners should be better sources of information for reuse.
Keywords: domestic waste reuse; reuse activities; reuse behaviour; reuse attitude; waste minimisation; waste hierarchy; theory of planned behaviour; litter picking; household reuse.
Assessment of municipal solid waste management practices in Karachi City, Pakistan
by Wasi Z. Khan, Vassilis Inglezakis, Shagufta Ishtiaque, Konstantinos Moustakas
Abstract: The data collected from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Pakistan indicate that collection and disposal of municipal solid waste in the city of Karachi is underdeveloped. The studies conducted in 2012 showed the composition of solid waste is organics 47.2%, paper 15.9%, plastic 11.3%, bread 4.2%, bones 3.8%, metal 2.7%, glass 2.5%, textile 1.9%, wood 0.7%, and miscellaneous 9.8%. The city government collects only 48% of the total waste generated, of which 88% is disposed in dumping sites. This study aimed to assess the current practices of solid waste management in Karachi and suggests a quantitative approach to decision making obtained from decision support software (DSS) . The application of the DSS tool demonstrated that the landfilling of refuse-derived fuel/solid recovered fuel can be replaced by waste-to-energy options. The DSS tool can offer support for decision makers not only for planning process, but also for the assessment of adopted solutions.
Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; waste management strategy; decision support software; DSS; Karachi; Pakistan.
TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 thin films for photocatalytic wastewater treatment
by Adel Ben Youssef, Meriem Laamari, Latifa Bousselmi
Abstract: Tungsten trioxide (WO3) influence as a doping agent was studied in order to improve Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalytic efficiency under sunlight. Hydrolysis at low temperature, followed by dialysis and chemical reactive sputtering, has been applied to synthesise thin films. Morphological investigations were performed by X-ray diffraction (DRX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Gap energies were determined from transmission spectra (TS), a solar photocatalytic reactor was used to study photodegradation efficiency. The adhesion strength was performed by scratch test. Doping TiO2 by WO3 decreases the energy gap of the film; consequently an increase of photocatalytic activity under solar radiation is achieved. The degradation test under sunlight showed an efficiency of 10.37 mg m−2h−1 in the case of the non-doped film. However, the 5 wt% WO3 doped film had a degradation efficiency of 17.87 mg m−2h−1. The scratch test performed to the 5 wt% WO3 doped film has determined a critical load value of 2.6 N.
Keywords: photocatalysis; WO3/TiO3; wastewater; pulverisation; scratch test.
Estimating the lifespan of the expansion of a landfill in Brazil by means of a model equation based on socio-economic indicators
by Francisco Orlando Holanda Costa Filho, Francisco Humberto De Carvalho Júnior
Abstract: This study aimed to develop an equation with the aid of socio-economic indicators to estimate the amount of MSW to be disposed of in ASMOC Landfill and its lifespan. Thereby enabling a comparison with the estimate of MSW and lifespan calculated in the environmental impact report (EIR) of the ASMOC, which did not take economic indicators into account. The data GDP, HDI, population, water consumption, electricity consumption and amount of MSW were used in the research. Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regressions were performed with the SPSS program to generate the equation. Therefore, predicted values were obtained for the amounts of MSW and their respective volumes, making it possible to estimate the lifespan of the expansion of the ASMOC to 12 years and two months, a difference of four years and six months from the projection stipulated by the EIR of the ASMOC (16 years and eight months).
Keywords: municipal solid waste; MSW; estimate; lifespan; Pearson correlation; linear regression; multiple regression; socio-economic indicators; landfill; Brazil.
Assessing upcoming touristic town's municipal solid waste flows and characterisation: a case of Phetchaburi Province, Thailand
by Prakriti Kashyap, Paul Jacob, Wiratchapan Suthapanich, Chettiyappan Visvanathan
Abstract: Understanding the quantity and characteristics of waste generation in a locality is important for an appropriate estimation of the recyclability potential and overall waste management. Detailed municipal solid waste characterisations were conducted in three municipalities in Phetchaburi Province, Thailand. Physical composition (% wet basis) indicated the dominance of organic waste with 31.8% of food waste, and 20.04% of yard wastes. The average moisture content was as high as 64.75%. Average carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen content constituted approximately 47.94, 6.90, 0.92, 0.16 and 26.77%, respectively. The gross calorific value (dry basis) was observed to be 4,561.13 kcal/kg. A material flow analysis conducted in the three study sites showed a linear pattern of waste flows, with large quantities of waste generated were being stocked in the landfill sites with minimal waste recovery. The composition and characteristics of waste, however, showed vast potential for waste diversion from landfills through either material recycling or energy recovery.
Keywords: energy recovery; landfilling; material flow analysis; material recycling; municipal solid waste; waste characterisation; Thailand.
An economical lysimeter setup for fly ash leachate studies
by Vaishnavi V. Dabir, Sukhanand S. Bhosale
Abstract: Coal combustion in power plants produces a large amount of fly ash, which can be stored in monofill until further use. The quality of the inorganic leachate produced during storage can be studied by constructing a customised lysimeter setup as per the need of application and pertaining to principles described in ASTM D-4874. Factors affecting the concentration of heavy metals in fly ash leachate are the liquid to solid ratio (L/S ratio), pH of the leachant water, and properties of fly ash. Based on standards and literature survey, an economical lysimeter setup for fly ash leachate studies is developed and results are investigated. The heavy metal concentrations in the leachate extracted are complying with results of laboratory and field analysis concentrations documented in existing literature. Studies performed using the proposed economical setup would provide accelerated results for obtaining trace element concentrations, by which decisions of safe monofilling of fly ash is possible.
Keywords: fly ash leachate; L/S ratio; fly ash monofill; coal ash monofill.
Naturally occurring radioactive materials in metallic mine wastes from northeaster Guanajuato Mexico: a scoping study
by Cruz Daniel Mandujano-García, Juan Mantero, Modesto Sosa, Guadalupe De La Rosa, Gustavo Cruz-Jiménez, René Loredo-Portales, Yann René Ramos-Arroyo, Guillermo Manjón, Rafael García-Tenorio
Abstract: Accumulation of mine wastes with high concentrations of potentially toxic elements has been occurring in different mining regions of Mexico. Few data are available on the activity concentration of natural radionuclides in metallic mine wastes. Radioactive data is necessary to assess the impact of mine wastes from a radiological point of view. In this work, levels of natural radioactivity in a metallic mine wastes area from Xichú in northeaster Guanajuato Mexico, have been determined. This region is characterised by the mining of 'skarn' ores containing silver, and copper, among other elements. The radiometric characterisation of mine wastes has been performed by gamma-ray and alpha-particle spectrometry. The obtained results of the activity concentration cover the ranges of 4-11, 4-38 and 548-1,739 Bq kg−1 for U and Th natural series and 40K respectively. These results are comparable with the averages values found in unperturbed soils worldwide, and the radiological impact is negligible.
Keywords: environmental radioactivity; NORM; metallic mine wastes; gamma-ray spectrometry; alpha-particle spectrometry; Mexico.
Special Issue on: ICSET 2018 Sustainable Management, Engineering and Technology - Part A
by Siti Nor Hidayah Arifin, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Norehan Rohaizad Ismail, Adel Al-Gheethi, Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Abstract: Direct discharge of domestic greywater to the ditches without any treatment affects the environment. Therefore, an investigation was conducted to assess the greywater quantity at the village areas based on the household activities and to analyse the effects of different greywater sources to drainage using loading rates while calculating the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) level by Streeter-Phelps equation. Three houses with different number of households were chosen for data collection. The greywater discharged from different sources (kitchen, bathroom and laundry) were measured at peak hours within 5 days (weekdays and weekend) by using grab method. The samples from nearby water body were taken for analysis of DO and measurements of flowrate for Streeter-Phelps equation. Overall, the greywater of bathroom from House A was higher with the average of 263.5 L/day followed by kitchen and laundry sources with the average of 133.04 L/day and 52.14 L/day respectively. Total pollutant produced by greywater from kitchen source according to the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) loading rate was observed to be high for House A, B and C with the BOD loading rates of 302.1, 194.9 and 274.2 kg/day, respectively. From Streeter-Phelps modelling, the value of measured DO at point source showed a low level of oxygen which was 3.29 mg/L. However, the values were increased along the stretch of the stream as a result of self-purification of the stream. Therefore, this study was expected to give benefits to local authority as their references or guidelines in greywater planning system.
Keywords: Greywater quantity, Household activities, Stream, Water contamination, Water quality
Special Issue on: ICSET 2018 Sustainable Management, Engineering and Technology - Part B
by Siti Zubaidah Abdullah, Woei Yenn Tong, Chean Ring Leong, Nur Amiera Syuhada Rozman, Nur Humaira Mohammad Hamid, Sabrina Karim, Najua Delaila Tumin, Siti Afifah Muda, Lily Suhaila Yacob, Yung Tse Hung
Abstract: The research aimed to develop an alginate-based film incorporated with cinnamaldehyde for food packaging applications to prevent overall negative impact to the environment. The biodegradability of the film was tested with Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029. After 21 days of incubation, the fungal growth was visible on the plate with alginate film, and 29.7% of weight loss was observed. The mechanical characterization showed that the film obtained was strong and flexible. No burst release was detected throughout the cinnamaldehyde release test. Cross streak test inhibited 6 out of 8 test microorganisms. Correspondingly, all Gram-positive bacteria demonstrated 100% growth inhibition. The antibacterial efficiency of the film was tested by using cooked rice as a food model and showed a significant reduction of bacterial load. The film also exhibited 5.0-log suppression of microbial growth relative to control. The results indicate the potential use as an active and biodegradable food packaging material.
Keywords: Alginate film; Biodegradable material; Cinnamaldehyde; Food packaging.